Sample records for tar decoy serves

  1. Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    X. Ma; B. Qi; Y. Zhao; H. -K. Lo

    2005-05-10

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution. Here, we present a general theory of the decoy state protocol based on only two decoy states and one signal state. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the two decoy states and the signal state. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--the vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical.

  2. Inhibition of transcription by the TAR RNA of HIV-1 in a nuclear extract of HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, R; Koseki, S; Ohkawa, J; Murakami, K; Nishikawa, S; Taira, K; Kumar, P K

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires specific interaction of Tat protein with the trans-activation response region (TAR). Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 has previously been achieved with a TAR decoy, namely a short RNA oligonucleotide that corresponded to the sequence of the authentic TAR RNA. Since TAR RNA has the potential to interact with cellular factors, we examined the effect of TAR RNA on efficiency of transcription in nuclear of HeLa cell extracts. We performed an in vitro transcription assay in the presence of authentic TAR RNA using a template that was driven by the CMV (cytomegalovirus) early promoter in a HeLa nuclear extract and found, for the first time, that TAR RNA inhibited transcription by approximately 60-70% independently of the Tat-TAR interaction. Furthermore, we evaluated inhibition of transcription by variants of TAR RNA and found that the TAR RNA loop, bases surrounding the loop, the triple base bulge and the 'lower' stem region of TAR RNA were responsible for the inhibition of transcription. Taken together, earlier reports on proteins that bind to TAR RNA and the present results suggest that integrity of TAR RNA is important for efficient binding to cellular transcription factors. As judged from the significant inhibition observed in this study, the TAR decoy might sequester transcription factors and thus it might potentially be able to inhibit transcription of housekeeping genes that are unrelated to Tat function. PMID:9254702

  3. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  4. Decoy’ and ‘non-decoy’ functions of DcR3 promote malignant potential in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    TODA, MITSUNORI; KAWAMOTO, TERUYA; UEHA, TAKESHI; KISHIMOTO, KENTA; HARA, HITOMI; FUKASE, NAOMASA; ONISHI, YASUO; HARADA, RISA; MINODA, MASAYA; KUROSAKA, MASAHIRO; AKISUE, TOSHIHIRO

    2013-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a ‘decoy’ for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has ‘non-decoy’ functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH. PMID:23817777

  5. Software Decoys for Insider Threat Younghee Park

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    for insiders. In 2010, according to the FBI, a former employee of Goldman Sachs, a computer programmer in the pro- tection of systems, networks, and information. In addition, document- based decoy system has-based decoys is similar to the document-based decoy to detect insider attacks. However, the software

  6. Tar sands development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    Tar sands (also known as oil sands and bituminous sands) are sand deposits which are impregnated with dense viscous petroleum. Ultimate world reserves of bitumen in tar sands are about equal to ultimate reserves of crude oil in the U.S. However, the only tar-sand deposit of present commercial importance is in the Athabasca area of Alberta, Canada. The pioneer venture

  7. Salt-Sensitive Hypertension Induced by Decoy of Transcription Factor HIF-1? in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ningjun; Li, Chen; Yi, Fan; Xia, Min; Li, Pin-Lan

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), a transcription factor, is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and regulates many oxygen-sensitive genes such as nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Given the important roles of these genes in the control of arterial pressure, the present study was to test the hypothesis that HIF-1?-mediated gene activation serves as an antihypertensive pathway by regulating renal medullary function and sodium excretion. HIF-1? decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) or scrambled ODN were transfected into the renal medulla in uninephretomized Sprague Dawley rats. Two weeks after ODN transfection, the HIF-1? binding activities were significantly inhibited by 45%, and high salt-induced increases of NOS2 and HO-1 transcriptions were also inhibited by 70% and 61% in the renal medulla from decoy rats. The natriuretic responses and increases of renal medullary blood flow (MBF) responding to the elevations of renal perfusion pressure were significantly blunted by 50% and 37% in decoy rats. Intravenously acute sodium loading increased MBF and urinary sodium excretion, which was remarkably attenuated in decoy rats. In decoy rats, high salt intake caused a greater positive sodium balance. Consequently, arterial pressure was remarkably increased (from 118 ± 1.9 to 154 ± 6.3 mmHg) in decoy rats, but not in control rats, when the rats were challenged with a high salt diet. There was no blood pressure change in decoy rats that were maintained in normal salt diet. In conclusion, HIF-1?-mediated gene activation importantly participates in the regulation of renal medullary function and long-term arterial blood pressure. PMID:18356541

  8. Basics of compounding with tars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

  9. CRISPR decoys: competitive inhibitors of CRISPR immunity.

    PubMed

    Maniv, Inbal; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2013-05-01

    CRISPR loci consist of an array of short repeats separated by spacer sequences that match the genome of viruses and plasmids that infect prokaryotes. Transcription of the CRISPR array generates small antisense RNAs that mediate immunity against these invaders. In recent years, there has been a notable increase in the investigation of CRISPR immunity, but studies have been restricted to organisms in which genetic manipulations are possible. Therefore, there is a need for the development of simple genetic tools that facilitate the study of this important pathway. Here we describe the use of CRISPR decoys, plasmids containing a non-transcribed repeat-spacer unit that disrupt CRISPR immunity. We show that decoys abrogate immunity against conjugation in S. epidermidis to levels comparable to a CRISPR deletion mutant. This technique can be used to generate full or spacer-specific CRISPR knockdowns in organisms in which decoy plasmids can be introduced. PMID:23584158

  10. Immunomodulation of cystic fibrosis epithelial cells via NF-?B decoy oligonucleotide-coated polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wardwell, Patricia R; Bader, Rebecca A

    2015-05-01

    Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway is associated with enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and is thought to play a critical role in diseases hallmarked by inflammation, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Small nucleic acids that interfere with gene expression have been proposed as promising therapeutics for a number of diseases. However, applications have been limited by low cellular penetration and a lack of stability. Nano-sized carrier systems have been suggested as a means of improving the effectiveness of nucleic acid-based treatments. In this study, we successfully coated polysialic acid-N-trimethyl chitosan (PSA-TMC) nanoparticles with NF-?? decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs). To demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were administered to an in vitro model of CF generated via interleukin-1? or P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides stimulation of IB3-1 bronchial epithelial cells. While free ODN and PSA-TMC nanoparticles coated with scrambled ODNs did not have substantial impacts on the inflammatory response, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were able to reduce the secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, pro-inflammatory mediators of CF, by the epithelial cells, particularly at longer time points. In general, the results suggest that NF-?B decoy ODN-coated TMC-PSA nanoparticles may serve as an effective method of altering the pro-inflammatory environment associated with CF. PMID:25087735

  11. Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E): Better Ligands and Decoys for Better Benchmarking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target’s ligands by their Bemis–Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org. PMID:22716043

  12. Directory of useful decoys, enhanced (DUD-E): better ligands and decoys for better benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Mysinger, Michael M; Carchia, Michael; Irwin, John J; Shoichet, Brian K

    2012-07-26

    A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target's ligands by their Bemis-Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org. PMID:22716043

  13. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

  14. Fake state attack on practically decoy state quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Yong-gang Tan

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, security of practically decoy state quantum key distribution under fake state attack is considered. If quantum key distribution is insecure under this type of attack, decoy sources can not also provide it with enough security. Strictly analysis shows that Eve should eavesdrop with the aid of photon-number-resolving instruments. In practical implementation of decoy state quantum key distribution where statistical fluctuation is considered, however, Eve can attack it successfully with threshold detectors.

  15. Durandal: fast exact clustering of protein decoys.

    PubMed

    Berenger, Francois; Shrestha, Rojan; Zhou, Yong; Simoncini, David; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2012-02-01

    In protein folding, clustering is commonly used as one way to identify the best decoy produced. Initializing the pairwise distance matrix for a large decoy set is computationally expensive. We have proposed a fast method that works even on large decoy sets. This method is implemented in a software called Durandal. Durandal has been shown to be consistently faster than other software performing fast exact clustering. In some cases, Durandal can even outperform the speed of an approximate method. Durandal uses the triangular inequality to accelerate exact clustering, without compromising the distance function. Recently, we have further enhanced the performance of Durandal by incorporating a Quaternion-based characteristic polynomial method that has increased the speed of Durandal between 13% and 27% compared with the previous version. Durandal source code is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software/durandal_released_qcp.tgz. Alternatively, a compiled version of Durandal is also distributed with the nightly builds of the Phenix (http://www.phenix-online.org/) crystallographic software suite (Adams et al., Acta Crystallogr Sect D 2010, 66, 213). PMID:22120171

  16. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  18. Tuning inflammation and immunity by chemokine sequestration: decoys and more

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Bonecchi; Massimo Locati; Alberto Mantovani

    2006-01-01

    A set of chemokine receptors are structurally unable to elicit migration or conventional signalling responses after ligand engagement. These 'silent' (non-signalling) chemokine receptors regulate inflammatory and immune reactions in different ways, including by acting as decoys and scavengers. Chemokine decoy receptors recognize distinct and complementary sets of ligands and are strategically expressed in different cellular contexts. Importantly, viruses and parasites

  19. Decoy Routing: Toward Unblockable Internet Communication Josh Karlin

    E-print Network

    Strayer, William Timothy

    Decoy Routing: Toward Unblockable Internet Communication Josh Karlin jkarlin@bbn.com Daniel Ellard for a client to connect to any unblocked host/service, then decoy routing could be used to connect them be infiltrated and enumerated by an active adversary. A cat and mouse game is played between circumventors

  20. SPINNING-WING DECOYS IN MINNESOTA 993 Effects of spinning-wing decoys on

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    -wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breed- ing populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in North America. Key words Anas platyrhynchos, crippling, duck hunting, flock behavior, hunting nesting females and many hatch-year states are concerned that local mallard (Anas (HY) mallards

  1. Quantum Key Distribution with Vacua or Dim Pulses as Decoy States

    E-print Network

    Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2005-09-11

    Recently, Hwang has proposed a decoy state method in quantum key distribution (QKD). In Hwang's proposal, the average photon number of the decoy state is about two. Here, we propose a new decoy state scheme using vacua or very weak coherent states as decoy states and discuss its advantages.

  2. Decoy plasminogen receptor containing a selective Kunitz-inhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Schmidt, Amy E; Ogueli, Godwin I; Ponnuraj, Sathya M; Rannulu, Nalaka; Loo, Joseph A; Bajaj, Madhu S; Bajaj, S Paul

    2014-01-28

    Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2' residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ?5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ? 0.2 to 0.3 ?M) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ?-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(?)-plasmin-KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the ?-plasmin-KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

  3. The neural correlates of the decoy effect in decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the context in which options are presented. The introduction of an inferior option (a decoy) into the choice set can make one of the original options (the target) more attractive than and the other original option (the competitor). This so called “decoy effect” represents a striking violation of the “context-invariant” axiom, yet its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used a novel gambling task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate its neural basis. At both the stimulus and decision phases, choice sets with decoys activated the occipital gyrus and deactivated the inferior parietal gyrus. At the decision phase, choosing the targets vs. the competitors elicited stronger anterior insula activation, suggesting that perceptual salience drives heuristic decision making in the decoy effect. Moreover, across participants, activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) predicted a reduced susceptibility to the decoy effect, indicating that resisting the tendency to make heuristic decisions is taxing. Our findings highlight the power of the decoy effect in laboratory settings and document the neural mechanisms underlying the decoy effect. PMID:25147516

  4. Targeting a KH-domain protein with RNA decoys.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Eastmond, Dawn L; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2002-09-01

    RNA-binding proteins are involved in the regulation of many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression. Targeted interference with RNA-protein interactions could offer novel approaches to modulation of expression profiles, alteration of developmental pathways, and reversal of certain disease processes. Here we investigate a decoy strategy for the study of the alphaCP subgroup of KH-domain RNA-binding proteins. These poly(C)-binding proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of posttranscriptional controls. Three categories of RNA decoys to alphaCPs were studied: poly(C) homopolymers, native mRNA-binding sites, and a high-affinity structure selected from a combinatorial library. Native chemistry was found to be essential for alphaCP decoy action. Because alphaCP proteins are found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, decoy cassettes were incorporated within both nuclear (U1 snRNA) and cytoplasmic (VA1 RNA) RNA frameworks. Several sequences demonstrated optimal decoy properties when assayed for protein-binding and decoy bioactivity in vitro. A subset of these transcripts was shown to mediate targeted inhibition of alphaCP-dependent translation when expressed in either the nucleus or cytoplasm of transfected cells. Significantly, these studies establish the feasibility of developing RNA decoys that can selectively target biologic functions of abundant and widely expressed RNA binding proteins. PMID:12358435

  5. Targeting a KH-domain protein with RNA decoys.

    PubMed Central

    Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Eastmond, Dawn L; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are involved in the regulation of many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression. Targeted interference with RNA-protein interactions could offer novel approaches to modulation of expression profiles, alteration of developmental pathways, and reversal of certain disease processes. Here we investigate a decoy strategy for the study of the alphaCP subgroup of KH-domain RNA-binding proteins. These poly(C)-binding proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of posttranscriptional controls. Three categories of RNA decoys to alphaCPs were studied: poly(C) homopolymers, native mRNA-binding sites, and a high-affinity structure selected from a combinatorial library. Native chemistry was found to be essential for alphaCP decoy action. Because alphaCP proteins are found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, decoy cassettes were incorporated within both nuclear (U1 snRNA) and cytoplasmic (VA1 RNA) RNA frameworks. Several sequences demonstrated optimal decoy properties when assayed for protein-binding and decoy bioactivity in vitro. A subset of these transcripts was shown to mediate targeted inhibition of alphaCP-dependent translation when expressed in either the nucleus or cytoplasm of transfected cells. Significantly, these studies establish the feasibility of developing RNA decoys that can selectively target biologic functions of abundant and widely expressed RNA binding proteins. PMID:12358435

  6. Glucocorticoid Receptor DNA Binding Decoy Is a Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael J. Garabedian (NYU School of Medicine; Department of Microbiology REV)

    2010-02-09

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a paradigmatic DNA binding transcription factor and was described over 20 years ago as one of the first proteins identified to bind the enhancer region of genes called “response elements.” Since that time, an immense amount of work has revealed that GR transcriptional regulation is controlled at virtually every step of its activity: ligand binding, nuclear translocation, transcriptional cofactor binding, and DNA binding. Just when the major modes of GR regulation appear known, a new study provides yet another mechanism whereby GR transcriptional activity is controlled under conditions of cell growth arrest. In this case, GR activity is repressed by a small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from the growth arrest–specific transcript 5 gene that folds into a soluble glucocorticoid response element–like sequence and serves as a decoy for GR DNA binding. This unexpected mode of regulation by nucleic acid molecular mimicry is probably not confined to GR and should spark interest in the hunt for other ncRNAs that regulate transcription factor binding to DNA.

  7. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characterization, calorific value measurement, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Potential tar yields are determined by long hold time heated grid investigations of each coal at a final temperature and heating rate observed to maximize tar yields for the reference coal. Relative tar evolution kinetic behavior is determined by zero hold time heated grid investigations of each coal. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  9. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  10. Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. D. Timrot

    1981-01-01

    Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar Ss dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water,

  11. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  12. Infrared decoy and obscurant modelling and simulation for ship protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, Brian; Nicholls, Edgar; Walmsley, Roy; Ayling, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Imaging seekers used in modern Anti Ship Missiles (ASMs) use a variety of counter countermeasure (CCM) techniques including guard gates and aspect ratio assessment in order to counter the use of IR decoys. In order to improve the performance of EO/IR countermeasures it is necessary to accurately configure and place the decoys using a launcher that is trainable in azimuth and elevation. Control of the launcher, decoy firing times and burst sequences requires the development of algorithms based on multi-dimensional solvers. The modelling and simulation used to derive the launcher algorithms is described including the countermeasure, threat, launcher and ship models. The launcher model incorporates realistic azimuth and elevation rates with limits on azimuth and elevation arcs of fire. A Navier Stokes based model of the IR decoy includes thermal buoyancy, cooling of the IR smoke and its extinction properties. All of these factors affect the developing size, shape and radiance of the decoy. The hot smoke also influences the performance of any co-located chaff or other obscurant material. Typical simulations are described against generic imaging ASM seekers using shape discrimination or a guard gate.

  13. On the Response Policy of Software Decoys: Conducting Software-Based Deception in the Cyber Battlespace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Bret Michael

    2002-01-01

    Intelligent software decoys employ deception techniques to maintain the interaction between themselves and calling processes or threads that violate the contracts of the software components that the decoys defend. The software decoy's goal is to learn about the nature of such interactions before either terminating the interaction or treating the calling process or thread as a cyber combatant. Software components

  14. Photon-number-solving Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Qing-yu Cai; Yong-gang Tan

    2005-10-11

    In this paper, a photon-number-resolving decoy state quantum key distribution scheme is presented based on recent experimental advancements. A new upper bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses is given. This upper bound is independent of intensity of the decoy source, so that both the signal pulses and the decoy pulses can be used to generate the raw key after verified the security of the communication. This upper bound is also the lower bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses as long as faint coherent sources and high lossy channels are used. We show that Eve's coherent multiphoton pulse (CMP) attack is more efficient than symmetric individual (SI) attack when quantum bit error rate is small, so that CMP attack should be considered to ensure the security of the final key. finally, optimal intensity of laser source is presented which provides 23.9 km increase in the transmission distance. 03.67.Dd

  15. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

  16. Decoy Strategies: The Structure of TL1A:DcR3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Chenyang; Patskovsky, Yury; Yan, Qingrong; Li, Zhenhong; Ramagopal, Udupi; Cheng, Huiyong; Brenowitz, Michael; Hui, Xiao; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as anti-determinants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands. PMID:21300286

  17. Decoy strategies: the structure of TL1A:DcR3 complex.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chenyang; Patskovsky, Yury; Yan, Qingrong; Li, Zhenhong; Ramagopal, Udupi; Cheng, Huiyong; Brenowitz, Michael; Hui, Xiao; Nathenson, Stanley G; Almo, Steven C

    2011-02-01

    Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side-chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as antideterminants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands. PMID:21300286

  18. The impact of phantom decoys on choices in cats.

    PubMed

    Scarpi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Context-dependent choice is an important aspect of decision making. The paper examines context-dependent choice in cats (Felis catus), with particular reference to the effect of local context, on the basis of hypotheses developed in the field of human decision making. Cats were initially confronted with two different feeding options. This binary choice set was later manipulated incorporating a decoy that was better than the available options but ultimately unavailable (a phantom). By means of a within-subjects manipulation of phantom location in the attribute space, the author compared the effects of close and distant phantoms on the final choices. The main finding is that close phantom decoys affected choice behavior of cats by altering the overall share of the available options, leading some animals to reject even some of the available feeding options, and by causing the animals to favor the available option that was more similar to the phantom decoy. No significant effects emerged for phantoms that were far from the alternatives in the attribute space. The strengths of this paper lie in its novel approach and high originality. No other study has used dominating decoys with animals or decoys that are unattainable. This paper provides strong links to the human decision making literature, the presentation of the predictions of a range of different choice models, and the novelty of the application to animals. The use of a phantom decoy is particularly interesting because the phantom cannot actually be chosen, and thus the binary and trinary choice sets both have the very same choices available. Overall, the effect of phantoms is real, interesting and new. PMID:20838836

  19. A decoy-free approach to the identification of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, Giulia; Stock, Michiel; Verwaeren, Jan; Maddelein, Davy; De Baets, Bernard; Martens, Lennart; Degroeve, Sven

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of proteogenomics and metaproteomics studies indicate potential limitations of the application of the "decoy" database paradigm used to separate correct peptide identifications from incorrect ones in traditional shotgun proteomics. We therefore propose a binary classifier called Nokoi that allows fast yet reliable decoy-free separation of correct from incorrect peptide-to-spectrum matches (PSMs). Nokoi was trained on a very large collection of heterogeneous data using ranks supplied by the Mascot search engine to label correct and incorrect PSMs. We show that Nokoi outperforms Mascot and achieves a performance very close to that of Percolator at substantially higher processing speeds. PMID:25714903

  20. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution Using Homodyne Detection

    E-print Network

    S. Hamed Shams Mousavi; Philippe Gallion

    2014-11-22

    In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting (PNS) attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However it has not yet been applied to the systems that use coherent detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

  1. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  2. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) exhibit the decoy effect in a perceptual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    The asymmetric dominance effect (or decoy effect) is a form of context-dependent choice bias in which the probability of choosing one of two options is impacted by the introduction of a third option, also known as the decoy. Decoy effects are documented widely within the human consumer choice literature, and even extend to preference testing within nonhuman animals. Here, we extended this line of research to a perceptual discrimination task with rhesus monkeys to determine whether decoy stimuli would impact size judgments of rectangular stimuli. In a computerized task, monkeys attempted to choose the larger of two rectangles that varied in size and orientation (horizontally or vertically oriented). In probe trials, a third stimulus (the decoy) was presented that was smaller than the other two rectangles but matched the orientation of one of them. On half of the probe trials, the presented decoy matched the orientation of the larger stimulus, and on the other half, the decoy matched the orientation of the smaller stimulus. Monkeys rarely selected the decoy stimulus. However, their performance (selection of the largest rectangle) increased relative to the baseline trials (with only two choices) when the decoy was congruent in its orientation with the largest rectangle, but decreased relative to baseline when the decoy was incongruent with the largest rectangle. Thus, a decoy stimulus impacted monkeys' perceptual choice behavior even when it was not a viable choice option itself. These results are explained with regard to comparative evaluation mechanisms. PMID:25832189

  3. IR seeker simulator to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Wim; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van der Nol, Ronald

    2002-08-01

    An evaluation tool for the effectiveness of infrared decoys against anti-ship missiles has been built. In a flexible software setup, different methods of preprocessing and detection can be chosen for the processing of recorded infrared image sequences. Since a flying missile seeker with a variable speed and variable starting distance is simulated, the recorded images, from a static camera or a camera moving at relatively low speed, are corrected before they are fed into the seeker algorithm of the simulated missile. MODTRAN and the Naval Aerosol Model are used to calculate the atmospheric transmission effects in the preprocessing. The hot spot seeker algorithm uses features such as contrast and position above or below the horizon to differentiate between ship, infrared decoys and false alarms resulting from clutter. During the simulation the track window of the seeker is visualized on the recorded images. The aim point of the missile during the flight is logged in a file to enable evaluation. With this tool the effectiveness of a recorded decoy deployment in various scenarios can be evaluated by varying the missile parameters such as distance between missile and ship when the first decoy is deployed, missile search algorithm, and missile track algorithm.

  4. Tar sands leachate study. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Grosse; L. McGowan

    1984-01-01

    An inhouse research project was conducted by the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL) at the TandE Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide information concerning the potential for release of contaminants to groundwater from in-situ and above-ground processed tar sands. This study examined the composition of the leachate that may be generated from raw tar sand cores and spent tar

  5. Solvent extraction process for tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Funk; W. G. May; J. C. Pirkle

    1982-01-01

    A solvent extraction process for tar sands is disclosed wherein a low boiling solvent having a normal boiling point of from 20* to 70* C. Is used to extract tar sands. The solvent is mixed with tar sands in a dissolution zone, the solvent:bitumen weight ratio being maintained at from about 0.5:1 to 2:1. This mixture is passed to a

  6. Simulation and Implementation of Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution over 60km Telecom Fiber

    E-print Network

    Yi Zhao; Bing Qi; Xiongfeng Ma; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Li Qian

    2006-10-12

    Decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proposed as a novel approach to improve dramatically both the security and the performance of practical QKD set-ups. Recently, many theoretical efforts have been made on this topic and have theoretically predicted the high performance of decoy method. However, the gap between theory and experiment remains open. In this paper, we report the first experiments on decoy state QKD, thus bridging the gap. Two protocols of decoy state QKD are implemented: one-decoy protocol over 15km of standard telecom fiber, and weak+vacuum protocol over 60km of standard telecom fiber. We implemented the decoy state method on a modified commercial QKD system. The modification we made is simply adding commercial acousto-optic modulator (AOM) on the QKD system. The AOM is used to modulate the intensity of each signal individually, thus implementing the decoy state method. As an important part of implementation, numerical simulation of our set-up is also performed. The simulation shows that standard security proofs give a zero key generation rate at the distance we perform decoy state QKD (both 15km and 60km). Therefore decoy state QKD is necessary for long distance secure communication. Our implementation shows explicitly the power and feasibility of decoy method, and brings it to our real-life.

  7. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  8. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  9. Modulation of macrophage differentiation and activation by decoy receptor 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Chi Chang; Tsui-Ling Hsu; Hsi-Hsien Lin; Chung-Ching Chio; Allen W. Chiu; Nien-Jung Chen; Chi-Hung Lin; Shie-Liang Hsieh

    2004-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor su- perfamily and is readily detected in certain can- cer patients. Recently, we demonstrated that DcR3.Fc-treated dendritic cells skew T cell re- sponses to a T helper cell type 2 phenotype. In this study, we further asked its ability to modulate CD14 monocyte differentiation into macro-

  10. Transcription factor decoy against NFATc1 in human primary osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lisignoli, Gina; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Torreggiani, Elena; Manferdini, Cristina; Lolli, Andrea; Vecchiatini, Renata; Ciardo, Francesca; Gabusi, Elena; Facchini, Andrea; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta

    2011-08-01

    The present study describes, for the first time, the removal of the nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) by a decoy approach in human primary osteoblasts (hOBs). hOBs with different NFATc1 expression levels were used. The functionality of endogenous NFAT proteins in our experimental model was analyzed by monitoring the transcriptional activity on a luciferase reporter construct driven by three copies of an NFAT response element (pNFAT-TA-luc). Cell treatment with the decoy against NFATc1 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of osteoblastic markers, including ER? and ColXV. On the contrary, the expression of Runx2, which is known to not be transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1, was not altered, indicating the specificity of the decoy effect. To our knowledge, this is the first time that transcription factor decoy has been successful in hOBs to allow the investigation of the role of NFATc1 in an experimental model that, compared to the use of cell lines, more closely resembles an in vivo model. In addition, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation we found that in vivo NFATc1 is recruited on the ColXV gene promoter. The specific role of NFATc1 in osteoblast differentiation is not well understood, however, our findings reinforce the action of NFATc1 in the transcriptional program of osteoblasts, also supporting the therapeutic potential for the proper manipulation of NFATc1-mediated events in different bone disorders. At the same time, our data add important information on the regulation of the expression of ColXV, which only recently has been proposed as an osteoblastic marker. PMID:21584488

  11. Attractiveness of beach ball decoys to adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    2002-01-01

    The attractiveness of inflated beach balls covered with adhesive and used as decoys to trap adult stable flies was investigated on Florida panhandle beaches. Decoys were painted either solid black, solid white, or a mixed pattern that consisted of three equally spaced white circles (20 cm diameter) on a solid black background. Another set of decoys (referred to as plain) were unpainted and retained the manufacturer's original color scheme. The plain decoy consisted of a separate blue, yellow, and red diamond-shaped panel. Each color panel was separated by a white panel of similar size and orientation. Plain decoys collected significantly (<0.05) more stable flies than other treatments but no significant difference was noted between colored panels. The mixed pattern decoy captured significantly fewer flies than the plain decoy but significantly more flies (nearly twice) when compared with solid white or black decoys. No difference in preference was observed when fly abundance on the black background was compared with that on white circles and total abundance from both areas appeared to be additive compared with either area alone. No significant differences were found in the number of flies trapped on solid white versus black decoys. When trapping efficiency was compared with Alsynite translucent fiberglass cylinders covered with adhesive-treated cellophane sheets, the decoy trap caught significantly more (>10 times) flies per square centimeter. Alsynite cylinders are considered standard tools when sampling fly populations. Adhesive-treated beach ball decoys may be an alternative method for luring stable flies away from human hosts in recreation areas, or from animals, thereby reducing biting annoyance from these pests. PMID:11931245

  12. Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, contain particles of talc, barite, Fe sulfide, and Fe oxide. Physical characteristics of the Escanaba Trough tar mounds indicate that viscous petroleum flowed onto the sea floor and condensed into solid deposits that accreted by eruption of flow lobes through breakout points on mound surfaces. The occurrence and composition of the tar mounds further indicate a hydrothermal origin for the petroleum, contemporaneous formation with sulfide deposits, and generation by rapid pyrolysis of organic matter in the sediment.

  13. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Barbour; R. E. Cummings

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into

  14. Search and decoy: the automatic identification of mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Eisenacher, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Koch, Markus-Hermann; Uszkoreit, Julian; Stephan, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the generation and interpretation of MS/MS spectra for the identification of peptides and proteins has matured to a frequently used automatic workflow in Proteomics. Several software solutions for the automated analysis of MS/MS spectra allow for high-throughput/high-performance analyses of complex samples. Related to MS/MS searches, target-decoy approaches have gained more and more popularity: in a "decoy" part of the search database nonexistent sequences mimic real sequences (the "target" sequences). With their help, the number of falsely identified peptides/proteins can be estimated after a search and the resulting protein list can be cut at a specified false discovery rate (FDR). This is an essential prerequisite for all quantitative approaches, as they rely on correct identifications. Especially the label-free approach "spectral counting"-gaining more and more popularity due to low costs and simplicity-depends directly on the correctness of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). This work's aim is to describe five popular search engines-especially their general properties regarding protein identification, but also their quantification abilities, if those go beyond spectral counting. By doing so, Proteomics researchers are enabled to compare their features and to choose an appropriate solution for their specific question. Furthermore, the search engines are applied to a spectrum data set generated from a complex sample with a Thermo LTQ Velos OrbiTrap (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The results of the search engines are compared, e.g., regarding time requirements, peptides and proteins found, and the search engines' behavior using the decoy approach. PMID:22665317

  15. Dominant role of the 5' TAR bulge in dimerization of HIV-1 genomic RNA, but no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing during in vivo virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Jalalirad, Mohammad; Saadatmand, Jenan; Laughrea, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) contains two stem-loop structures that appear to be equally important for gRNA dimerization: the 57-nucleotide 5' TAR, at the very 5' end, and the 35-nucleotide SL1 (nucleotides 243-277). SL1 is well-known for containing the dimerization initiation site (DIS) in its apical loop. The DIS is a six-nucleotide palindrome. Here, we investigated the mechanism of TAR-directed gRNA dimerization. We found that the trinucleotide bulge (UCU24) of the 5' TAR has dominant impacts on both formation of HIV-1 RNA dimers and maturation of the formed dimers. The ?UCU trinucleotide deletion strongly inhibited the first process and blocked the other, thus impairing gRNA dimerization as severely as deletion of the entire 5' TAR, and more severely than deletion of the DIS, inactivation of the viral protease, or most severe mutations in the nucleocapsid protein. The apical loop of TAR contains a 10-nucleotide palindrome that has been postulated to stimulate gRNA dimerization by a TAR-TAR kissing mechanism analogous to the one used by SL1 to stimulate dimerization. Using mutations that strongly destabilize formation of the TAR palindrome duplex, as well as compensatory mutations that restore duplex formation to a wild-type-like level, we found no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing, even though mutations nullifying the kissing potential of the TAR palindrome could impair dimerization by a mechanism other than hindering of SL1. However, nullifying the kissing potential of TAR had much less severe effects than ?UCU. By not uncovering a dimerization mechanism intrinsic to TAR, our data suggest that TAR mutations exert their effect 3' of TAR, yet not on SL1, because TAR and SL1 mutations have synergistic effects on gRNA dimerization. PMID:22482513

  16. Two-dimensional target decoy strategy for shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall W; Kil, Yong J

    2011-12-01

    The target-decoy approach to estimating and controlling false discovery rate (FDR) has become a de facto standard in shotgun proteomics, and it has been applied at both the peptide-to-spectrum match (PSM) and protein levels. Current bioinformatics methods control either the PSM- or the protein-level FDR, but not both. In order to obtain the most reliable information from their data, users must employ one method when the number of tandem mass spectra exceeds the number of proteins in the database and another method when the reverse is true. Here we propose a simple variation of the standard target-decoy strategy that estimates and controls PSM and protein FDRs simultaneously, regardless of the relative numbers of spectra and proteins. We demonstrate that even if the final goal is a list of PSMs with a fixed low FDR and not a list of protein identifications, the proposed two-dimensional strategy offers advantages over a pure PSM-level strategy. PMID:22010998

  17. New trends in the development of transcription factor decoy (TFD) pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gambari, Roberto

    2004-07-01

    Many recent published observations firmly demonstrate that one of the ways to study and artificially modulate gene expression at the transcriptional level is offered by the "transcription factor decoy" (TFD) strategy. This experimental approach is based on the competition for trans-acting factors between endogenous cis-elements present within regulatory regions of target genes and exogenously added DNA sequences (the DNA-based drug) mimicking the specific cis-elements. The objective of this molecular intervention is to cause a decrease of the interactions of trans-factors with the target genomic cis-elements, leading to alteration of transcription. The characterisation of the biological activity of the designed decoy molecules is routinely assessed by molecular technologies, such as electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay (EMSA), competitive DNase I footprinting, in vitro transcription. New advances in this field employ biospecific interaction analysis (BIA) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and biosensor technology. With respect to the design of the decoy biomolecules, in addition to double-stranded DNA/DNA hybrids, cross-linking between two DNA molecules either via photocrosslinking or by the introduction of a covalently linked, non-nucleotide bridge has been reported. Furthermore, RNA decoys have been described able to bind transcription factors via aptameric interactions. In addition, circular decoys assuming a dumbbell configuration or single-stranded decoys with intramolecular palindromic sequences have also been described. Decoy molecules were also produced by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). More recently, peptide nucleic acids-DNA chimeras have been shown to exhibit decoy activity and high level of stability. This variety of decoy biomolecules facilitate the establishment of suitable delivery approaches, including pressure-mediated transfer, electrically enhanced transfer, biolistic bombardment, cationic liposomes, hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposomes, microsphere-aided delivery, nano-particles, peptide-mediated delivery, steroid mediated gene transfer, and red-blood cells. PMID:15216908

  18. Reduction of Decoy Receptor 3 Enhances TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Shanmin; Su, Ying; Zhang, Hengshan; Liu, Chaomei; Li, Xinfeng; Lin, Ling; Kim, Sunghee; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Lurong

    2013-01-01

    Most human pancreatic cancer cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic cancer cells utilize their extracellular molecules to counteract the proapoptotic signaling mediated by the TNF family are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that DcR3, a secreted decoy receptor that malignant pancreatic cancer cells express at a high level, acts as an extracellular antiapoptotic molecule by binding to TRAIL and counteracting its death-promoting function. The reduction of DcR3 with siRNA unmasked TRAIL and greatly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Gemcitabine, a first-line drug for pancreatic cancer, also reduced the level of DcR3. The addition of DcR3 siRNA further enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Notably, our in vivo study demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine could be enhanced via further reduction of DcR3, suggesting that downregulation of DcR3 in tumor cells could tip the balance of pancreatic cells towards apoptosis and potentially serve as a new strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:24204567

  19. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thana Phuphuakrat; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water

  20. Neutral particle beams show potential for decoy discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, Philip J.

    1986-12-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is receiving increased attention as part of the SDI due to the possibility of automated discrimination between decoys and warheads during intermediate ICBM flight phases. The NPBs would scan targets with high velocity hydrogen or deuterium particles, eliciting gamma ray and neutron emissions that would be proportional to the mass of the object. A 100 milliamp beam current with an energy of 5 MeV delivering 10 MW/sq cm has been produced at Los Alamos. Key developments needed for orbital tests are efficient stripping of electrons from the excited atoms to prevent their interaction with the terrestrial magnetic field, a proven beam focusing device, elimination of ion acoustic instabilities, weight reduction, a high-quality ion source, magnetooptical expansion of the beam from 1 cm diam to 1 m diam, and accurate aiming techniques.

  1. Security bounds for efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Marco Lucamarini; James F. Dynes; Bernd Fröhlich; Zhiliang Yuan; Andrew J. Shields

    2015-03-25

    Information-theoretical security of quantum key distribution (QKD) has been convincingly proven in recent years and remarkable experiments have shown the potential of QKD for real world applications. Due to its unique capability of combining high key rate and security in a realistic finite-size scenario, the efficient version of the BB84 QKD protocol endowed with decoy states has been subject of intensive research. Its recent experimental implementation finally demonstrated a secure key rate beyond 1 Mbps over a 50 km optical fiber. However the achieved rate holds under the restrictive assumption that the eavesdropper performs collective attacks. Here, we review the protocol and generalize its security. We exploit a map by Ahrens to rigorously upper bound the Hypergeometric distribution resulting from a general eavesdropping. Despite the extended applicability of the new protocol, its key rate is only marginally smaller than its predecessor in all cases of practical interest.

  2. Steamflood experiment in a Utah tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Fahy, L.J.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in a Utah Tar Sand, LETC TS-1S, was conducted in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of two concentric inverted five spot patterns. 8 refs.

  3. Differential response of nest predators to the presence of a decoy parent in artificial nests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Swanson; Rasheed A. Sanyaolu; Thomas Gnoske; Christopher J. Whelan; Eric V. Lonsdorf; Norbert J. Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Mammalian and avian predators respond differently to decoys.Aims To investigate if parental attendance, which is often not accounted for in artificial nest studies, could alter predator guilds and predation rates.Methods To analyze the effects of simulated parental attendance on nest predation trends we implemented decoys of mounted American Robin Turdus migratorius specimens. We set up 22 nest-sites in an

  4. Differential response of nest predators to the presence of a decoy parent in artificial nests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Swanson; Rasheed A. Sanyaolu; Thomas Gnoske; Christopher J. Whelan; Eric V. Lonsdorf; Norbert J. Cordeiro

    2011-01-01

    Capsule Mammalian and avian predators respond differently to decoys.Aims To investigate if parental attendance, which is often not accounted for in artificial nest studies, could alter predator guilds and predation rates.Methods To analyze the effects of simulated parental attendance on nest predation trends we implemented decoys of mounted American Robin Turdus migratorius specimens. We set up 22 nest-sites in an

  5. Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Soujaeff, Alexandre; Takeuchi, Shigeki [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Information Technology R and D Center, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); JST-CREST/Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-12 Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y{sub n} for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to 1, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

  6. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Thomas; John Naughton; Christopher Cote; Susan Welkos; Marianne Manchester; John A. T. Young

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not

  7. General theory for decoy-state quantum key distribution with arbitrary number of intensities

    E-print Network

    Masahito Hayashi

    2007-08-13

    We develop a general theory for quantum key distribution (QKD) in both the forward error correction and the reverse error correction cases when the QKD system is equipped with phase-randomized coherent light with arbitrary number of decoy intensities. For this purpose, generalizing Wang's expansion, we derive a convex expansion of the phase-randomized coherent state. We also numerically check that the asymptotic key generation rates are almost saturated when the number of decoy intensities is three.

  8. NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide enhanced osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells exposed to polyethylene particle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Sato, Taishi; Barcay, Katherine R; Waters, Heather; Loi, Florence; Zhang, Ruth; Pajarinen, Jukka; Egashira, Kensuke; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2015-03-01

    Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-?B in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-?B signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN upregulated OPG expression through a TGF-?1-dependent pathway. By measuring the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regard to cell phenotype, cell viability, and osteogenic ability was confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle-induced inflammation by NF-?B decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs and may potentially further mitigate periprosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability. PMID:25518013

  9. Using decoy effects to influence an online brand choice: the role of price-quality trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Huei-Chen; Liu, Wen-Liang

    2011-04-01

    This research aims to investigate decoy effects on online brand choices. To assess the influence of decoys, we test decoy effects on three constructs-product involvement, judgment conditions, and decoy conditions-within an online experiment. A survey of 635 Internet users and a 2?×?2?×?3 ANOVA between-subjects experimental design is used to guide the research design and the systematic analysis procedure. A major finding of this study is that a standard decoy seems to have a significant effect on an advertised (target) brand for high-involvement products; from the survey, it is also apparent that competitors can also use inferior decoys to increase brand preference for low-involvement products. PMID:21039134

  10. Method for filtering solvent and tar sand mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelterborn, J. C.; Stone, R. A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for filtering spent tar sands from a bitumen and organic solvent solution comprises separating the solution into two streams wherein the bulk of the coarser spent tar sand is in a first stream and has an average particle size of about 10 to about 100 mesh and the bulk of the finer spent tar sand is in a second stream; producing a filter cake by filtering the coarser spent tar sand from the first stream; and filtering the finer spent tar sand from the second stream with the filter cake. The method is particularly useful for filtering solutions of bitumen extracted from bitumen containing diatomite, spent diatomite and organic solvent.

  11. Human NgR-Fc decoy protein via lumbar intrathecal bolus administration enhances recovery from rat spinal cord contusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Sekine-Komo, Tomoko; Wirak, Dana; Frieden, Eric; Bhargava, Ajay; Maynard, George; Cafferty, William B J; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2014-12-15

    Axonal growth and neurological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by the presence of inhibitory proteins in myelin, several of which act via the NgR1 protein in neurons. A truncated soluble ligand-binding fragment of NgR1 serves as a decoy and promotes recovery in acute and chronic rodent SCI models. To develop the translational potential of these observations, we created a human sequence-derived NgR1(310)-Fc protein. This protein is active in vitro. When the human NgR1 decoy is administered by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion to rats with a spinal contusion injury at doses of 0.09-0.53?mg/kg/d, neurological recovery is improved. Effective doses double the percentage of rats able to bear weight on their hindlimbs. Next, we considered the half-life and distribution of NgR1(310)-Fc after bolus delivery to the lumbar intrathecal space. The protein is found throughout the neuraxis and has a tissue half-life of approximately 2 days in the rat, and 5 days in the nonhuman primate. At an intermittent, once every 4 day, lumbar bolus dosing schedule of 0.14?mg/kg/d, NgR1(310)-Fc promoted locomotor rat recovery from spinal cord contusion at least as effectively as continuous infusion in open field and grid walking tasks. Moreover, the intermittent lumbar NgR1(310)-Fc treatment increased the growth of raphespinal axons into the lumbar spinal cord after injury. Thus, human NgR1(310)-Fc provides effective treatment for recovery from traumatic SCI in this preclinical model with a simplified administration regimen that facilitates clinical testing. PMID:24964223

  12. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  13. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  14. Unfired refractories bonded with coal tar pitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Borisov; L. V. Kravets; N. K. Petrov; L. N. Kolesnik

    1971-01-01

    Conclusions Medium-temperature coal tar pitches are effective bonds for making unfired dolomite and dolomite —magnesite refractories by pressing bodies heated to 100–120°C. The features of the refractories with a pitch bond are the higher contents of carbon resistant to oxidation (about 4%), and the higher compressive strength (400–500 kg\\/cm2), and finally the higher hydration resistance (10 days).

  15. Carcinogenic effects in A/J mice of particulate of a coal-tar paint used in potable water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.; Laurie, R.D.; Bull, R.J.; Stober, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coal-tar paints are among the products used as inside coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion in potable water-supply systems. Four different formulations of these paints were tested in earlier work by this laboratory in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays(6). The paint most active in these assays was then tested in a particulate form in the lung adenoma assay with A/J mice. The paint was applied to clean glass plates, cured, collected and homogenized in 2% Emulphor. Doses of this coal-tar suspension were administered by gavage at 1.0, 10.0, and 55.0 mg in 0.2 ml per mouse 3 x weekly for 8 weeks. The total doses of coal-tar paint were 24, 240, and 1320 mg/mouse. Benzo(a)pyrene, administered in a parallel schedule to a total dose of 6 mg/mouse, served as positive control. A negative control group received an equivalent volume of 2% Emulphor. Animals were sacrificed at 9 months of age (8 months after first dose) and lung adenomas counted. A dose-related response, in the average number of lung tumors per mouse, was observed with the coal-tar particulate. There were also squamous-cell tumors of the forestomach in 42% of the mice receiving 55.0 mg coal tar paint per application.

  16. Stabilization/solidification of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A

    2010-01-01

    This work involve a systematic treatability study of the treatment of acid tars (AT), a waste generated during the processing of petroleum and petrochemical, by stabilization/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects of organic content, HCFA:AT ratio, percentage CEM I addition, and curing time on response variables including unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and leachability-related properties of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) products, and to assess management options for the s/s products based on performance criteria adapted from regulatory and other guidance. Results show that all studied factors had significant effects on the tested properties of the s/s products. Acid tar reduced UCS, but strength increase was observed with increased curing time. Increased HCFA addition led to an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Assessment of management options indicates that the treated acid tars could find application as controlled low-strength materials, landfill liner, and landfill daily cover. The work demonstrates how a systematic treatability study can be used to develop a S/S operating window for management of a particular waste type. PMID:20473807

  17. Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

    2013-05-01

    Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation. PMID:11827123

  19. Quasi-Genes: The Many-Body Theory of Gene Regulation in the Presence of Decoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Anat

    During transcriptional regulation, transcription factor proteins bind to particular sites in the genome in order to switch genes on or off. The regulatory binding site intended for a transcription factor is just one out of millions of potential sites where the transcription factor can bind. Specificity of a binding motif determines whether less than one or up to tens of thousands of strong affinity binding sites can be expected by pure chance. The roles that these additional "decoy" binding sites play in the functioning of a cell are currently unknown. We incorporate decoys into traditional mass action and stochastic models of a simple gene network-the self-regulated gene-and use numerical and analytical techniques to quantify the effects that these extra sites have on altering gene expression properties. Counter-intuitively, we find that if bound transcription factors are protected from degradation, the mean steady state concentration of unbound transcription factors, , is insensitive to the addition of decoys. Many other gene expression properties do change as decoys are added. Decoys linearly increase the time necessary to reach steady state. Noise buffering by decoys occurs because of a coupling between the unbound proteomic environment and the reservoir of sites that can be very large, but the noise reduction is limited Poisson statistics because of the inherent noise resulting from binding and unbinding of transcription factors to DNA. This noise buffering is optimized for a given protein concentration when decoys have a 1/2 probability of being occupied. Decoys are able to preferentially stabilize one state of a bimodal system over the other, and exponentially increase the time to epigenetically switch between these states. In the limit that binding and unbinding rates are fast compared to the fluctuations in transcription factor copy number, we exploit timescale differences to collapse the model and derive analytical expressions that explain our numerical results. In analogy to traditional many-body systems, we derive effective parameters to describe a "quasi-gene" which can be used to approximate the influence of decoy binding sites on simple gene networks.

  20. Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

    1988-02-01

    The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

  1. Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

  2. Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

  3. Tar sand and heavy oil resources and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    Tar-sand resources in the U.S. are not as concentrated as the Canadian Athabasca deposits, but they are significant; the amount recoverable is estimated to be 25 to 35 billion barrels. Some of the characteristics of tar sands and heavy oil sands and their occurrence are discussed. The single large-scale production of bitumen from tar sands is the operation of Great

  4. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater. PMID:25941757

  5. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  6. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  7. Tumor Endothelium Marker-8 Based Decoys Exhibit Superiority over Capillary Morphogenesis Protein-2 Based Decoys as Anthrax Toxin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Long; Guo, Qiang; Kong, Yirong; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Cheng, Yuanguo; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis. The toxin consists of three protein subunits: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Inhibition of PA binding to its receptors, tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) can effectively block anthrax intoxication, which is particularly valuable when the toxin has already been overproduced at the late stage of anthrax infection, thus rendering antibiotics ineffectual. Receptor-like agonists, such as the mammalian cell-expressed von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain of CMG2 (sCMG2), have demonstrated potency against the anthrax toxin. However, the soluble vWA domain of TEM8 (sTEM8) was ruled out as an anthrax toxin inhibitor candidate due to its inferior affinity to PA. In the present study, we report that L56A, a PA-binding-affinity-elevated mutant of sTEM8, could inhibit anthrax intoxication as effectively as sCMG2 in Fisher 344 rats. Additionally, pharmacokinetics showed that L56A and sTEM8 exhibit advantages over sCMG2 with better lung-targeting and longer plasma retention time, which may contribute to their enhanced protective ability in vivo. Our results suggest that receptor decoys based on TEM8 are promising anthrax toxin inhibitors and, together with the pharmacokinetic studies in this report, may contribute to the development of novel anthrax drugs. PMID:21674060

  8. Practical decoy-state quantum key distribution method considering dark count rate fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Ying-jian

    2012-09-01

    Considering fluctuant dark count rate in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, a new decoy-state method with one vacuum state and one weak decoy state is presented based on a heralded single photon source (HSPS). The method assumes that the dark count rate of each pulse is random and independent. The lower bound of the count rate and the upper bound of the error rate of a single photon state are estimated. The method is applied to the decoy-state QKD system with and without the fluctuation of dark count rate. Because the estimation of the upper bound of a single photon state's error rate is stricter, the method can obtain better performance than the existing methods under the same condition of implementation.

  9. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Cummings, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into chemically defined fractions and were characterized by gas chromatography. Specific compounds were not identified, but rather fingerprinting or compound-type profiling was used for identifying similarities and differences in the product tars. This permitted the evaluation of the different methods of tar production with respect to one another. The UCG coal tars appeared to have undergone more secondary cracking than the pyrolytic products. The coal tar products from the laboratory reference retort appear to be more indicative of the coal's chemical structure. Products from the block reactor contained lesser amounts of the lighter boiling material. In addition there is organic sulfur contamination as indicated by the large amount of sulfur present in the product tar from the block reactor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  12. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  13. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  14. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  17. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  18. Olivine as tar removal catalyst for biomass gasifiers: Catalyst characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lopamudra Devi; Menno Craje; Peter Thüne; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper olivine is considered as a prospective in-bed tar removal catalyst for fluidized bed biomass gasifiers. The catalytic activity of olivine is investigated via steam reforming reaction of naphthalene as a model biomass tar compound. It is observed that the calcination of olivine improves the performance of the catalyst. Calcination of olivine is done with air at

  19. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiqin Zhang; Robert C. Brown; Andrew Suby; Keith Cummer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a

  20. The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

  1. A Helpful Serving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  2. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  4. Bioremediation of coal tar PAH in soils using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L T; Jones, D M

    2001-08-01

    The addition of biodiesel together with nitrate and phosphate to soil containing coal tar, in laboratory and field experiments, resulted in degradation of coal tar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that was not apparent when the nutrients alone were added. The addition of motor diesel fuel instead of biodiesel was also tested. Over the 55 days of the field and laboratory experiments, the biodiesel resulted in an increased degradation of naphthalene in the coal tar by 52% and 85%, respectively, and motor diesel resulted in increased depletions of 85% and 96%, respectively. Other PAH containing up to four rings were depleted to lesser extents. The increases in PAH biodegradation by the diesel treatments were ascribed to tar solubilisation and dispersion thereby increasing the PAH bioavailability. The ready biodegradability and low phytotoxicity of biodiesel suggest that it may be suitable as a novel treatment for the bioremediation of coal tar contaminated soils. PMID:11513400

  5. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  6. Parametric analysis of target/decoy performance1 John P. Kerekes

    E-print Network

    Kerekes, John

    in protecting both ballistic and orbiting objects from detection by optical sensors. Such sensors may have high technology matures and the development of space-based optical sensors becomes feasible, interest has grown interest in the development and analysis of optical decoys that will prevent identification of high value

  7. Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases

    E-print Network

    Storey, John D.

    Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases, Washington 98195 Received September 18, 2007 Automated methods for assigning peptides to observed tandem mass spectra typically return a list of peptide-spectrum matches, ranked according to an arbitrary score

  8. Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangbin [IMAI Quantum Computation and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg. 201, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    We propose an efficient decoy-state protocol for practical quantum key distribution using coherent states. The protocol uses four intensities of different coherent light. A good final key rate is achieved by our protocol with typical parameters of existing practical setups, even with a very low channel transmittance.

  9. Four-intensity Decoy-state Quantum Key Distribution with Enhanced Resistance against Statistical Fluctuation

    E-print Network

    Haodong Jiang; Ming Gao; Hong Wang; Hongxin Li; Zhi Ma

    2015-02-08

    Practical BB84 quantum key distribution has been proposed by utilizing attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. However, there is a big gap in performance between asymptotic and finite-data settings due to statistical fluctuation. Here, we propose a four-intensity decoy-state protocol with three nonzero intensities in only one basis. Compared to conventional three-intensity decoy-state protocols, our protocol has an additional intensity as a free variable to optimize the deviations caused by statistical fluctuation. We perform numerical simulations with full optimization to make a comparison with the existing three-intensity decoy-state protocols with biased basis choice. According to the simulation result, larger maximum transmission distance and higher secure key rates can be achieved with our protocol. The performance of quantum key distribution is highly improved especially when the number of detected pulses is small. Our protocol might play a key role in the coming ground-satellite quantum key distribution.

  10. The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

  11. Decoy Methods for Assessing False Positives and False Discovery Rates in Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W.; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs. stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs. unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs. composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size, but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from separate search was about three times that from composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple filters were used. By analyzing a standard protein mixture, we demonstrated that the higher estimation of FDR and FPs in separate search likely reflected an overestimation, which could be corrected with a simple merging procedure. Our study illustrates the relative merits of different implementations of the target-decoy strategy, which should be worth contemplating when large-scale proteomic biomarker discovery is to be attempted. PMID:19061407

  12. Decoy receptor 3: a pleiotropic immunomodulator and biomarker for inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Wan; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2011-04-01

    Recently, several decoy molecules belonging to tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) have been identified, including decoy receptor 1 (DcR1), decoy receptor 2 (DcR2), and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). One of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), binds to DcR1 and DcR2, which are membranous receptors with a truncated cytoplasmic domain, thus unable to transduce TRAIL-mediated signaling. In contrast to DcR1 and DcR2, DcR3 is a soluble receptor capable of neutralizing the biological effects of three other TNFSF members: Fas ligand (FasL/TNFSF6/CD95L), LIGHT (TNFSF14) and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A/TNFSF15). Since FasL is a potent apoptosis- and inflammation-inducing factor, LIGHT is involved in apoptosis and inflammation, and TL1A is a T cell costimulator and is involved in gut inflammation, DcR3 can be defined as an immunomodulator on the basis of its neutralizing effects on FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Initial studies demonstrated that DcR3 expression is elevated in tumors cells; however, later work showed that DcR3 expression is also upregulated in inflammatory diseases, where serum DcR3 levels correlate with disease progression. In addition to its neutralizing effect, DcR3 also acts as an effector molecule to modulate cell function via 'non-decoy' activities. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of DcR3 via 'decoy' and 'non-decoy' functions, and discusses the potential of DcR3 as a biomarker to predict cancer invasion and inflammation progression. We also discuss the possible utility of recombinant DcR3 as a therapeutic agent to control autoimmune diseases, as well as the potential to attenuate tumor progression by inhibiting DcR3 expression. PMID:21295012

  13. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  14. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature

    E-print Network

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    ............................................................................................ 88 Poe and Jacksonian Tar ..................................................................... 89 Poe?s Insane Tar and Feathers ........................................................... 92 Blackening Revenge in ?Hop... Tarr and Dr. Fether? (1845) and ?Hop-Frog; Or Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs? (1849) both treat tarring and feathering as a feature of power inversion, relying on the overlapping discourses of psychiatry, race, and taste. The final chapter, ?Tarring...

  15. Novel E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit in vitro vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and in vivo neointimal hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Ahn; R Morishita; Y Kaneda; H S Kim; Y-C Chang; K-U Lee; J-Y Park; H W Lee; Y-H Kim; I-K Lee

    2002-01-01

    The transcription factor, E2F, plays a critical role in the trans-activation of several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. Previous studies showed that the transfection of cis element double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) corresponding to E2F binding sites inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointimal hyperplasia in injured vessels. We have developed a novel E2F decoy ODN

  16. Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) Improves Gait Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... positive short-term results A study of gait mechanics in patients who underwent total ankle replacement (TAR) ... improvement in nearly all measured parameters of gait mechanics (measured preoperatively, 1 year postoperative, and 2 years ...

  17. TarO: a target optimisation system for structural biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Overton; C. A. Johannes Van Niekerk; Lester G. Carter; Alice Dawson; David M. A. Martin; Scott Cameron; Stephen A. Mcmahon; Malcolm F. White; William N. Hunter; James H. Naismith; Geoffrey J. Barton

    2008-01-01

    TarO (http:\\/\\/www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk\\/taro) offers a single point of reference for key bioinformatics analyses relevant to selecting proteins or domains for study by structural biology techniques. The protein sequence is analysed by 17 algorithms and compared to 8 databases. TarO gathers putative homologues, including orthologues, and then obtains predictions of properties for these sequences including crystallisation propensity, pro- tein disorder and post-translational

  18. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  19. Serving the Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

  20. Steamflood experiment in a Utah tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Fahy, L.J.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in Utah tar sand, LETC TS-IS, was conducted in the N. Asphalt Ridge Deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of 2 concentric inverted 5-spot patterns. The zone chosen for the experiment was a 45-ft (14-m) thick sandstone in the Rimrock member of the Mesaverde Formation. The pattern area was 0.25 acres (1012 sq/m) and contained a 12-1/4 API (986 kg/cu m) bitumen with a viscosity greater than 106 cp (103 pa/sec) at reservoir conditions. The average oil saturation was 78.9% of the pore volume. During the 160 days of operation, 65,700 bbl (10.4 dam3) of water equivalent steam was injected at 360 to 530 psig (2.5 to 3.7 mpa) and 180 to 650 bpd (29 to 103 cu m/day). Total production during the test amounted to 1150 bbl (183 cu m) of oil and 6250 bbl (994 cu m) of water.

  1. Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons

    E-print Network

    Fu-Guo Deng; Xi-Han Li; Chun-Yan Li; Ping Zhou; Hong-Yu Zhou

    2007-06-15

    A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e., a sequence of the $d$-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line.

  2. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-?B itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-?B was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity. PMID:25550185

  3. Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2012-04-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

  4. Heralded Single Photon Source-Based Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Dual Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu Feng,; Seounghun Lee,; Semin Kim,; Seunghwan Kim,; Kyonghon Kim,

    2010-05-01

    In practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, the heralded single photon source (HSPS) based on parametric down-conversion (PDC) has attracted significant attentions from many researchers because its various advantages compared to the weak coherent source. We propose a heralded single photon source-based decoy-state QKD with dual detectors and demonstrate in a theoretical simulation that this method improves the performance of QKD system. The secure key generation rate is increased significantly with our proposal both in thermal and Poisson distributions of photons. The secure key rate produced by our scheme is higher than the state of the art key rate of current high-speed QKD system. The decoy-state QKD system using the heralded single photon source with dual detectors can be an important alternative for the present practical QKD systems.

  5. Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H. (WU-MED)

    2008-09-23

    Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.

  6. Catalytic conversion of tar from hot coke oven gas using 1-methylnaphthalene as a tar model compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yang; Xueguang Wang; Lin Li; Kui Shen; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding

    2010-01-01

    High concentration (1.3vol.%) of 1-methylnaphthalene was selected as a tar model compound to investigate the catalytic conversion of tar from hot coke oven gas (COG) with lower steam content under atmospheric pressure over the Ni\\/MgO\\/Al2O3 catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by impregnating boehmite (AlOOH) with an aqueous solution of magnesium nitrate and nickel nitrate. The effects of Ni loading, reaction

  7. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  8. Serve.gov

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The call to volunteer has always animated Americans, and it's always nice to learn about a new way to find volunteer opportunities. Serve.gov is a government website managed by the Corporation for National and Community Service, and the search engine on their homepage is a great place to start. Just type in some keywords in the "What interests you?" box, and then type in a location in the "Where would you like to volunteer?" box, and click on "Find Opportunities Now". Further down on the homepage, visitors can avail themselves of sections that help with getting a service project started ("Getting Started"), a place to share volunteer project trials and tribulations ("Share Your Story"), and a place to disseminate the good word about Serve.gov ("Spread the Word"). Visitors should also take a gander at their "Stories of Service" blog for inspiration.

  9. Managing microRNAs with vector-encoded decoy-type inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bak, Rasmus O; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-08-01

    A rapidly growing understanding of the complex circuitry of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation is attracting attention to miRNAs as new drug targets. Targeted miRNA suppression is achieved in a sequence-specific manner by antisense RNA "decoy" molecules. Such synthetic miRNA inhibitors have reached the clinic with remarkable pace and may soon appear as new therapeutic modalities in several diseases. Shortcomings, however, include high production costs, the requirement for repeated administration, and difficulty achieving tissue-specific delivery. With the many recent landmark achievements in clinical gene therapy, new and refined vector-encoded miRNA suppression technologies are attractive for many applications, not least as tools in innumerable daily studies of miRNA biology in laboratories worldwide. Here, we provide an overview of the strategies that have been used to adapt vector-encoded inhibitors for miRNA suppression and discuss advantages related to spatiotemporal and long-term miRNA attenuation. With the remarkable new discovery of miRNA management by naturally occurring circular RNAs, RNA circles generated by trans-splicing mechanisms may prove to be well-suited carriers of decoy-type miRNA inhibitors. The community will aspire to combine circles with high-affinity miRNA decoy methodologies, and such "vectorized" RNA circles may represent new solid ways to deliver miRNA inhibitors, perhaps even with therapeutic applications. PMID:23752312

  10. Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.

  11. Manipulating lek size and composition using decoys: an experimental investigation of lek evolution models.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Four theoretical models have been proposed to account for the origin and maintenance of leks: hotspot, female preference, hotshot, and black hole models. Each has been validated in particular cases, and most are not mutually exclusive; therefore, it has been difficult to contrast and separate them, empirically and experimentally. By using decoys to mimic natural leks in the little bustard, artificial leks attracted wild birds. Then, by manipulating artificial lek size and structure (sex ratio, male phenotype), the study of responses of wild males and females allowed us to test specific predictions derived from the four classical models of lek evolution. The hotspot model was not supported because female decoys did not attract wild males. Conversely, hotshot males do exist in this species (attracting both wild females and males), as does a female preference for a particular lek size (four males). Finally, males aggressive toward decoys attracted fewer females, consistent with one of the mechanisms by which the black hole model may work. Therefore, three models of lek evolution were partly or fully supported by our experimental results: hotshot, female preference, and black hole models. We suggest that these models actually fit within each other, ensuring the evolution, functioning, and long-term maintenance of leks. PMID:17109318

  12. HIV-1 TAR as anchoring site for optimized catalytic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Fernandez, Elena; Barroso-del Jesus, Alicia; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Ribozymes have a great potential for developing specific gene silencing molecules. One of the main limitations to ensure the efficient application of ribozymes is to achieve effective binding to the target. Stem-loop domains support efficient formation of the kissing complex between natural antisense molecules and their target sequence. We have characterized catalytic antisense RNA hybrid molecules composed of a hammerhead ribozyme and a stem-loop antisense domain. A series of artificial RNA substrates containing the TAR-RNA stem-loop and a target for the hammerhead ribozyme were constructed and challenged with a catalytic antisense RNA carrying the TAR complementary stem-loop. The catalytic antisense RNA cleaves each of these substrates significantly more efficiently than the parental hammerhead ribozyme. Deletion of the TAR domain in the substrate abolishes the positive effect. These results suggest that the enhancement is due to the interaction of both complementary stem-loop motifs. A similar improvement was corroborated when targeting the LTR region of HIV-1 with either hammerhead- and hairpin-based catalytic antisense RNAs. Our results indicate that the TAR domain can be used as an anchoring site to facilitate the access of ribozymes to their specific target sequences within TAR-containing RNAs. Finally, we propose the addition of stable stem-loop motifs to the ribozyme domain as a rational way for constructing catalytic antisense RNAs. PMID:12715885

  13. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. PMID:19913343

  14. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  15. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    PubMed

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. PMID:24215941

  16. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  17. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Heated grid experiments have been conducted to test the crosslinking hypothesis which has been advanced by some investigators to explain the observed differences in tar yields with coal type. Three coals were studied: two HVA bituminous coals and a subbituminous coal. Results indicate, for the HVA coals, that crosslinking is unimportant relative to predicting total volatiles yield under rapid heating conditions. Results for the subbituminous coal are inconclusive. Devolatilization models which use functional group or aromatic bridge site concentrations in the parent coal as source terms for crosslinking sites are not justified. Models which incorporate the influence of differences in parent coal structure on tar precursor chemical and physical properties are more likely to be successful in predicting tar evolution behavior over a range of coal ranks. The molecular weight distributions (MWDs) of tars evolved from a range of coal ranks in the heated grid have been determined using an improved size exclusion chromatography (SEC) technique. Previous investigations have shown that tar yields, chemical and physical characteristics, and particle morphology are observed to vary significantly with ambient pressure, indicating interphase mass transfer has a significant effect on the tar evolution process with respect to product composition. The objective of one task was to quantify the effect of mass transfer resistance alone, as a function of extent of reaction and coal type. Towards this end, a heated grid experiment was devised which delivered equivalent heating fluxes in both vacuum and ambient pressure conditions. Three HVA bituminous coals were investigated (PSOC 1499d, 1451D and 1493D). ZHT heated grid runs were conducted in vacuum and 1 atm. argon to three final temperatures: 550, 650 and 750 C. 10 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

  1. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.

    PubMed

    Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2007-09-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion. PMID:17631358

  2. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-?B Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porciani, David; Tedeschi, Lorena; Marchetti, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Piazza, Vincenzo; Beltram, Fabio; Signore, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i) target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii) perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin) and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor ?B decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment). Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor ?B decoy does inhibit nuclear factor ?B activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells. PMID:25919089

  3. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya S. Del Sontro; Ira Leifer; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Bernardo R. Broitman

    2007-01-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil\\/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m2 survey area was

  5. Accurate Assignment of Significance to Neuropeptide Identifications Using Monte Carlo K-Permuted Decoy Databases

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Per E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of accurate neuropeptide identification in mass spectrometry experiments, novel Monte Carlo permutation testing was used to compute significance values. Testing was based on k-permuted decoy databases, where k denotes the number of permutations. These databases were integrated with a range of peptide identification indicators from three popular open-source database search software (OMSSA, Crux, and X! Tandem) to assess the statistical significance of neuropeptide spectra matches. Significance p-values were computed as the fraction of the sequences in the database with match indicator value better than or equal to the true target spectra. When applied to a test-bed of all known manually annotated mouse neuropeptides, permutation tests with k-permuted decoy databases identified up to 100% of the neuropeptides at p-value < 10?5. The permutation test p-values using hyperscore (X! Tandem), E-value (OMSSA) and Sp score (Crux) match indicators outperformed all other match indicators. The robust performance to detect peptides of the intuitive indicator “number of matched ions between the experimental and theoretical spectra” highlights the importance of considering this indicator when the p-value was borderline significant. Our findings suggest permutation decoy databases of size 1×105 are adequate to accurately detect neuropeptides and this can be exploited to increase the speed of the search. The straightforward Monte Carlo permutation testing (comparable to a zero order Markov model) can be easily combined with existing peptide identification software to enable accurate and effective neuropeptide detection. The source code is available at http://stagbeetle.animal.uiuc.edu/pepshop/MSMSpermutationtesting. PMID:25329667

  6. HopDock: a probabilistic search algorithm for decoy sampling in protein-protein docking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of a higher-order molecular assembly formed by interacting molecular units, a problem commonly known as docking, is central to unraveling the molecular basis of cellular activities. Though protein assemblies are ubiquitous in the cell, it is currently challenging to predict the native structure of a protein assembly in silico. Methods This work proposes HopDock, a novel search algorithm for protein-protein docking. HopDock efficiently obtains an ensemble of low-energy dimeric configurations, also known as decoys, that can be effectively used by ab-initio docking protocols. HopDock is based on the Basin Hopping (BH) framework which perturbs the structure of a dimeric configuration and then follows it up with an energy minimization to explicitly sample a local minimum of a chosen energy function. This process is repeated in order to sample consecutive energy minima in a trajectory-like fashion. HopDock employs both geometry and evolutionary conservation analysis to narrow down the interaction search space of interest for the purpose of efficiently obtaining a diverse decoy ensemble. Results and conclusions A detailed analysis and a comparative study on seventeen different dimers shows HopDock obtains a broad view of the energy surface near the native dimeric structure and samples many near-native configurations. The results show that HopDock has high sampling capability and can be employed to effectively obtain a large and diverse ensemble of decoy configurations that can then be further refined in greater structural detail in ab-initio docking protocols. PMID:24564839

  7. Investigation of the distribution of tar components by fractions as a function of the tar moisture level

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoleva, T.Y.; Plastun, A.A.; Maksimov, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the fractions obtained in the refining of coal tar was presented. The concentrations of the various components of the fractions were determined as a function of the moisture. Six fractions were obtained--a light fraction, a phenolic fraction, a naphthalene fraction, a wash oil fraction, and two anthracene fractions. An increase in moisture level of the tar caused high losses of naphthalene to the light and phenolic fractions and decreased the quality of the wash oil. The use of a steam stripper to remove naphthalene from the wash oil fraction reduced the effectiveness of the wash oil for recovery of benzene from coke oven gas.

  8. Determining the characteristics of the direct coke oven gas tar fog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Nazarov; G. Vshivtsev; S. P. Simonov

    1982-01-01

    In the cooling of coke oven gas, the principal part of the tar in the gas main condenses and is discharged to the mechanical clarifiers with the water. The remaining part of the tar is present chiefly in the form of fog. The vapor phase of the tar is insignificant and consists primarily of fractions boiling below 300°C. Separation of

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of coal tar and the dynamics of gases sorbed in polymers probed by NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cain

    1989-01-01

    The pyrolysis of a bituminous coal tar in a fixed bed reactor, was investigated. Potential catalysts and the effect of temperature and residence time on tar conversion was also investigated. The observed temperature dependence of tar conversion was then used to model the kinetics of these reactions by applying a lumped parameter approach. The strongest catalytic activity was displayed by

  10. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA Abstract A new field method for tar

  11. Tar removal from biomass pyrolysis gas in two-step function of decomposition and adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thana Phuphuakrat; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Tar content in syngas pyrolysis is a serious problem for fuel gas utilization in downstream applications. This paper investigated tar removal, by the two-step function of decomposition and adsorption, from the pyrolysis gas. The temperature of the tar decomposition process was fixed at 800°C both with and without steam, with air as the reforming agent. Both steam and air had

  12. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  13. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography

    E-print Network

    Teng-Yun Chen; Hao Liang; Yang Liu; Wen-Qi Cai; Lei Ju; Wei-Yue Liu; Jian Wang; Hao Yin; Kai Chen; Zeng-Bing Chen; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Jian-Wei Pan

    2009-04-26

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

  14. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479

  15. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  16. TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations Ines Khoufi, Bachar Wehbi, Anis Abstract-- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is among the most relevant forms of mobile ad-hoc networks. VANET helps improving traffic safety and efficiency. By exchanging information between each others

  17. Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Redford

    1976-01-01

    Viscous petroleum including bitumen may be recovered for subterranean petroleum containing unconsolidated said formations such as tar sand deposits by hydraulic mining. Hot water or steam is introduced into the subterranean deposit with sufficient velocity to dislodge bitumen and particles of sand therefrom. The process is a single wellbore operation using rotatable vertically moveable injection string with one or more

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF WHITEROCKS (UTAH) TAR SAND BITUMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Hslng Tsai; Milind D. Deo; Francis V. Hanson; Alex G. Oblad

    1991-01-01

    The native Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen was separated into several boiling range fractions for detailed analysis and characterization. The lighter fraction (477-617 K) was evaluated for use as a transportation fuel and the residues (>617 K and >728 K) were evaluated for use as road asphalts. The 617 K plus residue from the Whiterocks bitumen can be classified as

  19. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stauffer

    1993-01-01

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new

  20. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

    1981-01-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.---GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it

  1. Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Yongfa Zhang; Yaling Sun; Bo Tian; Qidian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ration from 2:1 to 7:1. It shows that the viscosity decrease rate can be divided into two sections with temperature

  2. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1996-11-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

  3. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  4. The kick serve in tennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod Cross

    2012-01-01

    A kick serve in tennis is not only the most difficult stroke for players to master but is also the most difficult stroke to understand. The ball must be served by swinging upwards at the ball to generate topspin and the ball must be served down below the horizontal in order to land in the service court. The racquet head

  5. Classification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and decoys by a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Aixia

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase has long been considered as a target for Alzheimer disease therapy. In this work, several classification models were built for the purpose of distinguishing acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and decoys. Each molecule was initially represented by 211 ADRIANA.Code and 334 MOE descriptors. Correlation analysis, F-score and attribute selection methods in Weka were used to find the best reduced set of descriptors, respectively. Additionally, models were built using a Support Vector Machine and evaluated by 5-, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation. The best model gave a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.99 and a prediction accuracy (Q) of 99.66% for the test set. The best model also gave good result on an external test set of 86 compounds (Q=96.51%, MCC=0.93). The descriptors selected by our models suggest that H-bond and hydrophobicity interactions are important for the classification of AChEIs and decoys. PMID:22263859

  6. Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Liu, Yang; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) utilizes the laws of quantum mechanics to achieve information-theoretically secure key generation. This field is now approaching the stage of commercialization, but many practical QKD systems still suffer from security loopholes due to imperfect devices. In fact, practical attacks have successfully been demonstrated. Fortunately, most of them only exploit detection-side loopholes, which are now closed by the recent idea of measurement-device-independent QKD. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the source, which may still leave QKD systems insecure. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an attack that exploits a source-side loophole existing in qubit-based QKD systems using a weak coherent state source and decoy states. Specifically, by implementing a linear-optics unambiguous state discrimination measurement, we show that the security of a system without phase randomization—which is a step assumed in conventional security analyses but sometimes neglected in practice—can be compromised. We conclude that implementing phase randomization is essential to the security of decoy-state QKD systems under current security analyses.

  7. A novel decoy receptor fusion protein for FGF-2 potently inhibits tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, D; Wei, X; Xie, K; Chen, K; Li, J; Fang, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antiangiogenic therapies have been proven effective in cancer treatment. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been functionally implicated in tumour angiogenesis and is an important target of antiangiogenic therapies. The aim of this work was to develop a novel FGF-2 inhibitor for cancer therapy. Methods: Eleven fusion proteins were developed by fusing various truncated extracellular regions of FGFR1 with the Fc region of IgG1. The optimal decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding affinity for FGF-2 was identified by an FGF-2-binding assay and its potential antitumour effects were investigated. Results: We obtained a soluble decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding activity for FGF-2, named FGF-Trap. Fibroblast growth factor-Trap significantly abolished FGF-2-stimulated activation of FGF signalling as demonstrated by its suppression of FGF-2-mediated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, upregulation of cyclins D1 and E and the increase in mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor R1 and R2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). Furthermore, FGF-Trap effectively suppressed FGF-2-induced proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Most importantly, FGF-Trap potently inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis in Caki-1 and A549 xenograft models in vivo. Conclusions: Fibroblast growth factor-Trap potently inhibits tumour growth by blocking FGF-2 signalling pathways and could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer patients. PMID:24874473

  8. Characterisation of naturally and artificially weathered pine tar coatings by visual assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Marie Egenberg; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

    2003-01-01

    Tarring experiments with pine tar from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) obtained from a traditionally accomplished kiln production have been carried out, in order to investigate potentials of improvement concerning tarring of the preserved Norwegian medieval stave churches. Pine tar coated test panels of pine wood were exposed to three different natural climates in Norway and on a regular basis characterised

  9. New glycoproteomics software, GlycoPep Evaluator, generates decoy glycopeptides de novo and enables accurate false discovery rate analysis for small data sets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhikai; Su, Xiaomeng; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

    2014-09-16

    Glycoproteins are biologically significant large molecules that participate in numerous cellular activities. In order to obtain site-specific protein glycosylation information, intact glycopeptides, with the glycan attached to the peptide sequence, are characterized by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). While several emerging automated tools are developed, no consensus is present in the field about the best way to determine the reliability of the tools and/or provide the false discovery rate (FDR). A common approach to calculate FDRs for glycopeptide analysis, adopted from the target-decoy strategy in proteomics, employs a decoy database that is created based on the target protein sequence database. Nonetheless, this approach is not optimal in measuring the confidence of N-linked glycopeptide matches, because the glycopeptide data set is considerably smaller compared to that of peptides, and the requirement of a consensus sequence for N-glycosylation further limits the number of possible decoy glycopeptides tested in a database search. To address the need to accurately determine FDRs for automated glycopeptide assignments, we developed GlycoPep Evaluator (GPE), a tool that helps to measure FDRs in identifying glycopeptides without using a decoy database. GPE generates decoy glycopeptides de novo for every target glycopeptide, in a 1:20 target-to-decoy ratio. The decoys, along with target glycopeptides, are scored against the ETD data, from which FDRs can be calculated accurately based on the number of decoy matches and the ratio of the number of targets to decoys, for small data sets. GPE is freely accessible for download and can work with any search engine that interprets ETD data of N-linked glycopeptides. The software is provided at https://desairegroup.ku.edu/research. PMID:25137014

  10. Predation in the Presence of Decoys: An Inhibitory Factor on Pathogen Control by Bacteriophages or Bdellovibrios in Dense

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    or Bdellovibrios in Dense and Diverse Ecosystems Running title: Predation in the Presence of Decoys Michael H microflora using either bacteriophages or "predatory" bacteria such as Bdellovibrio spp. To date yx net yield of Y biomass per unit of X1 3 #12;Introduction The members of the genus Bdellovibrio

  11. Ab Initio Construction of Polypeptide Fragments: Accuracy of Loop Decoy Discrimination by an All-Atom Statistical

    E-print Network

    de Bakker, Paul

    that had an average global, non-superimposed RMSD for all heavy mainchain atoms ranging from 1.2 Å for 4Ab Initio Construction of Polypeptide Fragments: Accuracy of Loop Decoy Discrimination by an All-Atom of protein loop conforma- tions was explored by comparing the performance of the Samudrala­Moult all-atom

  12. Transcription factor decoy against stem cells master regulators, Nanog and Oct-4: a possible approach for differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Rad, Seyed Mohammad Ali Hosseini; Bamdad, Taravat; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Arefian, Ehsan; Lotfinia, Majid; Ghanipour, Milad

    2015-04-01

    Transcription factor decoys (TFDs) are exogenous oligonucleotides which can compete by cis-elements in promoters or enhancers for binding to TFs and downregulating gene expression in a specific manner. It is believed that tumor mass originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs) which the same with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the properties of both pluripotency and self-renewal (stemness). Many transcription factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, and Sall4 act as master regulators in the maintenance of stemness in both cell types. Differentiation therapy is based on this theory that by differentiation of CSCs, tumor mass can be eliminated with common cancer therapy methods. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of a TFD approach against master regulator of stemness, Nanog, Oct-4, and Klf4, for downregulation purposes in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cell. Different simple and complex decoys against Nanog, OCT-4, Sox2, and Klf4 were designed and used for this purpose. The results showed that the applied decoys especially Nanog-specific decoy decreased the expression of downstream genes. PMID:25464862

  13. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

  14. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that currently do not meet the…

  15. Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.C.

    1982-11-30

    A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of forward combustion in Sunnyside tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Three one-dimensional simulations of the in situ forward-combustion process using Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand were conducted to evaluate its effectiveness for recovering oil from the deposit. The injectant for these tests was either steam-oxygen, air-oxygen, or air. All three simulations experienced plugging of the reactor tube during the tests. Only the air test went to completion and produced 46 wt % of the bitumen as highly upgraded oil. The plugging problem in the tests is believed to result from the collection of a highly oxidized material in a cooler portion of the tube forming a semi-solid barrier. It is recommended that extensive thermal characterization studies be conducted on Sunnyside tar sand before further in situ studies are conducted. The work described here substantiates the need for extensive laboratory evaluation of a recovery process before field application. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. One-dimensional modeling of steam injection in tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Hutchinson, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A one-dimensional numeric model of steam injection was developed and used to simulate experimental steam and hot water injection in the Asphalt Ridge tar sands. The model described a 3-phase flow system of water, steam and oil with interphase mass transfer of water. The mass and energy balance equations were solved simultaneously by a semi-implicit Sequential Solution method. The results of the linear numeric simulator showed moderate agreement with the observed results from the steam and hot water injection experiments. The simulator predicted that (1) changes in relative permeability, thermal expansion coefficient of oil and oil viscosity are important factors affecting oil recovery from tar sands, and (2) the oil response time is decreased with increasing steam injection rate and quality, and is decreased by reducing steam injection temperature. 22 references.

  18. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  19. Oil from tar sands--a significant new plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uhl

    1967-01-01

    The first synthetic crude oil from Canada's Athabasca tar sands has been in commercial production since October, when the new 45,000 b\\/cd (design capacity) installation of Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. at Fort McMurray, Alberta, began operations. Besides the oil, the plant is designed to produce about 2,600 tons\\/cd of petroleum coke, for use as plant fuel, and 314 tons\\/cd

  20. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

    1981-01-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great\\u000a Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts\\u000a of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established\\u000a commercial practice, it

  1. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some Problems in Quantifying Toxic Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD FURIMSKY

    2002-01-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate\\u000a a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia,\\u000a Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials

  2. Emissions of tar-containing binders: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2007-02-15

    In Switzerland, hot recycling of tar-containing pavements is a subject of much dispute between environmentalists, road authorities and constructors. The main reason for this controversy comes from a lack of knowledge about the amount of hazardous compounds emitted, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the resulting health risk for road workers. On this background we decided to initiate a research project to study the emission behaviour of tar-containing materials. Mixtures of tar and bitumen with variable PAH content were heated in an open reactor flask at different temperatures to identify and quantify the key parameters of PAH emissions. The expected linear correlation between PAH concentration in the fumes and in the binder was found only for binder mixtures with PAH concentrations above 5000 ppm. This was traced back to the problem that a change of the PAH content in the binder was always accompanied by a change of other parameters, like viscosity. In the experiments with temperature variation, emissions of individual PAHs correlated well with vapor pressure. However, for Naphthalene and, in a lesser degree, for 3-ring PAHs too, a partial depletion of these compounds in the vapour was observed in some experiments. The effect is a slower increase with temperature for these compounds compared to 4-6-ring PAHs. This is one reason why the commonly used set of EPA-PAHs, which includes naphthalene and 3-ring PAHs, is considered inappropriate for the assessment of the health hazard in the case of tar-containing materials in hot recycling. PMID:17365290

  3. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzolen, C.; Dubey, M.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-03-01

    We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  4. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  5. Comparison of laboratory and field steamfloods in tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are simulated at the Western Research Institute to prepare for pilot tests and commercial operations. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in one-dimensional reactor tubes in which the tar sand or heavy oil is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is verified in a reactor system that demonstrates the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. Both of these reactors are capable of testing combustion or steamflood processes at pressures as high as 1000 psi. Initial laboratory simulations have tested steamflooding of Asphalt Ridge tar sand for comparison with previous results from a pilot test near Vernal, Utah. Oil production rates, properties and residual saturations have been measured for different operating conditions, reservoir properties and bitumen concentrations. Corresponding operating parameters and production performance are compared to evaluate the relationships between the laboratory simulations and the field test results. These comparisons show that the residual oil saturations and sweep efficiencies in the laboratory tests are similar to the results of the field tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: Virulence targets or guarded decoys?

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Alfano, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. PMID:21227738

  7. Reexamination of the decoy-state quantum key distribution with an unstable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2010-07-01

    We present an improved formula for the lower bound of the fraction of single-photon counts in a decoy-state protocol with an unstable source. Based on the formula, we study two-intensity protocol and three-intensity protocol. The major formula in the passive two-intensity protocol proposed by Adachi, Yamamoto, Koashi, and Imoto (AYKI) [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.180503 99, 180503 (2007)] actually always holds with whatever intensity fluctuation of pump light. Therefore, the protocol can always work securely without monitoring the source state or switching the source intensity. We also show that our result can greatly improve the key rate of the three-intensity protocol with a fluctuating coherent-state source.

  8. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    E-print Network

    Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Xiang-Chun Ma; Chun-Yan Li; Lin-Mei Liang

    2014-07-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum+weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  9. Phenol-formaldehyde resin substitutes from biomass tars

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelblau, D.A. [Biocarbons Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Approximately 320,000 tonnes of phenol and formaldehyde are currently used annually in North America to make adhesive resins that are used to make exterior-grade structural panels. The demand for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins is growing faster than the demand for panels, because more adhesive is required to join/coat the surface of wood flakes (for oriented strand board - OSB) than is required to join veneer; OSB is replacing plywood as logs large enough for veneer become scarcer. Also, competitive uses for phenol and methanol (for making formaldehyde) have increased raw materials cost and threatened availability. Production of adhesive resins from biomass to reduce reliance on raw materials derived from commodity petrochemicals and to lower resin cost looks attractive. A simple fluidized-bed reactor system can be used to produce tars that can substitute for a major portion of the phenol and formaldehyde in PF resin adhesives. This can be done in an air-fluidized, single-bed reactor; no inert gas or dual-bed system is required. The key is recognizing that optimum phenolic character in the tar is not produced at the maximum tar yield, but at reactor temperatures around 600{degrees}C and short gas-phase residence times that produce a yield of about 25 to 30 weight percent. A wide range of phenols, aldehydes and other compounds capable of polymerization are produced. Feedstock can be any wood waste larger than sander dust; low cost agricultural wastes such as bagasse are also suitable. Adhesive resin is produced from the entire tar product by shifting the pH from acidic to basic with NaOH, and combining and heating the resulting resole with phenol and formaldehyde, similarly to conventional resins. Approximately half of the phenol and formaldehyde by weight can be replaced with tar. A plant producing 13,865,000 kg (30,566,000 lb) annually from 308 tonnes (340 tons) per day of green wood chips would cost approximately $8,400,000.

  10. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Viral and Human Secreted Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Decoy Receptors.

    PubMed

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-06-26

    The blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by etanercept, a soluble version of the human TNF receptor 2 (hTNFR2), is a well established strategy to inhibit adverse TNF-mediated inflammatory responses in the clinic. A similar strategy is employed by poxviruses, encoding four viral TNF decoy receptor homologues (vTNFRs) named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD, and CrmE. These vTNFRs are differentially expressed by poxviral species, suggesting distinct immunomodulatory properties. Whereas the human variola virus and mouse ectromelia virus encode one vTNFR, the broad host range cowpox virus encodes all vTNFRs. We report the first comprehensive study of the functional and binding properties of these four vTNFRs, providing an explanation for their expression profile among different poxviruses. In addition, the vTNFRs activities were compared with the hTNFR2 used in the clinic. Interestingly, CrmB from variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most potent TNFR of those tested here including hTNFR2. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new immunomodulatory activity of vTNFRs, showing that CrmB and CrmD also inhibit the activity of lymphotoxin ?. Similarly, we report for the first time that the hTNFR2 blocks the biological activity of lymphotoxin ?. The characterization of vTNFRs optimized during virus-host evolution to modulate the host immune response provides relevant information about their potential role in pathogenesis and may be used to improve anti-inflammatory therapies based on soluble decoy TNFRs. PMID:25940088

  11. Beach tar on bermuda: Recent observations and implications for global monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N Butler; Peter G Wells; Sharon Johnson; John J Manock

    1998-01-01

    Petroleum residues (pelagic tar) have been reported from beaches all over the world since the 1960s, and have been quantitatively measured at a few locations. At the south-facing open ocean beaches of Bermuda, rapid exchange of tar with the sea makes it possible to use the quantity of beach tar as a measure of open-ocean petroleum pollution. Brief surveys conducted

  12. Is compulsory restriction of tar yield of cigarettes a worthwhile public health policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Woodward

    2001-01-01

    Background: Although the notion of a “safe cigarette” has proved an illusion, while people continue to smoke, an issue remains of whether compulsory restriction of tar yield is a worthwhile public health policy.Methods: The study group was comprised of a random population sample of middle-aged Scottish men and women—3464 smokers of cigarettes with known tar yield at baseline. Tar yields

  13. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    PubMed

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  14. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  15. The inhibitory effect of extracts of cigarette tar on electron transport of mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Pryor, W A; Arbour, N C; Upham, B; Church, D F

    1992-01-01

    Acetonitrile extracts of cigarette tar inhibit state 3 and state 4 respiration of intact mitochondria. Exposure of respiring submitochondrial particles to acetonitrile extracts of cigarette tar results in a dose-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation. This inhibition was not due to a solvent effect since acetonitrile alone did not alter oxygen consumption or NADH oxidation. Intact mitochondria are less sensitive to extracts of tar than submitochondrial particles. The NADH-ubiquinone (Q) reductase complex is more sensitive to inhibition by tar extract than the succinate-Q reductase and cytochrome complexes. Nicotine or catechol did not inhibit respiration of intact mitochondria. Treatment of submitochondrial particles with cigarette tar results in the formation of hydroxyl radicals, detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping. The ESR signal attributable to the hydroxyl radical spin adduct requires the presence of NADH and is completely abolished by catalase and to a lesser extent superoxide dismutase (SOD). Catalase and SOD did not protect the mitochondrial respiratory chain from inhibition by tar extract, indicating that the radicals detected by ESR spin trapping are not responsible for the inhibition of the electron transport. We propose that tar causes at least two effects: (1) Tar components interact with the electron transport chain and inhibit electron flow, and (2) tar components interact with the electron transport chain, ultimately to form hydroxyl radicals. PMID:1317324

  16. A global estimation of the lower bound of the privacy amplification term for decoy-state quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Haodong Jiang; Ming Gao; Hong Wang; Hongxin Li; Zhi Ma

    2015-02-16

    The privacy amplification term, of which the lower bound needs to be estimated with the decoy-state method, plays a positive role in the secure key rate formula for decoy-state quantum key distribution. In previous work, the yield and the bit error rate of single-photon state are estimated separately to gain this lower bound. In this work, we for the first time take the privacy amplification term as a whole to consider this lower bound. The mathematical description for the correlation between the yield and the bit error rate of single-photon state is given with just two unknown variables. Based on this, we obtain the global estimation of this lower bound for both BB84 protocol and measurement-device-independent protocol. The results of numerical simulation show that the global estimation can significantly improve the performance of quantum key distribution.

  17. Polymerization in narrow fractions of coal tar wash-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, E.L.; Akulov, P.V.; Zhilyaev, Yu. A.; Samarkina, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Certain changes take place in coal tar wash-oil as it is circulated through the benzol hydrocarbons recovery and distillation cycle. It undergoes condensation, loses much of its light distillates content and attains a higher cp. One major problem with coal tar wash-oil is its tendency to form polymers as it circulates through the processing cycle and comes into contact with coke-oven gas. The polymerization rate is affected by a number of factors relating to the composition of the wash-oil, the concentrations in the coke-oven gas of components capable of promoting condensation and the operating conditions in the processing cycle. It has been shown that H/sub 2/S and O/sub 2/ in the coke-oven gas greatly accelerate polymerization processes in the wash-oil. Cyanide compounds and oxides of nitrogen also impair the quality of coal tar wash-oil.The deterioration of wash-oil in circulation leads to a serious rise in its cp and the rapid build-up of deposits on the scrubber packings, with serious effects on the performances of the benzol recovery and distillation sections. We have attempted to evaluate the polymerization tendencies of individual narrow wash-oil fractions. The tests were planned to simulate the conditions under which wash-oil can condense and polymerize. The results show that polymerization proceeds most rapidly in the fractions boiling at 280 to 285 and 285 to 295/sup 0/C. They rapidly increase in density and viscosity and lower the quality of the entire oil. The most stable fractions in respect of polymerization are those boiling up to 270/sup 0/C and up to 280/sup 0/C. These tests have shown that wash-oil boiling up to 280/sup 0/C is the least liable to polymerization; its processing quality is superior and the specific consumption can thus be reduced.

  18. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

  19. Fiber and free-space practical decoy state QKD for both BB84 and SARG04 protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ali; M. R. B. Wahiddin

    2010-01-01

    Fiber and free-space practical decoy state quantum key distribution has been\\u000a simulated for both BB84 and SARG04 protocols. The numerical simulation has\\u000a shown that the fiber based QKD and free space QKD systems using the proposed\\u000a method for BB84 are able to achieve both a higher secret key rate and\\u000a greater secure distance than that of SARG04.

  20. Discriminating the native structure from decoys using scoring functions based on the residue packing in globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Setting the rules for the identification of a stable conformation of a protein is of utmost importance for the efficient generation of structures in computer simulation. For structure prediction, a considerable number of possible models are generated from which the best model has to be selected. Results Two scoring functions, Rs and Rp, based on the consideration of packing of residues, which indicate if the conformation of an amino acid sequence is native-like, are presented. These are defined using the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and the partner number (PN) (other residues that are within 4.5 Å) of a particular residue. The two functions evaluate the deviation from the average packing properties (ASA or PN) of all residues in a polypeptide chain corresponding to a model of its three-dimensional structure. While simple in concept and computationally less intensive, both the functions are at least as efficient as any other energy functions in discriminating the native structure from decoys in a large number of standard decoy sets, as well as on models submitted for the targets of CASP7. Rs appears to be slightly more effective than Rp, as determined by the number of times the native structure possesses the minimum value for the function and its separation from the average value for the decoys. Conclusion Two parameters, Rs and Rp, are discussed that can very efficiently recognize the native fold for a sequence from an ensemble of decoy structures. Unlike many other algorithms that rely on the use of composite scoring function, these are based on a single parameter, viz., the accessible surface area (or the number of residues in contact), but still able to capture the essential attribute of the native fold. PMID:20038291

  1. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  2. Seychelles beach tars, well oil tied to same source rock

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, P. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Victoria (Seychelles)

    1995-03-20

    Geochemical analyses of beach-stranded tars from Seychelles can be correlated to comparable analyses of an oil sample from a well in the Seychelles offshore. The analyses also enable the precursor source rock to be characterized. Such a source rock was encountered in the three offshore wells and is extensively developed to the west and south of the granitic islands. The paper describes the first samples collected in 1978, recent correlation, a geochemical anomaly commonly occurring at the n-C30 peak, and prospectivity relevance.

  3. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  4. Protein Copy Number Distributions for a Self-Regulating Gene in the Presence of Decoy Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bokes, Pavol; Singh, Abhyudai

    2015-01-01

    A single transcription factor may interact with a multitude of targets on the genome, some of which are at gene promoters, others being part of DNA repeat elements. Being sequestered at binding sites, protein molecules can be prevented from partaking in other pathways, specifically, from regulating the expression of the very gene that encodes them. Acting as decoys at the expense of the autoregulatory loop, the binding sites can have a profound impact on protein abundance—on its mean as well as on its cell-to-cell variability. In order to quantify this impact, we study in this paper a mathematical model for pulsatile expression of a transcription factor that autoregulates its expression and interacts with decoys. We determine the exact stationary distribution for protein abundance at the single-cell level, showing that in the case of non-cooperative positive autoregulation, the distribution can be bimodal, possessing a basal expression mode and a distinct, up-regulated, mode. Bimodal protein distributions are more feasible if the rate of degradation is the same irrespective of whether protein is bound or not. Contrastingly, the presence of decoy binding sites which protect the protein from degradation reduces the availability of the bimodal scenario. PMID:25811868

  5. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  6. Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600[degree]C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600[degree]C. Similar to virgin'' chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750[degree]C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750[degree]C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO[sub x] conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

  7. pTAR-Encoded Proteins in Plasmid Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Kalnin, Kirill; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Yarmolinsky, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465–478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream genes, parB and orf-84, of which only parB was found to be essential for partitioning in A. tumefaciens. Purified ParA exhibited a weak ATPase activity that was modestly increased by nonspecific DNA. ParB bound in vitro to repeated sequences present in a region, parS, that possesses centromere and operator functions and within which we identified the primary transcription start site by primer extension. In certain respects the Par proteins behave normally in the foreign host Escherichia coli. In E. coli, as in A. tumefaciens, ParB repressed the partition operon; ParA, inactive alone, augmented this repression. Functional similarities between the partition system of pTAR and those of other plasmids and bacteria are prominent, despite differences in size, organization, and amino acid sequence. PMID:10714993

  8. Three-dimensional combustion test of tar sand triangle material

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand deposits and heavy oil reservoirs are simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding the application of in situ processes to these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in a one-dimensional tubular reactor system. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters, as determined in one-dimensional simulations, in consolidated blocks of the field resource. A three-dimensional simulation of forward combustion was conducted on a block of material from the Tar Sand Triangle deposit. Although combustion was established in the block, the maintenance and advancement of the combustion front was not successful. Problems relating to maintaining and advancing the combustion front were analyzed. To overcome these problems, it has been determined that: (1) larger heated area must be established prior to unheated air injection, and (2) continuous monitoring of oxygen in the produced gas must be used to control air injection rates. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands. 10 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Quade; R. Rao

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands. 10 references, 7 figures,

  12. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Quade; R. Rao

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands.

  13. Recovery of heavy oil and tar sands using a high-temperature nuclear steam supply

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

    1984-08-01

    In this paper, the application of the HTGR to enhanced oil recovery is explored using a typical California heavy oil field (Midway-Sunset) and a tar sands field (Maverick County, Texas) as two examples. Cost comparisons are made with available alternates, centralized coal, jumbo boilers for heavy oil, and an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) for tar sands.

  14. Theater as Representation (TAR) in the Teaching of Teacher and Administrator Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Theater as representation (TAR) has been used in pre-service and in-service teacher and administrator preparation programs since 1998. This paper places TAR within a pedagogical arena that further solidifies its place as an instrument for leadership professional development in B.Ed., M.Ed., and in-service programs. Maxine Greene (1995) challenges…

  15. Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

  16. Process for recovering hydrocarbons and heavy minerals from a tar sand hot water process waste stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Baillie; L. F. Schmoyer; T. E. Skarada

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the recovery of zircon and rutile from bituminous tar sands. The process includes the steps of recovering a mineral-containing bitumen froth from a separation process for the treatment of bituminous tar sand, diluting the froth with a liquid hydrocarbon diluent, centrifuging at least a portion of the mineral-containing diluted bitumen froth to produce a bitumen

  17. Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Y Mi; Jiying Zhang; Yukai He

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All

  18. A Study of the Effects of Altering the Tar/Nicotine Ratio in Experimental Tobacco Carcinogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. F.; Whitehead, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    There was no statistically significant difference in specific mouse skin carcinogenicity between smoke condensate from plain, flue-cured tobacco cigarettes with a normal tar to nicotine ratio and condensate from filter-tip cigarettes made from selected flue-cured tobaccos with a reduced tar to nicotine ratio. PMID:5428614

  19. Zirconia: Selective oxidation catalyst for removal of tar and ammonia from biomass gasification gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami J. Juutilainen; Pekka A. Simell; A. Outi I. Krause

    2006-01-01

    Catalysts containing zirconia and alumina were tested for their activity in the selective oxidation of tar and ammonia in biomass gasification gas. Their performance was compared with that of nickel and dolomite catalysts. Synthetic gasification gas with toluene as tar model compound was used as feed. In the presence of oxygen, zirconia and alumina-doped zirconia gave high toluene and ammonia

  20. Pulsed Corona Discharges for Tar Removal from Biomass Derived Fuel Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Pemen; S. A. Nair; K. Yan; E. J. M. van Heesch; K. J. Ptasinski; A. A. H. Drinkenburg

    2003-01-01

    To supply combustion engines or gasturbines with fuel gas obtained from biomass gasification, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas. Also the production of chemicals by processes such as Fisher-Tropsch requires a high gas quality. Especially heavy aromatic hydrocarbons (“tars”) must be removed. In this work, we give an overview of our investigations on tar removal by pulsed corona

  1. Literature survey of in situ processes for application to the US tar sand resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson; L. A. Jr

    1989-01-01

    Tar sands in the United States and worldwide are a large potential source of hydrocarbon liquids that has yet to be sufficiently developed. The development of the US tar sand resource lags the worldwide development and poses a challenge that has not been eagerly accepted by the petroleum industry. This paper reviews the developmental status of in situ enhanced oil

  2. Early Operating Results of the First Commercial Extraction Plant-Athabasca Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert McClements; R. Jr

    1968-01-01

    The early operation of the Great Canadian Oil Sands project to mine Athabasca tar sand and recover 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude is discussed. Following a brief history of the project, a general discussion of the operations is given. This includes some technical information on the geological and mechanical problems inherent in tar sand mining, performance of the hot-water extraction

  3. Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya Laboratory region of HIV virus. TAR (trans activation response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at 50 -end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts interacts with a key regulatory protein, Tat

  4. Species assemblages and diets of Collembola in the organic matter accumulated1 over an old tar deposit2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -1- Species assemblages and diets of Collembola in the organic matter accumulated1 over an old tar-mail address: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr10 11 Running title: Collembola over tar12 13 Abstract An oil

  5. Experimental and kinetic study of the NO-reduction by tar formed from biomass gasification, using benzene as a tar model component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Zhi Zhang; Chun-Yuan Liu; Ren-Hao Yin; Jia Duan; Yong-Hao Luo

    2011-01-01

    The present work studies the combustion of biomass syngas to characterize the NO-reduction by tar, benzene being selected as the representative model tar component. Experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at atmospheric pressure and at different operating conditions i.e. an equivalence ratio of 0.5 to 2.5, temperatures between 1173K and 1673K and a reaction residence time of

  6. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-06-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

  7. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  8. Connecting Knowledge to Serve Society

    E-print Network

    Connecting Knowledge to Serve Society Scholarship Focused Outreach and Engagement Hiram E Commission, 2000 #12;For MSU: Two Perspectives · AAU: Emphasis on knowledge discovery · Land grant: Emphasis on knowledge application One approach: Knowledge-based What Is an Engaged University? #12;...the challenges

  9. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  10. High intestinal and systemic levels of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) and its ligand TL1A in active ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Papaxoinis, Kostis; Zampeli, Evanthia; Michopoulos, Spyros; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, Irene; Ladas, Spiros D

    2010-11-01

    Decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily of proteins, which has been implicated in anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, via binding to TL1A, LIGHT and Fas-L. The role of the TL1A/DcR3 ligand/receptor pair in ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been studied. We investigated the systemic (peripheral blood) and local (large intestine) expression of DcR3 and TL1A in 64 patients with UC and 56 healthy controls. DcR3 serum concentrations were highly elevated in patients with active UC (P<0.0001 vs. healthy controls). This elevation was clearly related to the presence of intestinal inflammation as it was less frequently observed in patients in remission (P=0.003 vs. active UC) whereas effective treatment resulted in disappearance or significant decrease of serum DcR3 (P=0.006 vs. pre-treatment). Furthermore, DcR3 mRNA transcripts were significantly elevated in inflamed areas of the colon (P=0.002 vs. non-affected of the same patient). In addition to DcR3 elevation, we found increased circulating levels of TL1A in patients with either active or inactive UC in comparison to healthy controls (P<0.001 for both). We conclude that elevated serum DcR3 may serve as an indicator of active colonic inflammation in patients with UC. TL1A/DcR3-mediated pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of UC. PMID:20675196

  11. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Pittelkow; H. O. Perry; S. A. Muller; W. Z. Maughan; P. C. OBrien

    1981-01-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar

  12. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of wet combustion in an asphalt ridge tar sand block: Topical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The Tar Sand Reservoir Simulator (TSRS) is expanded in order to simulate the multidimensional nature of the thermal recovery of oil from a tar sand block in Western Research Institute's block reactor. TSRS now rigorously accounts for many of the phenomena associated with the thermal processing of tar sand in one or two dimensions. In the two-dimensional mode, fundamental differential

  13. A novel conserved mechanism for plant NLR protein pairs: the “integrated decoy” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Stella; Bernoux, Maud; Moncuquet, Philippe; Kroj, Thomas; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant immunity is often triggered by the specific recognition of pathogen effectors by intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLR). Plant NLRs contain an N-terminal signaling domain that is mostly represented by either a Toll-interleukin1 receptor (TIR) domain or a coiled coil (CC) domain. In many cases, single NLR proteins are sufficient for both effector recognition and signaling activation. However, many paired NLRs have now been identified where both proteins are required to confer resistance to pathogens. Recent detailed studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana TIR-NLR pair RRS1 and RPS4 and on the rice CC-NLR pair RGA4 and RGA5 have revealed for the first time how such protein pairs function together. In both cases, the paired partners interact physically to form a hetero-complex receptor in which each partner plays distinct roles in effector recognition or signaling activation, highlighting a conserved mode of action of NLR pairs across both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We also describe an “integrated decoy” model for the function of these receptor complexes. In this model, a plant protein targeted by an effector has been duplicated and fused to one member of the NLR pair, where it acts as a bait to trigger defense signaling by the second NLR upon effector binding. This mechanism may be common to many other plant NLR pairs. PMID:25506347

  14. Decoy receptor 3 is highly expressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinya; Miura, Yasushi; Tateishi, Koji; Takahashi, Masayasu; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2010-02-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is a soluble receptor that binds to the TNF family including Fas ligand (Fas-L), LIGHT, and TL1A. DcR3 is mostly expressed in tumor cells and competitively inhibits the TNF family. We previously demonstrated that overexpressed DcR3 in rheumatoid synovial cells protects the cells from apoptosis in vitro. The objective of the study was to investigate DcR3 expression in serum and joint fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), and to analyze the correlations with disease activities and TNFalpha expression. Sera and joint fluids were collected from patients with RA and OA. Expression of DcR3 in sera and joint fluids was measured by ELISA. The concentration of DcR3 in sera and joint fluids of RA patients was significantly higher than that in sera and joint fluids of OA patients. A correlation between serum DcR3 concentration and disease activity was not observed, but the serum DcR3 concentration was strongly correlated with the TNFalpha concentration. DcR3 was highly expressed in serum and joint fluids of RA patients. PMID:19821006

  15. Decoy Receptor 3 Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis by Suppressing the Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, DongYu; Hou, YanQiang; Lou, XiaoLi; Chen, HongWei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Unbalanced inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with high mortality in septic patients. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic factor. Recently, DcR3 expression was found to be increased in septic patients. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of DcR3 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. DcR3 Fc was intravenously injected 30 min before and 6 h after CLP. Bacterial clearance, cytokine production, histology, lymphocyte apoptosis and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effects of DcR3 in in vitro lymphocyte apoptosis regulation. Results Our results demonstrated that DcR3 protein treatments significantly improved survival in septic mice (p <0.05). Treatment with DcR3 protein significantly reduced the inflammatory response and decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in the thymus and spleen. Histopathological findings of the lung and liver showed milder impairment after DcR3 administration. In vitro experiments showed that DcR3 Fc inhibited Fas-FasL mediated lymphocyte apoptosis. Conclusions Treatment with the DcR3 protein protects mice from sepsis by suppressing the inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. DcR3 protein may be useful in treatment of sepsis. PMID:26121476

  16. Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-01-01

    The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available. PMID:21953092

  17. Method for controlling flocculant addition to tar sand tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhr, B.J.; Liu, J.K.

    1981-08-04

    The hot water extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand produces a large volume of solids-laden aqueous tailings as a waste product. The solids in the tailings stream may be flocculated by the addition of time and the components of the stream then separated into a water-free solids phase and a clarified water phase. During flocculation, the zeta potential of the stream is monitored. It rises from an initial negative zeta potential, as the lime is added. Flocculation is terminated when the zeta potential is about zero. At this point, the tailings are in optimum condition for separation into the water-free solids phase and the clarified water phase. Separation is preferably effected by vacuum filtration.

  18. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  19. Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

  20. Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

    2014-03-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

  1. Determining the characteristics of the direct coke oven gas tar fog

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vshivtsev, G.; Simonov, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    In the cooling of coke oven gas, the principal part of the tar in the gas main condenses and is discharged to the mechanical clarifiers with the water. The remaining part of the tar is present chiefly in the form of fog. The vapor phase of the tar is insignificant and consists primarily of fractions boiling below 300/sup 0/C. Separation of the tar from the direct gas in the primary gas coolers is determined principally by the conditions of precipitation of the aerosols and absorption of the low-boiling fractions of tar, naphthalene and crude benzol on the drops of tar fog. The particle size of the aerosols in the direct gas is described by a log normal distribution curve. The diameter of the principal part of the particles is 0.8 to 7.0 microns. In the direct gas after the primary gas coolers with vertical tubes at temperatures below 40/sup 0/C there are three condensed phases: naphthalene crystals, water droplets and tar. (JMT)

  2. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  3. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  4. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  5. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  6. Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

    1994-01-01

    Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

  7. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  8. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  10. Type I Interferon Mimetics Bypass Vaccinia Virus Decoy Receptor Virulence Factor for Protection of Mice against Lethal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Chulbul M.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical model of interferon (IFN) signaling focuses solely on the activation of STAT transcription factors which, according to the model, are initiated by the singular event of cross-linkage of the receptor extracellular domain by the IFN. The IFN has no further function beyond this. The model thus provides no approach to circumventing poxviruses decoy receptors that compete with the IFN receptors for IFNs. This simple event has allowed smallpox virus to decimate human populations throughout the ages. We have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that has resulted in the development of small peptide mimetics to both types I and II IFNs. In this report, we focus on a type I IFN mimetic at positions 152 to 189, IFN-?1(152–189), which corresponds to the C terminus of human IFN-?1. This mimetic functions intracellularly and is thus not recognized by the B18R vaccinia virus decoy receptor. Mimetic synthesized with an attached palmitate (lipo-) for cell penetration protects mice from a lethal dose of vaccinia virus, while the parent IFN-?1 is ineffective. Unlike IFN-?1, the mimetic does not bind to the B18R decoy receptor. It further differs from the parent IFN in that it lacks the toxicity of weight loss and bone marrow suppression in mice while at the same time possessing a strong adjuvant effect on the immune system. The mimetic is thus an innate and adaptive immune regulator that is evidence of the dynamic nature of the noncanonical model of IFN signaling, in stark contrast to the canonical or classical model of signaling. PMID:24964806

  11. Decoy receptor 3 regulates the expression of various genes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Koji; Miura, Yasushi; Maeda, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Masayasu; Hayashi, Shinya; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily, lacks the transmembrane domain of conventional TNFRs in order to be a secreted protein. DcR3 competitively binds and inhibits members of the TNF family, including Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A). We previously reported that TNF?-induced DcR3 overexpression in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested that DcR3 acting as a ligand directly induces the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts. Furthermore, we reported that DcR3 induces very late antigen-4 (VLA--4) expression in THP-1 macrophages, inhibiting cycloheximide-induced apoptosis and that DcR3 binds to membrane-bound TL1A expressed on RA-FLS, resulting in the negative regulation of cell proliferation induced by inflammatory cytokines. In the current study, we used cDNA microarray to search for genes in RA-FLS whose expression was regulated by the ligation of DcR3. The experiments revealed the expression profiles of genes in RA-FLS regulated by DcR3. The profiles showed that among the 100 genes most significantly regulated by DcR3, 45 were upregulated and 55 were downregulated. The upregulated genes were associated with protein complex assembly, cell motility, regulation of transcription, cellular protein catabolic processes, cell membrane, nucleotide binding and glycosylation. The downregulated genes were associated with transcription regulator activity, RNA biosynthetic processes, cytoskeleton, zinc finger region, protein complex assembly, phosphate metabolic processes, mitochondrion, ion transport, nucleotide binding and cell fractionation. Further study of the genes detected in the current study may provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by DcR3-TL1A signaling. PMID:23912906

  12. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  13. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  14. New insights into the genetic basis of TAR (thrombocytopenia-absent radii) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Albers, Cornelis A; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ouwehand, Willem H; Ghevaert, Cedric

    2013-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare disorder combining specific skeletal abnormalities with a reduced platelet count. Rare proximal microdeletions of 1q21.1 are found in the majority of patients but are also found in unaffected parents. Recently it was shown that TAR syndrome is caused by the compound inheritance of a low-frequency noncoding SNP and a rare null allele in RBM8A, a gene encoding the exon-junction complex subunit member Y14 located in the deleted region. This finding provides new insight into the complex inheritance pattern and new clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying TAR syndrome. We discuss TAR syndrome in the context of abnormal phenotypes associated with proximal and distal 1q21.1 microdeletion and microduplications with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:23602329

  15. Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

  16. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature 

    E-print Network

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    This study examines the ritual of tarring and feathering within specific American cultural contexts and literary works of the nineteenth-century to show how the discourse surrounding the actual and figurative practice functioned as part of a larger...

  17. Admission Control in IntServ to DiffServ mapping Antnio Pereira1, 2

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    Admission Control in IntServ to DiffServ mapping António Pereira1, 2 , Edmundo Monteiro2 1 Superior Services (IntServ) and Differentiated Services (DiffServ) domains. The mapping mechanisms have a dynamic of the network is reflected in the admission decisions of new IntServ flows into the DiffServ network. The work

  18. Conserved nucleotides in the TAR RNA stem of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are critical for Tat binding and trans activation: model for TAR RNA tertiary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Delling, U; Reid, L S; Barnett, R W; Ma, M Y; Climie, S; Sumner-Smith, M; Sonenberg, N

    1992-01-01

    Interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activator Tat and its cis-acting responsive RNA element TAR is necessary for activation of HIV-1 gene expression. We investigated the hypothesis that the essential uridine residue at position 23 in the bulge of TAR RNA is involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding to stabilize an unique RNA structure required for recognition by Tat. Nucleotide substitutions in the two base pairs of the TAR stem directly above the essential trinucleotide bulge that maintain base pairing but change sequence prevent complex formation with Tat in vitro. Corresponding mutations tested in a trans-activation assay strongly affect the biological activity of TAR in vivo, suggesting an important role for these nucleotides in the Tat-TAR interaction. On the basis of these data, a model is proposed which implicates uridine 23 in a stable tertiary interaction with the GC pair directly above the bulge. This interaction would cause widening of the major groove of the RNA, thereby exposing its hydrogen-bonding surfaces for possible interaction with Tat. The model also predicts a gap between uridine 23 and the first base pair in the stem above, which would require one or more unpaired nucleotides to close, but does not predict any other role for such nucleotides. In accordance with this prediction, synthetic propyl phosphate linkers of equivalent length to 1 or 2 nucleotides, were found to be fully acceptable substitutes in the bulge above uridine 23, demonstrating that neither the bases nor the ribose moieties at these positions are implicated in the recognition of TAR RNA by Tat. Images PMID:1560535

  19. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84-0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have substantial influence on the understanding of global radiative energy fluxes.

  20. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ?PAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ?PAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  1. Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas BommaritoDonald; Donald W. Sparling; Richard S. Halbrook

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can affect amphibians in lethal and many sublethal ways. There are many natural and\\u000a anthropogenic sources of PAHs in aquatic environments. One potentially significant source is run off from surfaces of parking\\u000a lots and roads that are protected with coal tar sealants. Coal tar is 50% or more PAH by wet weight and is used in

  2. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  3. Structure-based design of decoy chemokines as a way to explore the pharmacological potential of glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Adage, Tiziana; Piccinini, Anna-Maria; Falsone, Angelika; Trinker, Martin; Robinson, James; Gesslbauer, Bernd; Kungl, Andreas J

    2012-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of highly negatively charged, unbranched, O-linked polysaccharides that are involved in many diseases. Their role as a protein-binding matrix on cell surfaces has long been recognized, but therapeutic approaches to interfere with protein–GAG interactions have been limited due to the complex chemistry of GAGs, on one hand, and due to the lack of specific antibodies against GAGs, on the other hand. We have developed a protein engineering platform (the so-called CellJammer® technology), which enables us to introduce higher GAG-binding affinity into wild-type GAG-binding proteins and to combine this with impaired biological, receptor-binding function. Chemokines are among the prototypic GAG-binding proteins and here we present selected results of our CellJammer technology applied to several of these proinflammatory proteins. An overview is given of our lead decoy protein, PA401, which is a CXCL8-based mutant protein with increased GAG-binding affinity and decreased CXCR1/2 binding and activation. Major results from our CCL2 and CCL5 programmes are also summarized and the potential for clinical application of these decoy proteins is presented. PMID:22747966

  4. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste. PMID:26110209

  5. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  6. Cigarette tar promotes neutrophil-induced DNA damage in cultured lung cells.

    PubMed

    Leanderson, P; Tagesson, C

    1994-02-01

    We have investigated the ability of aqueous cigarette tar extracts to promote human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA single-strand breaks (DNA-SSB) in cultured human lung cells. Tar extract itself did not cause any DNA-SSB formation, whereas PMNL (activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)) and H2O2 both caused a small but significant DNA-SSB formation on their own. On the other hand, if cells were first treated with tar extract and then exposed to PMA-activated PMNL or H2O2, the DNA-SSB formation increased considerably. Pretreatment with iron-loaded tar extracts caused a greater increase after PMNL exposure than pretreatment with regular tar extracts. No DNA-SSB formation was found if catalase was present during the PMNL exposure, indicating that H2O2 was important for the PMNL-induced DNA damage. These findings suggest that cigarette tar promotes neutrophil-induced DNA damage in human lung cells and that this effect can be further potentiated by iron. This can be of importance in explaining the carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoking and the increased risk of lung cancer among asbestos workers and iron miners who smoke. PMID:8306945

  7. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and ?-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. PMID:20234357

  8. Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.

    PubMed

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix. PMID:19085592

  9. Death decoy receptor overexpression and increased malignancy risk in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Da-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and death decoy receptor (DcR3) as colorectal cancer prognostic indicators. METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma specimens from 300 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the staining patterns of HER2 and DcR3. Classification of HER2 staining was carried out using the United States Food and Drug Administration semi-quantitative scoring system, with scores of 0 or 1+ indicating a tumor-negative (normal expression) status and scores of 2+ and 3+ indicating a tumor-positive (overexpression) status. Classification of DcR3 was carried out by quantitating the percentage of positive cells within the stained section, with < 10% indicating a tumor-negative status and ? 10% indicating a tumor-positive status. Correlation of the HER2 and DcR3 staining status with clinicopathological parameters [age, sex, tumor size, differentiation, and the tumor, node, metastasis (pTNM) classification] and survival was statistically assessed. RESULTS: Tumor-positive status for HER2 and DcR3 was found in 18.33% and 58.33% of the 300 colorectal carcinoma specimens, respectively. HER2 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor size (P = 0.003) but not with other clinicopathological parameters. DcR3 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), pTNM stage (P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). However, correlation coefficient analysis did not indicate that a statistically significant correlation exists between tumor-positive status for the HER2 and DcR3 overexpression (P = 0.236). Patients with specimens classified as DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) rate than those without DcR3 overexpression (median OS: 42.11 vs 61.21 mo; HR = 50.27, 95%CI: 44.90-55.64, P < 0.001). HER2 overexpression had no significant impact on median OS (35.10 mo vs 45.25 mo; HR = 44.40, 95%CI: 39.32-49.48, P = 0.344). However, patients with specimens classified as both HER2- and DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly poorer median OS than those with only HER2 overexpression (31.80 mo vs 52.20 mo; HR = 35.10, 95%CI: 22.04-48.16, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: HER2 overexpression is not an independent prognostic marker of colorectal cancer, but DcR3 overexpression is highly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor OS. PMID:24764685

  10. Syngas production from tar reforming by microwave plasma jet at atmospheric pressure: power supplied influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Medeiros, Henrique; Justiniano, Lucas S.; Gomes, Marcelo P.; Soares da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro; Petraconi Filho, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Now a day, scientific community is searching for new fuels able to replace fossil fuels with economic and environment gains and biofuel play a relevant rule, mainly for the transport sector. A major process to obtaining such type of renewable resource is biomass gasification. This process has as product a gas mixture containing CO, CH4, and H2 which is named synthesis gas (syngas). However, an undesirable high molecular organic species denominated tar are also produced in this process which must be removed. In this work, results of syngas production via tar reforming in the atmospheric pressure microwave discharge having as parameter the power supply. Argon, (argon + ethanol), and (argon + tar solution) plasma jet were produced by different values of power supplied (from 0.5 KW to 1.5 KW). The plasma compounds were investigated by optical spectroscopy to each power and gas composition. The main species observed in the spectrum are Ar, CN, OII, OIV, OH, H2, H(beta), CO2, CO, and SIII. This last one came from tar. The best value of the power applied to syngas production from tar reforming was verified between 1.0 KW and 1.2 KW. Now a day, scientific community is searching for new fuels able to replace fossil fuels with economic and environment gains and biofuel play a relevant rule, mainly for the transport sector. A major process to obtaining such type of renewable resource is biomass gasification. This process has as product a gas mixture containing CO, CH4, and H2 which is named synthesis gas (syngas). However, an undesirable high molecular organic species denominated tar are also produced in this process which must be removed. In this work, results of syngas production via tar reforming in the atmospheric pressure microwave discharge having as parameter the power supply. Argon, (argon + ethanol), and (argon + tar solution) plasma jet were produced by different values of power supplied (from 0.5 KW to 1.5 KW). The plasma compounds were investigated by optical spectroscopy to each power and gas composition. The main species observed in the spectrum are Ar, CN, OII, OIV, OH, H2, H(beta), CO2, CO, and SIII. This last one came from tar. The best value of the power applied to syngas production from tar reforming was verified between 1.0 KW and 1.2 KW. We thank the following institutions for financial support: CNPq, CAPES, and FAPESP.

  11. Covalent binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of coal tar to DNA in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N C; Pfau, W; Hewer, A; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of mouse skin with coal tar is known to initiate tumour formation, with the carcinogenic activity associated mainly with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A sample of pharmaceutical coal tar was analysed by gas chromatography and 19 major PAHs were identified. 32P-postlabelling analysis was used to characterize those PAHs that are responsible for the DNA binding of coal tar and, by inference, its biological activity. PAHs were grouped according to their reported carcinogenic activities and applied as mixtures to mouse skin. Group A contained all of the 19 PAHs, group B seven PAHs for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity and group C 12 PAHs with only limited or inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. 32P-Labelled DNA adducts formed by coal tar were resolved on TLC into a pattern of three discrete spots (2, 4 and 6) and four areas of diffuse radioactivity (1, 3, 5 and 7). By comparison of the pattern of adducts formed by coal tar with those formed by the synthetic mixtures it appeared that PAHs in group B formed coal tar-DNA adduct spots 4 and 6, and that adduct spot 2 was formed by PAHs in group C. Attempts to identify those PAHs responsible for the formation of coal tar-DNA adducts 4 and 6 were made by comparing the chromatographic mobilities of 32P-labelled coal tar-derived DNA adducts formed in mouse skin, using TLC and HPLC, with those formed by PAHs in group B. As benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), a component of group C, has been demonstrated to exhibit significant DNA binding ability previously, the chromatographic mobility of coal tar-DNA adduct spot 2 was compared to that of the major DNA adducts formed by B[ghi]P in vivo and in vitro. It appeared that coal tar adduct spot 2 was the major adduct formed by B[ghi]P in vitro and that benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo [j]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene contributed to the formation of adduct spot 6. None of the PAHs examined appeared to be responsible for the formation of adduct spot 4. PMID:8425262

  12. Call Admission Control and Class Assignment in Hybrid IntServ/DiffServ Networks

    E-print Network

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    -of-Service, Service Curve Provisioning, IntServ, DiffServ, High-speed Networks, Vir- tual Network Partitioning 1 traffic. This is an approach prescribed by the differentiated services (DiffServ) standard [1]. Unlike integrated services (IntServ) [2], DiffServ assigns connections into a number of hierarchical classes where

  13. Healthy Foods under $1 Per Serving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods under $1 into your weekly menu planning. Apples (raw with skin) Great for: Snacks, green salads, ... and fruit salads What's a serving? 1 large apple Nutrition Info per serving: About 116 calories, 5. ...

  14. Distribution and quantification of thin tar mats in a North sea field

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, B.; Huc, A.Y. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-08-01

    Distribution of infra-meter thick tar mats has been investigated in a North sea oil field and has resulted in a high resolution description of tar mats location within 13 wells more or less evenly distributed accross the field (45 km{sup 2}). This paper presents a procedure to assess the 3 D distribution and the total volume of non-productive heavy oil using geostatistical approaches. In the considered area, the tars are preferentially deposited in the southeastern part of the field in reservoir zones displaying relatively high pore volumes. The suggested mechanism of emplacement of the tar is related to the deposition of bitumen onto minerals along favored oil avenues during the process of oil feeding of the reservoir. Multiple regression applied on each individual reservoir units provides a regional relationship between, on one hand, cumulative thickness of tar (dependent variable) and, on the other hand, total pore volume and distance to the inferred point of entry of the oil filling the field (predictor variables). Geostatistical analysis have been performed on the reservoir facies distribution in order to build a stochastic simulation (Heresim software). The simulations are based on the interpretation of the depositional sequence using variograms and proportion curves. The results are 3D images of the reservoir with respect of the spatial structure of the lithofacies distribution. Pore volume variability, measured for each lithofacies, has been added into the simulation results. The resulting images of the reservoir porosity, used in conjunction with the multivariate correlations, led to estimate the 3D distribution of tar mats in the field, allowing a quantitative evaluation of the total tar volume.

  15. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Scott C; Miller, Cass T

    2014-10-15

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal. PMID:25190671

  16. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2014-10-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

  17. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  18. REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL

    E-print Network

    REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL Requestor's Name of alcohol served and to prevent individuals from driving, if impaired, or returning to work. Approved: (1 Services, Building 400. NOTE: No alcohol may be served during sports activities until games are completed

  19. Field scale characterization and modeling of contaminant release from a coal tar source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Affonseca, Fernando M.; Blum, Philipp; Finkel, Michael; Melzer, Reiner; Grathwohl, Peter

    2008-11-01

    A coal tar contaminated site was characterized using traditional and innovative investigation methods. A careful interpretation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data allowed for the conceptualization of the heterogeneous coal tar distribution in the subsurface. Past and future contaminant release from the source zone was calculated using a modeling framework consisting of a three-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and two hydrogeochemical models (MIN3P). Computational time of long-term simulations was reduced by simplifying the coal tar composition using 3 composite and 2 individual constituents and sequential application of a 2D centerline model (for calibration and predictions) and a 3D model (only for predictions). Predictions were carried out for a period of 1000 years. The results reveal that contaminant mass flux is governed by the geometry of zones containing residual coal tar, amount of coal tar, its composition and the physicochemical properties of the constituents. The long-term predictions made using the 2D model show that even after 1000 years, source depletion will be small with respect to phenanthrene, 89% of initial mass will be still available, and for the moderately and sparingly soluble composite constituents, 60% and 98%, respectively.

  20. Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: a new approach to safer smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A

    1976-01-01

    The logic of expecting people who cannot stop smoking to switch to cigarettes that have hardly any nicotine is questionable. Tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes available in Britain today correlate 0-93, and further reduction of tar intake is limited by the reluctance of smokers to tolerate similar reductions in nicotine. A new approach would be to aim at lowering tar yields of cigarettes from the present average of 18 mg to around 6 mg but maintaining nicotine yields at around 1-0 to 1-2 mg, which would be acceptable to most smokers. This approach requires that emphasis be placed on tar: nicotine ratios as well as on the absolute yields. These ratios for brands on sale in Britain today average 14-2 and range from 9-6 to 20-8. They provide an additional guide for comparing the relative harmfulness of different brands. For example, 35% of cigarette smokers in Britain smoke either Embassy Filter or Players No 6 Filter; by changing to John Player Carlton King Size they could reduce their tar intake by more than 20% without having to suffer any nicotine deprivation. PMID:953530

  1. The linear relationship between cigarette tar and nicotine yields: regulatory implications for smoke constituent ratios.

    PubMed

    St Charles, F K; Cook, C J; Clayton, P M

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoke analyte yields are often expressed as ratios relative to tar or nicotine yields, usually to compare different products or to estimate human uptake of smoke in relation to nicotine uptake measurements. The method, however, can lead to distorted interpretations, especially in the case of ratios from ultra-low tar yield cigarettes. In brief, as tar yields decrease below the 5–6 mg per cigarette range, the tar-to-nicotine ratio (TNR) decreases rapidly in a non-linear fashion. If, however, the nicotine yield, rather than the ratio, is plotted versus the tar yield, the non-linearity disappears and a straight line is obtained, with a slight positive intercept for nicotine on the ordinate. Unlike the ratio, the slope appears to depend only on the concentration of the nicotine in the blend and does not appear to vary with smoking parameters such as puff volume, puff interval or length smoked or with cigarette design parameters such as length, circumference or the amount of filtration or filter ventilation. Therefore, such a slope is analogous to the TNR although, unlike that ratio, it is invariant. Even more simply, the concentration of the nicotine in the blend, at least for American blend-style cigarettes, provides a similar index. PMID:21216263

  2. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

    2009-07-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Coal Tar 2% Foam in Combination with a Superpotent Corticosteroid Foam for Plaque Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Amylynne J.; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated, multi-system disease that is treated with a variety of medicines, including topical corticosteroids and, historically, coal tar. In this case, the authors evaluated whether combination therapy with coal tar foam 2% and a topical corticosteroid would induce a remission and maintain clearance of plaque-type psoriasis over an eight-week period. A 59-year-old Caucasian woman with plaque psoriasis of her elbows presented to the authors' dermatology clinic and was treated with clobetasol propionate 0.05% emollient foam in combination with coal tar 2% foam twice daily to her elbows for two weeks. After two weeks, the patient was switched to a maintenance regimen of twice-daily coal tar 2% foam during the week and twice-daily application of the corticosteroid on the weekends. The patient exhibited very favorable clearance of her plaque psoriasis on this regimen at her eight-week follow-up visit. In this case, the combination of coal tar 2% foam and clobetasol propionate 0.05% emollient foam twice daily was used effectively to induce remission of localized plaque psoriasis followed by an efficacious maintenance regimen, which incorporated intermittent therapy with both topical agents. PMID:20967195

  5. Physical simulations of in situ forward combustion using Sunnyside and Arroyo Grande tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Duvall, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    A series of one-dimensional simulations were conducted to evaluate the forward combustion process for two tar sand resources. Two different reactor systems were used in the testing, a small scale laboratory reference retort and a larger scale tube reactor. The objectives of the simulations were: (1) to identify the mechanisms which cause reactor plugging in previous simulations using Sunnyside tar sand, and (2) to evaluate steam-oxygen combustion as a production process for Arroyo Grande tar sand. Simulations using the laboratory reference retort indicated that the plugging problem experienced in previous Sunnyside tests was the result of a highly immobile oil bank. Analysis of the oil bank showed that the viscosity of this oil was considerably higher than that of the original bitumen. The increase was attributed to devolatilization of the bitumen by the hot gases and(or) the incorporation of oxygen to form heavier polar materials. Results from the one-dimensional simulations of steam-oxygen combustion using Arroyo Grande tar sand show that the combustion front can be successfully propagated through the material. The simulations showed the same general trends of reduced fuel deposition and oxygen demand and, therefore, increased frontal velocity with increasing steam-to-oxygen ratio, as did prior simulations using Asphalt Ridge tar sand. 11 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  7. Statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zong-Wen; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with a three-intensity decoy-state method. Taking the statistical fluctuations for different sources jointly, we present more tightened formulas for some key quantities used in calculating the secure final key. Numerical simulation shows that, given the total number of pulses 1012, our method improves the key rate by about 97% for a distance of 50 km compared with the result given by Xu et al. [F. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052333], and improves the key rate by 145 % for a distance of 100 km compared with the result from full optimization of all parameters but treating the statistical fluctuations traditionally, i.e., treating the fluctuations for different sources separately.

  8. Improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method

    E-print Network

    Zong-Wen Yu; Yi-Heng Zhou; Xiang-Bin Wang

    2015-01-26

    We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement device independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method. Taking the statistical fluctuations for different sources jointly, we present more tightened formulas for some key quantities used in calculating the secure final key. Numerical simulation shows that, given the total number of pulses $10^{12}$, our method improves the key rate by about 97\\% for a distance of 50kms compared with the result given by Xu., et al. (Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333); and improves the key rate by $146\\%$ for a distance of 100kms compared with the result from full optimization of all parameters but treating the statistical fluctuations traditionally, i.e., treating the fluctuations for different sources separately.

  9. Expression of a soluble decoy receptor 3 in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma predicts clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Chen, Po-Min; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Wang, Wei-Shu; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Yang, Muh-Hwa

    2008-09-01

    The soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is regarded as a decoy receptor released from tumor cells to escape host immune response by neutralizing the cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of FasL, LIGHT and TL1A. Overexpression of DcR3 has been observed in several human malignancies; however, only limited information exists on the role of DcR3 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma especially for B-cell origin. In the current study, the expression profile of DcR3 was analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a set of lymphoma cell lines including T-cell and B-cell lymphomas. The result demonstrated that overexpression of DcR3 was detected in most T-cell lymphoma cells, which was consistent with previous reports. Interestingly, overexpression of DcR3 was also detected both in the B-cell lymphoma cell lines and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. DcR3 overexpression was associated with a worse prognosis in DLBCL patients (p=0.05). An in vitro study showed that neutralization of DcR3 increased the percentage of doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in two B-cell lymphoma cell lines, which indicated the possibility of DcR3 mediated chemo-resistance in B-cell lymphomas. We suggest that overexpression of DcR3 is associated with a worse prognosis in DLBCL and the possible mechanism may act through the increase of chemo-resistance of lymphoma cells. PMID:18695885

  10. Mouse neutrophils express the decoy type 2 interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R2) constitutively and in acute inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Praxedis; Palmer, Gaby; Vigne, Solenne; Lamacchia, Céline; Rodriguez, Emiliana; Talabot-Ayer, Dominique; Rose-John, Stefan; Chalaris, Athena; Gabay, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The proinflammatory activities of IL-1 are tightly controlled at different levels. IL-1R2 acts as a decoy receptor and has been shown to regulate the biological effects of IL-1 in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about its natural expression in the mouse in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In this study, we examined IL-1R2 mRNA and protein expression in isolated cells and tissues in response to different stimulatory conditions. Data obtained using ex vivo CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) peripheral blood cells and in vitro-differentiated CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) BMG indicated that neutrophils are the major source of constitutively expressed IL-1R2 in the mouse. The expression of IL-1R2 on BMG and ex vivo Ly6G(+) peripheral blood cells was highly up-regulated by HC. IL-1R2 pull-down experiments showed that mouse rIL-1? binds to BMG IL-1R2, whereas binding of IL-1Ra could not be detected. Furthermore, LPS treatment induced shedding of IL-1R2 from the neutrophil membrane in vitro and in vivo, executed mainly by ADAM17. Finally, in in vivo models of inflammation, including thioglycolate-induced acute peritonitis and acute lung injury, infiltrating Ly6G(+) neutrophils, expressed IL-1R2. Our data show that in the mouse, neutrophils mainly express the decoy receptor IL-1R2 under naïve and inflammatory conditions. These data suggest that neutrophils may contribute to the resolution of acute inflammation. PMID:23817563

  11. Technology for the production of Zero Q.I pitch from coal tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Rao, C. V. Nageswara; Kumar, B. Vinod; Murty, J. V. S.

    2013-06-01

    Zero Quinoline Insolubles (Q.I) pitch is a special type of pitch obtained from pre-treatment of coal tar, which is converted into pitch. This is used for impregnation of electrodes for improving the strength, electrical properties and also used as a pre-cursor for Mesophase pitch for producing Mesophase pitch based carbon fibers, carbon foam, and Meso carbon micro beads. This paper discusses the technology of Q.I separation from Coal Tar by using decantation of Coal Tar mixed with Heavy Creosote Oil (HC Oil) at different temperatures. By this method we were able to produce the Zero Q.I pitch with a Q.I value of 0.1%.

  12. Thrombocytopenia with Unilateral Dysplastic Radius- Is it Thrombocytopenia - Absent Radius (TAR) Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Indradeo Prasad; Ranjan, Ram Bilas; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia - absent radii (TAR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic rare disorder with hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral absent radius that may have additional anomalies. This disorder is characterized by thrombocytopenia resulting in potentially severe bleeding episodes primarily during infancy. We report the case of a 7-day-old term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) male baby, product of non consanguineous marriage presented with bloody loose stool, right sided upper limb deformity and paleness of the body, was diagnosed as TAR syndrome with some atypical presentation. Such type of atypical presentation has not been previously reported in a case with TAR Syndrome.Patient was managed in our hospital with packed cell transfusion and two units platelets concentrates transfusion, Intra-venous antimicrobials, and other supportive treatment. He gradually improved and was discharged after seven days of hospital stay with advice to consult orthopedic surgeon for opinion regarding limb reconstruction. PMID:25954675

  13. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  14. Industry use of saline water not expected in tar sand triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    An environmental assessment of the Dirty Devil River Salinity Control Unit resulted in a finding of no significant impact. The purpose of the unit is to reduce salinity in the Colorado River by collecting flows below two saline springs and disposing of them by deep-well injection into the Coconino Sandstone. During formulation of the salinity control plan, the potential use of saline water in the development of tar sand resources was considered, but it was concluded that saline water would not be needed for this purpose in the foreseeable future, because of the currently depressed world oil market and the development status of tar sand extraction technologies.

  15. Extraction and Analysis of Asphalt Pavement Core Samples: Detection of Coal Tar-Derived Species using Chemical and Biological Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Kriech; Joseph T. Kurek; Linda V. Osborn; Gary R. Blackburn

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies [1,2] have reported elevated cancer incidences and mortality in the Danish mastic asphalt industry, and have associated these elevations with exposure to asphalt fumes. The strength of the causal association depends heavily on the claim that coal tar was not used in the industry after World War II; otherwise, exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles would have seriously

  16. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. (a) Location: The following area is a safety zone: All waters of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. (a) Location: The following area is a safety zone: All waters of...

  18. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. (a) Location: The following area is a safety zone: All waters of...

  19. An investigation of the structures of the high-boiling phenols isolated from the tar of group G6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Platonov, V.V.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Prokof'ev, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for separating the phenols isolated from the tar of group G6 coal with boiling points above 523 K. It has been shown that the high-boiling phenols of hard-coal tars are complex polyfunctional compounds. Molecular and structural formulas of the phenols are suggested.

  20. Investigation of the structures of the high-boiling phenols isolated from the tar of group G6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Platonov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    A scheme has been devised for the separation of high-boiling phenols (+ 523K) from tar of G6 gas coal. High-boiling phenols of bituminous coal tars are complex poly-functional compounds and molecular and structural formulae of such phenols are suggested.

  1. Compositional and pH effects on the interfacial tension between complex tar mixtures and aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Scott C; Schultz, Pamela B; Miller, Cass T

    2012-09-18

    Tars at former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) are a major environmental concern and present a number of challenges to remediators. This experimental study investigates the relationship between composition and tar-water interfacial tension (IFT), a property of primary importance in determining the transport of tar in porous media. Nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar were characterized by means of fractionation, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and vapor pressure osmometry. The tar-aqueous IFT of the tars, as well as resins and asphaltenes extracted therefrom, were measured over a range of pH. The IFTs were found to be strongly dependent on pH, with the lowest values obtained at high pH. The reduction of IFT at high pH was found to correlate well with the I(C?O) values from the FTIR analysis, which provide an indication of the relative amount of carbonyl groups present. Reductions of IFT at low pH were also observed and found to correlate well with the extractable base concentration. The aromaticity and asphaltene average molar mass are also correlated with IFT reductions at both low and high pH, suggestive of compositional patterns related to the tar source material. PMID:22901363

  2. Steam reforming of tar from a biomass gasification process over Ni\\/olivine catalyst using toluene as a model compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. ?wierczy?ski; S. Libs; C. Courson; A. Kiennemann

    2007-01-01

    A Ni\\/olivine catalyst, previously developed for biomass gasification and tar removal during fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass, was tested in a fixed bed reactor in toluene steam reforming as a tar destruction model reaction. The influence of the catalyst preparation parameters (nickel precursor, calcination temperature and nickel content) and operating parameters (reaction temperature, steam to carbon S\\/C ratio and

  3. COMPARATIVE CARCINOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF COAL TAR AND PETROLEUM ASPHALT PAINTS USED IN POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints used as coatings for water pipes and storage tanks were tested in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays. One coal tar product was positive when tested as a complete carcinogen in the mouse, whereas the asphalt paint...

  4. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

  5. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  6. Inhibition of NF?B activation using cis-element ‘decoy’ of NF?B binding site reduces neointimal formation in porcine balloon-injured coronary artery model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Yamasaki; T Asai; M Shimizu; M Aoki; N Hashiya; H Sakonjo; H Makino; Y Kaneda; T Ogihara; R Morishita

    2003-01-01

    Application of DNA technology to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes has important therapeutic potential. The transcription factor NF?B plays a pivotal role in the transactivation of inflammatory and adhesion molecule genes, leading to vascular lesion formation. Double-stranded DNA with high affinity for NF?B may be introduced as ‘decoy’ cis elements to bind NF?B and block the activation of genes

  7. An oligonucleotide decoy for nuclear factor-kappa B inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced human umbilical cord vein endothelial cell tissue factor expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Wei, Wenning; Hu, Yu; Song, Shanjun; Yan, Zhen

    2004-09-01

    Abnormal tissue factor (TF) expression on vascular endothelial cells may account for thrombotic events associated with cardiovascular disease. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation plays a key role in endothelial cell injury and TF expression. Disruption of NF-kappa B activation in endothelial cells may inhibit TF expression and be protective in thrombosis. The purpose of the study was to determine whether NF-kappa B transcription factor decoy (TFD) could block TF expression. NF-kappa B TFD was transferred into cultured human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by liposomes, and the transfection efficiency was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of NF-kappa B TFD on TF mRNA levels was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of surface TF antigen was analyzed by flow cytometry. TF activity was studied by measuring enzymatic activation of factor X by the TF-activated factor VII complex. The results suggested that NF-kappa B decoy could be successfully transferred into HUVEC by liposome. The NF-kappa B TFD competed with the endogenous kappa B site sequence in the TF promoter for binding to transcription factor NF-kappa B in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated HUVEC, which could block the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced increase in TF mRNA levels, the upregulation of surface TF antigen and TF activity. This study demonstrated that NF-kappa B decoy could block HUVEC TF gene expression. Targeted genetic disruption of endothelial TF expression by NF-kappa B decoy may provide a possible therapeutic method for cardiovascular and thrombosis disease. PMID:15311157

  8. Efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), on cattle in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. I. Norval; Daniel E. Sonenshine; Sandra A. Allan; Michael J. Burridge

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in Zimbabwe. The tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containingo-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin).o-Nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of theA. hebraeum attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone,

  9. FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

  10. Peptide nucleic acid-DNA decoy chimeras targeting NF-kappaB transcription factors: Induction of apoptosis in human primary osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Borgatti, Monica; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Mischiati, Carlo; Finotti, Alessia; Romanelli, Alessandra; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2004-08-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are DNA mimics constituted by a pseudopeptide backbone composed of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units. PNAs hybridize with high affinity to complementary sequences of single-stranded RNA and DNA, forming Watson-Crick double helices and are resistant to both nucleases and proteases. While applications of PNAs as antisense and antigene molecules have been described, PNA/DNA and PNA/PNA hybrids are not useful for transcription factor decoy (TFD) pharmacotherapy. By contrast, PNA-DNA-PNA (PDP) chimeras, constituted of sequential PNA, DNA and PNA stretches, are potent decoy molecules in vitro. Interestingly, PDP-based decoys a) are more soluble than PNAs, b) are more resistant than synthetic oligonucleotides to enzymatic activity present in cellular extracts and serum and c) can be delivered with liposomes. In the present study we demonstrated that double-stranded PNA-DNA-PNA chimeras targeting NF-kappaB transcription factors induce apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts. Our data suggest that PDP-based induction of osteoclast apoptosis could be a therapeutic approach for disorders in which bone resorption is inappropriately excessive. PMID:15254756

  11. An improved method for the construction of decoy peptide MS/MS spectra suitable for the accurate estimation of false discovery rates.

    PubMed

    Ahrné, Erik; Ohta, Yuki; Nikitin, Frederic; Scherl, Alexander; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The relevance of libraries of annotated MS/MS spectra is growing with the amount of proteomic data generated in high-throughput experiments. These reference libraries provide a fast and accurate way to identify newly acquired MS/MS spectra. In the context of multiple hypotheses testing, the control of the number of false-positive identifications expected in the final result list by means of the calculation of the false discovery rate (FDR). In a classical sequence search where experimental MS/MS spectra are compared with the theoretical peptide spectra calculated from a sequence database, the FDR is estimated by searching randomized or decoy sequence databases. Despite on-going discussion on how exactly the FDR has to be calculated, this method is widely accepted in the proteomic community. Recently, similar approaches to control the FDR of spectrum library searches were discussed. We present in this paper a detailed analysis of the similarity between spectra of distinct peptides to set the basis of our own solution for decoy library creation (DeLiberator). It differs from the previously published results in some key points, mainly in implementing new methods that prevent decoy spectra from being too similar to the original library spectra while keeping important features of real MS/MS spectra. Using different proteomic data sets and library creation methods, we evaluate our approach and compare it with alternative methods. PMID:21898822

  12. Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Sato, Taishi; Keeney, Michael; Li, Chenguang; Pajarinen, Jukka; Yang, Fan; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-08-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-?B could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-?B activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-?B binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-?, MCP1, MIP1? and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-?B ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:24814879

  13. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

  14. Catalytic Tar Reforming for Cleanup and Conditioning of Biomass-derived Syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Dayton; R. L. Bain; S. D. Phillips; K. Magrini-Bair; C. J. Feik

    2006-01-01

    Biomass gasification is being investigated to produce clean syngas from biomass or biorefinery residues as an intermediate that can be used directly as a fuel for integrated heat and power production or further refined and upgraded by various processing technologies. Conditioning of biomass-derived syngas, with an emphasis on tar reforming, to make it a suitable feed for high temperature, pressurized

  15. Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

  16. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  17. Development of catalytic tar decomposition downstream from a dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer

    2008-01-01

    Gasification of biomass is an attractive technology for combined heat and power production. Although a lot of research and development work has been carried out during the past decade the commercial breakthrough for this technology is still to come. One problem that has not been completely solved so far is the tar content in the product gas, which can cause

  18. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  19. PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

  20. MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

  1. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  2. Hydrogen production by the partial oxidation and steam reforming of tar from hot coke oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Onozaki; Koji Watanabe; Takao Hashimoto; Hitoshi Saegusa; Yukuo Katayama

    2006-01-01

    Hot coke oven gas (COG) with a temperature of about 1050K was produced from a test unit for coke production, the capacity of which was 80kg of coal. The COG was introduced into an experimental unit with a tar converter where oxygen and steam were injected. Over 98% of the total carbon in the hot COG was partially oxidized, reformed

  3. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  4. Rapid report Glacial trees from the La Brea tar pits show physiological constraints

    E-print Network

    Nippert, Jesse

    .1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04025.x Key words: carbon isotopes, ci / ca, interannual variation, Juniperus, last compared between glacial (La Brea tar pits) and modern Juniperus trees from southern California. · Carbon isotopes were measured on annual rings of glacial and modern Juniperus. The intercellular : atmospheric [CO

  5. REGISTRATION OF TARS-SR05 MULTIPLE DISEASE-RESISTANT DRY BEAN GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TARS-SR05 was developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the College of Agricultural Science, University of Puero Rico, and the University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station as a multiple disease-resistant, small red dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplas...

  6. BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

  7. [Longitudinal study of the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine after external treatment with coal tar].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Richter, B; Will, W; Haustein, U F

    1997-04-01

    In order to study the dermal uptake, time course, and urinary excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection before, during, and after the topical treatment with coal tar in 19 patients suffering from prurigo simplex subacuta, microbial eczema, atopic dermatitis, eczematization after scabies, exanthematous lichen ruber, pityriasis lichenoides and cutaneous sarcoidosis. Beginning with a value of 6.04 +/- 2.06 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine before treatment, the urinary excretion significantly increased during the therapy with coal tar (p < 0.0001 at 3rd, 5th, and 6th day of therapy). A maximum was reached at day 8 of topical treatment with a value of 584.35 +/- 191.96 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine (p < 0.002). Already during treatment at day 10 there was a beginning decrease of 1-hydroxypyrene to 361.63 +/- 170.13 micrograms/g creatinine. After the end of treatment, the excretion further decreased reaching a value of 5.31 +/- 2.85 micrograms 1-hydroxypyrene/g creatinine at the 10th day after therapy. Skin carcinomas due to therapeutical use of coal tar occur extremely rarely and only after vergoten, non-controlled use. We suggest that the duration of exposure is the most important factor for the carcinogenic effect of coal tar. PMID:9206711

  8. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

    2005-01-01

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

  9. On the Periphery of the Tar Sands. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the diary of Karl Clark that focuses on his experiences in the Athabasca tar sands. The diary helps decipher the nature of 1920s town life and the pioneering spirit involved in exploring the oil sands. Includes background information on Clark. (CMK)

  10. Diffusion of heterocyclic compounds from a complex mixture of coal tar compounds in natural clayey till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Mette M.; Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik

    1999-10-01

    The diffusion of coal-tar compounds in natural clayey till was studied experimentally. Cores were exposed to a solution with near constant concentration of coal-tar compounds in a multi-component mixture for 5 months, the cores were subsequently sub-sampled and analyzed. Diffusion profile data strongly indicates highly non-linear sorption isotherms. For dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, 2-methylquinoline, carbazole, phenanthrene, and fluorene, the profiles indicated significantly stronger sorption at high solute concentrations than at low solute concentrations, and than expected based on linear sorption isotherms. This corresponds with observed dramatic increase in sorption of these compounds at high surface density. For benzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline, phenols, naphthalenes, and BTEXs the profiles indicated significantly weaker sorption at high solute concentrations than at low solute concentrations and than expected based on linear or Freundlich isotherms. The observed diffusion profiles have important implications with respect to transport of dissolved coal-tar compounds in multi-component mixtures of high concentrations as expected near immiscible phase coal-tar sources. Breakthrough times and concentration levels are affected significantly.

  11. Tar removal from biomass-derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Nair; A. J. M. Pemen; K. Yan; F. M. van Gompel; H. E. M. van Leuken; E. J. M. van Heesch; K. J. Ptasinski; A. A. H. Drinkenburg

    2003-01-01

    Tar removal from fuel gas obtained from biomass gasification offers a significant challenge in its deployment for power generation as well as for other applications such as production of chemicals by processes such as Fischer–Tropsch. The present investigation focuses on pulsed corona discharges for the mentioned objective. The paper is meant to give an overview of our developments in the

  12. Catalytic tar decomposition of biomass pyrolysis gas with a combination of dolomite and silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin Myrén; Christina Hörnell; Emilia Björnbom; Krister Sjöström

    2002-01-01

    In this study the catalytic effects of dolomite and silica on biomass tar decomposition were investigated. The concentration of naphthalene is of particular interest since it is the most difficult compound to decompose when dolomite is used as catalyst. The two catalysts were tested in different combinations to see whether synergetic effects on the cracking of naphthalene could be found.

  13. Second three-dimensional physical simulation of forward combustion in tar sand triangle material

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are experimentally simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding in situ processing of these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in one-dimensional reactor tubes in which the tar sand or heavy oil sand is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. A three-dimensional test of in situ combustion was conducted on a block of material from the Tar Sand Triangle. This test was the second such test conducted on the Tar Sand Triangle material and incorporated several design features to overcome problems identified in the first test. Although combustion was established in the block, the maintenance and advancement of the combustion front was not successful. The problem with sustaining combustion appears to be excessive heat loss to the surrounding refractory and the sweep gas. These heat losses reduce the temperature in the combustion zone and inhibit utilization of the oxygen in the injected gas. Poor oxygen utilization leads to lower combustion temperatures and less driving force for the combustion front. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional laboratory simulation of the hot-gas injection process for tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.; Glaser, R.R.

    1985-07-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding in situ processing of these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in a one-dimensional tubular reactor in which the tar sand or heavy oil sand is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. The potential of hot-gas injection for the preheat and production of tar sand has been evaluated with three-dimensional and one-dimensional laboratory simulations. The three-dimensional simulation has shown that by using a fracture, a highly saturated tar sand can be heated while a significant portion of the bitumen is produced. Oil production rate, residual saturation, and produced oil quality have been measured for various operating parameters. The characteristic shape of the temperature responses in the three-dimensional block indicates that both conduction and convection are significant heat transfer mechanisms. The two most influential operating parameters have been found to be the heat input rate and the injected gas temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Cost analysis of water pollution control during in situ production of bitumen from tar sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Owen; M. J. Humenick

    1986-01-01

    Wastewater recovered by in situ production of tar sand bitumen using steam drive or combustion processes must be treated prior to recycling in the process, reuse within the production facility, or discharge. Recent laboratory studies have shown biological treatment with activated sludge and reverse osmosis treatment to be potentially effective on combustion wastewater. The hot line softening process has been

  16. Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

  17. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH ASPHALTIC AND COAL TAR COATINGS USED IN POTABLE WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic response was assessed with 0.2 ml of 4 asphaltic and 3 coal tar based paints applied topically in acetone to the shaved back of female SENCAR mice. Two weeks later a promotion schedule involving application of 1 microgram of TPA in acetine 3 x weekly to the back was ...

  19. Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

    2008-12-01

    Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

  20. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

  1. Decoy oligodeoxyribonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids-DNA chimeras targeting nuclear factor kappa-B: inhibition of IL-8 gene expression in cystic fibrosis cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica; Bezzerri, Valentino; Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Mancini, Irene; Tamanini, Anna; Cabrini, Giulio

    2010-12-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a deep inflammatory process, with production and release of cytokines and chemokines, among which interleukin 8 (IL-8) represents one of the most important. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in developing therapies against IL-8, with the aim of reducing the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients. Since transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a critical role in IL-8 expression, the transcription factor decoy (TFD) strategy might be of interest. TFD is based on biomolecules mimicking the target sites of transcription factors (TFs) and able to interfere with TF activity when delivered to target cells. Here, we review the inhibitory effects of decoy oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) on expression of IL-8 gene and secretion of IL-8 by cystic fibrosis cells infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the effects of decoy molecules based on peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are discussed. In this respect PNA-DNA-PNA (PDP) chimeras are interesting: (a) unlike PNAs, they can be complexed with liposomes and microspheres; (b) unlike oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), they are resistant to DNAses, serum and cytoplasmic extracts; (c) unlike PNA/PNA and PNA/DNA hybrids, they are potent decoy molecules. Interestingly, PDP/PDP NF-kappaB decoy chimeras inhibit accumulation of pro-inflammatory mRNAs (including IL-8 mRNA) in P. aeruginosa infected IB3-1, cells reproducing the effects of decoy oligonucleotides. The effects of PDP/PDP chimeras, unlike ODN-based decoys, are observed even in absence of protection with lipofectamine. Since IL-8 is pivotal in pro-inflammatory processes affecting cystic fibrosis, inhibition of its functions might have a clinical relevance. PMID:20615393

  2. Investigation of the ROPE copyright (Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction) process performance on Sunnyside tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Guffey, F.D.

    1990-07-01

    The main objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pyrolysis temperature for Sunnyside tar sand and to verify the operability and efficiency of the ROPE process at steady-state conditions for production of feedstock materials. The experiments were conducted in the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR). Four 24-hour tests and one 105-hour test were performed in the 2-inch SPR using Sunnyside tar sand. The 24-hour tests were designed to predict the optimum pyrolysis temperature for oil yield. The 105-hour test was conducted to confirm the optimum pyrolysis temperature with sufficient operating time to reach steady-state conditions with respect to product compositions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the Sunnyside tar sand 2-inch SPR tests: (1) Sunnyside tar sand can be processed without any major operational difficulty by the ROPE process. (2) Oil yields greater than Fischer assay were obtained during the 2-inch SPR tests. Oil yield greater than 80 wt % of the bitumen was obtained from the 105-hr test. (3) The ratio of heavy oil to light product oil is strongly dependent upon the pyrolysis temperature and increases with a decrease in the reaction temperature. The gas yield increases with the increase in pyrolysis temperature but the residual carbon in the spent sand decreases with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, reaches the minimum at 675{degrees}F, and then increases with further increase in the pyrolysis temperature. ROPE process product oils from Sunnyside tar sand have market application as blending stocks for the production of diesel fuels, but they are not suited for the production of unleaded gasoline or high-density aviation turbine fuels. 3 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome: from hemopoietic progenitor to mesenchymal stromal cell disease?

    PubMed

    Bonsi, Laura; Marchionni, Cosetta; Alviano, Francesco; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Franchina, Michele; Costa, Roberta; Grossi, Alberto; Bagnara, Gian Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia. Its expression includes skeletal, hematologic, and cardiac system abnormalities. According to some authors, the association of disparate skeletal and hematologic abnormalities is related to simultaneous development of the heart, radii, and megakaryocytes at 6 to 8 weeks' gestation. Thrombocytopenia that generally presents at birth or during the neonatal period can also occur subsequently. Data as to the physiopathology of TAR syndrome are scanty because of the low frequency of the disease and frequent unavailability of samples for bone marrow. The few studies on colony formation suggest that thrombocytopenia could be due to a decreased response to thrombopoietin that affects both proliferation and differentiation. The genetic basis of this syndrome remains unclear because c-mpl gene mutations are not a likely cause of thrombocytopenia and they are also frequent in the normal population. This is also the case for the mutations to the multifunctional growth factor transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 gene as described in our laboratory. Finally, the deletion on chromosome 1q21.1 described by Klopocki and colleagues is not considered sufficient to determine the TAR syndrome phenotype. We have reported that bone marrow adherent stromal cells from patients with TAR syndrome do not express CD105 antigen (expressed in normal mesenchymal cells), part of the receptor complex for TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3. Thus, the hypothesis that the clinical phenotype of TAR could derive from damage to a common osteo/chondrogenic and hemopoietic progenitor warrants further study. PMID:19028006

  4. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  5. The interactions and recognition of cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat with HIV-1 TAR RNA: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Hua; Zuo, Zhi Cheng; Su, Ji Guo; Xu, Xian Jin; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of HIV-1 trans-activator protein Tat with its cognate trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA is critical for viral transcription and replication. Therefore, it has long been considered as an attractive target for the development of antiviral compounds. Recently, the conformationally constrained cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat have been tested to be a promising family of lead peptides. Here, we focused on two representative cyclic peptides termed as L-22 and KP-Z-41, both of which exhibit excellent inhibitory potency against Tat and TAR interaction. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we obtained a detailed picture of the interactions between them and HIV-1 TAR RNA. In results, it is found that the binding modes of the two cyclic peptides to TAR RNA are almost identical at or near the bulge regions, whereas the binding interfaces at the apical loop exhibit large conformational heterogeneity. In addition, it is revealed that electrostatic interaction energy contributes much more to KP-Z-41 complex formation than to L-22 complex, which is the main source of energy that results in a higher binding affinity of KP-Z-41 over-22 for TAR RNA. Furthermore, we identified a conserved motif RRK (Arg-Arg-Lys) that is shown to be essential for specific binding of this class of cyclic peptides to TAR RNA. This work can provide a useful insight into the design and modification of cyclic peptide inhibitors targeting the association of HIV-1 Tat and TAR RNA. PMID:22943434

  6. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

  7. Bandwidth Management in IntServ to DiffServ Mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Pereira; Edmundo Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a bandwidth management mechanism to be used with mapping mechanisms between Integrated Services (IntServ) and Differen- tiated Services (DiffServ) domains. The mapping mechanisms have a dynamic nature and are associated with the Admission Control functions such that the state of the network is reflected in the admission decisions of new IntServ flows into the DiffServ network. The

  8. Admission Control in IntServ to DiffServ mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Pereira; Edmundo Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    This work presents an admission control mechanism to be used with mapping mechanisms between integrated services (IntServ) and differentiated services (DiffServ) domains. The mapping mechanisms have a dynamic nature and are associated with the admission control functions in such a way that the state of the network is reflected in the admission decisions of new IntServ flows into the DiffServ

  9. Quality of Service Architectures for Wireless Networks: IntServ and DiffServ Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indu Mahadevan; Krishna M. Sivalingam

    1999-01-01

    Guaranteeing Quality of Service (QoS) in the Internet has been proposed using two different models - the Integrated services (IntServ) model and the Differentiated services (DiffServ) model. IntServ uses the per-flow approach to provide guarantees to individual streams, while DiffServ provides aggregate assurances for a group of applications. Both these models have been designed to work for wired networks. Our

  10. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  11. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dros Inf Serv 91 (2008) Technique Notes

    E-print Network

    Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    sheets of plexiglass with a piece of paper or thin plastic to serve as a barrier between the male of flies (open vs. closed position, Figure 1a & c). Similar to the Copulatron, we separate the two inner

  13. Plantar pressures in the tennis serve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Girard; Frank Eicher; Jean-Paul Micallef; Grégoire Millet

    2010-01-01

    In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for

  14. SLS to DiffServ configuration mappings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Gonzalez Prieto; Marcus Brunner

    2001-01-01

    This document addresses the problem of mapping Service Level Specifications (SLS) to IP Differentiated Services(DiffServ) configuration. We introduce a two step mapping controlled via a policy-based management system. Thetwo step mapping includes the service specification to intra-domain service mapping (Per-Domain Behavior (PDB)[PDB-DEF]) and the further mapping to the DiffServ mechanism available in the domain. The first step uses an Ndimensionalroom

  15. Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

    2000-11-01

    The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

  16. NEU1 Sialidase Regulates Membrane-tethered Mucin (MUC1) Ectodomain Adhesiveness for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Decoy Receptor Release.

    PubMed

    Lillehoj, Erik P; Hyun, Sang Won; Liu, Anguo; Guang, Wei; Verceles, Avelino C; Luzina, Irina G; Atamas, Sergei P; Kim, K Chul; Goldblum, Simeon E

    2015-07-24

    Airway epithelia express sialylated receptors that recognize exogenous danger signals. Regulation of receptor responsiveness to these signals remains incompletely defined. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which the human sialidase, neuraminidase-1 (NEU1), promotes the interaction between the sialoprotein, mucin 1 (MUC1), and the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa flagellin engaged the MUC1 ectodomain (ED), increasing NEU1 association with MUC1. The flagellin stimulus increased the association of MUC1-ED with both NEU1 and its chaperone/transport protein, protective protein/cathepsin A. Scatchard analysis demonstrated NEU1-dependent increased binding affinity of flagellin to MUC1-expressing epithelia. NEU1-driven MUC1-ED desialylation rapidly increased P. aeruginosa adhesion to and invasion of the airway epithelium. MUC1-ED desialylation also increased its shedding, and the shed MUC1-ED competitively blocked P. aeruginosa adhesion to cell-associated MUC1-ED. Levels of desialylated MUC1-ED were elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated patients with P. aeruginosa airway colonization. Preincubation of P. aeruginosa with these same ex vivo fluids competitively inhibited bacterial adhesion to airway epithelia, and MUC1-ED immunodepletion completely abrogated their inhibitory activity. These data indicate that a prokaryote, P. aeruginosa, in a ligand-specific manner, mobilizes eukaryotic NEU1 to enhance bacterial pathogenicity, but the host retaliates by releasing MUC1-ED into the airway lumen as a hyperadhesive decoy receptor. PMID:25963144

  17. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Mineralization of PAH's in a Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments and Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated with FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization and with laboratory-scale incubations. Microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were thr...

  19. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  20. Distinct Conformational Transition Patterns of Noncoding 7SK snRNA and HIV TAR RNAs upon Tat Binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding 7SK snRNA is believed to play an important role in the recruitment of P-TEFb by viral protein Tat to stimulate HIV processive transcription. Because HIV-2 TAR RNA and 7SK both evolved to feature a dinucleotide bulge region, compared to the trinucleotide bulge for HIV-1 TAR, ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to probe the conformational landscape of HIV-2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 RNA to monitor the conformational changes upon Tat binding. Our studies demonstrate that both HIV-1/2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 sample heterogeneous ensembles in the free state and undergo distinct conformational transitions upon Tat binding. These findings provide exquisite knowledge on the conformational complexity and intricate mechanism of molecular recognition and pave the way for drug design and discovery that incorporate dynamics information. PMID:24422492

  1. Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

  2. The Test Analysis Retrieval System (TARS): Meeting the challenges of the network's test processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelmaszek, Robert L.; Lumsden, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    The Networks Systems Test Section (GSFC 531.4) is responsible for managing a variety of engineering and operational tests used to assess the status of the Network elements relative to readiness certification for new and ongoing mission support and for performance trending. To conduct analysis of data collected during these tests, to disseminate and share the information, and to catalog and create reports based on the analysis is currently a cumbersome and inefficient task due primarily to the manual handling of paper products and the inability to easily exchange information between the various Networks elements. The Test Analysis and Retrieval System (TARS) is being implemented to promote concise data analysis, intelligible reporting of test results, to minimize test duplication by fostering a broad sharing of test data, and perhaps most importantly, to provide significantly improved response to the Network's internal and external customers. This paper outlines the intended application, architecture, and benefits of the TARS.

  3. Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Due Dung; Morishita, Kayoko; Li, Liuyun; Takarada, Takayuki

    Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar cracking catalyst is studied at low temperature. Reaction conditions of the catalyst bed are discussed, including catalytic temperature and steam ratio. High energy efficiency and hydrogen-rich, low-tar product gas can be achieved in a properly designed multi-stage gasification process, together with high-performance catalyst. In addition, considering the economical feasibility, a newly-developed Ni-loaded brown coal char is developed and evaluated as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst shows a good ability and a hopeful prospect oftar decomposition, gas quality improvement and catalytic stability.

  4. Third international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Part II. Highlights on cooperations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-28

    Oversupplies of conventional light petroleum worldwide have all but eclipsed the importance of heavy crude and tar sands where near-term market prospects are concerned. However, ongoing investments in productivity of heavy oil projects, from high-tech California to underdeveloped Guatemala, will hopefully continue at a pace that will assure uninterrupted advances. This issue continues ED's coverage of the Third International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. A graph shows the results of Guatemala's efforts to attract foreign investment in its crude oil production. This issue also contains: (1) the refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coast, Singapore, and Rotterdam as of Aug. 27, 1985; and (2) the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of July 1985 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  5. Literature survey of in situ processes for application to the US tar sand resource

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    Tar sands in the United States and worldwide are a large potential source of hydrocarbon liquids that has yet to be sufficiently developed. The development of the US tar sand resource lags the worldwide development and poses a challenge that has not been eagerly accepted by the petroleum industry. This paper reviews the developmental status of in situ enhanced oil recovery techniques that have been proposed for the production of heavy oils or bitumen and determines which process or processes are in the forefront for application to the US resource. Also noted is what developmental work, if any, remains to be accomplished before field testing of the process(es). The review used only information available in the public domain. 196 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Molecular dynamics and binding specificity analysis of the bovine immunodeficiency virus BIV Tat-TAR complex.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, C M; Nifosì, R; Frankel, A D; Kollman, P A

    2001-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, with particle-mesh Ewald, explicit waters, and counterions, and binding specificity analyses using combined molecular mechanics and continuum solvent (MM-PBSA) on the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Tat peptide-TAR RNA complex. The solution structure for the complex was solved independently by Patel and co-workers and Puglisi and co-workers. We investigated the differences in both structures and trajectories, particularly in the formation of the U-A-U base triple, the dynamic flexibility of the Tat peptide, and the interactions at the binding interface. We observed a decrease in RMSD in comparing the final average RNA structures and initial RNA structures of both trajectories, which suggests the convergence of the RNA structures to a MD equilibrated RNA structure. We also calculated the relative binding of different Tat peptide mutants to TAR RNA and found qualitative agreement with experimental studies. PMID:11371457

  7. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-Suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2). In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules. PMID:23667539

  8. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m2. In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules. PMID:23667539

  10. The relationship between smoking machine derived tar yields and biomarkers of exposure in adult cigarette smokers in the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Mendes; Qiwei Liang; Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Sagar Munjal; Ruediger-A. Walk; Hans J. Roethig

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive data on human exposure to smoke constituents from different machine-measured tar yield cigarettes is limited. Methods: This study used a stratified, cross-sectional, multi-center design to estimate biomarkers of exposure (BOE) from nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene, CO, acrolein, and 1,3-butadiene and their relationship to tar yield categories of cigarette in adult smokers in the U.S. 3625 adults smokers were enrolled

  11. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  12. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in Deepwater Horizon oil spill tar balls.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow-up studies. PMID:25647548

  13. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  14. Routing in DiffServ multicast environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shekhar

    2002-07-01

    QOS aware applications have propelled the development of two complementary technologies, Multicasting and Differentiated Services. To provide the required QOS on the Internet, either the bandwidth needs to be increased (Multicasting) or limited bandwidth prioritized among users (DiffServ). Although, the bandwidth on the Internet is continually increasing, the backbone is still insufficient to support QOS without resource allocations. Hence, there is a need to map multicasting in a DiffServ Environment to conserve network bandwidth and to provision this bandwidth in an appropriate fashion. In this regard, two issues have to be addressed. One, the key difference between multicast and DiffServe routing is the structure of the multicast tree. This tree is maintained in multicast aware routers whereas in DiffServe, the core routers maintain no state information regarding the flows. Second, the task of restructuring the multicast tree when members join/leave. Currently, the first issue is addressed by embedding the multicast information within the packet itself as an additional header field. In this paper, we propose a neural network based heuristic approach to address the second problem of routing in a dynamic DiffServe Multicast environment. Many dynamic multicast routing algorithms have been proposed. The greedy algorithm creates a near optimal tree when a node is added but requires many query/reply messages. The PSPT algorithm cannot construct a cost optimal tree. The VTDM algorithm requires the estimated number of nodes that will join and is not flexible. The problem of building an optimal tree to satisfy QOS requirements at minimum cost and taking minimum network resources is NP- complete and none of the above solutions give an optimal solution. We have modeled this combinatorial optimization as a nonlinear programming problem and trained an artificial neural network to solve the problem. The problem is tractable only when the QOS parameters are combined into DiffServe classes because of the flows are short-liv

  15. Catalytic Tar Reforming for Cleanup and Conditioning of Biomass-derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, D. C.; Bain, R. L.; Phillips, S. D.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Feik, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass gasification is being investigated to produce clean syngas from biomass or biorefinery residues as an intermediate that can be used directly as a fuel for integrated heat and power production or further refined and upgraded by various processing technologies. Conditioning of biomass-derived syngas, with an emphasis on tar reforming, to make it a suitable feed for high temperature, pressurized liquid fuels synthesis is the goal of current research efforts.

  16. Plasma enhanced catalytic reforming of biomass tar model compound to syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Tao; Naoko Ohta; Guiqing Liu; Yoshiharu Yoneyama; Tiejun Wang; Noritatsu Tsubaki

    2010-01-01

    Direct thermal decomposition, plasma-assisted decomposition, catalytic steam reforming and plasma enhanced catalytic steam reforming of biomass tar using toluene as a model compound were comparatively studied. Plasma enhanced catalytic steam reforming showed the best performance. The introduction of a plasma to the catalytic reforming reaction accelerated the decomposition of toluene, while the co-existing Ni\\/SiO2 reforming catalyst, on the other hand,

  17. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-05-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2-3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (?1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  18. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  19. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  20. Trends in sales weighted tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of UK cigarettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Jarvis

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDReducing tar yields of manufactured cigarettes has been an important plank of government policy on tobacco, but sale weighted yields are not routinely published.METHODSTar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields measured by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist were combined with cigarette brand market shares from national surveys of smoking behaviour to generate sales weighted yield estimates for the period 1972–99.RESULTSSales

  1. Application of multidimensional analytical transport models to coal-tar derivatives 

    E-print Network

    Sim, Youn

    1992-01-01

    of the city of St. Louis Park in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area (after Hult and Schoenberg, 1984) The major contaminant is creosote, which is composed of 854 PAH, such as naphthalene, anathracene and phenanthrene, and 2-17 4 phenolics... and Recovery Act of 1976 (Ehrlich, Goerlitz, Godsy, and Hult, 1982). Inorganic constituents such as sodium and chloride in the drift-Platteville system were also discharged along with the coal-tar derivatives. Unlike phenolic compounds and PAH...

  2. Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) from Tar Creek Superfund Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Hays; Karen McBee

    2007-01-01

    Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and\\u000a cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also

  3. Process and apparatus to produce crude oil from tar sands. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Seader; L. M. Smart

    1984-01-01

    A two-staged fluidized-bed reactor for the energy-efficient, thermal recovery of bitumen from Utah tar sands has been constructed. This reactor is a scaled-up version of an earlier system investigated at the University of Utah, and involves the use of three liquid-potassium heat pipes which thermally couple an upper pyrolysis bed with a lower combustion bed. The reactor has been studied

  4. Great Canadian Oil Sands experience in the commercial processing of Athabasca Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Andrews; H. M. Lewis; E. W. Dobson

    1968-01-01

    A brief review is given of the history of the Great Canadian Oil Sands (G.C.O.S.) project to recover 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil from the Athabasca Tar Sands by open pit mining, hot water extraction, coking, and hydrorefining. This paper then discusses the startup and initial operation of the G.C.O.S. plant. Emphasis is directed toward actual vs. design performance

  5. Cigarette tar content and symptoms of chronic bronchitis: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A Brown; I K Crombie; W C Smith; H Tunstall-Pedoe

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine if there was a relationship between cigarette tar yield and rates of chronic cough and chronic phlegm. SETTING--22 districts across Scotland were used for the Scottish Heart Health Study (SHHS) which was conducted between 1984 and 1986 and from which the data for this analysis were obtained. SUBJECTS--10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years

  6. Application of multidimensional analytical transport models to coal-tar derivatives

    E-print Network

    Sim, Youn

    1992-01-01

    drift and bedrock aquifers. Drift materials on and southside of the site have been contaminated by surface spills and by infiltration of contaminated process water. Of the coal-tar derivatives, concentration distributions of chloride, sodium... determined by the analytical inverse mode, when used in the forward mode, show good reconstruction of the observed plume. The transport parameters of the chloride plume were also determined using plume statistics. These parameters are used to simulate...

  7. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  8. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  9. How does the tennis serve technique influence the serve-and-volley?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Martin; Benoit Bideau; Guillaume Nicolas; Paul Delamarche; Richard Kulpa

    2012-01-01

    In tennis, a high ball velocity and a fast run toward the net are key features to successful performance of “serve-and-volley” players. For the serve, tennis players can use two techniques: the foot-up (FU) or foot-back (FB) technique. The aim of this study was to determine if the running time toward the net after the serve and the ball velocity

  10. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

  11. VARS2 and TARS2 Mutations in Patients with Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. PMID:24827421

  12. TAR RNA loop: A scaffold for the assembly of a regulatory switch in HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Sara; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Rana, Tariq M.

    2002-01-01

    Replication of HIV requires the Tat protein, which activates elongation of RNA polymerase II transcription at the HIV-1 promoter by interacting with the cyclin T1 (CycT1) subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor complex b (P-TEFb). The transactivation domain of Tat binds directly to the CycT1 subunit of P-TEFb and induces loop sequence-specific binding of P-TEFb onto nascent HIV-1 trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA. We used systematic RNA–protein photocross-linking, Western blot analysis, and protein footprinting to show that residues 252–260 of CycT1 interact with one side of the TAR RNA loop and enhance interaction of Tat residue K50 to the other side of the loop. Our results show that TAR RNA provides a scaffold for two protein partners to bind and assemble a regulatory switch in HIV replication. RNA-mediated assembly of RNA–protein complexes could be a general mechanism for stable ribonucleoprotein complex formation and a key step in regulating other cellular processes and viral replication. PMID:12048247

  13. Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Utah for underground coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.

    1985-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine spatial and geological relationships between Utah's tar sand or heavy oil deposits and coal deposits, and to evaluate these relationships in terms of suitability for underground coal gasification (UCG) applications. The investigation was undertaken as part of a Department of Energy-sponsored project to find new uses for UCG technology by utilizing process heat or combustible gases from UCG in thermal recovery of oil from unconventional sources. Fifteen of Utah's tar sand or heavy oil deposits are located within 5 miles of suitable coal deposits, which is the maximum distance considered economically practical for transport of UCG gases. Six of these deposits may be suitable for on-site development, where UCG could be conducted in coal beds directly under the oil reservoirs. Substantial portions of four major tar sand or heavy oil deposits are included in the resources suitable for UCG applications, i.e., Sunnyside, Asphalt Ridge, Ashphalt Ridge Northwest, and Raven Ridge. However, total resources cannot be calculated directly from published data. 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming for underground coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.

    1985-02-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming which are potentially suitable for in situ processing with process heat or combustible gas from underground coal gasification (UCG). The investigation was undertaken as part of a project to develop novel concepts for expanding the role of UCG in maximizing energy recovery from coal deposits. Preliminary evaluations indicate six surface deposits and three shallow heavy oil fields are within 5 miles of coal deposits, the maximum distance judged to be feasible for UCG applications. A tar sand or heavy oil deposit in the northeast Washakie Basin is less than 250 feet above a zone of four coal seams suitable for UCG, and another deposit near Riverton appears to be interbedded with coal. Three shallow light oil fields found to be within 5 miles of coal may be amenable to application of UCG technology for enhanced oil recovery. Sufficient data are not available for estimating the size of Wyoming's tar sand and heavy oil resource which is suitable for UCG development. Additional investigations are recommended to more fully characterize promising deposits and to assess the potential resource for UCG applications. 54 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Avaliao de mecanismos de gesto de recursos no mapeamento entre os modelos IntServ e DiffServ

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    1 Avaliação de mecanismos de gestão de recursos no mapeamento entre os modelos IntServ e DiffServ mecanismos de mapeamento entre os modelos IntServ e DiffServ. Os mecanismos propostos são de natureza decisões de admissão de novos fluxos IntServ na rede DiffServ. Este trabalho foca o mapeamento entre o

  16. Bandwidth management in IntServ to DiffServ Antnio Pereira1, 2, Edmundo Monteiro2

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    Bandwidth management in IntServ to DiffServ mapping António Pereira1, 2, Edmundo Monteiro2 1- tiated Services (DiffServ) domains. The mapping mechanisms have a dynamic nature and are associated of new IntServ flows into the DiffServ network. The work is focused in the mapping between the Int- Serv

  17. Driven by Two Masters, Serving Both

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy McKay; Peter Marshall

    One of the challenges of action research is the need simultaneously to serve two ?masters?: as researchers, we need to produce rigorous, relevant research to advance our understanding and knowledge of our discipline. However, there is also a responsibility to intervene in organisational contexts and improve or ameliorate situations or issues perceived to be problematic, and thus, action researchers need

  18. Middle School Kodiak Middle School serves

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    Kodiak Middle School Kodiak Middle School serves approximately 360 seventh and eighth grade by the Federal Government. The Kodiak Middle School English department is looking into ways to provide a basis To Writing has been a focus for Kodiak Middle School. In particular, our English Department, English Language

  19. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD

    E-print Network

    GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD Revised September, 2008 Use Common Sense · Understand your liability and responsibilities. · Use food from a licensed and approved source. · Never leave food unattended. Someone could tamper with it. · Select safe foods for your event. · Keep cold foods COLD (below

  20. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to Business" (B. S.…

  1. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  2. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  3. TCP mechanisms for DiffServ Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjia Fang; Larry Peterson

    1999-01-01

    Our early work (4) has shown that by using a combina- tion of mechanisms in a Diff-Serv domain: tagging algo- rithms in boundary routers and a RIO algorithm in inte- rior routers, we could create differentiations in through- put among different TCP connections during periods of network congestion. However, the effectiveness of such schemes is limited by the impreciseness and

  4. Secondary Prevention--Serving Families at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyen, Ute; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Child Protection Center in Lubeck (Germany) offers a nonpunitive, self-help approach to prevent child abuse by encouraging families to determine their own needs. Over half of families served over a two-year period were self-reported and almost one-fifth received help to prevent violence against children before the occurrence of child abuse or…

  5. Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings 1box refrigerated rolled pie crust, softened as directed on box 1 (10.75 ounce) can condensed Low Fat, Low Sodium Cream of Chicken Soup 1 (10 ounce) package frozen mixed vegetables 1 cup cubed cooked rotisserie chicken ¼ cup cooked diced onion 1. Preheat

  6. Targeted Delivery of Complexes of Biotin–PEG–Polyethylenimine and NF-?B Decoys to Brain-derived Endothelial Cells in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raktima Bhattacharya; Berit Osburg; Dagmar Fischer; Ulrich Bickel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  To evaluate the effect of re-directing the uptake mechanism of polyplexes containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) decoys to\\u000a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) from absorptive-mediated to receptor-mediated endocytosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Complexes of ODNs and a co-polymer of biotin–polyethylenglycol and polyethylenimine (BPP) were targeted to brain-derived endothelial\\u000a cells with a conjugate of antibody 8D3 and streptavidin (8D3SA). Size and stability of ODN\\/BPP complexes

  7. Decoy receptor 3 protects non-obese diabetic mice from autoimmune diabetes by regulating dendritic cell maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Ling; Chou, Feng-Cheng; Sung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Fan, Pao-Luo; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Lin, Wan-Wan; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2010-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, regulates immune responses through competing with receptors of Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A). We have previously demonstrated that transgenic expression of DcR3 in a ? cell-specific manner significantly protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we further investigated the systemic effect of DcR3 in regulating lymphocytes and dendritic cells in NOD mice. Our results demonstrated that both DcR3 plasmid and protein treatments significantly inhibited insulitis and diabetes. Lymphocytes from DcR3.Fc-treated mice revealed less proliferative potential and transferred ameliorated diabetes. By administration of DcR3.Fc in T1 and T2 double transgenic NOD mice expressing human Thy1 or murine Thy1.1 surface marker under IFN-? or IL-4 promoter control respectively, we observed a remarkable reduction of Th1 and an increase of Th2 immune responses in vivo. Strikingly, in vitro polarization experiments exhibited that not only Th1 but also Th17 cell differentiation was significantly inhibited in splenocytes treated with DcR3.Fc protein. However, this phenomenon was only observed in splenocytes, not in purified CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that DcR3-mediated inhibition of Th1 and Th17 differentiation is not T cell-autonomous and maybe through other cell types such as dendritic cells. Finally, our results demonstrated that DcR3 directly modulates the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells and subsequently regulates the differentiation and effector function of T cells. PMID:20801512

  8. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) overexpression predicts the prognosis and pN2 in pancreatic head carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to examine decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression and investigate its clinical and prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic head carcinoma. Methods Tissue samples were obtained from 50 patients with pancreatic head carcinoma. DcR3 protein expression in tissues and sera was assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Correlations between DcR3 and clinicopathologic features and prognoses were analyzed statistically. Results Serum DcR3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic head carcinoma compared with patients with cystadenoma and healthy individuals (P??0.05). In the high DcR3 group, the median overall survival rates were 16.8 months in the RPD group and 13.5 months in the SPD group (P?

  9. EGFR-driven up-regulation of decoy receptor 3 in keratinocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan-Lin; Huang, Duen-Yi; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Lee, Te-An; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2013-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor of Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT (TNFSF14) and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A) and plays pleiotropic roles in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and malignant diseases. In cutaneous biology, DcR3 is expressed in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and is upregulated in skin lesions in psoriasis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of DcR3 over-expression in skin lesions of psoriasis are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that DcR3 can be detected in both dermal blood vessels and epidermal layers of psoriatic skin lesions. Analysis of serum samples showed that DcR3 was elevated, but FasL was downregulated in psoriatic patients compared with normal individuals. Additional cell studies revealed a central role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in controlling the basal expression of DcR3 in keratinocytes. Activation of EGFR by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? strikingly upregulated DcR3 production. TNF-??enhanced DcR3 expression in both keratinocytes and endothelial cells compared with various inflammatory cytokines involved in psoriasis. Additionally, TNF-?-enhanced DcR3 expression in keratinocytes was inhibited when EGFR was knocked down or EGFR inhibitor was used. The NF-?B pathway was critically involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of EGFR and inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, the novel regulatory mechanisms of DcR3 expression in psoriasis, particularly in keratinocytes and endothelial cells, provides new insight into the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may also contribute to the understanding of other diseases that involve DcR3 overexpression. PMID:23707413

  10. Polymorphisms of decoy receptor 3 are associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese Han.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gang; Guo, Hong; Wang, Kai; Hu, Huamei; Wang, Dongmei; Xu, Xueqing; Guan, Xingying; Yang, Kang; Bai, Yun

    2010-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor without transmembrane and intracellular sequences in its peptide. It can bind to and inactivate the apoptosis-inducing ligand FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. The aims of this study are to genotype the two polymorphisms in the promotor of DcR3 in esophageal squamous cell cancer patients and controls and analyze the association between individual genetic variation and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 444 Chinese ESCC patients and 468 matched cancer-free controls were evaluated for the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCR3. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPShot technique. The expression of DCR3 in cancer tissues was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There were significant differences in the allele's distribution of the two SNPs among ESCC cases and controls (P < 0.01). Compared with the 147TT genotype, the 147CC genotype was associated with significant elevated risk of ESCC (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.96). The risk of 147CC genotype was more notable (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.64) in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-2.69). In the stratification analyses, we also found there was a strong correlation between 147 CC and the clinical TNM stage (P < 0.01). Furthermore, significant difference in DCR3 expression in ESCC tissues was found between subgroups with different 147C/T variant. Our finding suggested that DcR3 promoter polymorphism 147C/T might influence the susceptibility to ESCC in the Chinese Han population, maybe by influencing DcR3 expression. PMID:20567955

  11. MUC1 limits Helicobacter pylori infection both by steric hindrance and by acting as a releasable decoy.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Sara K; Sheng, Yong H; Every, Alison L; Miles, Kim M; Skoog, Emma C; Florin, Timothy H J; Sutton, Philip; McGuckin, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. The cell-surface mucin MUC1 is a large glycoprotein which is highly expressed on the mucosal surface and limits the density of H. pylori in a murine infection model. We now demonstrate that by using the BabA and SabA adhesins, H. pylori bind MUC1 isolated from human gastric cells and MUC1 shed into gastric juice. Both H. pylori carrying these adhesins, and beads coated with MUC1 antibodies, induced shedding of MUC1 from MKN7 human gastric epithelial cells, and shed MUC1 was found bound to H. pylori. Shedding of MUC1 from non-infected cells was not mediated by the known MUC1 sheddases ADAM17 and MMP-14. However, knockdown of MMP-14 partially affected MUC1 release early in infection, whereas ADAM17 had no effect. Thus, it is likely that shedding is mediated both by proteases and by disassociation of the non-covalent interaction between the alpha- and beta-subunits. H. pylori bound more readily to MUC1 depleted cells even when the bacteria lacked the BabA and SabA adhesins, showing that MUC1 inhibits attachment even when bacteria cannot bind to the mucin. Bacteria lacking both the BabA and SabA adhesins caused less apoptosis in MKN7 cells than wild-type bacteria, having a greater effect than deletion of the CagA pathogenicity gene. Deficiency of MUC1/Muc1 resulted in increased epithelial cell apoptosis, both in MKN7 cells in vitro, and in H. pylori infected mice. Thus, MUC1 protects the epithelium from non-MUC1 binding bacteria by inhibiting adhesion to the cell surface by steric hindrance, and from MUC1-binding bacteria by acting as a releasable decoy. PMID:19816567

  12. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

  13. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

  14. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. PMID:24860081

  15. Equipment for Hot-to-serve Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Patented surface heating devices with a much faster air-to-solid heat transfer rate than previous air ovens were developed. The accelerated surface heating can brown, sear or crisp much more rapidly than in conventional ovens so that partially prepared food can be finished quickly and tastefully immediately before serving. The crisp, freshly browned surfaces result from the faster heat transfer which does not dry out the food. The devices are then compared to convection ovens and microwave heating processes.

  16. Providing fairness in DiffServ architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungwon Yi; Xidong Deng; George Kesidis; Chita R. Das

    2002-01-01

    The Differentiated Service (DiffServ) architecture does not specify any priority scheme between assured forwarding (AF) out-profile packets and best-effort (BE) packets. Therefore, a misbehaving AF flow can penalize many BE flows unless a fair bandwidth sharing mechanism is employed in the routers. In this paper, we propose two different techniques for solving the inter- and intra-class fairness problems at the

  17. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  18. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (?)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  19. Targeted disruption of transcriptional regulatory function of p53 by a novel efficient method for introducing a decoy oligonucleotide into nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Nukui, Takamasa; Sonegawa, Hiroyuki; Murata, Hitoshi; Futami, Junichiro; Yamada, Hidenori; Huh, Nam-ho

    2005-01-01

    Decoy oligonucleotides have been used for functional sequestering of transcription factors. Efficient introduction into cells is a prerequisite for the oligonucleotides to exert their blocking function. Lipofection is the most widely used technique for that purpose because of its convenience and relatively high efficiency. However, the transduction efficiency of lipofection largely depends on cell types and experimental conditions and the introduced nucleotides are not specifically directed to nuclei where they exert their major function. In the present study, we designed a new system for transporting oligonucleotides into cell nuclei. The vehicle is composed of glutathione-S-transferase, 7 arginine residues, the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and a nuclear localization signal, which are linked with flexible glycine stretches. The p53-responsive element linked to the GAL4 upstream activating sequence was efficiently transferred by the vehicle protein into nuclei of primary cultures of neuronal cells, embryonic stem cells and various human normal cells. Transcriptional activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 and Bax by p53 on exposure to cisplatin was completely blocked by introducing the p53 decoy oligonucleotide. Thus, the system developed in the present study can be a convenient and powerful tool for specifically disrupting the function of DNA-binding proteins in culture. PMID:15920103

  20. Interligao IntServ DiffServ: Mapeamento do Servio CL no PHB AF Antnio Pereira 1,2

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    1 Interligação IntServ DiffServ: Mapeamento do Serviço CL no PHB AF António Pereira 1,2 Edmundo escalabilidade do modelo Differentiated Services (DiffServ) com a capacidade de suporte de QoS por fluxo do funcionalidade do modelo IntServ com a escalabilidade fornecida pelo modelo DiffServ no suporte, extremo

  1. 21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner: (1) Shall...the following: (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except that the name of...

  2. 21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Quality Guidelines § 104.47 Frozen “heat and serve” dinner. (a) A product...Minimum levels of nutrients for a frozen “heat and serve” dinner are as follows: Nutrient Minimum levels for frozen “heat and serve” dinner— For each 100...

  3. 21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Quality Guidelines § 104.47 Frozen “heat and serve” dinner. (a) A product...Minimum levels of nutrients for a frozen “heat and serve” dinner are as follows: Nutrient Minimum levels for frozen “heat and serve” dinner— For each 100...

  4. 21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner: (1) Shall...the following: (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except that the name of...

  5. 49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section...GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by...

  6. 49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section...GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by...

  7. 49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section...GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by...

  8. 49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section...GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by...

  9. 49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section...GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by...

  10. Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

  11. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1995-04-01

    The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to testing the equipment for measurements by the gas saturation method and the Knudsen effusion method. These techniques are beginning to yield reliable results. Some key features of the methods are summarized, and sample results presented.

  12. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  13. Decoy receptor 3 suppresses FasL-induced apoptosis via ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Xin; Song, Shiduo; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhu, Dongming; Wang, Zhenxin; Chen, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Resistance to Fas Ligand (FasL) mediated apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is reported to interact with FasL and is overexpressed in some malignant tumors. We sought to investigate the role of DcR3 in resistance to FasL in pancreatic cancer. We compared expression of apoptosis related genes between FasL-resistant SW1990 and FasL-sensitive Patu8988 pancreatic cell lines by microarray analysis. We explored the impact of siRNA knockdown of, or exogenous supplementation with, DcR3 on FasL-induced cell growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell lines and expression of proteins involved in apoptotic signaling. We assessed the level of DcR3 protein and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples of 66 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 expression in SW1990 cells reduced resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis, and supplementation of Patu8988 with rDcR3 had the opposite effect. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 in SW1990 cells elevated expression of caspase 3, 8 and 9, and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), but did not alter phosphorylated-Akt expression. 47 tumor tissue specimens, but only 15 matched non-tumor specimens stained for DcR3 (?(2) = 31.1447, P < 0.001). The proliferation index of DcR3 positive specimens (14.26  ±  2.67%) was significantly higher than that of DcR3 negative specimens (43.58  ±  7.88%, P < 0.01). DcR3 expression positively correlated with p-ERK1/2 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues (r = 0.607, P < 0.001). DcR3 enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation and opposes FasL signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:26102031

  14. A State Management Protocol for IntServ, DiffServ and Label Switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari Adiseshu; Guru M. Parulkar; Raj Yavatkar

    1998-01-01

    Providing Quality of Service ( QOS )i n an eff icient and scalable manner in the Internet is a topic of active research. The technologies that have drawn the most attention are In- tegrated Services(IntServ), Differential Services(DiffServ) and Label Switching(MPLS). While these technologies are orthogonal in many respects and can coexist, they are all similar with respect to the fact

  15. Sedimentology, diagenesis, and trapping style, Chesterian Tar Springs sandstone at Inman Field, Gallatin County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, D.G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Tar Springs Sandstone in southern Illinois is often over-looked as a pay, yet it can be a prolific producer. The Inman Field, discovered in 1940, produces from several cyclic Chesterian sandstones from structural-stratigraphic traps in the Wabash Valley Fault System of southeastern Illinois. The oil was sourced from the Devonian New Albany Shale and apparently migrated vertically along the Wabash Valley faults to its present location, thus charging many of the Chesterian and lower Pennsylvanian sands in the field. The Tar Springs Sandstone produces from stacked distributary channel sand reservoirs up to 125 feet thick which have cut up to 40 feet into laterally equivalent non-reservoir, delta-fringe facies and the underlying Glen Dean Limestone. The reservoir sands are well-sorted, fine- to medium-grained quartz arenites with less than 5% feldspar and chert. Quartz grains have quartz overgrowths. Feldspar grains are clouded in thin-section and show pronounced etching and dissolution in SEM. Diagenetic kaolinite and small amounts of illite and magnesium-rich chlorite occur in intergranular pores. Sparry, iron-rich dolomite or ankerite that fills pores in irregular millimeter-size patches, occupies up to 10% of the reservoir rock. Typical reservoir porosity ranges from 16 to 19 percent and permeability ranges from 60 to 700 md. By contrast non-reservoir delta-fringe sands typically have porosities of 6 to 12 percent and permeabilities of 1 to 20 md. Delta-fringe Tar Springs shales act as impermeable lateral and vertical seals, aiding in stratigraphic trapping.

  16. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  18. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

  19. Microbial detoxification of sewage of the coal-tar chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, L.A.; Finkelshtein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Alieva, R.M.; Shustova, L.G. [Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A collection of microorganisms actively degrading the components of wastes of the coal-tar chemical industry-phenols, cresols, xenols, naphthalenes, phenathren-has been created. The active strains were represented mainly by pseduomonads-Pseudomonas aureofaciens, P. fluorescens, and Pseudomonas sp. These strains reduced the content of the cresol-xylenol and polyaromatic fractions by 70% during 7 days of fermentation. The isolated strains could also grow on individual aromatic compounds-isomeric cresols, naphalene, phenanthrene. The structure of five intermediate products of phenanthrene oxidation was revealed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Thermal and catalytic cracking of tars and tar constituents from coal-gasification processes. Final report. [Synthetic zeolites (Linde LZ-Y82, Norton Zeolon 900-H, Davison 13-X, faujasite), natural zeolite (chabazite)

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.Y.

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this program is to screen catalysts and determine operating conditions for maximizing gas and char production from the pyrolysis of coal gasification tars. The product yields from cracking a bituminous coal tar in a fixed-bed reactor were determined at various temperatures in the presence and absence of some packing materials. Synthetic zeolites, Linde LZ-Y82, Norton Zeolon 900-H (mordenite), Davison 13-X, and ultra-stable faujasite (H-Y), as well as a natural zeolite, chabazite, showed strong catalytic activity. In contrast, molecular sieves 5-A and natural erionite having smaller pore diameters were found to be much less active. Clay minerals such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and Kieselguhr exhibited catalytic activities which were similar to those of the zeolites with small pore sizes, but they were still far more effective than quartz particles. Based on the assumption of first-order kinetics, the activation energies for the tar conversion were evaluated for several packing materials. It was found that the zeolite LZ-Y82 was remarkably effective in converting tar to chars and gases in the temperature range of 350 to 500/sup 0/C, although this effectiveness decreased very rapidly with a continuous tar feed carried by an inert gas. Among the factors involved for catalytic effectiveness are (1) the effective pore size greater than about 0.7 nm (or 7A), (2) large internal surface area accessible to the tar vapor, and (3) large number of strongly acidic sites. 22 references, 6 figures, 22 tables.

  1. Effects of decoy molecules targeting NF-kappaB transcription factors in Cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells: recruitment of NF-kappaB to the IL-8 gene promoter and transcription of the IL-8 gene.

    PubMed

    Finotti, Alessia; Borgatti, Monica; Bezzerri, Valentino; Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria; Mancini, Irene; Cabrini, Giulio; Saviano, Michele; Avitabile, Concetta; Romanelli, Alessandra; Gambari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    One of the clinical features of cystic fibrosis (CF) is a deep inflammatory process, which is characterized by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, among which interleukin 8 (IL-8) represents one of the most important. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in developing therapies against CF to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients. Since transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a critical role in IL-8 expression, the transcription factor decoy (TFD) strategy might be of interest. In order to demonstrate that TFD against NF-kappaB interferes with the NF-kappaB pathway we proved, by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that treatment with TFD oligodeoxyribonucleotides of cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to a decrease occupancy of the Il-8 gene promoter by NF-kappaB factors. In order to develop more stable therapeutic molecules, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) based agents were considered. In this respect PNA-DNA-PNA (PDP) chimeras are molecules of great interest from several points of view: (1) they can be complexed with liposomes and microspheres; (2) they are resistant to DNases, serum and cytoplasmic extracts; (3) they are potent decoy molecules. By using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and RT-PCR analysis we have demonstrated that (1) the effects of PDP/PDP NF-kappaB decoy chimera on accumulation of pro-inflammatory mRNAs in P.aeruginosa infected IB3-1 cells reproduce that of decoy oligonucleotides; in particular (2) the PDP/PDP chimera is a strong inhibitor of IL-8 gene expression; (3) the effect of PDP/PDP chimeras, unlike those of ODN-based decoys, are observed even in the absence of protection with lipofectamine. These informations are of great impact, in our opinion, for the development of stable molecules to be used in non-viral gene therapy of cystic fibrosis. PMID:22772035

  2. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  3. Optimal Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires a full-length TAR RNA hairpin.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, K; Tijms, M; Berkhout, B

    1997-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription from the LTR promoter is activated by the viral Tat protein through interaction with the nascent TAR RNA hairpin structure. The mechanism of Tat-mediated transcriptional activation has been extensively investigated with LTR-CAT reporter genes in transient transfections and, more recently, in infection experiments with mutant HIV-1 variants. Several discrepancies between these two assay systems have been reported. For instance, whereas opening of the lower part of the TAR RNA stem does not affect the promoter activity of an LTR-CAT plasmid in transient assays, the corresponding virus mutant is fully replication-impaired. With the aim to resolve this controversy, we have examined the activity of a set of TAR RNA mutants in transient transfection experiments with a variety of cell types. We now demonstrate that truncated TAR motifs exhibit a severe, but cell-type dependent transcription defect. Whereas full LTR activity is measured in COS cells that have been used regularly in previous transfection assays, a severe defect is apparent in a variety of human cell lines, including T cell lines that are typically used in HIV-1 replication studies. These results suggest the presence of a human protein that participates in Tat-mediated transcriptional activation through binding to the lower part of the TAR stem. Several candidate co-factors have been reported in literature. This study resolves the discrepancy between transfection and infection studies on the requirements of the lower TAR stem structure. The evidence also implies that LTR transcription studies should be performed preferentially in human cell types. PMID:9016587

  4. Optimal Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires a full-length TAR RNA hairpin.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, K; Tijms, M; Berkhout, B

    1997-02-01

    HIV-1 transcription from the LTR promoter is activated by the viral Tat protein through interaction with the nascent TAR RNA hairpin structure. The mechanism of Tat-mediated transcriptional activation has been extensively investigated with LTR-CAT reporter genes in transient transfections and, more recently, in infection experiments with mutant HIV-1 variants. Several discrepancies between these two assay systems have been reported. For instance, whereas opening of the lower part of the TAR RNA stem does not affect the promoter activity of an LTR-CAT plasmid in transient assays, the corresponding virus mutant is fully replication-impaired. With the aim to resolve this controversy, we have examined the activity of a set of TAR RNA mutants in transient transfection experiments with a variety of cell types. We now demonstrate that truncated TAR motifs exhibit a severe, but cell-type dependent transcription defect. Whereas full LTR activity is measured in COS cells that have been used regularly in previous transfection assays, a severe defect is apparent in a variety of human cell lines, including T cell lines that are typically used in HIV-1 replication studies. These results suggest the presence of a human protein that participates in Tat-mediated transcriptional activation through binding to the lower part of the TAR stem. Several candidate co-factors have been reported in literature. This study resolves the discrepancy between transfection and infection studies on the requirements of the lower TAR stem structure. The evidence also implies that LTR transcription studies should be performed preferentially in human cell types. PMID:9016587

  5. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  6. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  7. Development of an inclined liquid fluidized bed for tar sand processing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    An inclined liquid fluidized-bed reactor (ILFBR) system has been developed and successfully operated for 24 hours. Modifications to the previously tested ILFBR systems include incorporation of a oil fluidizing zone in the front of the fluid bed, an increase in the angle of the fluid bed to {minus}12{degree} (the minus sign shows that the discharges is below the horizontal level of the inlet), and reduction of the fluidizing gas velocities equal to or below the minimum fluidization velocity. These changes produced a functional bubbling slurry bed for the processing of tar sand. The produced oils and spent sand resemble the products from screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR) tests suggesting that the ILFBR system functioned similar to the SPR systems with the recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE{copyright}) process. With slight modifications in the heater control and placement, the system will be ready for development of operational parameters for the surface processing of tar sand. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transforming F-16 TARS imagery from the speed of sound to the speed of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, Donald; Marler, Brent

    2001-12-01

    This paper addresses the F-16C Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System (TARS) flight demonstration of an Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) data link in the Time Critical Targeting role. Recent conflicts have identified the need to rapidly locate and attack targets before they can be moved. This places increased demands on reconnaissance assets to reduce the time from imagery collection to exploitation. On July 18, 2001 a demonstration of rapid targeting was conducted with a TARS F-16 using the ABIT data link to determine its ability and benefits in the rapid targeting role. This industry-government demonstration validated the operation of the ABIT data link on the F-16 along with the ability to reduce the time from collection to exploitation and extend imagery transmission ranges through the use of an airborne relay. This was the first use of ABIT on a fighter aircraft, the first ABIT air-to-air-to-ground transmission relay and the first use of ABIT at its maximum bandwidth of 274MB/s.

  9. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    PubMed

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range < 4 divided by 142 ng/m3, except for the exposure of workers employed at weighing the raw materials (3,470-6,060 ng/m3) in the Semiproducts Division. Attention should be paid to the recorded CTPVs concentrations (benzene solubles). About 56% of the Vulcanizing Division workers and about 90% of the Semiproducts Division workers were exposed to these substances at concentrations of over 0.2 mg/m3 (hygienic standard for benzene solubles in USA). Exposure to dust (of high respirable fraction percentage > 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts. PMID:7719665

  10. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    1984-03-01

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  11. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-10-28

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  12. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Michael J; Depree, Craig V

    2010-12-01

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments. Total PAH (?(28)PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ("binder"), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200,000 mgkg(-1) (10,000 mgkg(-1) in binder+aggregate). Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower ?(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene); benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene); and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. Moreover, pavement data for one isomer ratio (e.g. benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene) were highly correlated with those of another isomer ratio (e.g. benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene) and were bounded at their lower and higher extremes by the characteristics of pure bitumen and coal tar, respectively, suggesting that PAH composition of a given pavement sample could be accounted for by conservative mixing between coal tar and bitumen as source materials. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered. PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments (> 15 mgkg(-1) dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments. PMID:20843538

  13. Estimating the hazards of “less hazardous” cigarettes. I. Tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, and total aldehyde deliveries of Canadian cigarettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Rickert; J. C. Robinson; J. C. Young

    1980-01-01

    The tar, nicotine, CO, HCN, total aldehyde, and acrolein deliveries of 102 brands of Canadian cigarettes have been determined. On the basis of these deliveries, 15 brands (9% of sales) were categorized as low hazard and 9 brands (10% of sales) as high hazard. All six constituents were used for the classification since for most brands tar was a poor

  14. EBM: A New Approach for Scalable DiffServ Multicasting

    E-print Network

    Manimaran, Govindarasu

    EBM: A New Approach for Scalable DiffServ Multicasting A. Striegel1 , A. Bouabdallah2 , H. Bettahar technologies, namely, multicasting and Differen- tiated Services (DiffServ). Although both are complementary across a DiffServ domain. EBM leverages the intelligence of edge routers in DiffServ and a new entity

  15. Survey serves up food for thought.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    An independent survey into hospital food standards in England conducted earlier this year for the Soil Association saw over half of those patients surveyed admit they would not be happy serving the meals they received during a recent hospital stay to a child, while 29% said the food was so bad that, at times, they could not recognise what was on their plate. Nearly of quarter of the 1,000 indviduals questioned by OnePoll, meanwhile, had opted out of hospital catering altogether--choosing to have every meal brought in to them by visiting relatives; nor, the Soil Association says, is enough English hospital food being locally or sustainably sourced. PMID:21966695

  16. Utilities` ``obligation to serve`` under deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.

  17. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Fraser, M. J.; Lamarche, C.; Barker, J. F.; Forsey, S. P.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is > 10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates < 10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated > 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume.

  18. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  19. GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) originating from Solanum tarijense is a major resistance locus to Globodera pallida and is localised on chromosome 11 of potato.

    PubMed

    Adillah Tan, M Y; Park, Tae-Ho; Alles, René; Hutten, Ronald C B; Visser, R G F; van Eck, Herman J

    2009-11-01

    Resistance to Globodera pallida Rookmaker (Pa3), originating from wild species Solanum tarijense was identified by QTL analysis and can be largely ascribed to one major QTL. GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) explained 81.3% of the phenotypic variance in the disease test. GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) is mapped to the long arm of chromosome 11. Another minor QTL explained 5.3% of the phenotypic variance and mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9. Clones containing both QTL showed no lower cyst counts than clones with only GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) . After Mendelising the phenotypic data, GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) could be more precisely mapped near markers GP163 and FEN427, thus anchoring GpaXI ( tar ) ( l ) to a region with a known R-gene cluster containing virus and nematode resistance genes. PMID:19816672

  20. The Decoy Duck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anna

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development processes of an instructional video for use in a course offered through the Extended Learning Institute of Northern Virginia Community College entitled Women Writers II. Characterizes the process of transforming this English course from a print-based to a distance-learning course as time-consuming, creative, and…

  1. Learn and Serve: Evaluation of the Pennsylvania 1994-1995 Learn and Serve Grant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; And Others

    The Learn and Serve Grant Program was designed to support schools and community-based organizations (CBOs) that engage children and adolescents in service activities linked to the school curriculum that address real community needs. An evaluation covered 93 Pennsylvania schools and CBOs that received funding to design and implement programs.…

  2. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  3. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

  4. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Analytics and Synthesis

    2013-01-01

    Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

  5. The Double Consciousness of Cultural Pariahs—Fantasy, Trauma and Black Identity in Toni Morrison's Tar Baby

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao Yuh-chuan

    This paper attempts to investigate the pathological condition of identity formation by reading Morrison's novelistic reflection of the pathology of cultural pariahs in light of the psychoanalytic concepts of fantasy and trauma. By reflecting on the issue of black identity in Tar Baby through Slavoj Zizek's Lacanian approach to ideology and the ethics of trauma proposed by Cathy Caruth and

  6. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20?35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

  7. Activated carbon from coal tar pitch and furfural for the removal of p-nitrophenol and m-aminophenol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilyana Petrova; Boyko Tsyntsarski; Temenuzhka Budinova; Nartzislav Petrov; Leticia F. Velasco; Conchi O. Ania

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of m-aminophenol and p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution on activated carbon synthesized on the base of industrial by product (coal tar pitch) and furfural was investigated. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbon and its oxidized modification is related to the surface area and composition of the prepared materials, as well as to the nature of the adsorbents. Despite the

  8. Comparative Characterization of Organic Emissions from Diesel Particles, Coke Oven Mains, Roofing Tar Vapors and Cigarette Smoke Condensate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Williams; C. Sparacino; B. Petersen; J. Bumgarner; R. H. Jungers; J. Lewtas

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the extractable organics from diesel particulate emissions compared to other complex organics which have been reported to increase the risk of human lung cancer. Class fractions of diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, roofing tar, and coke oven extracts were obtained using\\/liquid partitioning and silica gel chromatography. Capillary GC\\/MS was used to identify compounds in each

  9. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  10. Case Study of Worker Exposure to Coal tar Containing Paving Materials on a Routine Paving Project in Iowa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Reinke; Stacy Glidden

    2007-01-01

    The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the entire 230 mm (9 inches) of existing pavement and then pave

  11. Local Willingness-to-Pay Estimates for the Remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds in Nova Scotia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Ferrara; Stephen McComb; Paul Missios

    2007-01-01

    une large part des coûts de restauration du site. The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens site in Nova Scotia, Canada, is among the most toxic hazardous waste sites in North America. This study presents hedonic estimates of the willingness-to-pay for remediation of the site using housing sales data from urban Sydney. Negative impacts are estimated with a maximum likelihood

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Shihadeh; Rawad Saleh

    2005-01-01

    A smoking machine protocol and yields for “tar”, nicotine, PAH, and CO are presented for the standard 171-puff steady periodic smoking regimen proposed by Shihadeh et al. [Shihadeh, A., Azar, S., Antonios, C., Haddad, A., 2004b. Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe café smoking: A pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and

  13. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS IN A/J MICE OF PARTICULATE OF A COAL TAR PAINT USED IN POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal tar paints are among the products used as inside coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion in potable water supply systems. Four different formulations of these paints were tested in earlier work by this laboratory in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse s...

  14. Influence of extraction parameters on dispersity of hydrocarbon emulsions from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Nadirov, N.K.; Bishimbaev, V.K.; Burkitbaev, S.M.; Kenzhebaev, A.B.; Khodzhanazarov, A.T.

    1988-05-01

    The dependence of hydrocarbon emulsion particle size distribution on the extraction parameters of temperature, surfactant concentration, and mixing intensity was investigated. The water-bitumen solution, with an organic matter content of 14-17% by weight, was obtained from tar sands of the Iman-Kara deposit and emulsified by vigorous mixing in an aqueous surfactant to promote effective precipitation of the washed sand and clay and to suppress flotation. Emulsion particle size distribution was assessed by laser correlation spectroscopy. Correlation and distribution functions were determined. Higher temperatures were found to promote surfactant activity and stabilize the emulsion; at approximately 80 C, with an emulsion concentration of 8-11%, washing efficiency reached 92-95%. Optimal surfactant concentration was determined to be no higher than approximately 3% by weight and mixer speed was found to be optimal at 2000-2500 rpm. The procedure can be used to optimize equipment efficiency and emulsion quality.

  15. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Numerical simulation of combined reverse combustion and steamflooding for oil recovery in a Utah tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Lasaki, G.O.; Fahy, L.J.; Martel, R.

    1985-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the U.S. DOE Laramie Energy Technology Center's (LETC) Project TS-4, which involves numerical simulation of both in-situ reverse combustion and steamflooding. The simulator showed that the combustion could be limited and contained in a middle 10-ft (3-m) interval with a correlatable high-permeability streak within the 65-ft (20-m) pay zone of the upper Rimrock tar sand formation in Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Uintah County, UT. A high-transmissibility path was necessary to obtain adequate injectivity and sustain a stable reverse combustion. Combustion ''echoes'' developed and the front changed into a forward mode as the formation pressure increased and at very low air-injection rates. Oil recovery by steam injection was accelerated in a formation preheated by a reverse combustion.

  17. Performance and simulation of a cold lake tar sand steam injection pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Wasserman, M.L.; Cruickshank, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The injection of steam to recover extremely viscous, heavy oil from the Cold Lake deposits of Alberta, has been field tested by several companies. Encouraged by the early results of the single-well pilot, Chevron Canada Resources Ltd. initiated a 7-well steam injection pilot in 1976. The general objective of the pilot was to evaluate the producing potential of the B channel sand and other sands of the Grand Rapids Formation. To mathematically simulate the cyclic steam response of the Cold Lake heavy oil sands, a fractured tar sand simulator was developed at Chevron Oil Field Research Co. This simulator was used to evaluate the effect of steam slug size on cyclic response from a single well and the effect of converting to steam drive on pilot response. This study reports on performance of the pilot and the results of the simulation study. 14 references.

  18. Analysis of techniques for predicting viscosity of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Khataniar, S.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal recovery methods are generally employed for recovering heavy oil and tar sand bitumen. These methods rely on reduction of oil viscosity by application of heat as one of the primary mechanisms of oil recovery. Therefore, design and performance prediction of the thermal recovery methods require adequate prediction of oil viscosity as a function of temperature. In this paper, several commonly used temperature-viscosity correlations are analyzed to evaluate their ability to correctly predict heavy oil and bitumen viscosity as a function of temperature. The analysis showed that Ali and Standing`s correlations gave satisfactory results in most cases when properly applied. Guidelines are provided for their application. None of the correlations, however, performed satisfactorily with very heavy oils at low temperatures.

  19. Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar--comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Ogier; Biache, Coralie; Boulangé, Marine; Parant, Stéphane; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Billet, David; Michels, Raymond; Faure, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In former coal transformation plants (coking and gas ones), the major organic contamination of soils is coal tar, mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Air oxidation of a fresh coal tar was chosen to simulate the abiotic natural attenuation impact on PAC-contaminated soils. Water-leaching experiments were subsequently performed on fresh and oxidized coal tars to study the influence of oxidation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and quantity. The characterization of the DOM was performed using a combination of molecular and spectroscopic techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography-size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), 3D fluorescence, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and compared with the DOM from contaminated soils sampled on the field exposed to natural attenuation for several decades. An increase in the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compound concentrations was observed with abiotic oxidation both in the coal tar and the associated DOM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the leachates exceeded pure water solubility limits, suggesting that co-solvation with other soluble organic compounds occurred. Furthermore, emission excitation matrix analysis combined with synchronous fluorescence spectra interpretation and size-exclusion chromatography suggests that oxidation induced condensation reactions which were responsible for the formation of higher-molecular weight compounds and potentially mobilized by water. Thus, the current composition of the DOM in aged soils may at least partly result from (1) a depletion in lower-molecular weight compounds of the initial contamination stock and (2) an oxidative condensation leading to the formation of a higher-molecular weight fraction. Abiotic oxidation and water leaching may therefore be a significant combination contributing to the evolution of coal tar-contaminated soils under natural attenuation. PMID:25146121

  20. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  1. Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Rebound of a Coal Tar Creosote Plume Following Partial Source Zone Treatment With Permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N.; Fraser, M.; Lamarche, C.; Barker, J.; Forsey, S.

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years). A network of ~280 14-point multilevel samplers was used to monitor the dissolved plumes and mass discharge of ten compounds emanating from an emplaced coal tar creosote source for greater than 10 years. Bench scale experiments demonstrated that eight of the ten study compounds were readily oxidized by permanganate. Based on mass balance estimates, the 125 Kg of permanganate delivered to the source zone over 35 days would be capable of transforming at most 10% of the residual NAPL. This was sufficient to produce a short-term (after 150 days) decrease in mass discharge of greater than 35% for all monitored compounds except biphenyl, dibenzofuran, and fluoranthene. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. Once treated, oxidized compounds displayed a reduced plume mass and mass discharge while they migrated through the monitoring network. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post- treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge of 10 to 60% and/or total plume mass of 0 to 55%. Once the treated compounds migrated beyond the monitoring network (4-years post treatment) the mass discharge and plume mass of these compounds returned to pre-treatment values or higher. Non-reactive compounds displayed no significant change in mass discharge or plume mass. In the long term, reduction of mass discharge and total plume mass was within the error associated with mass discharge and total plume mass estimates, even at this highly monitored site.

  3. The nature and molecular basis of cutaneous photosensitivity reactions to psoralens and coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, M.A.; Joshi, P.C.

    1983-06-01

    The basic aspects of cutaneous photosensitization reactions and the mode of therapeutic effectiveness of psoralens and coal tar, the two groups of photosensitizing agents used extensively in the photochemotherapy of psoriasis, have been reviewed. Psoralen-induced skin photosensitization and the therapeutic action of psoralens involve two distinct types of reactions, and these two reactions occur independently of each other and concurrently when the psoralen-treated skin (oral or topical) is exposed to 320 to 400 nm of radiation. The first, type I, is an oxygen-independent reaction and primarily involves photoreaction with DNA; the second, type II, is a sensitized reaction dependent on oxygen and involves the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2). The photoreactive form of psoralen is its triplet state, and the sites of reaction are (1) the cell membrane of the epidermal, dermal, and endothelial cells; (2) the cytoplasmic constituents, such as enzymes, RNA, lysosomes, etc.; (3) the cell nuclei (DNA and chromatin); and (4) the sensitized production of 1O2, which is responsible for cell-membrane damage and vasodilation. The major damage would be initiated by a type I reaction and would be seen in the form of nuclear damage to DNA resulting from the interaction of psoralen with DNA and to a lesser extent with RNA. The skin photosensitization response (erythema, edema, membrane damage, etc.) would result from a type II reaction involving the generation of 1O2. Crude coal tar (CCT), widely used in the Goeckerman therapy for psoriasis, also produces type I and type II reactions. The therapeutic and photosensitizing actions of CCT are due to (1) the photoconjugation of the photoreactive ingredients of CCT with DNA, causing interstrand cross-links; and (2) the production of 1O2. CCT is an efficient producer of 1O2, more so than 8-methoxypsoralen, and is responsible for cell-membrane damage and cellular edema.

  4. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. 522.14 Section...AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat...

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Linux DiffServ Implementation

    E-print Network

    Braun, Torsten

    Performance Evaluation of a Linux DiffServ Implementation G¨unther Stattenberger Torsten Braun Differentiated Services (DiffServ) is a well known concept to support Quality of Service in the Internet to the different priority classes, the DiffServ routers reserve correspond- ing shares of resources, i.e. bandwidth

  6. Hierarchical Scheduling for DiffServ Classes , Jianping Wang

    E-print Network

    Yang, Mei

    Hierarchical Scheduling for DiffServ Classes Mei Yang , Jianping Wang , Enyue Lu , S. Q. Zheng@salisbury.edu, sizheng@utdallas.edu Abstract--Due to its simplicity and scalability, the differentiated services (DiffServ) model is expected to be widely deployed across the Internet. For each DiffServ compliant router

  7. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment were calculated based on instantaneous streamflow and metals concentrations. Total metals loading to Tar Creek from chat leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, <0.001 to 0.814 pound per day of iron, 0.003 to 0.036 pound per day of lead, and 10.6 to 47.9 pounds per day of zinc. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment from chat leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc loading came from chat leachate, about 29 percent of total zinc loading came from mine outflow, and about 52 percent of total zinc loading came from Lytle Creek.

  8. Dynamic Mapping between the Controlled-Load IntServ Service and the Assured Forward DiffServ PHB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Pereira; Edmundo Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    This work addresses the interconnection of the IntServ and DiffServ models. In particular, new mapping mechanisms between the Controlled-Load service (CL) of the IntServ model and the Assured Forward (AF) Per-Hop- Behaviours group of the DiffServ model, are proposed and analysed by simula- tion. The proposed mechanisms have a dynamic nature and they are associated to an admission control such

  9. Local Administration of NF-{kappa} B Decoy Oligonucleotides to Prevent Restenosis after Balloon Angioplasty: An Experimental Study in New Zealand White Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowski, Marc, E-mail: kalinows@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Viehofer, Kerstin; Hamann, Christine [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Barry, James J. [Boston Scientific Corporation (United States); Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus Jochen; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of NF-{kappa} B oligonucleotides (ODN) administered by local administration with the channeled balloon catheter to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty in restenotic iliac arteries of New Zealand white rabbits. Materials and Methods. In vitro, 8000 rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMC) where transfected with a liposomal carrier (TfX50) with 100 ng of decoy and scrambled ODN. Inhibition of proliferation was measured using a MTT assay after 24 hours in comparison to control. In vivo, 22 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and received denudation of both common iliac arteries with a 3 mm balloon catheter to induce an arterial stenosis. Four weeks after stenosis induction, local application of NF-{kappa} B in two different concentrations (1 {mu}g: n = 14; 10 {mu}g: n = 8) was performed randomly on one common iliac artery. Scrambled oligonucleotides without specific binding capacities were injected into the contralateral side. The channeled balloon catheter allows simultaneous balloon dilation (8 atm) of the stenosis and local application of a drug solution (2 atm). Four weeks after local drug delivery the animals were killed and the vessels were excised and computerized morphometric measurements were performed. Results. NF-{kappa} B decoy ODN but not scrambled ODN inhibited proliferation of rVSMC in vitro. Following local ODN application in the animals, no acute vascular complications were seen. NF-{kappa} B ODN resulted in a statistically non significant reduction of neointimal area compared to the control group. The neointimal area was 0.97 mm{sup 2} using 1 {mu}g NF-{kappa} B ODN compared to 0.98 mm{sup 2} in the control group. The higher dose resulted in a neointimal area of 0.97 mm{sup 2} compared to 1.07mm{sup 2} at the control side. Conclusions. Local drug delivery of NF-{kappa} B ODN using the 'channeled balloon' catheter could not reduce neointimal hyperplasia in stenostic rabbit iliac arteries. Application modalities have to be improved to enhance the effect of the local application to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

  10. Efficient extraction and detection of aromatic toxicants from crude oil and tar balls using multiple cyclodextrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Serio, Nicole; Levine, Mindy

    2015-06-15

    Herein we report the efficient extraction of aromatic analytes from crude oil and tar balls using multiple cyclodextrin derivatives. The known propensity of the cyclodextrins to bind hydrophobic guests in their hydrophobic interiors enhanced the extraction of aromatic analytes from the oil layer to the aqueous layer, with methyl-?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin providing the most significant enhancement in extraction efficiencies of aromatic toxicants (69% aromatic toxicants in aqueous layer in the presence of methyl-?-cyclodextrin compared to 47% in cyclodextrin-free solution for tar ball oil extraction), and provide optimal tunability for developing efficient extraction systems. The cyclodextrin derivatives also promoted efficient energy transfer in the aqueous solutions, with up to 86% efficient energy transfer observed in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin compared to 50% in the absence of cyclodextrin for oil spill oil extraction. Together, this dual function extraction followed by detection system has potential in the development of environmental remediation systems. PMID:25956442

  11. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  12. Evaluation of some reports on risks to health from exposure to coal-tar-based wood preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M.

    1985-11-01

    This report reviews evidence about health risks that may arise in people exposed to coal-tar-based wood preservatives. The limited information available that is relevant directly to possible effects in humans is assessed critically, from an epidemiological point of view. It is concluded that body contact with this class of materials can produce inflammatory skin conditions and benign tumors. The need for effective action to reduce the incidence of this kind of response is emphasized because there is fairly strong evidence that, under adverse conditions, such benign skin lesions may be precursors for skin cancer. There is no evidence that coal-tar distillate fractions with boiling points below 360 C (the main part of the mixtures used in timber preservation) can themselves give rise to skin cancer in man.

  13. An Investigation of the Mechanism of Influence of Coal-tar Pitch Additive on Changes in the Ordered Structure of Caking Coals during Pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Zubkova; A. Strojwas

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative X-ray phase analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the influence of coal tar pitch on structural changes in co-pyrolyzed Polish coals—P, Z, and B—with good caking properties. It was stated that coal tar pitch weakened interactions between fragments of coal macromolecules and favored their higher mobility at the stage of swelling of the coal grains,

  14. Steam reforming model compounds of biomass gasification tars: conversion at different operating conditions and tendency towards coke formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Coll; Joan Salvadó; Xavier Farriol; Daniel Montané

    2001-01-01

    The purification of biomass-derived syngas via tar abatement by catalytic steam reforming has been investigated using benzene, toluene, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene as surrogated molecules. The effects of temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio on conversion, and the tendency towards coke formation were explored for each model compound. Two commercial nickel-based catalysts, the UCI G90-C and the ICI 46-1, were evaluated. The

  15. Operation of solid oxide fuel cell on biomass product gas with tar levels >10 g Nm ?3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Hofmann; K. D. Panopoulos; P. V. Aravind; M. Siedlecki; A. Schweiger; J. Karl; J. P. Ouweltjes; E. Kakaras

    2009-01-01

    This work assesses experimentally the feasibility of feeding a high tar load product gas from biomass gasification to a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for renewable electricity generation. The SOFC had a nickel gadolinium-doped ceria anode (Ni-GDC) and the gasifier was a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed, employing hot gas-cleaning to remove particulates, HCl and H2S. The SOFC operated

  16. Self-regulation of smoking intensity. Smoke yields of the low-nicotine, low-'tar' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, M V; Fan, J; Ferguson, S; Hoffmann, D

    1995-09-01

    It has been assumed for some time that the 'tar' and nicotine data for individual cigarette brands, as reported by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), do not adequately reflect the levels of exposure to toxic and carcinogenic agents in the smoke. The trend of decreasing 'tar' and nicotine yields of the sales-weighted average US cigarettes was not followed by a proportionate decline of lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. Utilizing a 'tobacco smoke inhalation testing system', we determined smoking profiles for four men and four women who smoked low-nicotine cigarettes ( < or = 0.8 mg/cigarette according to FTC), and for two men and two women who smoked cigarettes with medium-nicotine (0.9-1.2 mg) yields. The recorded smoking profiles were programmed into a smoking machine to establish mainstream smoke yields for 'tar', nicotine, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. The analytical data obtained for each smoker's cigarette were compared with corresponding measurements in the smoke from the same cigarette brand that was generated by machine-smoking under the standardized FTC conditions (1 puff of 2 s duration and 35 ml volume drawn once/min). Significant increases in terms of total volume of smoke inhaled and exposures to 'tar', nicotine, and lung carcinogens were measured (2- to 4-fold) and, because of smokers' compensation for low nicotine delivery, much greater overall exposure resulted from smoking low-nicotine cigarettes. Although these measurements were obtained for a limited number of smokers, they strongly indicate that both low- and medium-nicotine cigarettes are being smoked much more intensely than would be implied from the FTC-data. Therefore, there is an urgent need to accurately quantify the exposure of consumers of the various types of cigarettes to toxic and carcinogenic agents. PMID:7554048

  17. Novel Approach to Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Means of a Nickel-Based Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosecký, M.; Kameníková, P.; Poho?elý, M.; Skoblja, S.; Pun?ochá?, M.

    The nickel-based catalyst was exposed to the raw gas from gasification of woody biomass with air in a fluidized-bed. After dust removal on a barrier filter and sulphur compounds capture, namely H2S, on an active sorbent made of CuO and ZnO, higher hydrocarbons as tar components were decomposed/reformed on aNi-catalyst. Steam reforming reactions led to decomposition of tar and all hydrocarbons higher than CH4 into mainly H2 and CO which further underwent reaction with steam via the water gas shift reaction to CO2. The reforming reactions caused approximately 10-20 % decrease in the lower heating values of the producer gas from the inlet values 5.0-6.5 MJ m-3. The gas yield increased fromvalues 2.4-2.6 m3 kg-1 to values 2.8-3.0 m3 kg-1 on dry biomass basis. The chosen tar removal concept based on combination of dolomite in the fluidized-bed with the secondary catalytic reactor was proved by 20 hours long experiment in which the finaltar content below 30 mg m-3 was attained corresponding to more than 97 % tar conversion. H2S content in producer gas was expected to be below 100 vol. ppm, bulk of which was captured on the sorbent. Only limited deactivation of thecatalyst by sulphur compounds was found in the front of the catalyst bed where sulphur content was determined as high as 173 wt. ppm compared to 22 wt. ppm in the fresh sample.

  18. Comparative quantitative prevalence of mycobacteria and functionally abundant nidA, nahAc, and nagAc Dioxygenase genes in coal tar contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Christopher S. Chewning; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2007-08-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site is heavily contaminated with metals, pesticides, and coal tar with sediments exhibiting high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). High molecular weight PAHs are of concern because of their toxicity and recalcitrance in the environment; as such, there is great interest in microbes, such as fast-growing Mycobacterium spp., capable of degradation of these compounds. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed targeting multiple dioxygenase genes to assess the ecology and functional diversity of PAH-degrading communities. These assays target the Mycobacterium nidA, {beta}-proteobacteria nagAc, and {gamma}-proteobacteria nahAc with the specific goal of testing the hypothesis that Mycobacteria catabolic genes are enriched and may be functionally associated with high molecular weight PAH biodegradation in Chattanooga Creek. Dioxygenase gene abundances were quantitatively compared to naphthalene and pyrene mineralization, and temporal and spatial PAH concentrations. nidA abundances ranged from 5.69 x 10{sup 4} to 4.92 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment; nagAc from 2.42 x 10{sup 3} to 1.21 x 10{sup 7}, and nahAc from below detection to 4.01 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment. There was a significantly greater abundance of nidA and nagAc at sites with the greatest concentrations of PAHs. In addition, nidA and nagAc were significantly positively correlated, indicating a coexistence of organisms carrying these genes. A positive relationship was also observed between nidA and nagAc and pyrene mineralization indicating that these genes serve as biomarkers for pyrene degradation. A 16S rDNA clone library of fast-growing Mycobacteria indicated that the population is very diverse and likely plays an important role in attenuation of high molecular weight PAHs from Chattanooga Creek. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens. PMID:22109669

  20. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ?650km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045