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1

RNA decoys  

PubMed Central

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants. PMID:22899065

Banks, Isaac R.; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B. Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R.; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-01-01

2

In search of decoy/guardee to R genes  

PubMed Central

Plant responses are coordinately controlled by both external and internal signals. Apt perception of pathogen attack and its appropriate conversion to internal signals ultimately determine the outcome of innate immunity. The present review predicts the involvement of unconventional ‘guard/decoy model’ in chickpea-Fusarium encounter. Rapid alkalinization factor is predicted to act as initial ‘Gatekeeper decoy’ counteracting fungal entry. Phospholipases and cystatins probably function as ‘Guardees’ being shielded by R gene(s). Serine Threonine Kinases decodes external pathogenic signals to in planta defense alarms. 14.3.3 provides clues to the wilt mechanism. The versatile sugars serve as signal generators and transmitters maintaining intra and inter cellular connectivity during stress. PMID:20855953

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Basu, Debabrata

2010-01-01

3

Routing Around Decoys Max Schuchard1  

E-print Network

, University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT Decoy Routing is a new approach to Internet censorship circum routing aims to ham- per nation-state level Internet censorship by having routers, rather than end hosts, BGP, Telex, Cirripede, Censorship 1. INTRODUCTION Decoy routing [19, 27, 18], as exemplified by Telex

Minnesota, University of

4

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

5

Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States  

E-print Network

To increase dramatically the distance and the secure key generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), the idea of quantum decoys--signals of different intensities--has recently been proposed. Here, we present the first experimental implementation of decoy state QKD. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we show that a secure key generation rate of 165bit/s, which is 1/4 of the theoretical limit, can be obtained over 15km of a Telecom fiber. We also show that with the same experimental parameters, not even a single bit of secure key can be extracted with a non-decoy-state protocol. Compared to building single photon sources, decoy state QKD is a much simpler method for increasing the distance and key generation rate of unconditionally secure QKD.

Yi Zhao; Bing Qi; Xiongfeng Ma; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Li Qian

2005-03-24

6

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

7

No Direction Home: The True Cost of Routing Around Decoys  

E-print Network

of the Internet may lead to mistaken conclusions about the feasibility of decoy routing and other censorship--Decoy routing is a recently proposed approach for censorship circumvention. It relies on cooperating ISPs in the middle of the Internet to deploy the so called "decoy routers" that proxy network traffic from users

Shmatikov, Vitaly

8

Experimental passive decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources by varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we have experimentally demonstrated the passive decoy-state method over a 50-km-long optical fiber and have obtained a key rate of about 100 bit/s. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

Sun, Qi-Chao; Wang, Wei-Long; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Fei; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Xianfeng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2014-08-01

9

Durandal: fast exact clustering of protein decoys.  

PubMed

In protein folding, clustering is commonly used as one way to identify the best decoy produced. Initializing the pairwise distance matrix for a large decoy set is computationally expensive. We have proposed a fast method that works even on large decoy sets. This method is implemented in a software called Durandal. Durandal has been shown to be consistently faster than other software performing fast exact clustering. In some cases, Durandal can even outperform the speed of an approximate method. Durandal uses the triangular inequality to accelerate exact clustering, without compromising the distance function. Recently, we have further enhanced the performance of Durandal by incorporating a Quaternion-based characteristic polynomial method that has increased the speed of Durandal between 13% and 27% compared with the previous version. Durandal source code is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software/durandal_released_qcp.tgz. Alternatively, a compiled version of Durandal is also distributed with the nightly builds of the Phenix (http://www.phenix-online.org/) crystallographic software suite (Adams et al., Acta Crystallogr Sect D 2010, 66, 213). PMID:22120171

Berenger, Francois; Shrestha, Rojan; Zhou, Yong; Simoncini, David; Zhang, Kam Y J

2012-02-01

10

Fake state attack on practically decoy state quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

In this paper, security of practically decoy state quantum key distribution under fake state attack is considered. If quantum key distribution is insecure under this type of attack, decoy sources can not also provide it with enough security. Strictly analysis shows that Eve should eavesdrop with the aid of photon-number-resolving instruments. In practical implementation of decoy state quantum key distribution where statistical fluctuation is considered, however, Eve can attack it successfully with threshold detectors.

Yong-gang Tan

2012-02-15

11

Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images PMID:8083988

Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

1994-01-01

12

SPINNING-WING DECOYS IN MINNESOTA 993 Effects of spinning-wing decoys on  

E-print Network

-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breed- ing populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in North America. Key words Anas platyrhynchos, crippling, duck hunting, flock behavior, hunting nesting females and many hatch-year states are concerned that local mallard (Anas (HY) mallards

Afton, Alan D.

13

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

14

The neural correlates of the decoy effect in decisions  

PubMed Central

Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the context in which options are presented. The introduction of an inferior option (a decoy) into the choice set can make one of the original options (the target) more attractive than and the other original option (the competitor). This so called “decoy effect” represents a striking violation of the “context-invariant” axiom, yet its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used a novel gambling task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate its neural basis. At both the stimulus and decision phases, choice sets with decoys activated the occipital gyrus and deactivated the inferior parietal gyrus. At the decision phase, choosing the targets vs. the competitors elicited stronger anterior insula activation, suggesting that perceptual salience drives heuristic decision making in the decoy effect. Moreover, across participants, activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) predicted a reduced susceptibility to the decoy effect, indicating that resisting the tendency to make heuristic decisions is taxing. Our findings highlight the power of the decoy effect in laboratory settings and document the neural mechanisms underlying the decoy effect. PMID:25147516

Hu, Jianping; Yu, Rongjun

2014-01-01

15

Effectiveness of Spinning-Wing Decoys Varies Among Dabbling Duck Species and Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and increase kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota

JOSHUA T. ACKERMAN; JOHN M. EADIE; MICHAEL L. SZYMANSKI; JASON H. CASWELL; MARK P. VRTISKA; ANDREW H. RAEDEKE; J. MICHAEL CHECKETT; ALAN D. AFTON; THOMAS G. MOORE; F. DALE CASWELL; RICH A. WALTERS; DALE D. HUMBURG; JULIE L. YEE

2006-01-01

16

Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols  

SciTech Connect

Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

17

Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols  

E-print Network

Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

Patrick Rice; Jim Harrington

2008-12-30

18

Glucocorticoid Receptor DNA Binding Decoy Is a Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a paradigmatic DNA binding transcription factor and was described over 20 years ago as one of the first proteins identified to bind the enhancer region of genes called “response elements.” Since that time, an immense amount of work has revealed that GR transcriptional regulation is controlled at virtually every step of its activity: ligand binding, nuclear translocation, transcriptional cofactor binding, and DNA binding. Just when the major modes of GR regulation appear known, a new study provides yet another mechanism whereby GR transcriptional activity is controlled under conditions of cell growth arrest. In this case, GR activity is repressed by a small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from the growth arrest–specific transcript 5 gene that folds into a soluble glucocorticoid response element–like sequence and serves as a decoy for GR DNA binding. This unexpected mode of regulation by nucleic acid molecular mimicry is probably not confined to GR and should spark interest in the hunt for other ncRNAs that regulate transcription factor binding to DNA.

Michael J. Garabedian (NYU School of Medicine;Department of Microbiology REV); Susan K. Logan (NYU School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)

2010-02-09

19

Experimental Decoy Quantum Key Distribution Up To 130KM Fiber  

E-print Network

Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), being capable of beating PNS attack and uncon- ditionally secure, have become an attractive one recently. But, in many QKD systems, disturbances of transmission channel make quantum bit error rate (QBER) increase which limits both security distance and key bit rate of real-life decoy state QKD systems. We demonstrate the two-intensity decoy QKD with one-way Faraday-Michelson phase modulation system, which is free of channel dis- turbance and keeps interference fringe visibility (99%) long period, near 130KM single mode optical fiber in telecom (1550 nm) wavelength. This is longest distance fiber decoy state QKD system based on two intensity protocol.

Zhen-Qiang Yin; Zheng-Fu Han; Wei Chen; Fang-Xing Xu; Qing-Lin Wu; Guang-Can Guo

2007-04-23

20

Serving Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition and estimation activity (page 12 of PDF), learners estimate serving sizes of different foods and compare their estimates to serving size information provided on nutrition food labels. A Quick Hand Measures guide helps learners visualize serving sizes of different foods using their hand (i.e. a closed fist = serving size of a piece of fruit). This activity also introduces learners to solid and liquid measures. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, reliable resource links and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

21

Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, M.P.; Raedeke, A.H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

2006-01-01

22

Aberrant expression and function of death receptor-3 and death decoy receptor-3 in human cancer  

PubMed Central

Death receptor-3 (DR3) and death decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) are both members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. The TNFR superfamily contains eight death domain-containing receptors, including TNFR1 (also called DR1), Fas (also called DR2), DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, NGFR and EDAR. Upon the binding of these receptors with their corresponding ligands, the death domain recruits various proteins that mediate both the death and proliferation of cells. Receptor function is negatively regulated by decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, DcR3 and OPG). DR3/DcR3 are a pair of positive and negative players with which vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) interacts. VEGI has been suggested to be a potential tumour suppressor. The inhibitory effects of VEGI on cancer are manifested in three main areas: a direct effect on cancer cells, an anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells, and the stimulation of dendritic cell maturation. A recent study indicated that DR3 may be a new receptor for E-selectin, which has been reported to be associated with cancer metastasis. DcR3 is a soluble receptor, highly expressed in various tumours, which lacks an apparent transmembrane segment, prevents cytokine response through ligand binding and neutralization, and is an inhibitor of apoptosis. DcR3 serves as a decoy receptor for FasL, LIGHT and VEGI. The cytokine LIGHT activates various anti-tumour functions and is expected to be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. Certain tumours may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing DcR3, which blocks FasL function. DR3/DcR3 play profound roles in regulating cell death and proliferation in cancer. The present review briefly discusses DR3/DcR3 and attempts to elucidate the role of these negative and positive players in cancer. PMID:22977485

GE, ZHICHENG; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; YE, LIN; JIANG, WEN G.

2011-01-01

23

Photon-number-solving Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

In this paper, a photon-number-resolving decoy state quantum key distribution scheme is presented based on recent experimental advancements. A new upper bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses is given. This upper bound is independent of intensity of the decoy source, so that both the signal pulses and the decoy pulses can be used to generate the raw key after verified the security of the communication. This upper bound is also the lower bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses as long as faint coherent sources and high lossy channels are used. We show that Eve's coherent multiphoton pulse (CMP) attack is more efficient than symmetric individual (SI) attack when quantum bit error rate is small, so that CMP attack should be considered to ensure the security of the final key. finally, optimal intensity of laser source is presented which provides 23.9 km increase in the transmission distance. 03.67.Dd

Qing-yu Cai; Yong-gang Tan

2005-08-13

24

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice.  

PubMed

We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

2013-01-01

25

Efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with quantified security.  

PubMed

We analyse the finite-size security of the efficient Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol implemented with decoy states and apply the results to a gigahertz-clocked quantum key distribution system. Despite the enhanced security level, the obtained secure key rates are the highest reported so far at all fibre distances. PMID:24150299

Lucamarini, M; Patel, K A; Dynes, J F; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z L; Penty, R V; Shields, A J

2013-10-21

26

Decoy state quantum key distribution in telecom dark fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imperfect components of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system will degrade its security. The highly attenuated weak coherent laser source used in today's QKD system is vulnerable to PNS attacks due to multi-photon optical pulses. Decoy State QKD, which is capable of beating PNS attacks and providing unconditional security, has been an attractive scheme recently. We have used a

Wei Chen; Zheng-fu Han; Zhen-qiang Yin; Qing-lin Wu; Guo Wei; Guang-can Guo

2008-01-01

27

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution for the weak coherent photon source with intensity fluctuations  

E-print Network

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, proven to be more desirable than active ones in some scenarios, also have the problem of device imperfections like intensity fluctuations. In this paper the formular of key generation rate of the passive decoy-state protocol using transformed weak coherent pulse (WCP) source with intensity fluctuation is given, and then the influence of intensity fluctuations on the performance of passive decoy-state protocol is rigorously characterized. From numerical simulations, it can be easily seen that intensity fluctuations have unignorable influence on performance of the passive decoy-state QKD protocol with WCP source. Most importantly, our simulations show that, under the same deviation of intensity fluctuations, the passive decoy-state method performs better than the active two-intensity decoy-state method and close to active three-intensity decoy-state method.

Yuan Li; Wan-su Bao; Hong-wei Li; Chun Zhou; Yang Wang

2013-12-28

28

Simulation and Implementation of Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution over 60km Telecom Fiber  

E-print Network

Decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proposed as a novel approach to improve dramatically both the security and the performance of practical QKD set-ups. Recently, many theoretical efforts have been made on this topic and have theoretically predicted the high performance of decoy method. However, the gap between theory and experiment remains open. In this paper, we report the first experiments on decoy state QKD, thus bridging the gap. Two protocols of decoy state QKD are implemented: one-decoy protocol over 15km of standard telecom fiber, and weak+vacuum protocol over 60km of standard telecom fiber. We implemented the decoy state method on a modified commercial QKD system. The modification we made is simply adding commercial acousto-optic modulator (AOM) on the QKD system. The AOM is used to modulate the intensity of each signal individually, thus implementing the decoy state method. As an important part of implementation, numerical simulation of our set-up is also performed. The simulation shows that standard security proofs give a zero key generation rate at the distance we perform decoy state QKD (both 15km and 60km). Therefore decoy state QKD is necessary for long distance secure communication. Our implementation shows explicitly the power and feasibility of decoy method, and brings it to our real-life.

Yi Zhao; Bing Qi; Xiongfeng Ma; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Li Qian

2006-01-25

29

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

30

A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

1987-01-01

31

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

SciTech Connect

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

32

Decoys and cardiovascular development: CXCR7 and regulation of adrenomedullin signaling.  

PubMed

Decoy receptors have ligand binding capacity but, in contrast to cognate receptors, do not initiate typical downstream signaling cascades. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Klein and colleagues (2014) demonstrate that CXCR7 acts as a decoy receptor for adrenomedullin, a peptide hormone with key roles in cardiovascular development. PMID:25203203

Betterman, Kelly L; Harvey, Natasha L

2014-09-01

33

HIF-1? decoy oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit HIF-1? signaling and breast cancer proliferation.  

PubMed

Although HIF-1? is considered an attractive target for the development of cancer therapies, like other transcriptional factors, it has been regarded as 'undruggable'. The decoy approach is a new class of antigene strategy that can be used to modulate the function of endogenous transcriptional factors. Here, we designed a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and tested its effect on the function of HIF-1?. We found the HIF-1? decoy ODN could efficiently enter into cells. Furthermore, these decoy ODNs can significantly block the expression of VEGFA, a known targeted gene of HIF-1? suggesting that the HIF-1? decoy ODNs can inhibit the function of HIF-1?. More importantly, the HIF-1? decoy ODN induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In summary, HIF-1? decoy ODNs can inhibit the function of HIF-1? and induce cancer cell apoptosis. Therefore, HIF-1? decoy ODNs should be further modified to improve their biological activity in vivo. PMID:25334080

Zhu, Xuhong; Li, Qin; Li, Shuang; Chen, Bote; Zou, Haidong

2015-01-01

34

Long distance decoy state quantum key distribution in optical fiber  

E-print Network

The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultra-low-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite statistics without the use of Gaussian approximations in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to photon-number-splitting attacks and highly resistant to Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

Danna Rosenberg; Jim W. Harrington; Patrick R. Rice; Philip A. Hiskett; Charles G. Peterson; Richard J. Hughes; Adriana E. Lita; Sae Woo Nam; Jane E. Nordholt

2006-07-26

35

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF A GREAT HORNED OWL DECOY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE AND ADULT GRAY JAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) decoy on the feeding behavior of adult and juvenile Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were tested by comparing the feeding activity of the jays in the presence of the decoy with that in the presence of a Ring-necked Duck mount and in the absence of other species' models. The owl decoy had

W. A. MONTEVECCHI; A. D. MACCARONE

36

Infrared decoys recognition method based on dual-band information fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targets recognition is an important and difficult task in infrared guidance technology. But with the development of different kinds of infrared decoys, it is difficult to recognize targets from decoys only by information from single-band detectors. In order to improve targets recognition ability from decoys, more information should be used. In this paper, infrared radiation features of targets, infrared decoys and background are analyzed. Research shows that targets and decoys have differences in the thermal energy distribution in different bands because of their difference in material composition. Based on this difference, this paper proposes an information fusion method that fuses information from dual-band detectors to detect and recognize targets. Experimental results show that this method has a better performance compared to the method which only use information from single-band.

Yang, Songqi; Wang, Bingjian; Yi, Xiang; Yu, Haitao; Li, Jia; Zhou, Huixin

2014-11-01

37

Decoy Oligonucleotide Rescues IGF1R Expression from MicroRNA-223 Suppression  

PubMed Central

A mature miRNA generally suppresses hundreds of mRNA targets. To evaluate the selective effect of synthetic oligonucleotide decoys on hsa-miR-223 activity, reporters containing 3’ untranslated regions (UTR) of IGF1R, FOXO1, POLR3G, FOXO3, CDC27, FBXW7 and PAXIP1 mRNAs were constructed for the luciferase assay. The oligonucleotide decoys were designed and synthesized according to mature miR-223 sequence and its target mRNA sequence. Quantitative RT-PCR & western analysis were used to measure miR-223-targeted mRNA expression, Interestingly, apart from the antisense oligonucleotide, decoy nucleotides which were complementary to the 5’, central or 3’ region of mature miR-223 suppressed miR-223 targeting the 3’UTR of IGF1R, FOXO1, FOXO3, CDC27, POLR3G, and FBXW7 mRNAs and rescued the expression of these genes to varying degrees from miR-223 suppression at both mRNA and protein levels. All decoys had no effect on PAXIP1 which was not targeted by miR-223. The decoy 1 that was based on the sequence of IGF1R 3’UTR rescued the expression of IGF1R more significantly than other decoy nucleotides except the antisense decoy 4. Decoy 1 also rescued the expression of FOXO3 and POLR3G of which their 3’UTRs have similar binding sites for miR-223 with IGF1R 3’UTR. However decoy 1 failed to recover Sp1, CDC27 and FBXW7 expression. These data support that the sequence-specific decoy oligonucleotides might represent exogenous competing RNA which selectively inhibits microRNA targeting. PMID:24324762

Wang, Rong; He, Bao Mei; Qi, Bing; Xu, Chang Jun; Wu, Xing Zhong

2013-01-01

38

Bioventing PAH contamination at the Reilly Tar Site  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater PAH removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate PAH biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total PAH was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to PAH metabolism, strong correlations were found between the PAH concentration and biodegradation rates.

Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E. [Battelle Columbus, OH (United States); Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1995-12-31

39

Protocol choice and parameter optimization in decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been demonstrated in both laboratories and field-tests using attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. Although researchers have studied various decoy-state MDI-QKD protocols with two or three decoy states, a clear comparison between these protocols is still missing. This invokes the question of how many types of decoy states are needed for practical MDI-QKD. Moreover, the system parameters to implement decoy-state MDI-QKD are only partially optimized in all previous works, which casts doubt on the actual performance of former demonstrations. Here, we present analytical and numerical decoy-state methods with one, two and three decoy states. We provide a clear comparison among these methods and find that two decoy states already enable a near optimal estimation and more decoy states cannot improve the key rate much in either asymptotic or finite-data settings. Furthermore, we perform a full optimization of system parameters and show that full optimization can significantly improve the key rate in the finite-data setting. By simulating a real experiment, we find that full optimization can increase the key rate by more than one order of magnitude compared to non-optimization. A local search method to optimize efficiently the system parameters is proposed. This method can be four orders of magnitude faster than a trivial exhaustive search to achieve a similar optimal key rate. We expect that this local search method could be valuable for general fields in physics.

Feihu Xu; He Xu; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2014-06-01

40

Enhancing practical security of quantum key distribution with a few decoy states  

E-print Network

Quantum key distribution establishes a secret string of bits between two distant parties. Of concern in weak laser pulse schemes is the especially strong photon number splitting attack by an eavesdropper, but the decoy state method can detect this attack with current technology, yielding a high rate of secret bits. In this Letter, we develop rigorous security statements in the case of finite statistics with only a few decoy states, and we present the results of simulations of an experimental setup of a decoy state protocol that can be simply realized with current technology.

Jim W. Harrington; J. Mark Ettinger; Richard J. Hughes; Jane E. Nordholt

2005-03-01

41

General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors  

E-print Network

The existing theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography assumes the exact control of each states from Alice's source. Such exact control is impossible in practice. We develop the theory of decoy-state method so that it is unconditionally secure even there are state errors of sources, if the range of a few parameters in the states are known. This theory simplifies the practical implementation of the decoy-state quantum key distribution because the unconditional security can be achieved with a slightly shortened final key, even though the small errors of pulses are not corrected.

Xiang-Bin Wang; C. -Z. Peng; J. Zhang; L. Yang; Jian-Wei Pan

2008-02-21

42

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

43

Conoco's South Texas Tar Sands Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of activities and first pilot results of the South Texas Tar Sands Project. Included is a description of a new process for which a patent has been applied. The process, known as Fracture Assisted Steamflood Technology, or FAST, is a blend of high pressure steam flooding and horizontal fracturing techniques. 169,000 barrels of tar were produced

Oshlo

1981-01-01

44

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

45

Conoco's South Texas Tar Sands Project  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of activities and first pilot results of the South Texas Tar Sands Project. Included is a description of a new process for which a patent has been applied. The process, known as Fracture Assisted Steamflood Technology, or FAST, is a blend of high pressure steam flooding and horizontal fracturing techniques. 169,000 barrels of tar were produced before shutdown in June 1980, with a ratio of 10.6 barrels of steam injected per barrel of tar. The primary application of FAST is in reserviors that contain extremely viscous tar or are thin enough that heat losses to the confining strata are a problem. Commercialization of the project is expected to require large amounts of lead time, capital and manpower. Tar sands activities are said to be synfuels projects rather than an extension of heavy activities. (JMT)

Oshlo, E.L.

1981-06-01

46

Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Brian M. Bowen, Shlomo Hershkop, Angelos D. Keromytis, Salvatore J. Stolfo  

E-print Network

. Keromytis, Salvatore J. Stolfo Department of Computer Science Columbia University Abstract. The insiderBaiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents Brian M. Bowen, Shlomo Hershkop, Angelos D proposed to detect nefarious insider actions including user modeling and profiling techniques, policy

Yang, Junfeng

47

Implementation of an information system for the traceability of live decoy birds.  

PubMed

In the Veneto region (northern Italy), some geographic areas in the Po Valley have a large concentration of industrial poultry farms and are located close to wet areas with high populations of wild waterfowl. Live decoy birds belonging to the orders of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes can constitute a "bridge" for avian influenza (AI) viruses between the wild reservoir and the rural holdings where live decoy birds are usually kept, sometimes together with poultry. Thus, the use of live decoy birds during bird hunting could increase the risk of exposure of poultry farms to AI viruses. Since 2008, this kind of hunting has been strictly regulated with regard to the detection and use of live decoy birds. In order to guarantee the application of appropriate AI risk-modulating and monitoring measures in the management of the live decoys according to the European Union (EU) provisions, a solid and well-structured information system has been created. The Regional Data Bank (RDB) of farms and livestock, which has been operating since 1997, also contains data on farms and poultry movements. Therefore, the RDB management software was updated to collect data from the hunters who keep live decoy birds, and specific functions were integrated to ensure the traceability of these birds. Each live decoy bird has been identified by an irremovable ring. The individual code of each ring is recorded in the RDB and linked to both the holder's code and the hunting area. Transfers and death/slaughtering of the registered birds are recorded, too. The activation of a computerized data collection system has proven to be a prerequisite for the implementation of a control system for live decoy birds and provides an essential tool for the management of AI emergencies. PMID:23402130

Bortolotti, Laura; Rizzo, Simone; Favero, Laura; Bonfanti, Lebana; Comin, Arianna; Marangon, Stefano

2012-12-01

48

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

SciTech Connect

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial development. The tenacious attitude of both industry and certain governments in the pursuit of tar sands development will keep the greater tar sands dream alive.

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1982-11-01

49

Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors  

PubMed Central

Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback–Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors. PMID:22855685

Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

50

Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

2014-09-30

51

MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

2009-09-01

52

Practical decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all the detection attacks; thus when it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if a practical weak coherent source is used by Alice and Bob. However, until now, the analysis of decoy-state MDI-QKD with a weak coherent source is incomplete. In this paper, we derive, with only vacuum+weak decoy state, some tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of error rate for the fraction of signals in which both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to the untrusted third party Charlie. The numerical simulations show that our method with only vacuum+weak decoy state can asymptotically approach the theoretical limit of the infinite number of decoy states. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of date is also considered based on the standard statistical analysis.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2013-05-01

53

Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security  

E-print Network

Experimental one-way decoy pulse quantum key distribution running continuously for 60 hours is demonstrated over a fiber distance of 20km. We employ a decoy protocol which involves one weak decoy pulse and a vacuum pulse. The obtained secret key rate is on average over 10kbps. This is the highest rate reported using this decoy protocol over this fiber distance and duration.

J. F. Dynes; Z. L. Yuan; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

2007-06-19

54

Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States Yi Zhao, Bing Qi, Xiongfeng Ma, Hoi-Kwong Lo, and Li Qian  

E-print Network

QKD. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we showExperimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States Yi Zhao, Bing Qi, Xiongfeng Ma, Hoi generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), the idea of quantum decoys--signals of different

Qian, Li

55

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with a passive decoy-state method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all detector loopholes. When it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if Alice and Bob do not have strict single-photon sources. However, active modulation of source intensity, which is used to generate the decoy state, may leave side channels and leak additional information to Eve. In this paper, we consider the MDI-QKD with a passive decoy state, in which both Alice and Bob send pulses to an untrusted third party, Charlie. Then, in order to estimate the key generation rate, we derive two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of the yield and the upper bound of the error rate that both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to Charlie. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account based on the standard statistical analysis.

Shan, Yu-Zhu; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Li; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-10-01

56

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with nonclassical light generated in a one-dimensional waveguide.  

PubMed

We investigate a decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme with a sub-Poissonian single-photon source, which is generated on demand by scattering a coherent state off a two-level system in a one-dimensional waveguide. We show that, compared to coherent state decoy-state QKD, there is a two-fold increase of the key generation rate. Furthermore, the performance is shown to be robust against both parameter variations and loss effects of the system. PMID:23455244

Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J; Baranger, Harold U

2013-03-01

57

Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses  

E-print Network

We report here a complete experimental realization of one-way decoy-pulse quantum key distribution, demonstrating an unconditionally secure key rate of 5.51 kbps for a 25.3 km fibre length. This is two orders of magnitudes higher than the value that can be obtained with a non-decoy system. We introduce also a simple test for detecting the photon number splitting attack and highlight that it is essential for the security of the technique to fully characterize the source and detectors used.

Z. L. Yuan; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

2006-10-03

58

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 LTR TATA and TAR region sequences required for transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 LTR is regulated at the transcriptional level by both cellular and viral proteins. Using HeLa cell extracts, multiple regions of the HIV LTR were found to serve as binding sites for cellular proteins. An untranslated region binding protein UBP-1 has been purified and fractions containing this protein bind to both the TAR and TATA regions. To investigate the role of cellular proteins binding to both the TATA and TAR regions and their potential interaction with other HIV DNA binding proteins, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of both these regions was performed followed by DNase I footprinting and transient expression assays. In the TATA region, two direct repeats TC/AAGC/AT/AGCTGC surround the TATA sequence. Mutagenesis of both of these direct repeats or of the TATA sequence interrupted binding over the TATA region on the coding strand, but only a mutation of the TATA sequence affected in vivo assays for tat-activation. In addition to TAR serving as the site of binding of cellular proteins, RNA transcribed from TAR is capable of forming a stable stem-loop structure. To determine the relative importance of DNA binding proteins as compared to secondary structure, oligonucleotide-directed mutations in the TAR region were studied. Local mutations that disrupted either the stem or loop structure were defective in gene expression. However, compensatory mutations which restored base pairing in the stem resulted in complete tat-activation. This indicated a significant role for the stem-loop structure in HIV gene expression. To determine the role of TAR binding proteins, mutations were constructed which extensively changed the primary structure of the TAR region, yet left stem base pairing, stem energy and the loop sequence intact. These mutations resulted in decreased protein binding to TAR DNA and defects in tat-activation, and revealed factor binding specifically to the loop DNA sequence. Further mutagenesis which inverted this stem and loop mutation relative to the HIV LTR mRNA start site resulted in even larger decreases in tat-activation. This suggests that multiple determinants, including protein binding, the loop sequence, and RNA or DNA secondary structure, are important in tat-activation and suggests that tat may interact with cellular proteins binding to DNA to increase HIV gene expression. Images PMID:2721501

Garcia, J A; Harrich, D; Soultanakis, E; Wu, F; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R B

1989-01-01

59

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

60

Studies on microbiological degradation of tobacco tar.  

PubMed

A bacterium, strain MR4, was isolated from tobacco tar-contaminated soil and identified as Klebsiella oxytoca based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequence. The organism grew optimally at 34 degrees C and pH 7.0 to 7.5. During growth on tobacco tar the isolate produced acid materials, which caused the drop of pH in the cultures. GC/MS analysis indicated that the isolate had the ability to degrade phenolic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, especially nicotine in tobacco tar. The degradation rate of strain MR4 was 75.56% for nicotine, 35.84% to 58.16% for hydroxybenzenes and the other aromatic compounds, 29.15% to 65.56% for heterocyclics, and 35.17% to 82.59% for hydrocarbons. PMID:16287642

Ruan, Aidong; Min, Hang

2005-01-01

61

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources  

SciTech Connect

Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty et al., Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

Curty, Marcos [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, E-36310 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain); Ma, Xiongfeng [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Qi, Bing [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moroder, Tobias [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Quantum Information Theory Group, Institute of Theoretical Physics I, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-02-15

62

Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases  

E-print Network

Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases, Washington 98195 Received September 18, 2007 Automated methods for assigning peptides to observed tandem mass spectra typically return a list of peptide-spectrum matches, ranked according to an arbitrary score

Storey, John D.

63

Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations  

E-print Network

Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations Christopher James, Generalized Belief Propagation, Free Energy, Protein- Protein Interactions #12;Abstract We present a physics for a given complex, and Generalized Belief Propa- gation to perform the free energy calculation. Our method

Langmead, Christopher James

64

Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment  

PubMed Central

Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

2012-01-01

65

Treatment of murine Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammatory bowel disease with NF-?B decoy oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

The Th1 and Th2 T cell responses that underlie inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are likely to depend on NF-?B transcriptional activity. We explored this possibility in studies in which we determined the capacity of NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODNs) to treat various murine models of IBD. In initial studies, we showed that i.r. (intrarectal) or i.p. administration of decoy ODNs encapsulated in a viral envelope prevented and treated a model of acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid–induced (TNBS-induced) colitis, as assessed by clinical course and effect on Th1 cytokine production. In further studies, we showed that NF-?B decoy ODNs were also an effective treatment of a model of chronic TNBS-colitis, inhibiting both the production of IL-23/IL-17 and the development of fibrosis that characterizes this model. Treatment of TNBS-induced inflammation by i.r. administration of NF-?B decoy ODNs did not inhibit NF-?B in extraintestinal organs and resulted in CD4+ T cell apoptosis, suggesting that such treatment is highly focused and durable. Finally, we showed that NF-?B decoy ODNs also prevented and treated oxazolone-colitis and thus affect a Th2-mediated inflammatory process. In each case, decoy administration led to inflammation-clearing effects, suggesting a therapeutic potency applicable to human IBD. PMID:16239967

Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Fuss, Ivan J.; Preiss, Jan C.; Strober, Warren; Kitani, Atsushi

2005-01-01

66

The inhibitory effect of chimeric decoy oligodeoxynucleotide against NF-?B and Sp1 in renal interstitial fibrosis.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of chronic renal disease is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and deposition of the extracellular matrix, leading to widespread tissue fibrosis. Much of the matrix in chronic renal disease is synthesized by interstitial myofibroblasts, recruited from resident fibroblasts and circulating precursors. These changes are believed to be derived from epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubuloepithelial cells. To develop a novel therapeutic approach for treating renal fibrosis, we examined the simultaneous inhibition of the transcription factors NF-?B and Sp1 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). To simultaneously inhibit both NF-?B and Sp1, we developed chimeric (Chi) decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) which contained binding sequences for both NF-?B and Sp1 in a single decoy molecule to enhance the effective use of decoy ODN strategy. Chi decoy ODN significantly attenuated tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a mouse model of UUO compared to scrambled decoy ODN, as demonstrated by the reduced interstitial volume, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis-related gene expression. Interestingly, Chi decoy ODN also regulated EMT-related gene expression, leading to the inhibition of renal fibrotic changes in vivo and in vitro. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of Chi decoy ODN treatment for preventing renal fibrosis and EMT processes. This strategy might be useful to improve the clinical outcome after chronic renal disease. PMID:23114611

Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Jae-Shin; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Kwan-Kyu

2013-05-01

67

Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

68

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

69

Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

Skinner, Q.

1980-03-01

70

A Helpful Serving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

Rockower, David

2006-01-01

71

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and thus climate forcing. Formerly tar balls were hypothesized to be formed in secondary processes in the atmosphere from lignin pyrolysis products. Based on their typical size distributions, morphology, chemical characteristics and other features we now suggest that tar balls are initially produced by the emission of primary tar droplets upon biomass burning. To verify our hypothesis tar balls were produced under laboratory conditions with the total exclusion of flame processes. An all-glass apparatus was designed and tar ball particles were generated from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood. The size range, morphology and the chemical composition of the laboratory-generated tar ball particles were similar to those observed in biomass smoke plumes or elsewhere in the atmosphere. Based on our results and the chemical and physical characteristics of tar we suggest that tar balls can be formed by the chemical transformation of emitted primary tar droplets.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2013-12-01

72

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

73

Amino acid network for the discrimination of native protein structures from decoys.  

PubMed

With the development of structural genomics projects, the discrimination of native proteins from decoys has become one of the major challenges in protein structure prediction. In comparison with the energy function based techniques, amino acid network provides a simple but efficient method for the native structure selection. Amino acid network (AAN) is a graph representation of protein structure where amino acids in the protein are the nodes and their interactions or contacts are the edges. In this review, we first briefly summarized the methods for the construction and characterization of AANs. Then the four network properties, i.e. average degree, complexity, clustering coefficient of the largest cluster (CCoe) and the size of the top large communities (CComS), applied to the native structure selection are discussed and summarized. We concluded with the discussion of the future perspective on the application of AAN for the native folding detecting among the decoy sets. PMID:25059328

Zhou, Jianhong; Yan, Wenying; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

2014-01-01

74

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km.  

PubMed

We report an implementation of decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) over 200 km optical fiber cable through photon polarization encoding. This is achieved by constructing the whole QKD system operating at 320 MHz repetition rate, and developing high-speed transmitter and receiver modules. A novel and economic way of synchronization method is designed and incorporated into the system, which allows to work at a low frequency of 40kHz and removes the use of highly precise clock. A final key rate of 15 Hz is distributed within the experimental time of 3089 seconds, by using super-conducting single photon detectors. This is longest decoy-state QKD yet demonstrated up to date. It helps to make a significant step towards practical secure communication in long-distance scope. PMID:20588703

Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Jian; Cai, Wen-Qi; Wan, Xu; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Jin-Hong; Liu, Shu-Bin; Liang, Hao; Yang, Lin; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

2010-04-12

75

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

76

Network properties of decoys and CASP predicted models: a comparison with native protein structures.  

PubMed

Protein structure space is believed to consist of a finite set of discrete folds, unlike the protein sequence space which is astronomically large, indicating that proteins from the available sequence space are likely to adopt one of the many folds already observed. In spite of extensive sequence-structure correlation data, protein structure prediction still remains an open question with researchers having tried different approaches (experimental as well as computational). One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify the native protein structures from a milieu of decoys/models. In this work, a rigorous investigation of Protein Structure Networks (PSNs) has been performed to detect native structures from decoys/models. Ninety four parameters obtained from network studies have been optimally combined with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive a general metric to distinguish decoys/models from the native protein structures with an accuracy of 94.11%. Recently, for the first time in the literature we had shown that PSN has the capability to distinguish native proteins from decoys. A major difference between the present work and the previous study is to explore the transition profiles at different strengths of non-covalent interactions and SVM has indeed identified this as an important parameter. Additionally, the SVM trained algorithm is also applied to the recent CASP10 predicted models. The novelty of the network approach is that it is based on general network properties of native protein structures and that a given model can be assessed independent of any reference structure. Thus, the approach presented in this paper can be valuable in validating the predicted structures. A web-server has been developed for this purpose and is freely available at . PMID:23694935

Chatterjee, S; Ghosh, S; Vishveshwara, S

2013-07-01

77

An engineered Axl 'decoy receptor' effectively silences the Gas6-Axl signaling axis.  

PubMed

Aberrant signaling through the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase has been associated with a myriad of human diseases, most notably metastatic cancer, identifying Axl and its ligand Gas6 as important therapeutic targets. Using rational and combinatorial approaches, we engineered an Axl 'decoy receptor' that binds Gas6 with high affinity and inhibits its function, offering an alternative approach from drug discovery efforts that directly target Axl. Four mutations within this high-affinity Axl variant caused structural alterations in side chains across the Gas6-Axl binding interface, stabilizing a conformational change on Gas6. When reformatted as an Fc fusion, the engineered decoy receptor bound Gas6 with femtomolar affinity, an 80-fold improvement compared to binding of the wild-type Axl receptor, allowing effective sequestration of Gas6 and specific abrogation of Axl signaling. Moreover, increased Gas6 binding affinity was critical and correlative with the ability of decoy receptors to potently inhibit metastasis and disease progression in vivo. PMID:25242553

Kariolis, Mihalis S; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Jones, Douglas S; Kapur, Shiven; Mathews, Irimpan I; Giaccia, Amato J; Cochran, Jennifer R

2014-11-01

78

Decoy receptor CXCR7 modulates adrenomedullin-mediated cardiac and lymphatic vascular development.  

PubMed

Atypical 7-transmembrane receptors, often called decoy receptors, act promiscuously as molecular sinks to regulate ligand bioavailability and consequently temper the signaling of canonical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways. Loss of mammalian CXCR7, the most recently described decoy receptor, results in postnatal lethality due to aberrant cardiac development and myocyte hyperplasia. Here, we provide the molecular underpinning for this proliferative phenotype by demonstrating that the dosage and signaling of adrenomedullin (Adm, gene; AM, protein)-a mitogenic peptide hormone required for normal cardiovascular development-is tightly controlled by CXCR7. To this end, Cxcr7(-/-) mice exhibit gain-of-function cardiac and lymphatic vascular phenotypes that can be reversed upon genetic depletion of adrenomedullin ligand. In addition to identifying a biological ligand accountable for the phenotypes of Cxcr7(-/-) mice, these results reveal a previously underappreciated role for decoy receptors as molecular rheostats in controlling the timing and extent of GPCR-mediated cardiac and vascular development. PMID:25203207

Klein, Klara R; Karpinich, Natalie O; Espenschied, Scott T; Willcockson, Helen H; Dunworth, William P; Hoopes, Samantha L; Kushner, Erich J; Bautch, Victoria L; Caron, Kathleen M

2014-09-01

79

A refined method to calculate false discovery rates for peptide identification using decoy databases.  

PubMed

Using decoy databases to estimate the number of false positive assignations is one of the most widely used methods to calculate false discovery rates in large-scale peptide identification studies. However, in spite of their widespread use, the decoy approach has not been fully standardized. In conjunction with target databases, decoy databases may be used separately or in the form of concatenated databases, allowing a competition strategy; depending on the method used, two alternative formulations are possible to calculate error rates. Although both methods are conservative, the separate database approach overestimates the number of false positive assignations due to the presence of MS/MS spectra produced by true peptides, while the concatenated approach calculates the error rate in a population that has a higher size than that obtained after searching a target database. In this work, we demonstrate that by analyzing as a whole the joint distribution of matches obtained after performing a separate database search, and applying the competition strategy, it is possible to make a more accurate calculation of false discovery rates. We show that both separate and concatenated approaches clearly overestimate error rates with respect to those calculated by the new algorithm, using several kinds of scores. We conclude that the new indicator provides a more sensitive alternative, and establishes for the first time a unique and integrated framework to calculate error rates in large-scale peptide identification studies. PMID:19714873

Navarro, Pedro; Vázquez, Jesús

2009-04-01

80

Coarse- and fine-grained models for proteins: evaluation by decoy discrimination.  

PubMed

Coarse-grained models for protein structure are increasingly used in simulations and structural bioinformatics. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of three granularities of protein representation based on their ability to discriminate between correctly folded native structures and incorrectly folded decoy structures. The three levels of representation used one bead per amino acid (coarse), two beads per amino acid (medium), and all atoms (fine). Multiple structure features were compared at each representation level including two-body interactions, three-body interactions, solvent exposure, contact numbers, and angle bending. In most cases, the all-atom level was most successful at discriminating decoys, but the two-bead level provided a good compromise between the number of model parameters which must be estimated and the accuracy achieved. The most effective feature type appeared to be two-body interactions. Considering three-body interactions increased accuracy only marginally when all atoms were used and not at all in medium and coarse representations. Though two-body interactions were most effective for the coarse representations, the accuracy loss for using only solvent exposure or contact number was proportionally less at these levels than in the all-atom representation. We propose an optimization method capable of selecting bead types of different granularities to create a mixed representation of the protein. We illustrate its behavior on decoy discrimination and discuss implications for data-driven protein model selection. PMID:23184763

Kauffman, Chris; Karypis, George

2013-05-01

81

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

82

Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases  

SciTech Connect

The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

1988-02-01

83

Serving the Undocumented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

Pluviose, David

2007-01-01

84

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

85

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

86

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

87

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

88

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2011-10-01

89

StatServ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offering links to software, publications, data mining, meetings, jobs, consulting, online information (such as courses, datasets, text books, etc.), and institutions, StatServ is your one-stop site for finding information on statistics. The software list contains the linked name of the software and developer, a brief description, and its availability. The Data mining section is a self-contained unit, providing general explanations of data mining and books, conferences, journals, reports, and software that deal with data mining. A search mechanism allows visitors a quick and easy method for finding specific information. Links to newsgroups and mailing lists are also available at the site.

90

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and

Bart?omiej Mazela

2007-01-01

91

Major tar sand and heavy oil deposits of the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for this report has grown with each passing year since the last official tabulation of US tar sands, the 1965 Department of Interior\\/Bureau of Mines Monograph 12 entitled, Surface and Shallow Oil-Impregnated Rocks of the United States. Four important national energy resource objectives are addressed: (1) to develop an updated assessment of US tar sand resources; (2) to

Hammershaimb

1983-01-01

92

Oil shale and tar sands as substitute fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the sheer magnitude of the resources available, coal takes a strong position as the alternate source of fuel supplies when petroleum is unavailable. However oil shale and tar sands are also possibilities, and, indeed, have some advantages over coal. Although Oklahoma has no oil shale deposits, it does have appreciable amounts of tar sands. Oil shale deposits in the

Ball

1974-01-01

93

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

94

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

95

Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.  

PubMed

A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

2013-05-01

96

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

97

Accurate Assignment of Significance to Neuropeptide Identifications Using Monte Carlo K-Permuted Decoy Databases  

PubMed Central

In support of accurate neuropeptide identification in mass spectrometry experiments, novel Monte Carlo permutation testing was used to compute significance values. Testing was based on k-permuted decoy databases, where k denotes the number of permutations. These databases were integrated with a range of peptide identification indicators from three popular open-source database search software (OMSSA, Crux, and X! Tandem) to assess the statistical significance of neuropeptide spectra matches. Significance p-values were computed as the fraction of the sequences in the database with match indicator value better than or equal to the true target spectra. When applied to a test-bed of all known manually annotated mouse neuropeptides, permutation tests with k-permuted decoy databases identified up to 100% of the neuropeptides at p-value < 10?5. The permutation test p-values using hyperscore (X! Tandem), E-value (OMSSA) and Sp score (Crux) match indicators outperformed all other match indicators. The robust performance to detect peptides of the intuitive indicator “number of matched ions between the experimental and theoretical spectra” highlights the importance of considering this indicator when the p-value was borderline significant. Our findings suggest permutation decoy databases of size 1×105 are adequate to accurately detect neuropeptides and this can be exploited to increase the speed of the search. The straightforward Monte Carlo permutation testing (comparable to a zero order Markov model) can be easily combined with existing peptide identification software to enable accurate and effective neuropeptide detection. The source code is available at http://stagbeetle.animal.uiuc.edu/pepshop/MSMSpermutationtesting. PMID:25329667

Andren, Per E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

2014-01-01

98

HopDock: a probabilistic search algorithm for decoy sampling in protein-protein docking  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of a higher-order molecular assembly formed by interacting molecular units, a problem commonly known as docking, is central to unraveling the molecular basis of cellular activities. Though protein assemblies are ubiquitous in the cell, it is currently challenging to predict the native structure of a protein assembly in silico. Methods This work proposes HopDock, a novel search algorithm for protein-protein docking. HopDock efficiently obtains an ensemble of low-energy dimeric configurations, also known as decoys, that can be effectively used by ab-initio docking protocols. HopDock is based on the Basin Hopping (BH) framework which perturbs the structure of a dimeric configuration and then follows it up with an energy minimization to explicitly sample a local minimum of a chosen energy function. This process is repeated in order to sample consecutive energy minima in a trajectory-like fashion. HopDock employs both geometry and evolutionary conservation analysis to narrow down the interaction search space of interest for the purpose of efficiently obtaining a diverse decoy ensemble. Results and conclusions A detailed analysis and a comparative study on seventeen different dimers shows HopDock obtains a broad view of the energy surface near the native dimeric structure and samples many near-native configurations. The results show that HopDock has high sampling capability and can be employed to effectively obtain a large and diverse ensemble of decoy configurations that can then be further refined in greater structural detail in ab-initio docking protocols. PMID:24564839

2013-01-01

99

STAT1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition of acute rejection in mouse heart transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During acute rejection of cardiac transplants endothelial cell–leukocyte interaction fuelled by co-stimulatory molecules like\\u000a CD40\\/CD154 may ultimately lead to graft loss. One key player in up-regulating the expression of such pro-inflammatory gene\\u000a products is the interferon-?-dependent transcription factor STAT-1. Hence down-regulating interferon-?-stimulated pro-inflammatory\\u000a gene expression in the graft endothelial cells by employing a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (dODN) neutralising STAT-1 may protect

Tomislav Stojanovic; Andreas H. Wagner; Shijun Wang; Eva Kiss; Nicolas Rockstroh; Jens Bedke; Hermann-Josef Gröne; Markus Hecker

2009-01-01

100

Bright integrated photon-pair source for practical passive decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a bright, nondegenerate type-I parametric down-conversion source, which is well suited for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution. We show the photon-number-resolved analysis over a broad range of pump powers and we prove heralded higher-order n-photon states up to n =4. The inferred photon click statistics exhibit excellent agreements to the theoretical predictions. From our measurement results we conclude that our source meets the requirements to avert photon-number-splitting attacks.

Krapick, S.; Stefszky, M. S.; Jachura, M.; Brecht, B.; Avenhaus, M.; Silberhorn, C.

2014-01-01

101

Bright Integrated Photon-Pair Source for Practical Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution  

E-print Network

We report on a bright, nondegenerate type-I parametric down-conversion source, which is well suited for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution. We show the photon-number-resolved analysis over a broad range of pump powers and we prove heralded higher-order $n$-photon states up to $n=4$. The inferred photon click statistics exhibit excellent agreements to the theoretical predictions. From our measurement results we conclude that our source meets the requirements to avert photon-number-splitting attacks.

Stephan Krapick; Michael Stefszky; Michal Jachura; Benjamin Brecht; Malte Avenhaus; Christine Silberhorn

2014-01-28

102

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2014-07-01

103

Classification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and decoys by a support vector machine.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase has long been considered as a target for Alzheimer disease therapy. In this work, several classification models were built for the purpose of distinguishing acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and decoys. Each molecule was initially represented by 211 ADRIANA.Code and 334 MOE descriptors. Correlation analysis, F-score and attribute selection methods in Weka were used to find the best reduced set of descriptors, respectively. Additionally, models were built using a Support Vector Machine and evaluated by 5-, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation. The best model gave a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.99 and a prediction accuracy (Q) of 99.66% for the test set. The best model also gave good result on an external test set of 86 compounds (Q=96.51%, MCC=0.93). The descriptors selected by our models suggest that H-bond and hydrophobicity interactions are important for the classification of AChEIs and decoys. PMID:22263859

Wang, Kai; Hu, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Aixia

2012-07-01

104

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2012-07-01

105

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2013-07-01

106

40 CFR 61.132 - Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.  

...all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting...duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank...sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and...with repair within 15 days of detection. (d) Each owner or...

2014-07-01

107

Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents Brian M. Bowen, Shlomo Hershkop, Angelos D. Keromytis, Salvatore J. Stolfo  

E-print Network

Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents Brian M. Bowen, Shlomo Hershkop, Angelos D. Keromytis, Salvatore J. Stolfo Department of Computer Science Columbia University New York, NY 10027 Abstract-- The insider threat remains one of the most vexing problems in computer security. A number

Yang, Junfeng

108

HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):265270, Fall 2007 Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries  

E-print Network

consumption by large flocks of juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) is a serious problem for growers starlings. Key words: blueberries, decoy traps, human­wildlife conflicts, relocation, starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, translocation, trapping Small fruit such as blueberries, cherries, and grapes are often subject

109

A Novel Approach to Decoy Set Generation: Designing a Physical Energy Function Having Local Minima with Native Structure Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a new approach to the generation of candidate structures (decoys) for ab initio prediction of protein structures. Our method is based on random sampling of conformation space and subsequent local energy minimization. At the core of this approach lies the design of a novel type of energy function. This energy function has local minima with native structure characteristics

Chen Keasar; Michael Levitt

2003-01-01

110

Preparation of meso-carbon microbeads from coal tars  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar (CT0) with 3.7wt% primary pyridine insoluble fraction (PI) was chosen as the raw material to prepare mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). The tar was filtered to remove PI, obtaining PI-free coal tar (CT1). CT0, CT1 and their mixtures with different proportions were carbonized under pressure for 2 hours respectively. The polymerizates were filtered, and the residues were extracted with pyridine, and thus MCMB was obtained as a pyridine insoluble fraction. Both the yield and the size of resultant MCMB increased with the decreasing of primary PI content in raw coal tars. No clear evidence was observed that the primary PI particles exhibited active sites during the formation of MCMB, while it`s certain that they restricted coalescence between mesophase spheres.

Ling, L.C.; Liu, L.; Zhang, B.J.; Wu, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

1997-12-31

111

Producing coal tar with a low content of quinoline insolubles  

SciTech Connect

The quality of coal tar has deteriorated recently due to lack of oven capacity and investment, changes in the raw material base, and the adoption of smokeless charging which has greatly increased the proportion of ash in the tar. At the same time, customer requirements have become more stringent, particularly with regard to quinoline insolubles. Plants operating tar centrifuges have shown that water and ash can be removed by as much as 70% and 40% respectively. A study of tar centrifuging rheology has shown that diluents such as toluene and anthracene fractions are essential; toluene is preferred as it operates at a lower temperature. Addition of 30% toluene with 3 min. centrifuging reduces the toluene insolubles, and a longer centrifuging period reduces the quinoline insolubles to admissible levels.

Markov, V.V.; Petropol'skaya, V.M.; Batyeva, T.S.; Semenenko, L.E.; Dedikov, S.I.; Sibirko, V.P.; Storozhenko, O.T.

1984-08-01

112

Modified Paving Bitumens Based on Tar and Petroleum Polymeric Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of tar with petroleum polymeric resins yields paving-grade bitumens with enhanced cohesion. With respect to the heat resistance and other parameters, these bitumens meet the requirements of GOST (State Standard) for BND 90\\/130 paving bitumens.

V. V. Fedorov; A. M. Syroezhko; O. Yu. Begak; V. A. Proskuryakov; G. I. Borovikov

2002-01-01

113

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

114

Average structural analysis of tar obtained from pyrolysis of wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional analytical methods such as 1H NMR, vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and elemental analysis were used to characterize the tar obtained from pyrolysis of pine.The major fraction of tar obtained during pyrolysis of pine at different temperatures was the insoluble fraction in n-heptane which corresponds to asphaltenes; this fraction was characterized and analyzed using average structural parameters. The structural unit

Diana López; Nancy Acelas; Fanor Mondragón

2010-01-01

115

Investigation of subsurface tar-sand deposits in western Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands (also referred to as asphaltic sandstones, heavy-oil deposits, or bitumen-impregnated sandstones) in W. Kentucky have been recognized as a potential mineral resource for over 100 yr. These deposits have become the subject of increasing interest as a potential petroleum resource. Previous studies have provided estimates of the potential resources of shallow mineable tar-sand deposits. These investigations have concentrated

D. A. Williams; M. C. Noger; P. J. Gooding

1982-01-01

116

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

117

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

SciTech Connect

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16

118

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1989-05-01

119

Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

2004-01-01

120

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

121

Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines student tuition, ad valorem property taxes, and state appropriations utilizing a revenue-per-contact-hour model to identify disparities in the Texas' community college funding mechanism. Methodology is presented to identify differences between and among Caucasian-serving, African-American-serving, Hispanic-serving, and other…

Waller, Lee; Glasscock, Herlinda M.; Glasscock, Ronnie L.; Fulton-Calkins, Patsy J.

2006-01-01

122

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

E-print Network

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum+weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Xiang-Chun Ma; Chun-Yan Li; Lin-Mei Liang

2014-07-15

123

Denosumab mimics the natural decoy receptor osteoprotegerin by interacting with its major binding site on RANKL  

PubMed Central

Bone homeostasis critically relies on the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis which can be targeted by the fully human monoclonal antibody denosumab in conditions with increased bone resporption such as bone metastases. The binding site and therefore the molecular mechanism by which this antibody inhibits RANKL has not been characterized so far. Here, we used random peptide phage display library screenings to identify the denosumab epitope on RANKL. Alignments of phage derived peptide sequences with RANKL suggested that this antibody recognized a linear epitope between position T233 and Y241. Mutational analysis confirmed the core residues as critical for this interaction. The spatial localization of this epitope on a 3-dimensional model of RANKL showed that it overlapped with the major binding sites of OPG and RANK on RANKL. We conclude that denosumab inhibits RANKL by both functional and molecular mimicry of the natural decoy receptor OPG. PMID:25138051

Schieferdecker, Aneta; Voigt, Mareike; Riecken, Kristoffer; Braig, Friederike; Schinke, Thorsten; Loges, Sonja; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Fehse, Boris; Binder, Mascha

2014-01-01

124

Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys  

PubMed Central

Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator–prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a ‘theoretical curiosity’. PMID:19793737

De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M. Justin

2010-01-01

125

Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

Lindskov, K.L.

1983-01-01

126

New Hampshire 4-H Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve  

E-print Network

a nurse come in to discuss how babies develop and the importance of warmth. A representative from coupons for food or baby items. Take a field trip to the local grocery store and have youth do a costNew Hampshire 4-H Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve Community Service Projects All good community

New Hampshire, University of

127

New Hampshire 4-H Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve  

E-print Network

. Project Idea What We Will Learn Date of Project Leadership Service Goals: These are service projects INew Hampshire 4-H Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve My Service Goals The most effective service learning projects are those that you feel a connection to. Take some time to consider what projects

New Hampshire, University of

128

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

129

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

130

Tumour-associated macrophages targeted transfection with NF-?B decoy/mannose-modified bubble lipoplexes inhibits tumour growth in tumour-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2 phenotype that promotes tumour progression, and conversion of M2 TAM toward a tumouricidal M1 phenotype is a promising anti-cancer therapy. As NF-?B is a key regulator of macrophage polarization, we developed an in vivo TAM-targeting delivery system that combines mannose-modified bubble liposomes/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) and ultrasound (US) exposure. We investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection on TAM phenotype in solid tumour-bearing mice. Post-transfection tumour growth and survival rates were also recorded. Th2 cytokine (IL-10) level in TAM was significantly lower by NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure, while Th1 cytokine levels (IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6) were significantly higher when compared with controls. In addition, mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and arginase were significantly lower in TAM post-NF-?B decoy transfection. Importantly, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection inhibited tumour growth and prolonged survival rates in mice. Therefore, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure may be an effective approach for anti-cancer therapy based on TAM phenotypic conversion from M2 toward M1. PMID:24579693

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2014-06-01

131

Average structural analysis of tar obtained from pyrolysis of wood.  

PubMed

Conventional analytical methods such as (1)H NMR, vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and elemental analysis were used to characterize the tar obtained from pyrolysis of pine. The major fraction of tar obtained during pyrolysis of pine at different temperatures was the insoluble fraction in n-heptane which corresponds to asphaltenes; this fraction was characterized and analyzed using average structural parameters. The structural unit of the tar is composed of one aromatic ring substituted by aliphatic chains, olefinic groups and the presence of oxygenated groups. Two of such average structures determined with this methodology corresponds to 4-formyl-2,6-dimethoxy-3-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]-5-propylbenzoic acid and 2,3,5-trimethoxy-6-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]-4-propylbenzaldehyde. PMID:19962881

López, Diana; Acelas, Nancy; Mondragón, Fanor

2010-04-01

132

Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

Fogel, S.

1987-09-01

133

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

134

Target-decoy search strategy for increased confidence in large-scale protein identifications by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has become the preferred method for conducting large-scale surveys of proteomes. Automated interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) spectra can be problematic, however, for a variety of reasons. As most sequence search engines return results even for 'unmatchable' spectra, proteome researchers must devise ways to distinguish correct from incorrect peptide identifications. The target-decoy

Joshua E Elias; Steven P Gygi

2007-01-01

135

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

136

Decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol is proposed to remove the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the assumption that the encoding systems are perfectly characterized. In contrast, the MDI-QKD protocol based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (CHSH-MDI-QKD) weakens this assumption, which only requires the quantum state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space and the devices are independent. In experimental realizations, the weak coherent state, which is always used in QKD systems due to the lack of an ideal single-photon source, may be prepared in the high-dimensional space. In this paper, we investigate the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with s (3?s?5) intensities, including one signal state and s -1 decoy states, and we also consider the finite-size effect on the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with five intensities. Simulation results show that this scheme is very practical.

Zhang, Chun-Mei; Li, Mo; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Han, Yun-Guang; Xu, Man-Li; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2014-09-01

137

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

138

Single-Molecule FRET Studies of HIV TAR-DNA Hairpin Unfolding Dynamics.  

PubMed

We directly measure the dynamics of the HIV trans-activation response (TAR)-DNA hairpin with multiple loops using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) methods. Multiple FRET states are identified that correspond to intermediate melting states of the hairpin. The stability of each intermediate state is calculated from the smFRET data. The results indicate that hairpin unfolding obeys a "fraying and peeling" mechanism, and evidence for the collapse of the ends of the hairpin during folding is observed. These results suggest a possible biological function for hairpin loops serving as additional fraying centers to increase unfolding rates in otherwise stable systems. The experimental and analytical approaches developed in this article provide useful tools for studying the mechanism of multistate DNA hairpin dynamics and of other general systems with multiple parallel pathways of chemical reactions. PMID:25254491

Chen, Jixin; Poddar, Nitesh K; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Cooper, David; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Landes, Christy F

2014-10-23

139

Purification of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer and TAR binding proteins EBP-1 and UBP-1.  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is regulated by viral proteins and cellular factors that bind to the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). At least five regions of the HIV LTR serve as binding sites for HeLa cellular proteins. One region containing two copies of the sequence GGGACTTTCC functions as an enhancer element for HIV transcriptional regulation. Another region between -17 and +44 known as the TAR region contains two copies of the sequence CTCTCTGG and is also important in tat-induced activation of the HIV LTR. HeLa cell extracts were used to purify cellular proteins binding to portions of the enhancer region (EBP-1) and the TAR region (UBP-1) by a combination of conventional and DNA affinity chromatography. Several species of proteins of between 55 and 60 kd were found to bind to specific sequences in the enhancer region and these proteins also bound to a portion of the NF-kappa B binding site in the immunoglobulin kappa enhancer. Two proteins of between 61 and 63 kd were the major species found to bind to specific sequences in the TAR region and fractions containing these proteins also bind to the TATA region. Both UBP-1 and EBP-1 exhibited specific binding as demonstrated by both UV cross-linking and DNase I footprinting. Mutations of either the enhancer or TAR regulatory regions prevented binding of these purified factors. These results demonstrate the binding of highly purified cellular proteins to important transcriptional regulatory regions in the HIV LTR. Images PMID:3138113

Wu, F K; Garcia, J A; Harrich, D; Gaynor, R B

1988-01-01

140

Temperature impact on the formation of tar from biomass pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar evolution was measured as a function of temperature during wood pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor operated at near atmospheric pressure. The yields of total tar and phenolic compounds were markedly reduced whereas aromatic compounds increased with increasing temperature between 700 and 900°C. The chemical distribution of principal tar constituents at selected time points was obtained by intermittent sampling using

Qizhuang Yu; Claes Brage; Guanxing Chen; Krister Sjöström

1997-01-01

141

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2012-07-01

142

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

143

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

144

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2011-07-01

145

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2014-07-01

146

Combination fluid bed dry distillation and coking process for oil\\/tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for direct coking of tar sands which includes contacting the tar sand with heat transfer particles resulting from combustion of coked sand effluent from the coking process, and transporting the combination up a riser\\/mixer to a coking vessel whereby separation of oil and hydrocarbon gases from the sand is initiated. The tar sand is introduced into

H. Owen; J. H. Haddad; J. C. Zahner

1985-01-01

147

Catalytic pyrolysis of coal tar and the dynamics of gases sorbed in polymers probed by NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of a bituminous coal tar in a fixed bed reactor, was investigated. Potential catalysts and the effect of temperature and residence time on tar conversion was also investigated. The observed temperature dependence of tar conversion was then used to model the kinetics of these reactions by applying a lumped parameter approach. The strongest catalytic activity was displayed by

Cain

1989-01-01

148

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin  

E-print Network

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Department in a previous article (Abu-Khamsin, 2001). In that article, oxidation kinetics of tar were studied as a preliminary step before feasibility of in-situ combustion as a tar-dissipation technique could be established

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

149

Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age  

E-print Network

to identify different products of distilled wood of both Pinaceae (e.g. spruce and pine) and Betu- laceae (e; Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Diterpenoids; Iron-Age 1. Introduction The investigation of wood tar. Biochemical markers of wood tars Triterpenoid resinous compounds originating from birch bark tar have been

150

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen  

E-print Network

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjørn Qvale, Ulrik-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially

151

Systemic Administration of a Cyclic Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Decoy Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Growth without Inducing Toxicological Effects  

PubMed Central

Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to tumorigenesis in most malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Intravenous delivery of a chemically modified cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide with improved serum and thermal stability demonstrated antitumor efficacy in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression such as cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL in a mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy of the cyclic STAT3 decoy after multiple intravenous doses in Foxn1 nu mice in anticipation of clinical translation. The two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of cyclic STAT3 decoy demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume compared with the control groups (mutant cyclic STAT3 decoy or saline) in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression. There was no dose-dependent effect of cyclic STAT3 decoy on tumor volume or STAT3 target gene expression. There were no significant changes in body weights between the groups during the dosing period, after the dosing interval or on the day of euthanasia. No hematology or clinical chemistry parameters suggested toxicity of the cyclic STAT3 decoy compared with saline control. No gross or histological pathological abnormalities were noted at necropsy in any of the animals. These findings suggest a lack of toxicity of intravenous administration of a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. In addition, comparable antitumor effects indicate a lack of dose response at the two dose levels investigated. PMID:24395569

Sen, Malabika; Paul, Kathleen; Freilino, Maria L; Li, Hua; Li, Changyou; Johnson, Daniel E; Wang, Lin; Eiseman, Julie; Grandis, Jennifer R

2014-01-01

152

Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.  

PubMed

Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2014-08-01

153

Professional and Part-Time Chemokine Decoys in the Resolution of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflammation is essential for protection from infection and for the repair of damaged tissue. Much is now known about how inflammation is induced and maintained, but the processes underlying the resolution of inflammation are often overlooked. However, resolution is an essential component of all successful inflammatory responses because it ensures the restoration of tissue homeostasis and prevents immunopathology of the type seen in chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Small secreted proteins called chemokines, acting through chemokine receptors, are known to be critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment and function during the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Thus, their efficient removal would seem to be a prerequisite for successful resolution. In recent years, it has emerged that specialized chemokine "decoy" receptors exist that actively participate in this process. Moreover, other chemokine receptors have been proposed to lead a double life and perform opposing roles during inflammation: leukocyte recruitment (by signaling) and resolution (by chemokine sequestration). A recent study provides further support for this theory by showing that apoptotic inflammatory leukocytes increase the number of surface chemokine receptors and that these receptors can remove chemokines from inflamed tissue. Leukocyte apoptosis is already known to aid resolution, not just because it eliminates leukocytes from inflamed tissues, but also because their consumption by macrophages leads to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The new work indicates that chemokine sequestration may be another mechanism exploited by dying cells to assist in the resolution of inflammation.

Chris Hansell (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology Infection and Inflammation REV); Robert Nibbs (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation REV)

2007-05-01

154

Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

2008-12-01

155

Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Tar balls” are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (?90 mol % carbon)

Mihály Pósfai; András Gelencsér; Renáta Simonics; Krisztina Arató; Jia Li; Peter V. Hobbs; Peter R. Buseck

2004-01-01

156

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

157

SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

158

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

159

The presence of conspecific decoys enhances the attractiveness of an NaCl resource to the yellow-spined locust, Ceracris kiangsu.  

PubMed

Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl-treated filter paper. In a two-choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCl) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl-treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources. PMID:21539416

Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

2011-01-01

160

Connecting Knowledge to Serve Society  

E-print Network

Connecting Knowledge to Serve Society Scholarship Focused Outreach and Engagement Hiram E Commission, 2000 #12;For MSU: Two Perspectives · AAU: Emphasis on knowledge discovery · Land grant: Emphasis on knowledge application One approach: Knowledge-based What Is an Engaged University? #12;...the challenges

161

Characterisation of naturally and artificially weathered pine tar coatings by visual assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarring experiments with pine tar from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) obtained from a traditionally accomplished kiln production have been carried out, in order to investigate potentials of improvement concerning tarring of the preserved Norwegian medieval stave churches. Pine tar coated test panels of pine wood were exposed to three different natural climates in Norway and on a regular basis characterised

Inger Marie Egenberg; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

2003-01-01

162

The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

2006-01-01

163

Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study. PMID:25372942

Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

2014-01-01

164

Human milk contains novel glycans that are potential decoy receptors for neonatal rotaviruses.  

PubMed

Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MS(n) analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MS(n) are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L; Ashline, David J; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Estes, Mary K; Reinhold, Vernon N; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F

2014-11-01

165

Type I interferon mimetics bypass vaccinia virus decoy receptor virulence factor for protection of mice against lethal infection.  

PubMed

The canonical model of interferon (IFN) signaling focuses solely on the activation of STAT transcription factors which, according to the model, are initiated by the singular event of cross-linkage of the receptor extracellular domain by the IFN. The IFN has no further function beyond this. The model thus provides no approach to circumventing poxviruses decoy receptors that compete with the IFN receptors for IFNs. This simple event has allowed smallpox virus to decimate human populations throughout the ages. We have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that has resulted in the development of small peptide mimetics to both types I and II IFNs. In this report, we focus on a type I IFN mimetic at positions 152 to 189, IFN-?1(152-189), which corresponds to the C terminus of human IFN-?1. This mimetic functions intracellularly and is thus not recognized by the B18R vaccinia virus decoy receptor. Mimetic synthesized with an attached palmitate (lipo-) for cell penetration protects mice from a lethal dose of vaccinia virus, while the parent IFN-?1 is ineffective. Unlike IFN-?1, the mimetic does not bind to the B18R decoy receptor. It further differs from the parent IFN in that it lacks the toxicity of weight loss and bone marrow suppression in mice while at the same time possessing a strong adjuvant effect on the immune system. The mimetic is thus an innate and adaptive immune regulator that is evidence of the dynamic nature of the noncanonical model of IFN signaling, in stark contrast to the canonical or classical model of signaling. PMID:24964806

Ahmed, Chulbul M; Johnson, Howard M

2014-08-01

166

Performance enhancement of a decoy-state quantum key distribution using a conditionally prepared down-conversion source in the Poisson distribution  

SciTech Connect

We study the behavior of decoy-state quantum key distribution systems using a conditionally prepared down-conversion source, analyzing such a source running in a mode of operation with either a thermal photon number distribution or a Poisson photon number distribution. By comparing both modes of operations to the three-intensity proposal of Wang et al., to the one-intensity proposal of Adachi et al., and to the currently demonstrated faint-laser pulse system, we demonstrate that a down-conversion source in a Poissonian mode of operation can largely enhance the performance of decoy-state quantum key distribution systems. This makes the down-conversion-based decoy-state system an interesting alternative to current technological implementations based on faint-laser pulses.

Wang Qin; Karlsson, Anders [Department of Microelectronics and Information Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

2007-07-15

167

Improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method  

E-print Network

We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement device independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method. After introducing some relations among different fluctuation ratios, we reanalysis the effect of statistical fluctuations and obtain more tight estimations. Based on this, we find that the key rate is improved by about 97% than the result given by Xu., et al. (Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333) in the case of data-size $10^{12}$ for the distance 50km.

Zong-Wen Yu; Yi-Heng Zhou; Xiang-Bin Wang

2014-10-13

168

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms that resulted from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed with numerical modeling. Horizontal fracture radii of 100 ft (30.5 m) and vertical fracture half-lengths of 250 ft (76.2 m) with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft (2787 to 6503 m/sup 2/) are sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation. Mechanisms that are important during fluid loading and unloading of induced fractures include thermal expansion of tar oil, countercurrent imbibition of water and oil caused by capillary pressure effects, and fracture compressibility.

Dietrich, J.K.

1986-05-01

169

DOE small business program solicits EOR and tar sands projects  

SciTech Connect

Small Business Innovation Research, SBIR, program awards are made in three phases: 1. approximately 100 fixed-price awards in amounts up to $50,000 for a period of 6 1/2 months; 2. promising results from Phase 1 will result in cost-reimbursable awards during FY1988 in amounts up to $500,000 for a 2-year period; 3. non-Federal capital will be used for commercial application of the research. Methods for enhanced oil recovery and recovery of bitumens from tar sands are being sought only in the following areas: new processes for fluid diversion; innovative tracking of flood fronts in recovery processes; and improved recovery efficiency in heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. Four award winners for FY1986 are listed and the methods briefly described.

Not Available

1986-12-01

170

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyolands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. The total in place resources, are 6.3 billion barrels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses is necessary before a more accurate determination of resources is attempted.

Dana, G. F.; Oliver, R. L.; Elliott, J. R.

1984-05-01

171

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

172

Cracking reactions of tar from pyrolysis of spruce wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate vapour phase cracking of tar from pyrolysis of spruce wood, experiments with small particles of spruce wood (0.5–1.0mm) were carried out both in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and in a coupling of the TGA with a consecutive tubular reactor. In all experiments, the TGA was heated from 105 to 1050°C at a heating rate of 5Kmin?1.

Johannes Rath; Gernot Staudinger

2001-01-01

173

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numerical modeling. Fracture radii of 100 feet and half-lengths of 250 feet with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 square feet were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of

Deitrich

1983-01-01

174

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numerical modeling. Fracture radii of 100 feet and half-lengths of 250 feet with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 square feet were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation.

Deitrich, J.K.

1983-03-01

175

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numeric modeling. Fracture radii of 100 ft and half-lengths of 250 ft with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of

Dietrich

1983-01-01

176

Cyclic Steaming of Tar Sands Through Hydraulically Induced Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms that resulted from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed with numerical modeling. Horizontal fracture radii of 100 ft (30.5 m) and vertical fracture half-lengths of 250 ft (76.2 m) with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft (2787 to 6503 m²) are sufficient to reproduce

J. K. Dietrich

1986-01-01

177

Cyclic steaming of tar sands through hydraulically induced fractures  

SciTech Connect

Fracture dimensions and process mechanisms resulting from cyclic steam stimulation above fracturing pressure in German and Canadian tar sands are analyzed using numeric modeling. Fracture radii of 100 ft and half-lengths of 250 ft with fracture surface areas of 30,000 to 70,000 sq ft were sufficient to reproduce steam injectivity into reservoirs containing highly viscous oil and negligible amounts of movable water saturation.

Dietrich, J.K.

1983-01-01

178

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

179

REMEDIATION OF THE TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE: AN UPDATE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is a portion of an abandoned lead and zinc mining area known as the Tri-State Mining District (OK, KS and MO) and includes approximately 104 km2 of disturbed land and contaminated water resources in extreme northeastern Oklahoma. Underground mining from the 1890s through the 1960s degraded over 1000 surface ha, and produced nearly 500 km

Robert W. Nairn

180

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO  

E-print Network

-level ozone) and ground-level ozone ·· Control ofControl of VOCsVOCs ·· Formation and control of.hut.fi/~rzevenhorzevenho//gasbookgasbook HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Definitions ofDefinitions of VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, tar, soot). methane) in Europe, 1994 (tonnes)in Europe, 1994 (tonnes) Ground-level ozone in Europe,Ground-level ozone

Zevenhoven, Ron

181

Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest distribution and annual harvest rates of mallards due to increasing use of SWDs by hunters in North America.

Szymanski, M.L.; Afton, A.D.

2005-01-01

182

Mechanisms and kinetics of homogeneous secondary reactions of tar from continuous pyrolysis of wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change of mass and composition of biomass tar due to homogeneous secondary reactions was experimentally studied by means of a lab reactor system that allows the spatially separated production and conversion of biomass tar. A tarry pyrolysis gas was continuously produced by pyrolysis of wood chips (fir and spruce, 10–40mm diameter) under fixed-bed biomass gasification conditions. Homogeneous secondary tar

Philipp Morf; Philipp Hasler; Thomas Nussbaumer

2002-01-01

183

Catalytic cracking of tar component from high-temperature fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cracking removal of tar component in high-temperature fuel gas cleanup is one of the most crucial problems in developing cleanest advanced power technology. Five catalysts were evaluated to tar component removal from high-temperature fuel gas in a fixed-bed reactor. 1-Methylnaphthalene was chosen as a model of tar component. The Y-zeolite and NiMo catalysts were found to be the most

Binlin Dou; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha; Seung Wook Baek

2003-01-01

184

Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

185

Kidney stone and urinary bladder telangiectasia in a patient with TAR syndrome.  

PubMed

TAR syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by bilateral absence of the radius and thrombocytopenia. The known urinary anomalies are duplex ureter, dilatation of renal pelvis, horseshoe kidney and functional problems like vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis. In this report of a case with TAR syndrome, a kidney stone and bladder telangiectasia were found coincidentally during the investigation of hematuria. TAR syndrome is discussed in the light of the medical literature. To our knowledge, no case has been reported demonstrating nephrolithiasis and bladder telangiectasia in TAR patients. PMID:19102062

Akil, Ipek; Gözmen, Salih; Yilmaz, Omer; Taneli, Can

2008-01-01

186

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26

187

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21

188

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

189

pTAR-Encoded Proteins in Plasmid Partitioning  

PubMed Central

Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465–478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream genes, parB and orf-84, of which only parB was found to be essential for partitioning in A. tumefaciens. Purified ParA exhibited a weak ATPase activity that was modestly increased by nonspecific DNA. ParB bound in vitro to repeated sequences present in a region, parS, that possesses centromere and operator functions and within which we identified the primary transcription start site by primer extension. In certain respects the Par proteins behave normally in the foreign host Escherichia coli. In E. coli, as in A. tumefaciens, ParB repressed the partition operon; ParA, inactive alone, augmented this repression. Functional similarities between the partition system of pTAR and those of other plasmids and bacteria are prominent, despite differences in size, organization, and amino acid sequence. PMID:10714993

Kalnin, Kirill; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Yarmolinsky, Michael

2000-01-01

190

pTAR-encoded proteins in plasmid partitioning.  

PubMed

Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465-478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream genes, parB and orf-84, of which only parB was found to be essential for partitioning in A. tumefaciens. Purified ParA exhibited a weak ATPase activity that was modestly increased by nonspecific DNA. ParB bound in vitro to repeated sequences present in a region, parS, that possesses centromere and operator functions and within which we identified the primary transcription start site by primer extension. In certain respects the Par proteins behave normally in the foreign host Escherichia coli. In E. coli, as in A. tumefaciens, ParB repressed the partition operon; ParA, inactive alone, augmented this repression. Functional similarities between the partition system of pTAR and those of other plasmids and bacteria are prominent, despite differences in size, organization, and amino acid sequence. PMID:10714993

Kalnin, K; Stegalkina, S; Yarmolinsky, M

2000-04-01

191

Tar removal during the fluidized bed gasification of plastic waste.  

PubMed

A recycled polyethylene was fed in a pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.381 m and a maximum feeding capacity of 90 kg/h. The experimental runs were carried out under various operating conditions: the bed temperature was kept at about 850 degrees C, the equivalence ratio varied between 0.2 and 0.35, the amount of bed material was between 131 and 215 kg, the fluidizing velocity was between 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, quartz sand and olivine were used as bed material, and air and steam were used as fluidizing reactants. The results confirm that the tar removal treatments applied inside the gasifier (primary methods) can eliminate or strongly reduce the need for a further downstream cleanup of the syngas. In particular, the utilization of a natural olivine as an in situ tar reduction agent remarkably improves the quality of the product gas, in terms of both high hydrogen volumetric fraction and larger syngas yield. PMID:18693006

Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

2009-02-01

192

HIV-1 TAR element is processed by Dicer to yield a viral micro-RNA involved in chromatin remodeling of the viral LTR  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a regulatory mechanism conserved in higher eukaryotes. The RNAi pathway generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) or micro RNA (miRNA) from either long double stranded stretches of RNA or RNA hairpins, respectively. The siRNA or miRNA then guides an effector complex to a homologous sequence of mRNA and regulates suppression of gene expression through one of several mechanisms. The suppression of gene expression through these mechanisms serves to regulate endogenous gene expression and protect the cell from foreign nucleic acids. There is growing evidence that many viruses have developed in the context of RNAi and express either a suppressor of RNAi or their own viral miRNA. Results In this study we investigated the possibility that the HIV-1 TAR element, a hairpin structure of ~50 nucleotides found at the 5' end of the HIV viral mRNA, is recognized by the RNAi machinery and processed to yield a viral miRNA. We show that the protein Dicer, the enzyme responsible for cleaving miRNA and siRNA from longer RNA sequences, is expressed in CD4+ T-cells. Interestingly, the level of expression of Dicer in monocytes is sub-optimal, suggesting a possible role for RNAi in maintaining latency in T-cells. Using a biotin labeled TAR element we demonstrate that Dicer binds to this structure. We show that recombinant Dicer is capable of cleaving the TAR element in vitro and that TAR derived miRNA is present in HIV-1 infected cell lines and primary T-cell blasts. Finally, we show that a TAR derived miRNA is capable of regulating viral gene expression and may be involved in repressing gene expression through transcriptional silencing. Conclusion HIV-1 TAR element is processed by the Dicer enzyme to create a viral miRNA. This viral miRNA is detectable in infected cells and appears to contribute to viral latency. PMID:17663774

Klase, Zachary; Kale, Prachee; Winograd, Rafael; Gupta, Madhur V; Heydarian, Mohammad; Berro, Reem; McCaffrey, Timothy; Kashanchi, Fatah

2007-01-01

193

THE EFFECT OF WATER-GAS TAR ON OYSTERS By Philip H. Mitchell  

E-print Network

of Fisheries at Woods Hole could not then be carried further. The tar was obtained from the separator taken under comparable conditions from the same separator at another time showed, according in these experiments, and weighing 83.2 grams, was put into a battery jar with 40 c. c. of water-gas tar and 2,500 c. c

194

Tar reduction in pyrolysis vapours from biomass over a hot char bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of pyrolysis vapours over char was investigated in order to maximise tar conversion for the development of a new fixed bed gasifier. Wood samples were decomposed at a typical pyrolysis temperature (500°C) and the pyrolysis vapours were then passed directly through a tar cracking zone in a tubular reactor. The product yields and properties of the condensable phases

P. Gilbert; C. Ryu; V. Sharifi; J. Swithenbank

2009-01-01

195

Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All

Michael Y Mi; Jiying Zhang; Yukai He

2005-01-01

196

Shakedown operations in commercial production of sulfuric acid from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe process technology for processing acid tars to obtain sulfuric acid by means of high temperature splitting to regenerate spent sulfuric acid contaminated with organic impurities. An illustration presents a simplified flow plan for acid tar processing. The authors conclude, from experience with this unit, that process indexes meet design requirements, in particular with respect to the degree

V. M. Perfilev; V. B. Golyshev; A. D. Goncharenko; A. M. Shtafinskaya; V. S. Sushchev

1985-01-01

197

77 FR 48431 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Pamlico and Tar Rivers, Washington, NC. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards posed by fireworks displays. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Pamlico River and Tar River during Beaufort County's 300th Anniversary Celebration...

2012-08-14

198

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu of a reservoir tar were studied employing a variable-temperature oxidation reactor. Mixed with clean, loose sand to provide for sustained in-situ combustion in the reservoir. INTRODUCTION Tarmat is a loosely defined term

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

199

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2012-04-01

202

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2011-04-01

203

78 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; Pamlico River and Tar River; Washington, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Pamlico and Tar Rivers in Washington...display that was delayed due to Tropical Storm Andrea. This action is necessary...area will extend over the navigable waters of the Pamlico and Tar Rivers....

2013-07-11

204

Response and acclimatisation of symptomless smokers on changing to a low tar, low nicotine cigarette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten symptomless smokers were switched from their usual cigarette to a low tar, low nicotine test cigarette for two weeks to investigate their immediate response and subsequent acclimatisation to the test cigarette. The tar (T) and nicotine (N) yields of the test cigarettes were T = 3.8 mg, N = 0.6 mg; the median yields of the usual cigarettes were

G Woodman; S P Newman; D Pavia; S W Clarke

1987-01-01

205

Potential for the use of pyrolytic tar from bagasse in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar from pyrolyzed bagasse was characterized according to its main structural features. Its solubility in NaOH solutions results in an alkaline tar solution (ATS) that exhibits surface active properties. The prepared ATS was successfully used as a foam flotation agent in copper mining, as a foaming agent in foam concrete formation, and as a fluidization agent for Portland cement manufacture.

L. E. Brossard Perez; L. A. B. Cortez

1997-01-01

206

Task 3.9 -- Catalytic tar cracking. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure swing adsorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means to remove these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generate useful products, e.g., methane gas, which is crucial to the operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. The objectives of this project are to investigate whether gasification tars can be cracked by synthetic nickel-substituted micamontmorillonite, zeolite, or dolomite material; and whether the tars can be cracked selectively by these catalysts to produce a desired liquid and/or gas stream. Results to date are presented in the cited papers.

Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.

1995-12-31

207

Characterization of the replication and stability regions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.  

PubMed

A 5.4-kilobase region containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance of the 44-kilobase Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR has been mapped and characterized. Within this region is a 1.3-kilobase segment that is capable of directing autonomous replication. The remaining segment contains the stability locus for maintenance of pTAR during nonselective growth. Approximately 35% of pTAR shares sequence homology with pAg119, a 44-kilobase cryptic plasmid in grapevine strain 1D1119. However, no homology was detected between pTAR DNA and several Ti plasmids or several other small cryptic plasmids in many A. tumefaciens strains. A recombinant plasmid containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance region of pTAR was compatible with pTiC58, pTi15955, and pTi119 and incompatible with pAg119. A new compatibility group, Inc Ag-1, is discussed. PMID:6321432

Gallie, D R; Zaitlin, D; Perry, K L; Kado, C I

1984-03-01

208

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed

Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

1979-06-01

209

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed Central

Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

1979-01-01

210

Honors Research Paper The Selection of Near-Native Decoys In Protein-Protein Docking by  

E-print Network

and expense associated with experimental methods, protein docking simulations can serve not only as a test strategies. My novel score outperforms standard scores: the aver- age z-score of near-native structures is 0 the role of eliminating structures or designs that are unlikely to be correct in preparation for subsequent

Gray, Jeffrey J.

211

REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL  

E-print Network

REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL Requestor's Name of alcohol served and to prevent individuals from driving, if impaired, or returning to work. Approved: (1 Services, Building 400. NOTE: No alcohol may be served during sports activities until games are completed

212

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings  

E-print Network

coconut Lettuce leaves Directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the tropical fruit and banana. 2 and toss until evenly coated. 4. Sprinkle with the coconut. 5. Line a serving bowl with lettuce leaves and spoon in the salad. 6. Sprinkle with the coconut and serve. Nutritional Facts per serving: 150 calories

Florida, University of

213

Method for controlling flocculant addition to tar sand tailings  

SciTech Connect

The hot water extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand produces a large volume of solids-laden aqueous tailings as a waste product. The solids in the tailings stream may be flocculated by the addition of time and the components of the stream then separated into a water-free solids phase and a clarified water phase. During flocculation, the zeta potential of the stream is monitored. It rises from an initial negative zeta potential, as the lime is added. Flocculation is terminated when the zeta potential is about zero. At this point, the tailings are in optimum condition for separation into the water-free solids phase and the clarified water phase. Separation is preferably effected by vacuum filtration.

Fuhr, B.J.; Liu, J.K.

1981-08-04

214

Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

2014-01-01

215

Phytomonitoring and management of tar piles on the Qatari coastal marshes, Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

Most of the shores in Qatar and other oil producing countries have had a long history of crude oil pollution from different sources. This pilot study was to assess the problem and suggest a management programme for disposing of the collected tar or lessening the impact of tar accumulation. The vegetation on the sites used for dumping tar was used in a field survey to identify bioindicators of tar pollution and of the natural recovery of polluted sites. The phytomonitoring results indicate that recovery of polluted sites can be quite rapid after clean-up and restoration. To facilitate natural plant invasion and colonization, and the restoration of tar piles, the dumping sites must have plant communities with high species diversity and a high percentage of annual plants. Depending on the sand-tar ratio in the piles, artificial seeding of selected plant species (listed) can be applied by using species mixes or single species seeding. Management techniques are suggested to optimize the natural recovery and revegetation of tar-affected coastal marshes. PMID:15091484

Hegazy, A K

1995-01-01

216

Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte–mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine–mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD. PMID:23348739

van den Bogaard, Ellen H.; Bergboer, Judith G.M.; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M.J.J.; Hato, Stanleyson V.; van der Valk, Pieter G.M.; Schroder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost

2013-01-01

217

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01

218

Effects of physical and chemical parameters on the tar yield during rapid pyrolysis of wood  

SciTech Connect

Effects of temperature (200-1000{degrees}C), solid residence time (0-30 sec), heating rate (100 to 10,000{degrees}C/s), particle size (50 to 500 {mu}m), and mineral matters on the yield and formation rate of tar from rapid pyrolysis of beech-wood under 1 atm helium pressure were studied. Wood particles were pyrolyzed for known and independently selectable temperature, time, nominal heating rates in an electrical screen beater reactor; and the tar yield was measured as a function of temperature for every parameter tested. The tar yield from pyrolysis of beech-wood was accounted for up to 70% of the original wood above 400{degrees}C. Due to the post-pyrolysis reactions of tar, its yield exhibits a maximum with pyrolysis temperature for almost all the physical parameters tested in this study. Among the physical parameters particle size and among the chemical parameters Na{sup +} cation are more effective in reducing the tar yield than others. The maximum tar yield drops to 37% with larger particle size, and to 32% with particles enriched with Na{sup +} cation. Tar was also analyzed with GPC for the effects of above parameters on the tar molecular weight. The tar molecular weight remains relatively constant (M{sub w} = 300 amu, Mn = 155 amu, and Mz = 483 amu) over the pyrolysis temperature; it increases with heating rate (M{sub w} = 375 amu, Mn = 210 amu, and Mz = 700 amu), but decreases with increasing particle size (M{sub w} = 210 amu, Mn = 110 amu, and Mz = 320 amu) or use of active cations such as K{sup +} and Na{sup +} (M{sub w} = 190 amu, Mn = 100 amu, and Mz = 350 amu).

Nik-Azar, M.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Sohrabi, M. [Amir-Kabir Univ. of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1995-12-01

219

Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

1994-01-01

220

Efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), on cattle in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in Zimbabwe. The tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containingo-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin).o-Nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of theA. hebraeum attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone,

R. A. I. Norval; Daniel E. Sonenshine; Sandra A. Allan; Michael J. Burridge

1996-01-01

221

Local administration of transcription factor decoy oligonucleotides to nuclear factor-?B prevents carrageenin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) plays a key role in the expression of several genes involved in the inflammatory process. In the present study we investigated in an acute model of inflammation, the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema, the anti-inflammatory effect of double stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with consensus nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) sequence as transcription factor decoys (TFD) to inhibit NF-?B

F D’Acquisto; A Ialenti; A Ianaro; R Di Vaio; R Carnuccio

2000-01-01

222

Antibody Inhibition of a Viral Type 1 Interferon Decoy Receptor Cures a Viral Disease by Restoring Interferon Signaling in the Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 interferons (T1-IFNs) play a major role in antiviral defense, but when or how they protect during infections that spread through the lympho-hematogenous route is not known. Orthopoxviruses, including those that produce smallpox and mousepox, spread lympho-hematogenously. They also encode a decoy receptor for T1-IFN, the T1-IFN binding protein (T1-IFNbp), which is essential for virulence. We demonstrate that during

Ren-Huan Xu; Daniel Rubio; Felicia Roscoe; Tracy E. Krouse; Mary Ellen Truckenmiller; Christopher C. Norbury; Paul N. Hudson; Inger K. Damon; Antonio Alcamí; Luis J. Sigal

2012-01-01

223

A beta-complex statistical four body contact potential combined with a hydrogen bond statistical potential recognizes the correct native structure from protein decoy sets.  

PubMed

We present a new four-body knowledge-based potential for recognizing the native state of proteins from their misfolded states. This potential was extracted from a large set of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography using BetaMol, a software based on the recent theory of the beta-complex (?-complex) and quasi-triangulation of the Voronoi diagram of spheres. This geometric construct reflects the size difference among atoms in their full Euclidean metric; property not accounted for in a typical 3D Delaunay triangulation. The ability of this potential to identify the native conformation over a large set of decoys was evaluated. Experiments show that this potential outperforms a potential constructed with a classical Delaunay triangulation in decoy discrimination tests. The addition of a statistical hydrogen bond potential to our four-body potential allows a significant improvement in the decoy discrimination, in such a way that we are able to predict successfully the native structure in 90% of cases. PMID:23568277

Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Deok-Soo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón

2013-08-01

224

Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-?B could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-?B activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-?B binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-?, MCP1, MIP1? and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-?B ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:24814879

Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Sato, Taishi; Keeney, Michael; Li, Chenguang; Pajarinen, Jukka; Yang, Fan; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B

2014-08-01

225

MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, we designed oligonucleotides that mimic one of the G-quadruplexes formed by NHE (G4-decoys). To increase their nuclease resistance, two locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifications were introduced at the 3?-end, whereas to enhance the folding and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased the Kaplan–Meier median survival time by 70%. Together, our data show that MAZ-specific G4-decoys mimicking a KRAS quadruplex are promising for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:23471001

Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina; Geci, Imrich; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

2013-01-01

226

Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass  

E-print Network

biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss  

SciTech Connect

Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-12-15

228

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development  

E-print Network

contents have since been revised and updated to reflect changes and progress that have occurred in the domestic oil shale and tar sands industries since the first release and to include profiles of additional companies engaged in oil shale and tar sands resource and technology development. Each of the companies profiled in the original report has been extended the opportunity to update its profile to reflect progress, current activities and future plans.

unknown authors

229

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources The Continuing Evolution of America’s Oil Shale and Tar  

E-print Network

have since been revised and updated to reflect changes and progress that have occurred in the domestic oil shale and tar sands industries since the first release and to include profiles of additional companies engaged in oil shale and tar sands resource and technology development. Each of the companies profiled in the original report has been extended the opportunity to update its profile to reflect progress, current activities and future plans.

unknown authors

230

Aromatic hydrocarbons of the tar from the thermal decomposition of peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the aromatic hydrocarbons of the tar obtained in the low temperature carbonization of high-moor pine-cottongrass peat and a distillate of it (150-350°C) has been carried out by chemical and physicochemical methods. It has been established that the initial tar contained 22.2%, and its distillate 10.2%, of aromatic hydrocarbons. In both cases, these consisted of alklyated monocyclic compounds

S. V. Zubko; S. V. Drozdovskaya; E. A. Yurkevich

1984-01-01

231

Chemical reaction of tar-dolomite refractories in steel-making equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar--dolomite refractories represent chemical systems consisting of several components. Among these only C, MgO, CaO, 2 CaD ?9 SiO2, and 3 CaD ?9 SiO 2 have melting points above the steel-casting temperature so that it is only these components which in combination can render a tar--dolomite lining sufficiently resistant to high-temperature deformation. The solid components of the refractory are in

A. V. Nepsha

1975-01-01

232

OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ANALOGUE INTERFERENCE WITH THE HIV1 TAT PROTEIN-TAR RNA INTERACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV-1 Tat protein interaction with its RNA recognition sequence TAR is an important drug target and model system for the development of specific RNA-protein inhibitors. 2?-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides complementary to the TAR apical stem-loop effectively block Tat binding in vitro. Substitution by 5-propynylC or 5-methylC LNA monomeric units into a 12-mer 2?-O-methyl oligoribonucleotide leads to stronger inhibition, as does a

Andrey Arzumanov; Andrew P. Walsh; Xiaohai Liu; Vivek K. Rajwanshi; Jesper Wengel; Michael J. Gait

2001-01-01

233

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

234

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

1986-07-11

235

Recognition of HIV-TAR RNA using neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates.  

PubMed

Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA. PMID:24012122

Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Watkins, Derrick; Wang, Deyun; Appella, Daniel H; Arya, Dev P

2013-10-15

236

Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum.  

PubMed

We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly acidic conditions. Concentrations of 10 coal tar compounds, representing mono-, poly-, and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that constitute crude coal tar were monitored in the effluent over a period of 377 days. Most compounds appeared in the effluent within the first 0.1 pore volume eluted indicating the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear to inhibit coal tar dissolution and subsequent transport, even though only a small portion of tar was in direct contact with fractures and macropores that control most flow. PMID:22209208

Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry D; Broholm, Mette M; McCarthy, John F; Driese, Steven G; Sayler, Gary S

2012-02-15

237

FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food  

E-print Network

1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

O'Mahony, Donal E.

238

Bacterial Contamination of Vegetables Served in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : To study bacterial contamination of fresh vegetables before cleaning and before serving to patients in 14 hospitals. Material and Method : Aerobic plate count was performed and emphasized on total viable aerobic bacteria, fecal coliform, fecal Escherichia coli and enteric pathogens in fresh vegetables including romaine lettuce, onion, parsley, celery and tomato before cleaning and before serving. Hospital

Chertsak Dhiraputra; Chuntima Tiensasitorn; Wanida Techachaiwiwat; Naruemol Jirapanakorn; Kanchana Kachintorn RN; Somwang Danchaivijitr

2005-01-01

239

Preparing Librarians to Serve Handicapped Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians will need to have the skills to serve physically disabled persons as mainstreaming of handicapped students and employment of disabled workers increase their use of libraries. Results of a 1976 survey of library schools to determine which offer programs preparing librarians to serve disabled persons and the handicapped are reported.…

Gibson, Merrillyn C.

1977-01-01

240

Homogenizer/subsampler for tar sand process streams  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and process are described for homogenizing and subsampling process streams such as those present in the hot water extraction process for recovery of bitumen from tar sand. Such streams contain widely variable proportions of heavy oil, water, and solids. To obtain a representative analysis-size subsample from such a stream, a bulk sample is taken into a cylindrical open-topped vessel containing a coaxial cylindrical draft tube spaced from the internal wall of the vessel. A head element closes and seals the top of the vessel. An impellor extending into the draft tube through the head element is actuated to circulate the bulk sample along an elliptical flow path within the vessel. The vessel contents are maintained in a pressurized condition by the introduction of inert gas. A subsample is taken by mechanically opening and closing a sample port extending through the side wall of the vessel and communicating with the flow path; the subsample is thus taken while the bulk sample is in motion and the components of the mixture are in a homogenized condition.

Cymbalisty, L.M.; Shaw, R.C.

1982-05-11

241

Homogenizer/subsampler for tar sand process streams  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and process are described for homogenizing and subsampling process streams such as those present in the hot water extraction process for recovery of bitumen from tar sand. Such streams contain widely variable proportions of heavy oil, water, and solids. To obtain a representative analysis-size subsample from such a stream, a bulk sample is taken into a cylindrical open-topped vessel containing a coaxial cylindrical draft tube spaced from the internal wall of the vessel. A head element closes and seals the top of the vessel. An impellor extending into the draft tube through the head element is actuated to circulate the bulk sample along an elliptical flow path within the vessel. The vessel contents are maintained in a pressurized condition by the introduction of intert gas. A subsample is taken by mechanically opening and closing a sample port extending through the side wall of the vessel and communicating with the flow path; the subsample is thus taken while the bulk sample is in motion and the components of the mixture are in a homogenized condition.

Cymbalisty, L.M.; Shaw, R.C.

1981-08-18

242

Minimal region necessary for autonomous replication of pTAR.  

PubMed

The native 44-kilobase-pair plasmid pTAR, discovered in a grapevine strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, contains a single origin of DNA replication confined to a 1.0-kilobase-pair region of the macromolecule. This region (ori) confers functions sufficient for replication in Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species but not in Pseudomonas solanacearum, Pseudomonas glumae, Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and Escherichia coli. ori contains a repA gene that encodes a 28,000-dalton protein required for replication. Nucleotide sequencing of repA and its promoter region revealed four 8-base-pair palindromic repeats upstream of the repA coding region. Deletion of these repeats alters repA expression and plasmid copy number. Downstream of repA are three additional repeats in a region essential for replication. A locus responsible for plasmid partitioning (parA) and a putative second locus regulating plasmid copy number are part of the origin region and are required for stable plasmid maintenance. PMID:3290199

Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

1988-07-01

243

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28

244

A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar.  

PubMed

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal. PMID:25190671

Hauswirth, Scott C; Miller, Cass T

2014-10-15

245

A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

2014-10-01

246

One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers  

E-print Network

The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

Woo, Grace

2008-10-18

247

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

1981-06-01

248

Use of a Molecular Decoy to Segregate Transport from Antigenicity in the FrpB Iron Transporter from Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe3+ with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe3+ ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe3+ binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe3+-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe3+. The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a ‘molecular decoy’ to distract immune surveillance. PMID:23457610

Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.; Derrick, Jeremy P.

2013-01-01

249

Plantar pressures in the tennis serve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for

Olivier Girard; Frank Eicher; Jean-Paul Micallef; Grégoire Millet

2010-01-01

250

Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

1983-01-01

251

Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: a new approach to safer smoking.  

PubMed Central

The logic of expecting people who cannot stop smoking to switch to cigarettes that have hardly any nicotine is questionable. Tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes available in Britain today correlate 0-93, and further reduction of tar intake is limited by the reluctance of smokers to tolerate similar reductions in nicotine. A new approach would be to aim at lowering tar yields of cigarettes from the present average of 18 mg to around 6 mg but maintaining nicotine yields at around 1-0 to 1-2 mg, which would be acceptable to most smokers. This approach requires that emphasis be placed on tar: nicotine ratios as well as on the absolute yields. These ratios for brands on sale in Britain today average 14-2 and range from 9-6 to 20-8. They provide an additional guide for comparing the relative harmfulness of different brands. For example, 35% of cigarette smokers in Britain smoke either Embassy Filter or Players No 6 Filter; by changing to John Player Carlton King Size they could reduce their tar intake by more than 20% without having to suffer any nicotine deprivation. PMID:953530

Russell, M A

1976-01-01

252

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas vs lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m2 of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. PMID:19673284

Scoggins, Mateo; Ennis, Tom; Parker, Nathan; Herrington, Chris

2009-07-01

253

Analytical study on mesocarbon microbeads derived from coal tar pitch  

SciTech Connect

Pitches have been recognized as excellent precursors for carbon materials and their properties are considered to be influential on the properties and function of carbon material. For this reason, their detailed characterization is being required. Successful pitch characterization must satisfy the following points: (1) very complicated pitches can be clearly distinguished; (2) the performance of the final carbon product can be predicted by characterizing the precursor pitch at its molecular level; and (3) a satisfactory explanation can be provided for chemical and physical behavior of pitches for a given utilization process based on their structural differences. Successful pitch characterization is quite difficult to be attained because pitches are very complex mixtures containing several hundred compounds with different functionalities. Thus, the methods for their characterization are limited to the measurements of average structural parameters, such as softening point (SP), H/C atomic ratio, quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) fractions, aromaticity, carbon yield, etc.. Although these parameters can give a fairly good evaluation about pitch quality, they can not always explain why pitches with similar characteristics on traditional characterization techniques display a significantly different behavior. This fact provides a challenging subject in the field of pitch characterization. At the same time, there is a possibility that in a given case satisfactory important factors remain undetected due to the limitation of analytical techniques, thus leading to serious problems in the pitch utilization. Therefore, it seems to be essential to know, for a given utilization of pitches, which of the pitch properties normally measured is important and how this affects the behavior of pitch. Another serious difficulty in pitch characterization is the fact that pitches are normally not completely soluble in solvents. There is no single analytical technique which can provide complete information about structures of pitches. Thus, the combination of different analytical techniques seems to be best for the characterization of such materials. The first objective of this paper is to give an insight into structural features of two kinds of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) derived from different coal tar pitches, by conducting butylation of MCMB with butyl iodide catalyzed by dibutylzinc and characterizing their butylated products according to conventional techniques. The second one is to differentiate two MCMB in terms of chemical structure based on IR, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Most of this information is extracted from the authors' earlier and just completed papers, cited in the references.

Zhang, Y.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M.

1999-07-01

254

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate  

PubMed Central

The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni2+. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40?Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58?Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P41212, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P212121 and C2, respectively. PMID:25195895

Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

2014-01-01

255

Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

1998-08-01

256

Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report  

PubMed Central

A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. PMID:17892538

Hiemstra, Thomas F; Bellamy, Christopher OC; Hughes, Jeremy H

2007-01-01

257

Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts  

SciTech Connect

We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence of superoxide dismutase lead to lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. This method was applied to many kinds of research and commercial cigarettes. With a few exceptions, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed after a fixed time from each cigarette smoke was proportional to its tar yield.

Nakayama, T.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1989-01-01

258

A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objectives Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. Methods We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Results Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02). Conclusions These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. PMID:21882217

McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K.

2011-01-01

259

Decoying the cap- mRNA degradation system by a double-stranded RNA virus and poly(A)- mRNA surveillance by a yeast antiviral system.  

PubMed Central

The major coat protein of the L-A double-stranded RNA virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae covalently binds m7 GMP from 5' capped mRNAs in vitro. We show that this cap binding also occurs in vivo and that, while this activity is required for expression of viral information (killer toxin mRNA level and toxin production) in a wild-type strain, this requirement is suppressed by deletion of SKI1/XRN1/SEP1. We propose that the virus creates decapped cellular mRNAs to decoy the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease specific for cap- RNA encoded by XRN1. The SKI2 antiviral gene represses the copy numbers of the L-A and L-BC viruses and the 20S RNA replicon, apparently by specifically blocking translation of viral RNA. We show that SKI2, SKI3, and SKI8 inhibit translation of electroporated luciferase and beta-glucuronidase mRNAs in vivo, but only if they lack the 3' poly(A) structure. Thus, L-A decoys the SKI1/XRN1/SEP1 exonuclease directed at 5' uncapped ends, but translation of the L-A poly(A)- mRNA is repressed by Ski2,3,8p. The SKI2-SKI3-SKI8 system is more effective against cap+ poly(A)- mRNA, suggesting a (nonessential) role in blocking translation of fragmented cellular mRNAs. PMID:7739557

Masison, D C; Blanc, A; Ribas, J C; Carroll, K; Sonenberg, N; Wickner, R B

1995-01-01

260

[Determination of B(a)p contents of pine tar and its extractives].  

PubMed

In this paper, the B(a)P contents of pine tar and its extractives A, B were determined by PC-Scanning method. After combining extraction by caffeine and formic acid with PC-Scanning method, the B(a)P contents were obtained. The results showed the B(a)P contents of pine tar and its extractives A, B were 6171.3 ppb, 2285.2 ppb, 129.6 ppb, among them, the B(a)P content of B was the lowest. PMID:12575076

Sun, Y; Shen, H; Qiu, L

1999-05-01

261

Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature  

E-print Network

, Malcolm wrote, ?a single knight of the tar? for I like the smell of it, this will do me great honour in North America and in a great measure retaliate for all my losses and sufferings? (par. 53). Malcolm?s vision to symbolically invert the parody did..., Malcolm wrote, ?a single knight of the tar? for I like the smell of it, this will do me great honour in North America and in a great measure retaliate for all my losses and sufferings? (par. 53). Malcolm?s vision to symbolically invert the parody did...

Trninic, Marina

2013-08-05

262

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD  

E-print Network

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD Revised September, 2008 Use Common Sense · Understand your liability and responsibilities. · Use food from a licensed and approved source. · Never leave food unattended. Someone could tamper with it. · Select safe foods for your event. · Keep cold foods COLD (below

263

Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Serving the  

E-print Network

Institute (OLLI), as a participatory and self-directed group, is to further the pursuit of lifelong learningOsher Lifelong Learning Institute Serving the ActiveMind Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Explore, investigate and challenge NEW IDEAS during courses, lectures and activites at the Osher Lifelong Learning

Thomases, Becca

264

OHSU: Serving and Engaging LGBT Patients,  

E-print Network

OHSU: Serving and Engaging LGBT Patients, Employees and Students Center for Diversity and Inclusion opportunity, affirmative action institution. LGBT Employee and Student Resource Groups OHSU Pride, an OHSU LGBT patients and their needs, 2) develop training guidelines for best practices in treating

Chapman, Michael S.

265

Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

266

Serving Youth at Risk: Profiles for Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine North Carolina programs in dropout prevention and for students at risk are described in this booklet. The programs were chosen for their comprehensiveness, serving kindergarten through grade 12. Even though there has been no formal validation of the programs presented, they are ones which appear to be using new and innovative solutions to…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

267

Technology Transfer Center | Institutes Served By TTC  

Cancer.gov

The Technology Transfer Center (TTC) provides technology transfer services to NCI. In addition, TTC is a designated Competitive Service Center (CSC) for technology transfer, offering to other NIH institutes a range of services from consultations to full technology transfer services. TTC serves the twelve institutes listed below.

268

MMiiddddllee EEaasstteerrnn Serves 12-15  

E-print Network

Selections below. SSaakkuurraa Serves 10-15 All-Vegetarian sushi: Cucumber Rolls and Avocado Rolls. 12 sushi cheese: includes roast beef and Swiss, chicken Caesar, vegetarian, and Italian. If you prefer, ask for an all-vegetarian platter. SANDWICHPLATTERS Includes a sandwich or salad, chips, fruit and gourmet

Hill, Wendell T.

269

A new Palaeolithic discovery: tar-hafted stone tools in a European Mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stone flakes partly covered in birch-bark-tar and a third without tar on it were discovered in fluvial gravel and clay in central Italy, in association with the bones of a young adult female Elephas (Palaeoloxondon) antiquus and several micromammals. The probable chronology of the stone flakes is compatible with the late Middle Pleistocene suggested by the site's small mammals

Paul Peter Anthony Mazza; Fabio Martini; Benedetto Sala; Maurizio Magi; Maria Perla Colombini; Gianna Giachi; Francesco Landucci; Cristina Lemorini; Francesca Modugno; Erika Ribechini

2006-01-01

270

Fractionation of a wood tar pitch by planar chromatography for the characterisation of large molecular mass materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial tar pitch derived from pine wood – Massen Pine (Pinus Massonia) and sold as Stockholm tar has been fractionated by planar chromatography with examination of the fractions by size exclusion chromatography in NMP eluent, by UV-fluorescence and by matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. The relatively small molecules, mobile in planar chromatography, are shown to be non-polar. Large

M. J Lazaro; M Domin; A. A Herod; R Kandiyoti

1999-01-01

271

Performance of a DI diesel engine fuelled by blends of diesel and kiln-produced pyroligneous tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of experiments undertaken to determine the performance of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine fuelled by blends of kiln-produced pyroligneous tar (PT) and diesel. The PT was sourced from Bulgaria where it was produced from a pine feedstock via a traditional kiln method that involves separation of the aqueous pyroligneous acid fraction. The tar is characterized

Damon Honnery; Jamil Ghojel; Venelin Stamatov

2008-01-01

272

A Public Participation GIS Application for Citizen-based Watershed Monitoring in the Pamlico-Tar River Basin, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality is a serious concern throughout eastern North Carolina due to development pressure, agricultural runoff, and animal operations. A local environmental organization was concerned that water quality monitoring in the Pamlico-Tar River basin is hampered due to a sparse network of sampling sites and inconsistent data collection. Consequently, a volunteer watershed monitoring project was initiated by Pamlico-Tar River Foundation

2008-01-01

273

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. Sophisticated general correlative approaches are slowly being developed, based upon group contribution methods, or based upon some key functional features of the molecules. These are as yet difficult to apply to coal tars. The detailed group contribution methods, in which fairly precise structural information is needed, do not lend themselves well for application to very complex, poorly characterized coal tars. The methods based upon more global types of characterizations have not yet dealt much with the question of oxygenated functional groups. In short, only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion.

Suuberg, E.M.

1994-06-01

274

33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. (a) Location: The following area is a safety zone: All waters of...

2010-07-01

275

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

276

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. Both the gas saturation method and the Knudsen effusion method are being used. Results are presented for anthracene, naphthacene, pentacene, and a mixture of anthracene and perylene obtained using the effusion method.

Suuberg, E.M.

1995-10-01

277

Activation of HIV-1 pre-mRNA 3' processing in vitro requires both an upstream element and TAR.  

PubMed Central

The architecture of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome presents an intriguing dilemma for the 3' processing of viral transcripts--to disregard a canonical 'core' poly(A) site processing signal present at the 5' end of the transcript and yet to utilize efficiently an identical signal that resides at the 3' end of the message. The choice of processing sites in HIV-1 appears to be influenced by two factors: (i) proximity to the cap site, and (ii) sequences upstream of the core poly(A) site. We now demonstrate that an in vivo-defined upstream element that resides within the U3 region, 76 nucleotides upstream of the AAUAAA hexamer, acts specifically to enhance 3' processing at the HIV-1 core poly(A) site in vitro. We furthermore show that efficient in vitro 3' processing requires the RNA stem-loop structure of TAR, which serves to juxtapose spatially the upstream element and the core poly(A) site. An analysis of the stability of 3' processing complexes formed at the HIV-1 poly(A) site in vitro suggests that the upstream element may function by increasing processing complex stability at the core poly(A) site. Images PMID:1425577

Gilmartin, G M; Fleming, E S; Oetjen, J

1992-01-01

278

Minority-Serving Institutions of Higher Education: Serving Communities, Revitalizing the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher education (IHEs) that serve minority populations are unique both in their missions and in their day-to-day operations. Some of these colleges and universities are located in remote regions of the country, while others serve congested urban neighborhoods. Their constituents range from Native Americans, the country's oldest…

US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2009

2009-01-01

279

The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity  

E-print Network

Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins MCPs can bind one or more receptor- specific ligands. In the case of the Tar MCP of Escherichia coli (TarEc), a primary attractant ligand is aspartate. Its binding to the periplasmic domain of Tar generates a...

Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

2012-11-20

280

Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.  

PubMed

This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. PMID:24860081

Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

2014-10-01

281

Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III  

Cancer.gov

NCI developed a database to facilitate the examination of dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) in terms of servings from each of The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups. This database builds on a similar one, previously developed by the USDA Food Surveys Research Group for their 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

282

Equipment for Hot-to-serve Foods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patented surface heating devices with a much faster air-to-solid heat transfer rate than previous air ovens were developed. The accelerated surface heating can brown, sear or crisp much more rapidly than in conventional ovens so that partially prepared food can be finished quickly and tastefully immediately before serving. The crisp, freshly browned surfaces result from the faster heat transfer which does not dry out the food. The devices are then compared to convection ovens and microwave heating processes.

Smith, D. P.

1985-01-01

283

Pyridine and other coal tar constituents as free radical-generating environmental neurotoxicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to the principal constituents of the aqueous fraction of coal tar extracts can lead to the in vivo formation of substances which may produce neurological damage as the result of free radical generation and lipid peroxidation, these may be involved in the etiology of some neurological disorders. Artificial mixtures of the aqueous

Carl Pinsky; Ranjan Bose

1988-01-01

284

Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming for underground coal gasification applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming which are potentially suitable for in situ processing with process heat or combustible gas from underground coal gasification (UCG). The investigation was undertaken as part of a project to develop novel concepts for expanding the role of UCG in maximizing energy recovery from

1985-01-01

285

Review of reported tar-sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming. [78 occurrences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synopsis is presented of 78 reported occurrences of shallow, oil-impregnated rocks in Wyoming many of which may be tar sands. (Appendices A and B). In most cases, there are only sketchy descriptions of these occurrences, scattered throughout the literature. This paper is a prelude to much needed studies and evaluations of these individual deposits. In addition, brief descriptions of

M. Clark; G. B. Glass

1983-01-01

286

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

2005-01-01

287

The use of birch tar in the prevention of moose damage in young Scots pine stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing causes economically significant damage in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Finland. Various methods and devices have been used in attempts to prevent moose damage to Scots pine in young sapling stands. Our aim was to test the effectiveness of birch tar, a new innovation as repellent, under controlled experiments in young Scots

Sauli Härkönen; Risto Heikkilä

2009-01-01

288

Characterisation of traditionally kiln produced pine tar by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pine tar samples from each out of six, successively filled barrels from a traditionally accomplished, yet temperature monitored, kiln production have been characterised by combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative abundance of resin- and fatty acids correlated in a distinctive way to the temperature development within the kiln, which made it possible to identify from which barrel each

Inger Marie Egenberg; John A. B. Aasen; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

2002-01-01

289

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance

E. J. Soltes; S. C. K. Lin; Y. H. E. Sheu

1987-01-01

290

Method for treating a tar sand reservoir to enhance petroleum production by cyclic steam stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from a virgin drainage area of a subterranean tar sand formation that is penetrated by a well, comprising the steps of: (a) injecting liquid carbon dioxide through the well into the formation at a rate and pressure that is sufficient to fracture the virgin drainage area; (b) discontinuing the injection of the liquid

Stephens

1986-01-01

291

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) analysis of heavy oil and tar sand samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) reproducibility of the fractionation [saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes (SARA)] of heavy oil and tar sands samples has been optimized by avoiding overloading and channeling caused by very small sample spot sizes at the origin of the silica - coated rods (S-III). Doping the rods with copper (II) sulfate increased the signal response for the saturate and

Chunqing Jiang; Steve R. Larter; Kimberley J. Noke; Lloyd R. Snowdon

2008-01-01

292

Relationship between constituent labelling and reporting of tar yields among smokers in four countries.  

PubMed

Countries have adopted different approaches to disseminating cigarette tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels to consumers, with some (e.g. EU member states, Canada, Australia, but not the United States) requiring disclosure of results from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) test method on packs. Cross-country comparisons can provide insight into how smokers use yields when information is presented differently. We examined whether smokers in four different countries could recall the tar yield of their brand of cigarettes, using data from the third wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4). Of current smokers in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom, 33.6% gave a numeric response when asked to report the tar yield of their brand, whereas 66.4% responded 'I don't know.' American participants (9.2%) were less likely than Canadian (28.0%), UK (36.5%) or Australian (68.2%) smokers to give an answer, even after controlling for sociodemographic and smoking behaviour factors. Constituent labelling policies can affect whether smokers report a tar yield for their cigarette brand. Pack labelling appears to be useful for conveying information about cigarettes to smokers; however, there is an urgent need to develop more meaningful information on toxic constituents of cigarette smoke. PMID:16973837

O'Connor, R J; Kozlowski, L T; Borland, R; Hammond, D; McNeill, A

2006-12-01

293

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

294

The Tar Ponds Kids: Toxic Environments and Adolescent Well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of perceived risk from exposure to a major environmental hazard on adolescents' psychological health. Twelve- to 14-year-olds living in immediate proximity to the Sydney Tar Ponds (n = 261) completed measures of neighbourhood satisfaction, concerns for the environment, personal and family health, and depression. Adolescents from a more geographically distant area (n = 249) participated as

Johnna OLeary; Katherine Covell

2002-01-01

295

Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of distillate and residual lube oils, the lube stocks may be treated with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum. This removes unsaturates, aromatics, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds and resinous substances, all of which are materials that lower the stability and have a detrimental effect on the service indexes of commercial petroleum oils. Acid tar is formed as a

A. F. Frolov; T. S. Titova; I. V. Karpova; T. L. Denisova

1985-01-01

296

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X  

E-print Network

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory analysis Group ID X X X X EXSAMPID Investigator's sample identifier X X X X SAMPDATE Date sample collected as YYYYMMDD X X X X SAMPTIME Time sample collected as HH:MM X X X X SITEID Site identifier X X X X STUDYID

297

Machine for mining tar sands having rearwardly directed exhaust related to conveyor trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to mining machinery and presents a new an improved machine, and components therefor, suitable for mining tar sands and other soft materials such as soft coal, oil shale and so forth. The machine can be used both above ground and below ground, and is particularly suitable for underground mining , to take advantages, for example, of

1980-01-01

298

Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

2011-07-01

299

Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

2007-01-01

300

Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands James Hansen  

E-print Network

Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands 9 May 2013 James Hansen Today 36 Norwegian the fact that Norway is not likely among the nations that will suffer most from climate change. I wonder an assessment to President Obama. Secretary of State John Kerry is expert on the climate issue and has long been

Hansen, James E.

301

Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya  

E-print Network

intercalators,5 (ethidium bromide6 and profla- vine), DNA minor groove binders7 (Hoechst 33258, and DAPI Available online 21 June 2011 Keywords: RNA DNA a b s t r a c t A series of neomycin dimers have been and HIV TAR RNA was characterized using spectroscopic tech- niques including FID (Fluorescent Intercalator

Stuart, Steven J.

302

Field Test of In Situ Soil Amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils,

S. L. Brown; H. Compton; N. T. Basta

2007-01-01

303

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California  

E-print Network

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point). Among the most visible manifestations of marine oil in the environment is the formation and beach accumulation is common on many California beaches due to chronic oil emissions from natural oil seeps

Luyendyk, Bruce

304

Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination due to complex organic mixtures such as coal tar, creosote and fuels is a widespread problem in industrialized regions. Although most compounds in these mixtures are biodegradable, the contaminant sources are very persistent for many decades after the contamination occurred (e.g., more than 100 years ago at gasworks sites). This limited bioavailability is due to slow dissolution processes. This study presents results from a large scale tank experiment (8 m long) on the long-term (354 days) dissolution kinetics of BTEX and PAHs from a 2.5 m long coal tar pool and 0.5 m long (smear) zone containing coal tar blobs distributed in a coarse sand. The results inidicate (1) that Raoult's law holds for estimation of the saturation aqueous concentrations of the coal tar constituents, (2) that for the dissolution of smear zones longer than approximately 0.1 m and with more than 3-5% residual saturation, the local equilibrium assumption is valid and (3) that although very small (< 0.1 mm), the transverse vertical dispersivity dominates the pool dissolution processes. Typical time scales for removal of the pollutants from the blob zone and the pool are in the order of a few weeks to more than 10,000 years, respectively. PMID:12683639

Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

2002-11-01

305

Toxicity of weathered coal tar for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Weathered coal tar collected from the Connecticut River near Holyoke, Massachusetts, was toxic to shortnose sturgeon embryos and larvae in whole sediment flow-through and elutriate static-renewal laboratory exposures. Sterile laboratory sand and clean Connecticut River sand, collected upstream from the coal tar deposits, produced no significant difference in toxicity to sturgeon embryos-larvae, while coal tar-contaminated sediment produced over 95% embryo-larval mortality. Hydrocarbon transfer and subsequent toxicity appeared to be via direct contact of the embryos with contaminated sediment, rather than via exposure to soluble hydrocarbons. This conclusion was supported by exposure of embryos and larvae to elutriates (e.g., water soluble extract) of coal-tar sediments, that resulted in embryo and larval mortality at low molecular weight PAH concentrations-0.47 mg/L, higher than would occur naturally. No decrease in petroleum hydrocarbon concentration was observed in sediments exposed to flowing water for 14 d, supporting the contention that soluble hydrocarbons were not responsible for the observed toxicity in whole sediment exposures under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:8785011

Kocan, R M; Matta, M B; Salazar, S M

1996-08-01

306

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.  

E-print Network

feasible to avoid dangerous climate tipping points, but only if conventional fossil fuel emissions Press Club on 29 August 2011. Figure 1. Total conventional fossil fuel emissions (purple) and 50% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels

Hansen, James E.

307

Physical, Chemical, and Toxicological Characterization of Untreated and Treated Tar Sand Wastewaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters has been completed. One of the waters selected for this study, TS-1S wastewater, was generated during an in situ steam flood experiment conducted...

W. F. McTernan, S. L. Hill, W. E. Blanton

1985-01-01

308

The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

1999-01-01

309

Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.  

PubMed

Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors. PMID:18657318

Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

2009-02-01

310

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-05-01

311

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar: An assessment of the potential for slurry treatment at MGP sites  

SciTech Connect

The rates and extents of microbial degradation of naphthalene from coal tar has been evaluated in gently mixed batch reactors. Substantial depletion of naphthalene from coal tar by microbial degradation under optimal conditions was observed. The rate of degradation of naphthalene, the principal constituent in coal tar, was found to be significantly influenced by the rate of external surface mass transfer from the coal tar. Results show that the rate of mass transfer may control the overall rate of biotransformation in mixed systems where coal tar is present as a globule (k{sub l}a {approx_equal} 2/day). Mass transfer does not limit biodegradation in slurry systems when coal tar is distributed among a large number of small microporous silica particles, for which k{sub l}a is several thousand per day. The microbial degradation process is dependent on relationships between the NAPL composition and equilibrium aqueous naphthalene concentration, the naphthalene mass transfer rate between the NAPL and aqueous phases, and the intrinsic rates of microbial degradation of naphthalene. These relationships have been investigated and quantitative criteria to assess whether mass transfer or biokinetic limitations control the overall rate of biotransformation of PAH compounds are identified. These results with gently-mixed batch reactors under optimal conditions for microbial degradation provide an indication of the maximum potential rates of microbial degradation of naphthalene from coal tar.

Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-11-01

312

Managing and serving large collections of imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common challenge to organizations working with statewide imagery collections is the sheer volume and processing that has to be dealt with. This paper presentation will illustrate how this challenge has been addressed by way of image services. Image services are becoming increasingly popular as a means to serving out large holdings of imagery to both internal to an organization and external. We will introduce a typical real world scenario and elucidate how we've gone from an imagery holding on disk to a service disseminating dynamically mosaicked imagery - processed on the fly - to a variety of geospatial applications.

Viswambharan, V.

2014-02-01

313

Importance of the pharmacological profile of the bound ligand in enrichment on nuclear receptors: toward the use of experimentally validated decoy ligands.  

PubMed

The evaluation of virtual ligand screening methods is of major importance to ensure their reliability. Taking into account the agonist/antagonist pharmacological profile should improve the quality of the benchmarking data sets since ligand binding can induce conformational changes in the nuclear receptor structure and such changes may vary according to the agonist/antagonist ligand profile. We indeed found that splitting the agonist and antagonist ligands into two separate data sets for a given nuclear receptor target significantly enhances the quality of the evaluation. The pharmacological profile of the ligand bound in the binding site of the target structure was also found to be an additional critical parameter. We also illustrate that active compound data sets for a given pharmacological activity can be used as a set of experimentally validated decoy ligands for another pharmacological activity to ensure a reliable and challenging evaluation of virtual screening methods. PMID:25250508

Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

2014-10-27

314

Effects of cigarette smoke with different tar contents on hepatic and pulmonary xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of smoke from cigarettes with two different tar contents (32 mg\\/cigarette, high tar, and 15 mg\\/cigarette, low tar) on hepatic and pulmonary monooxygenase (MO) activities (aniline 4-hydroxylase [AH]; aminopyrine N-demethylase [AMND]; 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD]; p-nitroanisole O-demethylase [p-NAOD]), lipid peroxidation (LP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities toward several substrates (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [CDNB]; 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene [DCNB]; ethacrynic

B C Eke

2002-01-01

315

Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

Tassew, Nardos Gobena

316

Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

2000-11-01

317

21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner... (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except...

2010-04-01

318

Utilities` ``obligation to serve`` under deregulation  

SciTech Connect

The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.

Alexander, C.B.

1997-02-01

319

Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

2008-06-15

320

Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

321

Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-23

322

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

323

The Test Analysis Retrieval System (TARS): Meeting the challenges of the network's test processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Networks Systems Test Section (GSFC 531.4) is responsible for managing a variety of engineering and operational tests used to assess the status of the Network elements relative to readiness certification for new and ongoing mission support and for performance trending. To conduct analysis of data collected during these tests, to disseminate and share the information, and to catalog and create reports based on the analysis is currently a cumbersome and inefficient task due primarily to the manual handling of paper products and the inability to easily exchange information between the various Networks elements. The Test Analysis and Retrieval System (TARS) is being implemented to promote concise data analysis, intelligible reporting of test results, to minimize test duplication by fostering a broad sharing of test data, and perhaps most importantly, to provide significantly improved response to the Network's internal and external customers. This paper outlines the intended application, architecture, and benefits of the TARS.

Stelmaszek, Robert L.; Lumsden, Douglas R.

1993-01-01

324

Suppression of mutation induction and failure to detect mutagenic activity with athabasca tar sand fractions.  

PubMed

5 different histidine-requiring strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used to test the mutagenic activity of 7 different fractions of Athabasca tar-sand. None of the 7 fractions (bitumen, maltenes, asphaltenes, saturated, monoaromatic, diaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), showed positive mutagenic response in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains. We have tested a wide range of concentrations. The results obtained so far are consistent with the lack of mutagenic activity of all investigated fractions in the absence and in the presence of metabolic activation. Assuming that there might be an association between the absence of mutagenic activity and the complexity of the tar-sand fractions, we investigated the effect of the polyaromatic hydrocaron fraction on the mutagenicity of the carcinogenic agent 2-aminoanthracene. The data obtained indicate clearly that the polyaromatic hydrocarbon fraction suppresses the mutagenic activity of 2-aminoanthracene. PMID:362193

Shahin, M M; Fournier, F

1978-09-01

325

Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 1. Overview and plume development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volume of sand containing coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. Coal tar creosote is a mixture of more than 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and phenolic compounds. A representative group of seven compounds was selected for detailed study: phenol, m-xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran and carbazole. Movement of groundwater through the source led to the development of a dissolved organic plume, which was studied over a 4-year period. Qualitative plume observations and mass balance calculations indicated two key conclusions: (1) compounds from the same source can display distinctly different patterns of plume development and (2) mass transformation was a major influence on plume behaviour for all observed compounds.

King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.

1999-10-01

326

Resistance to sulfur poisoning of hot gas cleaning catalysts for the removal of tar from the pyrolysis of cedar wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the partial oxidation of tar derived from the pyrolysis of cedar wood, the effect of H2S addition was investigated over non-catalyst, steam reforming Ni catalyst, and Rh\\/CeO2\\/SiO2 using a fluidized bed reactor. In the non-catalytic gasification, the product distribution was not influenced by the presence of H2S. Steam reforming Ni catalyst was effective for the tar removal without H2S

Keiichi Tomishige; Tomohisa Miyazawa; Takeo Kimura; Kimio Kunimori; Naoto Koizumi; Muneyoshi Yamada

2005-01-01

327

Pyrolysis GC-MS analysis of tars formed during the aging of wood and bamboo crude vinegars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constituents of tars formed during the aging of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), oak (Quercus serrata), and pine (Pinus densiflora) wood crude vinegars were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a (Py-GC-MS) to investigate their origination. The pyrolysate of tars obtained from the wood and bamboo crude vinegars were\\u000a almost identical and were primarily composed of phenolic compounds and aromatic

Sung Phil Mun; Chang Sub Ku

2010-01-01

328

The Use of Silver Membrane Filters in Sampling for Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles in Coke Oven Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of atmospheric pollutants were taken from selected workplaces at both black-coal and coal-tar coke oven plants. Their analyses and electron micrographs are presented. Silver metal membrane filters were also used in an attempt to establish the content of the benzene-soluble fraction. The view is expressed that the ascertained content of coal-tar pitch volatiles in the atmosphere of black-coal coke

VACLAV MASEK

1970-01-01

329

Application of multidimensional analytical transport models to coal-tar derivatives  

E-print Network

drift and bedrock aquifers. Drift materials on and southside of the site have been contaminated by surface spills and by infiltration of contaminated process water. Of the coal-tar derivatives, concentration distributions of chloride, sodium... determined by the analytical inverse mode, when used in the forward mode, show good reconstruction of the observed plume. The transport parameters of the chloride plume were also determined using plume statistics. These parameters are used to simulate...

Sim, Youn

2012-06-07

330

Silica Removal From Steamflood-Produced Water: South Texas Tar Sands Pilot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steamflood-produced waters commonly contain suspended solids, oil, hardness-causing minerals, sulfide, and silica. Removal of these contaminants would make many of these waters suitable for recycling as steamer feedwater. Reuse of steamflood-produced waters increases steamer feedwater supplies and reduces water disposal requirements. This paper describes a field pilot study of silica removal from steamflood-produced water in the south Texas tar sands

S. A. Thomas; M. E. Yost; S. R. Cathey

1987-01-01

331

Process for recovering oil from tar-oil froths and other heavy oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-oil froths and other heavy oil-water emulsions are demulsified by the addition of a propane-butane solvent at or above the condensation pressure thereof, and at temperatures in a range of 170° to 240°F. The proportions used range from about 0.5 to 10 vol of the solvent per volume of oil contained in the feed emulsion. The coalesced water phase and

T. Vermeulen; M. J. Keaton

1972-01-01

332

Identification of functional microRNAs released through asymmetrical processing of HIV1 TAR elementy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and RNA silencing pathways is complex and multifaceted. Essential for efficient viral transcription and supporting Tat-mediated transac- tivation of viral gene expression, the trans-activation responsive (TAR) element is a structured RNA located at the 5' end of all transcripts derived from HIV-1. Here, we report that this element is a source

Dominique L. Ouellet; Isabelle Plante; Patricia Landry; Corinne Barat; Marie-Eve Janelle; Louis Flamand; Michel J. Tremblay; Patrick Provost

2008-01-01

333

Fluid catalytic cracking of shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the potential of converting shale oil, coal oil, and tar sand oil into liquids of 100-600°F boiling range covers composition of shale oil, including its high nitrogen content and the severe conditions required for its removal prior to catalytic cracking, and test results obtained some years ago by Atlantic Richfield Co. on hydrotreating and fluid-catalytic cracking of

J. P. Gallagher; W. H. Humes; J. O. Slemssen

1978-01-01

334

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

335

MPG-TAR: Mobile Process Groups Based Trust Aware Routing Protocol for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routing in mobile ad-hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper proposes MPG-TAR, trust-aware routing protocol based on the formation of trusted Mobile Process groups(MPG). MPG is a collection of processes or mobile nodes present in defined vicinity where they all lie within each other's radio transmission range. The trusted MPG groups formed in MPGTAR calculate trust based on the

Aakanksha; P. Bedi

2010-01-01

336

Thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolysis of waste mixtures of paint and tar slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe thermogravimetric analyses and pyrolysis kinetic studies carried out on hazardous waste mixtures of tar slag,\\u000a paint slag, paper, sodium sulfate and calcium oxide. Both thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG)\\u000a profiles were measured by a thermogravimetric analyzer at different final temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates.\\u000a Pyrolysis kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats-Redfern method. Influences of particle

Ling Tao; Guang-Bo Zhao; Juan Qian; Yu-Kun Qin

2009-01-01

337

Molecular Dynamics and Binding Specificity Analysis of the Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus BIV Tat-TAR Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, with particle-mesh Ewald, explicit waters, and counterions, and binding specificity analyses using combined molecular mechanics and continuum solvent (MM-PBSA) on the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Tat peptide-TAR RNA complex. The solution structure for the complex was solved independently by Patel and co-workers and Puglisi and co-workers. We investigated the differences in both structures

Carolina M. Reyes; Riccardo Nifosì; Alan D. Frankel; Peter A. Kollman

2001-01-01

338

Post-puff respiration measures on smokers of different tar yield cigarettes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different tar yield cigarette brands on the post-puff inhalation/exhalation depth and duration for established smokers of the brands. The study was conducted with 74 established smokers of 1–17 mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar products. The subjects were participating in a five-day inpatient clinical biomarker study during which time they were allowed to smoke their own brand of cigarette whenever they wished. On two separate days, the subjects' breathing pattern was measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography while they smoked one cigarette. This enabled the measurement of the post-puff inhalation volume, exhalation volume, inhalation duration, and exhalation duration for each subject after each puff on two of their own brand of cigarettes. The subjects were grouped according to the FTC tar yield of their product: 1–3 mg; 4–6 mg; 7–13 mg; 14+ mg. The post-puff inhalation volume for the 4–6 mg group was significantly lower than both the 7–13 mg and 14+ mg groups, and the 4–6 mg group exhalation volume was significantly lower than the 14+ mg group (p < 0.05). No other differences were found at the 95% confidence level. When volumes were normalized to resting tidal volume (tidal ratio), there were no differences between the groups for any of the respiratory measures. No significant slope was found for correlations with FTC tar yield for inhalation volume (p = 0.11, mean = 833 mL, R = 0.19), inhalation tidal ratio (p = 0.93, mean = 1.73, R = ?0.01) or lung exposure time (p = 0.92, mean = 4.1 s, R = ?0.01). PMID:19225967

St. Charles, Frank K.; Krautter, George R.; Mariner, Derek C.

2009-01-01

339

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of chlorination effects on commercial coal-tar leachate  

SciTech Connect

Samples of leachate from a commercial coal tar have been analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using electron-impact and chemical ionization. Base-neutral extracts contained predominantly the parent PAHs and alkyl- and nitrogen-substituted PAHs. These compounds were considerably less abundant in samples of chlorinated leachate, which contained, instead, a number of oxygenated and halogenated PAHs.

Alben, K.

1980-10-01

340

Physical, chemical, and toxicological characterization of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters has been completed. One of the waters selected for this study, TS-1S wastewater, was generated during an in situ steam flood experiment conducted by the US Department of Energy. The other waters were generated during laboratory-scale extraction experiments that were designed to test high-pressure

W. F. McTernan; S. L. Hill; W. E. Blanton

1985-01-01

341

Detection of free radicals in aqueous extracts of cigarette tar by electron spin resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar (ACT) autooxidize to produce semiquinone, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals in air-saturated buffered aqueous solutions. The semiquinone species were detected by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and identified as o-and p-benzosemiquinone radicals by comparison with the ESR signals of catechol and hydroquinone radicals under similar conditions. The rate of formation of these radicals was dependent

Lun-Yi Zang; Koni Stone; William A. Pryor

1995-01-01

342

Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.  

PubMed

While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

Yang, Gonghuan

2014-03-01

343

Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China  

PubMed Central

While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

Yang, Gonghuan

2014-01-01

344

Microbial Diversity in Natural Asphalts of the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria commonly inhabit subsurface oil reservoirs, but almost nothing is known yet about microorganisms that live in naturally occurring terrestrial oil seeps and natural asphalts that are comprised of highly recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. Here we report the first survey of microbial diversity in ca. 28,000-year-old samples of natural asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Microbiological studies included analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA encoding aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from two tar pits differing in chemical composition. Our results revealed a wide range of phylogenetic groups within the Archaea and Bacteria domains, in which individual taxonomic clusters were comprised of sets of closely related species within novel genera and families. Fluorescent staining of asphalt-soil particles using phylogenetic probes for Archaea, Bacteria, and Pseudomonas showed coexistence of mixed microbial communities at high cell densities. Genes encoding dioxygenases included three novel clusters of enzymes. The discovery of life in the tar pits provides an avenue for further studies of the evolution of enzymes and catabolic pathways for bacteria that have been exposed to complex hydrocarbons for millennia. These bacteria also should have application for industrial microbiology and bioremediation. PMID:17416692

Kim, Jong-Shik; Crowley, David E.

2007-01-01

345

VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.  

PubMed

By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. PMID:24827421

Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

2014-08-01

346

Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.  

PubMed

This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:24848490

Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

2014-12-01

347

Thermodynamic examination of trinucleotide bulged RNA in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA  

PubMed Central

RNA structures contain many bulges and loops that are expected to be sites for inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Nucleotides in the bulge are expected to influence the structure and recognition of RNA. The same stability is assigned to all trinucleotide bulged RNA in the current secondary structure prediction models. In this study thermal denaturation experiments were performed on four trinucleotide bulged RNA, in the context of HIV-1 TAR RNA, to determine whether the bulge sequence affects RNA stability and its divalent ion interactions. Cytosine-rich bulged RNA were more stable than uracil-rich bulged RNA in 1 M KCl. Interactions of divalent ions were more favorable with uracil-rich bulged RNA by ?2 kcal/mol over cytosine-rich bulged RNA. The UCU-TAR RNA (wild type) is stabilized by 1.7 kcal/mol in 9.5 mM Ca2+ as compared with 1 M KCl, whereas no additional gain in stability is measured for CCC-TAR RNA. These results have implications for base substitution experiments traditionally employed to identify metal ion binding sites. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study to quantify the effect of small sequence changes on RNA stability upon interactions with divalent ions. PMID:18952821

Carter-O'Connell, Ian; Booth, David; Eason, Bryan; Grover, Neena

2008-01-01

348

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

349

The effects of coal tar based pavement sealer on amphibian development and metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Coal tar based pavement sealers are applied regularly to parking lots and contain significant levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recently a connection between elevated levels of PAHs in streams and storm water runoff from parking lots has been identified. We tested the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement sealers could alter the survival, growth, and development of amphibians using a model species, Xenopus laevis. Ten fertilized individuals were placed singly into containers containing one of four treatment groups: control, low, medium, and high (respective nominal concentrations 0, 3, 30, and 300 ppm TPAH). All of the individuals in the high exposure group died by the sixth day of exposure. By day 14 there were significant patterns of stunted growth (p<0.0001) and slower development (p=0.006) in the medium and high exposure groups relative to the control and low treatment groups. When the experiment ended on day 52 the control and low-dose individuals had achieved more advanced developmental stages than the medium group (p=0.0007). These data indicate that these commonly used coal tar based pavement sealers may potentially affect the amphibian taxa living in areas that receive storm water runoff. PMID:16557355

Bryer, Pamela J; Elliott, Jan N; Willingham, Emily J

2006-04-01

350

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

351

Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

2013-01-01

352

Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.  

PubMed

To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

2014-04-15

353

Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty  

PubMed Central

To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group’s outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker’s focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

2014-01-01

354

Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Do?lat, Kürtyurdu and Çata??l in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

2014-01-01

355

Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.  

PubMed

The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host. PMID:3586028

Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

1987-02-01

356

MultiMiTar: A Novel Multi Objective Optimization based miRNA-Target Prediction Method  

PubMed Central

Background Machine learning based miRNA-target prediction algorithms often fail to obtain a balanced prediction accuracy in terms of both sensitivity and specificity due to lack of the gold standard of negative examples, miRNA-targeting site context specific relevant features and efficient feature selection process. Moreover, all the sequence, structure and machine learning based algorithms are unable to distribute the true positive predictions preferentially at the top of the ranked list; hence the algorithms become unreliable to the biologists. In addition, these algorithms fail to obtain considerable combination of precision and recall for the target transcripts that are translationally repressed at protein level. Methodology/Principal Finding In the proposed article, we introduce an efficient miRNA-target prediction system MultiMiTar, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier integrated with a multiobjective metaheuristic based feature selection technique. The robust performance of the proposed method is mainly the result of using high quality negative examples and selection of biologically relevant miRNA-targeting site context specific features. The features are selected by using a novel feature selection technique AMOSA-SVM, that integrates the multi objective optimization technique Archived Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing (AMOSA) and SVM. Conclusions/Significance MultiMiTar is found to achieve much higher Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.583 and average class-wise accuracy (ACA) of 0.8 compared to the others target prediction methods for a completely independent test data set. The obtained MCC and ACA values of these algorithms range from ?0.269 to 0.155 and 0.321 to 0.582, respectively. Moreover, it shows a more balanced result in terms of precision and sensitivity (recall) for the translationally repressed data set as compared to all the other existing methods. An important aspect is that the true positive predictions are distributed preferentially at the top of the ranked list that makes MultiMiTar reliable for the biologists. MultiMiTar is now available as an online tool at www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/multimitar.htm. MultiMiTar software can be downloaded from www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/multimitar-download.htm. PMID:21949731

Mitra, Ramkrishna; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

2011-01-01

357

The Secreted Form of Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Glycoprotein Helps the Virus Evade Antibody-Mediated Restriction of Replication by Acting as an Antigen Decoy and through Effects on Fc Receptor-Bearing Leukocytes?  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) readily infects and reinfects during infancy and throughout life, despite maternal antibodies and immunity from prior infection and without the need for significant antigenic change. RSV has two neutralization antigens, the F and G virion glycoproteins. G is expressed in both membrane-bound (mG) and secreted (sG) forms. We investigated whether sG might act as a decoy for neutralizing antibodies by comparing the in vitro neutralization of wild-type (wt) RSV versus recombinant mG RSV expressing only mG. wt RSV indeed was less susceptible than mG RSV to monovalent G-specific and polyvalent RSV-specific antibodies, whereas susceptibility to F-specific antibodies was equivalent. This difference disappeared when the virus preparations were purified to remove sG. Thus, sG appears to function as a neutralization decoy. We evaluated this effect in vivo in mice by comparing the effects of passively transferred antibodies on the pulmonary replication of wt RSV versus mG RSV. Again, wt RSV was less sensitive than mG RSV to G-specific and RSV-specific antibodies; however, a similar difference was also observed with F-specific antibodies. This confirmed that sG helps wt RSV evade the antibody-dependent restriction of replication but indicated that in mice, it is not acting primarily as a decoy for G-specific antibodies, perhaps because sG is produced in insufficient quantities in this poorly permissive animal. Rather, we found that the greater sensitivity of mG versus wt RSV to the antiviral effect of passively transferred RSV antibodies required the presence of inflammatory cells in the lung and was Fc? receptor dependent. Thus, sG helps RSV escape the antibody-dependent restriction of replication via effects as an antigen decoy and as a modulator of leukocytes bearing Fc? receptors. PMID:18842713

Bukreyev, Alexander; Yang, Lijuan; Fricke, Jens; Cheng, Lily; Ward, Jerrold M.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

2008-01-01

358

Influence of operation conditions and additives on the development of producer gas and tar reduction in air gasification of construction woody wastes using a two-stage gasifier.  

PubMed

Air gasification was conducted with fractions of construction woody wastes in a two-stage gasifier, consisting of a fluidized bed zone and a tar cracking zone. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of reaction conditions and additives on the composition of producer gas and tar content in producer gas. A producer gas obtained with activated carbon of 540 g at an ER of 0.26 was mainly composed of H(2) (25 vol.%), CO (22 vol.%) and CH(4) (5 vol.%). Regarding tar removal efficiency, activated carbon was better than olivine. The tar removal rate with virgin activated carbon reached up to 80%. The reuse of spent activated carbon caused an efficiency loss in tar removal to some extent. Overall, it seems that the strong need for intensive downstream tar removal measurements can be removed with the use of a two-stage gasifier and the application of activated carbon. PMID:21565495

Mun, Tae-Young; Kim, Jin-O; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Joo-Sik

2011-07-01

359

Local Administration of NF-{kappa} B Decoy Oligonucleotides to Prevent Restenosis after Balloon Angioplasty: An Experimental Study in New Zealand White Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of NF-{kappa} B oligonucleotides (ODN) administered by local administration with the channeled balloon catheter to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty in restenotic iliac arteries of New Zealand white rabbits. Materials and Methods. In vitro, 8000 rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMC) where transfected with a liposomal carrier (TfX50) with 100 ng of decoy and scrambled ODN. Inhibition of proliferation was measured using a MTT assay after 24 hours in comparison to control. In vivo, 22 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and received denudation of both common iliac arteries with a 3 mm balloon catheter to induce an arterial stenosis. Four weeks after stenosis induction, local application of NF-{kappa} B in two different concentrations (1 {mu}g: n = 14; 10 {mu}g: n = 8) was performed randomly on one common iliac artery. Scrambled oligonucleotides without specific binding capacities were injected into the contralateral side. The channeled balloon catheter allows simultaneous balloon dilation (8 atm) of the stenosis and local application of a drug solution (2 atm). Four weeks after local drug delivery the animals were killed and the vessels were excised and computerized morphometric measurements were performed. Results. NF-{kappa} B decoy ODN but not scrambled ODN inhibited proliferation of rVSMC in vitro. Following local ODN application in the animals, no acute vascular complications were seen. NF-{kappa} B ODN resulted in a statistically non significant reduction of neointimal area compared to the control group. The neointimal area was 0.97 mm{sup 2} using 1 {mu}g NF-{kappa} B ODN compared to 0.98 mm{sup 2} in the control group. The higher dose resulted in a neointimal area of 0.97 mm{sup 2} compared to 1.07mm{sup 2} at the control side. Conclusions. Local drug delivery of NF-{kappa} B ODN using the 'channeled balloon' catheter could not reduce neointimal hyperplasia in stenostic rabbit iliac arteries. Application modalities have to be improved to enhance the effect of the local application to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

Kalinowski, Marc, E-mail: kalinows@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Viehofer, Kerstin; Hamann, Christine [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Barry, James J. [Boston Scientific Corporation (United States); Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus Jochen; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-04-15

360

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

361

mirTarPri: improved prioritization of microRNA targets through incorporation of functional genomics data.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (19-25 nt) non-coding RNAs. This important class of gene regulator downregulates gene expression through sequence-specific binding to the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of target mRNAs. Several computational target prediction approaches have been developed for predicting miRNA targets. However, the predicted target lists often have high false positive rates. To construct a workable target list for subsequent experimental studies, we need novel approaches to properly rank the candidate targets from traditional methods. We performed a systematic analysis of experimentally validated miRNA targets using functional genomics data, and found significant functional associations between genes that were targeted by the same miRNA. Based on this finding, we developed a miRNA target prioritization method named mirTarPri to rank the predicted target lists from commonly used target prediction methods. Leave-one-out cross validation has proved to be successful in identifying known targets, achieving an AUC score up to 0. 84. Validation in high-throughput data proved that mirTarPri was an unbiased method. Applying mirTarPri to prioritize results of six commonly used target prediction methods allowed us to find more positive targets at the top of the prioritized candidate list. In comparison with other methods, mirTarPri had an outstanding performance in gold standard and CLIP data. mirTarPri was a valuable method to improve the efficacy of current miRNA target prediction methods. We have also developed a web-based server for implementing mirTarPri method, which is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/mirTarPri. PMID:23326485

Wang, Peng; Ning, Shangwei; Wang, Qianghu; Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Li, Yan; Huang, Teng; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

362

mirTarPri: Improved Prioritization of MicroRNA Targets through Incorporation of Functional Genomics Data  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (19–25 nt) non-coding RNAs. This important class of gene regulator downregulates gene expression through sequence-specific binding to the 3?untranslated regions (3?UTRs) of target mRNAs. Several computational target prediction approaches have been developed for predicting miRNA targets. However, the predicted target lists often have high false positive rates. To construct a workable target list for subsequent experimental studies, we need novel approaches to properly rank the candidate targets from traditional methods. We performed a systematic analysis of experimentally validated miRNA targets using functional genomics data, and found significant functional associations between genes that were targeted by the same miRNA. Based on this finding, we developed a miRNA target prioritization method named mirTarPri to rank the predicted target lists from commonly used target prediction methods. Leave-one-out cross validation has proved to be successful in identifying known targets, achieving an AUC score up to 0. 84. Validation in high-throughput data proved that mirTarPri was an unbiased method. Applying mirTarPri to prioritize results of six commonly used target prediction methods allowed us to find more positive targets at the top of the prioritized candidate list. In comparison with other methods, mirTarPri had an outstanding performance in gold standard and CLIP data. mirTarPri was a valuable method to improve the efficacy of current miRNA target prediction methods. We have also developed a web-based server for implementing mirTarPri method, which is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/mirTarPri. PMID:23326485

Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Li, Yan; Huang, Teng; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

363

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.  

PubMed

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. PMID:19879915

Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

2010-04-01

364

Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

2013-11-01

365

Investigation of the wetting behavior of coal tar in three phase systems and its modification by poloxamine block copolymeric surfactants.  

PubMed

The removal of dense nonaqueous phase liquid mixtures (DNAPLs) from rocks and subsurface soils is an ongoing remedial challenge. Very often the wetting preferences of the system are not altered by exposure to the DNAPL. However, there are systems where the wetting properties of the solid phase have been altered from strongly water wetting by exposure to the DNAPL. In these cases some technique is necessary for reducing the work of adhesion between the DNAPL and the mineral surface. The focus of this report is the problems posed by coal tar in unconsolidated sands. It is shown that coal tar can alter the wetting properties of quartz, the principal component of sands, and is thus capable of adhering to the surface. In this investigation the ability of several members of the poloxamine family of polymeric surfactants to aid in the removal of coal tar from sand was evaluated. The poloxamines are tetrafunctional block copolymeric surfactants, which contain four poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide) chains joined to a central ethylenediamine moiety via the nitrogen atoms. Contact angle measurements of coal tar on a quartz surface immersed in aqueous surfactant solution and the interfacial tension between coal tar and aqueous surfactant solution have been measured. Coal tar/water interfacial tensions are reduced to values in the region of 2 mN m(-1) at surfactant concentrations of approximately 0.1 w/v %. Poloxamine surfactant impact on the static contact angle is more complex. In some cases the polymeric surfactants alter the wetting behavior from strongly water wetting to weakly water wetting. However, other poloxamines appear to have little if any impact on the contact angle, which remains strongly water wetting. The foregoing measurements have then been used to calculate the work of adhesion of the coal tar to quartz and the results qualitatively compared with the concentration of surfactant solution required to visually demonstrate the complete de-adhesion of coal tar to the quartz. It is shown that at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, the work of adhesion can be reduced sufficiently to ensure complete removal of coal tar from both quartz and sand. PMID:14750737

Dong, Jingfeng; Chowdhry, Babur; Leharne, Stephen

2004-01-15

366

Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury.  

PubMed

The persistence of pain after surgery increases the recovery interval from surgery to a normal quality of life. AYX1 is a DNA-decoy drug candidate designed to prevent post-surgical pain following a single intrathecal injection. Tissue injury causes a transient activation of the transcription factor EGR1 in the dorsal root ganglia-dorsal horn network, which then triggers changes in gene expression that induce neuronal hypersensitivity. AYX1 is a potent, specific inhibitor of EGR1 activity that mimics the genomic EGR1-binding sequence. Administered in the peri-operative period, AYX1 dose dependently prevents mechanical hypersensitivity in models of acute incisional (plantar), inflammatory (CFA), and chronic neuropathic pain (SNI) in rats. Furthermore, in a knee surgery model evaluating functional measures of postoperative pain, AYX1 improved weight-bearing incapacitance and spontaneous rearing compared to control. These data illustrate the potential clinical therapeutic benefits of AYX1 for preventing the transition of acute to chronic post-surgical pain. PMID:24145208

Mamet, Julien; Klukinov, Michael; Yaksh, Tony L; Malkmus, Shelle A; Williams, Samantha; Harris, Scott; Manning, Donald C; Taylor, Bradley K; Donahue, Renee R; Porreca, Frank; Xie, Jennifer Y; Oyarzo, Janice; Brennan, Timothy J; Subieta, Alberto; Schmidt, William K; Yeomans, David C

2014-02-01

367

PEI-Engineered Respirable Particles Delivering a Decoy Oligonucleotide to NF-?B: Inhibiting MUC2 Expression in LPS-Stimulated Airway Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

A specific and promising approach to limit inflammation and mucin iperproduction in chronic lung diseases relies on specific inhibition of nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B) by a decoy oligonucleotide (dec-ODN). To fulfill the requirements dictated by translation of dec-ODN therapy in humans, inhalable dry powders were designed on a rational basis to provide drug protection, sustained release and to optimize pharmacological response. To this end, large porous particles (LPP) for dec-ODN delivery made of a sustained release biomaterial (poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, PLGA) and an “adjuvant” hydrophilic polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) were developed and their effects on LPS-stimulated human airway epithelial cells evaluated. The composite PLGA/PEI particles containing dec-ODN (i.e., LPPPEI) were successfully engineered for widespread deposition in the lung and prolonged release of intact dec-ODN in vitro. LPPPEI caused a prolonged inhibition of IL-8 and MUC2 expression in CF human bronchial epithelial cells and human epithelial pulmonary NCI-H292 cells, respectively, as compared to naked dec-ODN. Nonetheless, as compared to previously developed LPP, the presence of PEI was essential to construct a dec-ODN delivery system able to act in mucoepidermoid lung epithelial cells. In perspective, engineering LPP with PEI may become a key factor for tuning carrier properties, controlling lung inflammation and mucin production which, in turn, can foster in vivo translation of dec-ODN therapy. PMID:23056313

Giovino, Concetta; Masuccio, Alessia; Miro, Agnese; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Carnuccio, Rosa; Quaglia, Fabiana

2012-01-01

368

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to testing the equipment for measurements by the gas saturation method and the Knudsen effusion method. These techniques are beginning to yield reliable results. Some key features of the methods are summarized, and sample results presented.

Suuberg, E.M.

1995-04-01

369

Sedimentology, diagenesis, and trapping style, Chesterian Tar Springs sandstone at Inman Field, Gallatin County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Springs Sandstone in southern Illinois is often over-looked as a pay, yet it can be a prolific producer. The Inman Field, discovered in 1940, produces from several cyclic Chesterian sandstones from structural-stratigraphic traps in the Wabash Valley Fault System of southeastern Illinois. The oil was sourced from the Devonian New Albany Shale and apparently migrated vertically along the Wabash Valley faults to its present location, thus charging many of the Chesterian and lower Pennsylvanian sands in the field. The Tar Springs Sandstone produces from stacked distributary channel sand reservoirs up to 125 feet thick which have cut up to 40 feet into laterally equivalent non-reservoir, delta-fringe facies and the underlying Glen Dean Limestone. The reservoir sands are well-sorted, fine- to medium-grained quartz arenites with less than 5% feldspar and chert. Quartz grains have quartz overgrowths. Feldspar grains are clouded in thin-section and show pronounced etching and dissolution in SEM. Diagenetic kaolinite and small amounts of illite and magnesium-rich chlorite occur in intergranular pores. Sparry, iron-rich dolomite or ankerite that fills pores in irregular millimeter-size patches, occupies up to 10% of the reservoir rock. Typical reservoir porosity ranges from 16 to 19 percent and permeability ranges from 60 to 700 md. By contrast non-reservoir delta-fringe sands typically have porosities of 6 to 12 percent and permeabilities of 1 to 20 md. Delta-fringe Tar Springs shales act as impermeable lateral and vertical seals, aiding in stratigraphic trapping.

Morse, D.G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

370

EPR and FTIR Characterization of Paramagnetic Transition Metal Ions in Fossil Fuels: Tar Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy have been applied to the bitumen and mineral fractions of a tar sand sample originating from Circle Cliffs, Utah to detect and identify paramagnetic transition metal ions present, indicate whether or not they are organically bound, and determine the identities of the complexes in which they occur. An EPR spectrum of the bitumen reveals the presence of V('4+) at a site of axial symmetry. Fitting the spectrum to the second order perturbation solution of the spin Hamiltonian indicates that the spectrum originates from vanadyl etioporphyrin. An EPR spectrum characteristic of Mn('2+) in a carbonate lattice was observed for the mineral component. A quantitative analysis of the mineral components, conducted using FTIR spectroscopy, shows the tar sand mineral fraction consists of the two clays, kaolinite and illite, quartz, gypsum, and one carbonate, dolomite. A computer simulation of the EPR spectrum positively identifies the Mn('2+) host as polycrystalline dolomite, shows the ions are at two crystallographically distinct sites in the dolomite lattice, and gives the relative population at each site. A second feature observed in the EPR spectrum of the mineral fraction is a broad line at g = 4.2 which is attributed to Fe('3+) in kaolinite. A third and final feature observed in the EPR spectrum of the tar sand mineral fraction is a broad line at g = 2. The temperature-dependent behavior of this line suggests that it is due to Fe('3+) in amorphous iron oxides and wustite, two compounds that commonly coat kaolinite surfaces.

Shepherd, Robert Anthony

371

Laboratory studies to characterize the efficacy of sand capping a coal tar-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Placement of a microbial active sand cap on a coal tar-contaminated river sediment has been suggested as a cost effective remediation strategy. This approach assumes that the flux of contaminants from the sediment is sufficiently balanced by oxygen and nutrient fluxes into the sand layer such that microbial activity will reduce contaminant concentrations within the new benthic zone and reduce the contaminant flux to the water column. The dynamics of such a system were evaluated using batch and column studies with microbial communities from tar-contaminated sediment under different aeration and nutrient inputs. In a 30-d batch degradation study on aqueous extracts of coal tar sediment, oxygen and nutrient concentrations were found to be key parameters controlling the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the five PAHs monitored (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), degradation rates were inversely proportional to molecular size. For the column studies, where three columns were packed with a 20-cm sand layer on the top of a 5 cm of sediment layer, flow was established to sand layers with (1) aerated water, (2) N(2) sparged water, or (3) HgCl(2)-sterilized N(2) sparged water. After steady-state conditions, PAH concentrations in effluents were the lowest in the aerated column, except for pyrene, whose concentration was invariant with all effluents. These laboratory scale studies support that if sufficient aeration can be achieved in the field through either active and passive means, the resulting microbially active sand layer can improve the water quality of the benthic zone and reduce the flux of many, but not all, PAHs to the water column. PMID:16337673

Hyun, Seunghun; Jafvert, Chad T; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C

2006-06-01

372

Estimation of Food Guide Pyramid Serving Sizes by College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) as a guide to quantity of consumption and serving sizes was investigated. Participants used the FGP model to assist them in selecting serving sizes on a 10-item questionnaire. Overall mean scores (31% correct) indicated that participants generally did not know the serving sizes recommended for use with the FGP, despite having access

Gretchen Knaust; Irene M. Foster

2000-01-01

373

Microbial detoxification of sewage of the coal-tar chemical industry  

SciTech Connect

A collection of microorganisms actively degrading the components of wastes of the coal-tar chemical industry-phenols, cresols, xenols, naphthalenes, phenathren-has been created. The active strains were represented mainly by pseduomonads-Pseudomonas aureofaciens, P. fluorescens, and Pseudomonas sp. These strains reduced the content of the cresol-xylenol and polyaromatic fractions by 70% during 7 days of fermentation. The isolated strains could also grow on individual aromatic compounds-isomeric cresols, naphalene, phenanthrene. The structure of five intermediate products of phenanthrene oxidation was revealed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Golovleva, L.A.; Finkelshtein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Alieva, R.M.; Shustova, L.G. [Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino (Russian Federation)

1995-03-01

374

A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

2013-06-01

375

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01

376

THE DETERMINING INFLUENCE OF TAR, BENZPYRENE, AND METHYLCHOLANTHRENE ON THE CHARACTER OF THE BENIGN TUMORS INDUCED THEREWITH IN RABBIT SKIN  

PubMed Central

The benign tumors of rabbit skin which appear in response to benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene are nearly all of the same kinds that tar produces, namely frill horns, papillomas, and carcinomatoids; but the collateral effects of these agents render many of them very different from the tar tumors. The connective tissue of the corium is so slowly excited by the pure hydrocarbons that for a long while it furnishes to most of the growths only a scanty stroma, when any, and in consequence they remain small,—low, dry, indolent, bas-relief affairs, made up almost entirely of the neoplastic epithelium,—not florid, fleshy excrescences with a large connective tissue component, such as tarring calls forth. The frill horns usually desquamate instead of building up like those due to tar, and some of their cells undergo a dyskeratotic change with result in spherical, homogeneous, deep-staining bullet-like elements, which give to the growths a singular aspect. In a frill horn due to benzpyrene numerous inclusion bodies were come upon which would seem to have been the result of intercurrent infection with a "passenger virus." Benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene produce papillomas, carcinomatoids, and frill horns in very different proportionate numbers from those obtaining when tar is the carcinogen. Tar gives rise much more frequently to carcinomatoids, —papillomas urged on to mimic cancers,—as would follow from its pronounced stimulating influence; yet it seldom produces frill horns whereas the pure hydrocarbons do so frequently. All three agents cause many more cells to become potentially capable of forming tumors than do so ordinarily, but the latent neoplastic elements on which tar exerts a promoting influence, causing them to form visible growths, are in general not the same as those which respond to benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene. Yet the relatively rare occurrence of frill horns due to tar cannot be wholly explained in this way and it becomes necessary to suppose that tar seldom changes normal cells into frill horn cells. Benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene give rise now and again to sebaceous adenomas, as tar does not. But tar does away with the sebaceous glands at an early period whereas the other two carcinogens cause them to increase notably in number. No evidence has been obtained that tar, benzpyrene, methylcholanthrene, arsenical preparations, or benzene,—which produces tumors of rabbit skin occasionally (1),—bring about any neoplastic changes peculiar to them individually when they act upon cells of a single sort, those of the stratum germinativum of rabbit epidermis. Yet the experimental findings make plain that these agents exert no inconsiderable influence on the morphology of the benign cutaneous growths they call forth and on the frequency with which this or that kind occurs. In appraising the action of carcinogens one must take into account not only the capacity of these agents to induce neoplastic change and to promote, or perhaps suppress, tumor growth but an ability to condition to no inconsiderable extent both the kind of tumor arising and its structure. PMID:19871402

Friedewald, William F.; Rous, Peyton

1944-01-01

377

Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism  

PubMed Central

Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

2012-01-01

378

Coal-Tar-Based Parking Lot Sealcoat: An Unrecognized Source of PAH to Settled House Dust  

PubMed Central

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ?g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ?g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ?g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ?g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. PMID:20063893

2010-01-01

379

False promises: The tobacco industry, "low-tar" cigarettes, and older smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

380

Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon.  

PubMed

Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are lured by dying herbivores. Consequently, in both records predatory mammals and birds far outnumber herbivores. In playbacks, two large social species, lions, Panthera leo, and spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, actively moved towards the sounds of distressed prey and made up 84 per cent of individuals attending. Small social species (jackals) were next most common and solitary species of all sizes were rare. In the La Brea record, two species dominated, the presumably social dire wolf Canis dirus (51%), and the sabretooth cat Smilodon fatalis (33%). As in the playbacks, a smaller social canid, the coyote Canis latrans, was third most common (8%), and known solitary species were rare (<4%). The predominance of Smilodon and other striking similarities between playbacks and the fossil record support the conclusion that Smilodon was social. PMID:18957359

Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J; Mills, Michael G L; Grether, Gregory F; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

2009-02-23

381

Biological oxidation of organic constituents in tar-sand combustion-process water.  

PubMed

A study was performed to characterize a sample of reverse-forward, tar-sand combustion process water, and to conduct an initial evaluation of activated sludge treatment of the process water. No pretreatment of the wastewater was considered necessary prior to biological oxidation other than addition of ca. 0.006M caustic/L influent to maintain reactor pH in the desired range of 7.0-7.5. The process water was treated successfully by biological oxidation, achieving an 88% reduction of both COD and soluble organic carbon and a 97% reduction of BOD. The disposition of about 150 organic compounds was evaluated and it was shown that a variety of carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds were removed by treatment. Quinolines and certain higher molecular weight carboxylic acids were not removed as effectively as other compounds. These preliminary results should assist in the design of future investigations with tar-sand process water for purposes of optimizing process treatment and improving sample characterization. PMID:18548645

Torpy, M F; Luthy, R G; Raphaelian, L A

1983-12-01

382

Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter (“filter color”) as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected

Michael J. Morton; David L. Williams; Heather B. Hjorth; Jennifer H. Smith

2010-01-01

383

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. Sophisticated general correlative approaches are slowly being developed, based upon group contribution methods, or based upon some key functional features of the molecules. These are as yet difficult to apply to coal tars. The detailed group contribution methods, in which fairly precise structural information is needed, do not lend themselves well for application to very complex, poorly characterized coal tars. The methods based upon more global types of characterizations have not yet dealt much with the question of oxygenated functional groups. In short, only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion.

Suuberg, E.M.

1993-12-31

384

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude. Sophisticated general correlative approaches are slowly being developed, based upon group contribution methods, or based upon some key functional features of the molecules. These are as yet difficult to apply to coal tars. The detailed group contribution methods, in which fairly precise structural information is needed, do not lend themselves well for application to very complex, poorly characterized coal tars. The methods based upon more global types of characterizations have not yet dealt much with the question of oxygenated functional groups. In short, only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well- established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to developing techniques for measurements of vapor pressures of coal tar related compounds, and mixtures, in a ``continuous`` mode, using the effusion technique.

Suuberg, E.M.

1996-09-01

385

Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity.  

PubMed

Forty tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors were related to serve velocity. Statistically significant relationships were found between serve velocity and several flexibility measurements including increased dominant wrist flexion (P < 0.05), increased dominant shoulder flexion (P < 0.05), and increased dominant shoulder internal rotation at 0 degrees of abduction (P < 0.05). Several strength measurements were also related to serve velocity including elbow extension torque production (P < 0.01) and the ratios of internal to external rotational torque production for both low- and high-speed measurements (P < 0.01 concentrically and P < 0.05 eccentrically). These findings relate strength and flexibility to serve velocity, suggesting that it may be possible to increase a tennis player's serve velocity through specifically directed muscular strengthening or stretching regimens. However, prospective studies must be undertaken to demonstrate these possibilities. PMID:7856797

Cohen, D B; Mont, M A; Campbell, K R; Vogelstein, B N; Loewy, J W

1994-01-01

386

Systemic levels of the anti-inflammatory decoy receptor soluble RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) are decreased in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common condition in dogs, and a dysregulated innate immunity is believed to play a major role in its pathogenesis. S100A12 is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, which is involved in phagocyte activation and is increased in serum/fecal samples from dogs with IBD. S100A12 binds to the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a pattern-recognition receptor, and results of studies in human patients with IBD and other conditions suggest a role of RAGE in chronic inflammation. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy receptor for inflammatory proteins (e.g., S100A12) that appears to function as an anti-inflammatory molecule, was shown to be decreased in human IBD patients. This study aimed to evaluate serum sRAGE and serum/fecal S100A12 concentrations in dogs with IBD. Serum and fecal samples were collected from 20 dogs with IBD before and after initiation of medical treatment and from 15 healthy control dogs. Serum sRAGE and serum and fecal S100A12 concentrations were measured by ELISA, and were compared between dogs with IBD and healthy controls, and between dogs with a positive outcome (i.e., clinical remission, n=13) and those that were euthanized (n=6). The relationship of serum sRAGE concentrations with clinical disease activity (using the CIBDAI scoring system), serum and fecal S100A12 concentrations, and histologic disease severity (using a 4-point semi-quantitative grading system) was tested. Serum sRAGE concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy controls (p=0.0003), but were not correlated with the severity of histologic lesions (p=0.4241), the CIBDAI score before (p=0.0967) or after treatment (p=0.1067), the serum S100A12 concentration before (p=0.9214) and after treatment (p=0.4411), or with the individual outcome (p=0.4066). Clinical remission and the change in serum sRAGE concentration after treatment were not significantly associated (p=0.5727); however, serum sRAGE concentrations increased only in IBD dogs with complete clinical remission. Also, dogs that were euthanized had significantly higher fecal S100A12 concentrations than dogs that were alive at the end of the study (p=0.0124). This study showed that serum sRAGE concentrations are decreased in dogs diagnosed with IBD compared to healthy dogs, suggesting that sRAGE/RAGE may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. Lack of correlation between sRAGE and S100A12 concentrations is consistent with sRAGE functioning as a non-specific decoy receptor. Further studies need to evaluate the gastrointestinal mucosal expression of RAGE in healthy and diseased dogs, and also the formation of S100A12-RAGE complexes. PMID:25183017

Heilmann, Romy M; Otoni, Cristiane C; Jergens, Albert E; Grützner, Niels; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

2014-10-15

387

Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in the news here in Norway as well about the Tar Sands.  

E-print Network

with Facebook. I also share information from friends & news-media in my classes that are shared on Facebook. OneRequest received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I-catching on Facebook when I repost it? I am able to share a lot of information with my students and colleagues

Hansen, James E.

388

Self-gravitating instability of an annular fluid jet surrounding a mantle tar column upon oscillating periodical electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-gravitating instability of an annular fluid jet surrounding a very dense mantle tar cylinder under oscillating periodical oblique electric fields has been developed. The potential and kinetic energies of the system are computed and the characteristic integral differential Mathieu equation is derived by utilizing the Lagrangian energy principle. Some reported works could be recovered as limiting cases. The model

Ahmed E. Radwan

1997-01-01

389

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07

390

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

391

Meta-Analysis of Lung Cancer in Asphalt Roofing and Paving Workers with External Adjustment for Confounding by Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for

William E. Fayerweather

2007-01-01

392

MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

393

Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management  

PubMed Central

Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20?35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

2012-01-01

394

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

395

Characterization and Source of Unknown “Tar-Like Material” and “Slag” in a Former Oil Field in Compton, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of “tar-like material” and “slag” within a ravine traversing a mobile home park and former oil field promulgated its remediation and a subsequent lawsuit brought by the park's owner against the former Dominquez Oil Field (Compton, CA) operator claiming these materials were derived from historic oil production operations. In this study, archived samples of these materials from the

Scott A. Stout

2007-01-01

396

Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?  

EPA Science Inventory

Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

397

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

398

Anti-TAR Polyamide Nucleotide Analog Conjugated with a Membrane-Permeating Peptide Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Production  

PubMed Central

The emergence of drug-resistant variants has posed a significant setback against effective antiviral treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The choice of a nonmutable region of the viral genome such as the conserved transactivation response element (TAR element) in the 5? long terminal repeat (LTR) may potentially be an effective target for drug development. We have earlier demonstrated that a polyamide nucleotide analog (PNA) targeted to the TAR hairpin element, when transfected into cells, can effectively inhibit Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) LTR (T. Mayhood et al., Biochemistry 39:11532-11539, 2000). Here we show that this anti-TAR PNA (PNATAR), upon conjugation with a membrane-permeating peptide vector (transportan) retained its affinity for TAR in vitro similar to the unconjugated analog. The conjugate was efficiently internalized into the cells when added to the culture medium. Examination of the functional efficacy of the PNATAR-transportan conjugate in cell culture using luciferase reporter gene constructs resulted in a significant inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR. Furthermore, PNATAR-transportan conjugate substantially inhibited HIV-1 production in chronically HIV-1-infected H9 cells. The mechanism of this inhibition appeared to be regulated at the level of transcription. These results demonstrate the efficacy of PNATAR-transportan as a potential anti-HIV agent. PMID:11907228

Kaushik, Neerja; Basu, Amartya; Palumbo, Paul; Myers, Rene L.; Pandey, Virendra N.

2002-01-01

399

Anti-TAR Polyamide Nucleotide Analog Conjugated with a Membrane-Permeating Peptide Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of drug-resistant variants has posed a significant setback against effective antiviral treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The choice of a nonmutable region of the viral genome such as the conserved transactivation response element (TAR element) in the 5 long terminal repeat (LTR) may potentially be an effective target for drug development. We have earlier demonstrated that

Neerja Kaushik; Amartya Basu; Paul Palumbo; Rene L. Myers; Virendra N. Pandey

2002-01-01

400

32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Assistance in serving process overseas...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND...516.13 Assistance in serving process overseas...Panama, Central and South America. For information and...or accompanying forces in the U.S. Army...

2013-07-01

401

32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.  

...2014-07-01 false Assistance in serving process overseas...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND...516.13 Assistance in serving process overseas...Panama, Central and South America. For information and...or accompanying forces in the U.S. Army...

2014-07-01

402

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation  

E-print Network

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation Simon Duquennoy dedicated terminals. A new trend consists in embedding Web servers in small devices, making both access of embedded Web servers, and we introduce a taxonomy of the contents possi- bly served by Web applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Inventing Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HSIs (Hispanic-Serving Institutions) are important institutions for Latinos, yet little research exists on them. This brief serves as a primer on the conditions and history behind their invention, the processes for identification, and the general institutional characteristics of HSIs. It also offers an overview of how these institutions are…

Santiago, Deborah

2006-01-01

404

Efficiently serving dynamic data at highly accessed web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present architectures and algorithms for efficiently serving dynamic data at highly accessed Web sites together with the results of an analysis motivating our design and quantifying its performance benefits. This includes algorithms for keeping cached data consistent so that dynamic pages can be cached at the Web server and dynamic content can be served at the performance level of

James R. Challenger; Paul Dantzig; Arun Iyengar; Mark S. Squillante; Li Zhang

2004-01-01

405

Strawberry Smoothie Fruit & Vegetable servings per person = 2  

E-print Network

Strawberry Smoothie Serves 1 Fruit & Vegetable servings per person = 2 ­ ½ Ingredients: 1 cup the strawberries until smooth. A blender jar forces food up against the blender walls where it is then redirected will send smaller volumes of food out toward the sides rather than up and then down toward the center

Florida, University of

406

45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554...Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served? (a) Form. (1) Documents...two copies. (2) Every pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall...

2010-10-01

407

Applying Buddhist Practices to Advocacy: The Advocacy-Serving Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model integrates Buddhist practices into advocacy work. This article includes a brief

Jane Warren; Konja K. Klepper; Serena Lambert; Johnna Nunez; Susan Williams

2011-01-01

408

Applying Buddhist Practices to Advocacy: The Advocacy-Serving Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model…

Warren, Jane; Klepper, Konja K.; Lambert, Serena; Nunez, Johnna; Williams, Susan

2011-01-01

409

The effect of time served on recidivism: An interdisciplinary theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this paper is concerned with the functional relation between the probability that an individual offender will recidivate and the time that the offender has served in prison as a consequence of the offense. Theory suggests that time served affects recidivism through both specific deterrent and social bonding effects. The former is hypothesized to produce an inverse

Thomas Orsagh I; Jong-Rong Chen

1988-01-01

410

CAN ACCREDITATION PROCESSES SERVE AS CHANGE AGENTS IN THE ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

CAN ACCREDITATION PROCESSES SERVE AS CHANGE AGENTS IN THE ENGINEERING ACADEMY? Prof R Natarajanj an Institution "on the move". 2 #12;A dit ti b th h tAccreditation processes serve as both change agents as well regulations and accreditation criteria. 7 #12;OTHER CHANGE AGENTSOTHER CHANGE AGENTS Of course

Ge, Zigang

411

Estimation of Food Guide Pyramid Serving Sizes by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (n=158) used the Food Guide Pyramid to select serving sizes on a questionnaire (73% had been instructed in its use). Overall mean scores (31% correct) indicated they generally did not know recommended serving sizes. Those who had read about or received instruction in the pyramid had higher mean scores. (SK)

Knaust, Gretchen; Foster, Irene M.

2000-01-01

412

The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

Sane, Bhagyashree

2011-01-01

413

Method for treating a tar sand reservoir to enhance petroleum production by cyclic steam stimulation  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from a virgin drainage area of a subterranean tar sand formation that is penetrated by a well, comprising the steps of: (a) injecting liquid carbon dioxide through the well into the formation at a rate and pressure that is sufficient to fracture the virgin drainage area; (b) discontinuing the injection of the liquid carbon dioxide after the virgin drainage area has been fractured and, thereafter, while carbon dioxide is still in place within the formation; (c) injecting steam through the well at a rate and pressure that is sufficient to place the steam into the formation through the fractures in the virgin drainage area; (d) retaining the steam within the formation for a period of time sufficient to permit the hydrocarbons within the virgin drainage area to absorb the heat from the steam; and, thereafter, (e) opening the well to produce effluents from the virgin drainage area.

Stephens, D.J.

1986-08-26

414

Co-pyrolysis of walnut shell and tar sand in a fixed-bed reactor.  

PubMed

This study investigated potential synergistic activities between tar sand and walnut shell during co-pyrolysis. A series of pyrolysis studies were conducted under specific operating conditions in a fixed-bed reactor. The highest yield of bio-oil from the co-pyrolysis was 31.84 wt.%, which represented an increase of 7.88 wt.% compared to the bio-oil yield from the pyrolysis of walnut shell alone. The bio-oils were characterized using various spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques. The results indicated that the synergetic effect increased the co-pyrolysis bio-oil yield and its quality. Consequently, the results indicate that the bio-oils obtained will be suitable for the production of fuels and chemicals as feedstock after required improvements. PMID:21875795

Kar, Yakup

2011-10-01

415

A COMPARISON OF VIRUS-INDUCED RABBIT TUMORS WITH THE TUMORS OF UNKNOWN CAUSE ELICITED BY TARRING  

PubMed Central

Tarring the ears of rabbits of one sort with a single kind of tar evoked epidermal tumors of a few sharply defined types, namely ordinary papillomas, carcinoids, carcinomas, and "frill horns." These last, relatively infrequent, are now recognized for the first time. The carcinoids have proved to be the expression of a spurious malignancy of papillomas, resulting from intercurrent influences, and they were wholly dependent upon these for their threatening aspect and behavior. Chief amongst such influences was continued tarring. It had the effect of establishing the papillomas, stimulated their proliferation, complicated their morphology, and rendered some of them disorderly, aggressive, and anaplastic. It brought all of the tissues of the ears into an excitable state, and often this state endured long after the skin had apparently returned to normal. The characters of the papilloma-carcinoids and of the frill horns were so different and distinctive as to imply the action of differing, specific causes. The papillomas were very like those induced with the Shope virus, and hence a point-to-point comparison was made of their manifestations, including the derivation of carcinomas from them. This comparison demonstrated that the unknown cause of the tar papillomas provoked neoplastic phenomena which were identical in all essential respects with those due to the virus. To suppose, for experimental purposes, that the papillomas which tarring elicits are caused by a virus rendered pathogenic by this procedure, is to demand least of the unknown. Yet it does not follow that they must be due to a virus. PMID:19870854

Rous, Peyton; Kidd, John G.

1939-01-01

416

Effects of cigarette smoke with different tar contents on hepatic and pulmonary xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of smoke from cigarettes with two different tar contents (32 mg/cigarette, high tar, and 15 mg/cigarette, low tar) on hepatic and pulmonary monooxygenase (MO) activities (aniline 4-hydroxylase [AH]; aminopyrine N-demethylase [AMND]; 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD]; p-nitroanisole O-demethylase [p-NAOD]), lipid peroxidation (LP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities toward several substrates (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [CDNBI; 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene [DCNB]; ethacrynic acid [EAA]; 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane [ENPP]) were determined in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed to smoke of high- or low-tar cigarettes five times a day, with 1-hour intervals, for 3 days in a chamber where smoke and fresh air lead alternatively and were killed 16 hours after the last treatment. Smoke of both high- and low-tar cigarettes (SHTCC and SLTCC) significantly increased hepatic and pulmonary EROD and p-NAOD activities compared to controls. However, the increase noted by SHTCC on pulmonary EROD activity was higher than that of SLTCC. Hepatic AMND and pulmonary AH activities were significantly increased only by SHTCC. LP level was significantly decreased and increased by SHTCC in liver and lung, respectively, whereas it remained unaltered by SLTCC. Only SHTCC significantly increased GSH level in liver. In the lungs, both SHTCC and SLTCC significantly increased GSH level to the same extent. Hepatic GST activity toward EAA was significantly increased by SHTCC but was significantly decreased by SLTCC. ENPP GST activity was significantly decreased by SHTCC and SLTCC in the livers. In the lungs, all the GST activities examined were significantly depressed by SHTCC whereas only GST activity toward DCNB was reduced significantly by SLTCC. These results reveal that the hepatic and pulmonary MOs and GSTs are differentially influenced by SHTCC and SLTCC in rats. PMID:12046719

Eke, B C; I?can, M

2002-01-01

417

Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

418

The nature and molecular basis of cutaneous photosensitivity reactions to psoralens and coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The basic aspects of cutaneous photosensitization reactions and the mode of therapeutic effectiveness of psoralens and coal tar, the two groups of photosensitizing agents used extensively in the photochemotherapy of psoriasis, have been reviewed. Psoralen-induced skin photosensitization and the therapeutic action of psoralens involve two distinct types of reactions, and these two reactions occur independently of each other and concurrently when the psoralen-treated skin (oral or topical) is exposed to 320 to 400 nm of radiation. The first, type I, is an oxygen-independent reaction and primarily involves photoreaction with DNA; the second, type II, is a sensitized reaction dependent on oxygen and involves the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2). The photoreactive form of psoralen is its triplet state, and the sites of reaction are (1) the cell membrane of the epidermal, dermal, and endothelial cells; (2) the cytoplasmic constituents, such as enzymes, RNA, lysosomes, etc.; (3) the cell nuclei (DNA and chromatin); and (4) the sensitized production of 1O2, which is responsible for cell-membrane damage and vasodilation. The major damage would be initiated by a type I reaction and would be seen in the form of nuclear damage to DNA resulting from the interaction of psoralen with DNA and to a lesser extent with RNA. The skin photosensitization response (erythema, edema, membrane damage, etc.) would result from a type II reaction involving the generation of 1O2. Crude coal tar (CCT), widely used in the Goeckerman therapy for psoriasis, also produces type I and type II reactions. The therapeutic and photosensitizing actions of CCT are due to (1) the photoconjugation of the photoreactive ingredients of CCT with DNA, causing interstrand cross-links; and (2) the production of 1O2. CCT is an efficient producer of 1O2, more so than 8-methoxypsoralen, and is responsible for cell-membrane damage and cellular edema.

Pathak, M.A.; Joshi, P.C.

1983-06-01

419

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1994--30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to preparing the temperature measurement system for measurements of vapor pressure by the Knudsen effusion method. In the meantime, work has begun on preparing the system for producing the well-defined coal tar fractions that will ultimately be the subject of this study. The liquid chromatographic systems will be appropriate for this task. Anthracene and nonadecane were used to check the operation of the effusion apparatus. Fitting of the preliminary experimental data to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was performed using the method of least squares. From these fits, the latent heats of evaporation or sublimation ({Delta}H{sub v}) could be approximately calculated. This report discusses results from the Knudsen method and tars production, collection, and molecular weight distribution.

Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D.

1994-10-01

420

Institutions serving a large population of Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISIs) have also  

E-print Network

Institutions serving a large population of Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institution' means an institution of higher education of undergraduate students that is not less than 10 percent stu- dents who are Asian American or Native American

Hemmers, Oliver

421

8 CFR 204.9 - Special immigrant status for certain aliens who have served honorably (or are enlisted to serve...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are enlisted to serve) in the Armed Forces of the United States for at least 12...are enlisted to serve) in the Armed Forces of the United States for at least 12 years. (a) Petition for Armed Forces special immigrant. An alien...

2010-01-01

422

8 CFR 204.9 - Special immigrant status for certain aliens who have served honorably (or are enlisted to serve...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...are enlisted to serve) in the Armed Forces of the United States for at least 12...are enlisted to serve) in the Armed Forces of the United States for at least 12 years. (a) Petition for Armed Forces special immigrant. An alien...

2011-01-01

423

Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tennis serve has the potential for musculoskeletal injury as it is an overhead motion and is performed repetitively during play. Early studies evaluating the biomechanics and injury potential of the tennis serve utilized skin-based marker technologies; however, markerless motion measurement systems have recently become available and have obviated some of the problems associated with the marker-based technology. The late

Geoffrey D. Abrams; Alison L. Sheets; Thomas P. Andriacchi; Marc R. Safran

2011-01-01

424

NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NatureServe Explorer is "a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals, and ecological communities of the United States and Canada." NatureServe Explorer offers a quick and convenient way to get detailed information on the conservation status, geographic distribution, taxonomy, and natural history for species of interest. NatureServe Explorer, a combined project of the Nature Conservancy and the Natural Heritage Network, focuses on rare and endangered species but covers some common ones as well. The database may be quickly searched for information on specific plants and animals or on entire ecological communities.

2006-01-24

425

Expression of the rDNA-encoded mitochondrial protein Tar1p is stringently controlled and responds differentially to mitochondrial respiratory demand and dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel yeast protein Tar1p is encoded on the anti-sense strand of the multi-copy nuclear 25S rRNA gene, localizes to mitochondria,\\u000a and partially suppresses the mitochondrial RNA polymerase mutant, rpo41-R129D. However, the function of Tar1p in mitochondria and how its expression is regulated are currently unknown. Here we report\\u000a that Tar1p is subject to glucose repression and is up-regulated during

Nicholas D. Bonawitz; Marc Chatenay-Lapointe; Christopher M. Wearn; Gerald S. Shadel

2008-01-01

426

The soluble Decoy Receptor 3 is regulated by a PI3K-dependent mechanism and promotes migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Overexpression of Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a common event in several types of cancer. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), DcR3 overexpression is associated with lymph node and distant metastasis as well as a poor prognosis. However, the functional role and regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC is so far unknown. Methods Modulation of DcR3 expression by siRNA and ectopic gene expression, respectively, was performed in ACHN and 769-P RCC cell lines. Functional effects of a modulated DcR3 expression were analyzed with regard to migration, invasion, adhesion, clonogenicity, and proliferation. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of downstream mediators of DcR3. In further experiments, luciferase assays, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were applied to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC. Additionally, an ex vivo tissue slice culture technique combined with immunohistochemistry was used to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in human RCC specimens. Results Here, we show that DcR3 promotes adhesion, migration and invasiveness of RCC cells. The DcR3-dependent increase in cellular invasiveness is accompanied with an up-regulation of integrin alpha 4, matrixmetalloproteinase 7 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Further, we identified a signaling pathway regulating DcR3 expression in RCC. Using in vitro experiments as well as an ex vivo RCC tissue slice culture model, we demonstrate that expression of DcR3 is regulated in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner involving the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Conclusions Taken together, our results identify DcR3 as a key driver of tumor cell dissemination and suggest DcR3 as a promising target for rational therapy of RCC. PMID:24107265

2013-01-01

427

36 CFR 703.22 - Where to serve demands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...serve subpoenas: (a) For Congressional Research Service matters: Director, Congressional Research Service, LM 203, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library of...

2013-07-01

428

36 CFR 703.22 - Where to serve demands.  

...serve subpoenas: (a) For Congressional Research Service matters: Director, Congressional Research Service, LM 203, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library of...

2014-07-01

429

36 CFR 703.22 - Where to serve demands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...serve subpoenas: (a) For Congressional Research Service matters: Director, Congressional Research Service, LM 203, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library of...

2012-07-01

430

36 CFR 703.22 - Where to serve demands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...serve subpoenas: (a) For Congressional Research Service matters: Director, Congressional Research Service, LM 203, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library of...

2010-07-01

431

36 CFR 703.22 - Where to serve demands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...serve subpoenas: (a) For Congressional Research Service matters: Director, Congressional Research Service, LM 203, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library of...

2011-07-01

432

7 CFR 1220.205 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.205 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

2010-01-01

433

7 CFR 1220.205 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.205 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

2011-01-01

434

7 CFR 1220.205 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.205 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

2012-01-01

435

7 CFR 1220.205 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.205 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

2013-01-01

436

7 CFR 1220.205 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.205 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

2014-01-01

437

13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

438

Building B detail, elevator serving all three floor. View from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building B detail, elevator serving all three floor. View from first floor looking north. Elevator shaft located in northeast corner of building - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building B, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

439

49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. [67 FR...

2010-10-01

440

49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. [67 FR...

2011-10-01

441

49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. [67 FR...

2013-10-01

442

49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. [67 FR...

2012-10-01

443

Serving the poor: drivers of business model innovation in mobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities and challenges of serving low-income consumers in developing markets with mobile telecommunications. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Field visits were made to Africa, India, Mexico and the Philippines, and in-depth interviews took place with companies that had succeeded in serving low-income consumers. Findings – The paper provides insights about the importance

Jamie Anderson; Martin Kupp

2008-01-01

444

Task 1.15 - Enhanced Bioremediation of Coal Tar-Contaminated Soil  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of sites where soils have been contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds is a major problem. This is especially true for manufactured gas plants (MGP) and similar industries. Gasification of fossil fuels has resulted in the production of tars that contain polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are of concern because they are persistent in the environment and because many of them are carcinogenic. When soils contain very high concentrations of PAHs and other tar components, it is generally most feasible to use a chemical-physical remediation technique such as incineration. However, when the contaminant concentrations are medium to low, the most inexpensive technology is generally biological treatment. Biological treatment is an environmentally acceptable method of remediation that is relatively low-cost for many organic contaminants. PAHs and similar hydrophobic compounds, however, present major challenges to the microbial methods. These problems can be broken down into two related areas: mass transfer and bioavailability. The water volubility of most PAW is very small, and they have very low vapor pressures. As a result the diffkion of the sorbed PAHs to a location where a biodegrading microorganism can encounter it is often limiting. Complicating this is that especially in aged samples, the PAHs are bound so strongly to soil components, they are not available for the microorganisms. These two phenomena can be better understood by examination of a typical biodegradation curve, such as might be observed for mixed PAHs. In Figure 1, there are three phases of the biodegradation process plotted with respect to time. In the first phase, concentrations are changing only slowly as the microbes adapt to the conditions, grow to a larger population, and begin to biodegrade the PAHs. The second phase is the phase of rapid, often logarithmic, biodegradation. The third and last phase is that period when available concentrations of PAHs are dropping so that the microorganisms cannot degrade them. The rate observed during the second phase is dependent on the size of the microbial population that can degrade the contaminants, the availability of the contaminants, and suitable nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and electron acceptors (e.g., oxygen). When readily biodegradable contaminants are present this phase is often very rapid. However, when any one of the above factors is limiting, a reduced rate is observed.

John R. Gallagher

1998-02-01

445

Mortality among employees of an Ontario factory that manufactured construction materials using chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch.  

PubMed

This paper describes mortality in a cohort of 324 men exposed to chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch used in the manufacture of electrical conduit pipe from a mixture of newsprint, bentonite, and asbestos. One death in a factory worker was attributed to pleural mesothelioma, and long-term employees experienced an increased risk of lung cancer (Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) 221; six deaths) and non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 215; four deaths). In a case-control analysis, men whose jobs involved adding asbestos to the mix of raw materials were found to have a risk of lung cancer sevenfold higher (lower 95% confidence limit: 2.3) than men who had never worked at this job. Exposure to coal tar pitch is presumed to be responsible for the death of one worker from squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum. PMID:2782316

Finkelstein, M M

1989-01-01

446

Expression of the rDNA-encoded mitochondrial protein Tar1p is stringently controlled and responds differentially to mitochondrial respiratory demand and dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The novel yeast protein Tar1p is encoded on the anti-sense strand of the multi-copy nuclear 25S rRNA gene, localizes to mitochondria, and partially suppresses the mitochondrial RNA polymerase mutant, rpo41-R129D. However, the function of Tar1p in mitochondria and how its expression is regulated are currently unknown. Here we report that Tar1p is subject to glucose repression and is up-regulated during post-diauxic shift in glucose medium and in glycerol medium, conditions requiring elevated mitochondrial respiration. However, Tar1p expression is down-regulated in response to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the rpo41-R129D mutation or in strains lacking respiration. Furthermore, in contrast to the previously reported beneficial effects of moderate over-expression of Tar1p in the rpo41-R129D strain, higher-level over-expression exacerbates the ROS-derived phenotypes of this mutant, including decreased respiration and life span. Finally, two-hybrid screening and in vitro-binding studies revealed a physical interaction between Tar1p and Coq5p, an enzyme involved in synthesizing the mitochondrial electron carrier and anti-oxidant, coenzyme Q. We propose that Tar1p expression is induced under respiratory conditions to maintain oxidative phosphorylation capacity, but that its levels in mitochondria are typically low and stringently controlled. Furthermore, we speculate that Tar1p is down-regulated when respiration is defective to prevent deleterious ROS-dependent consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:18622616

Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chatenay-Lapointe, Marc; Wearn, Christopher M.

2009-01-01

447

Expression of TAR RNA-binding protein in baculovirus and co-immunoprecipitation with insect cell protein kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

TAR RNA-binding protein TRBP was originally isolated by its binding affinity for radiolabeled HIV-1 leader RNA. Subsequent studies have suggested that this protein is one member of a family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins. Recent findings indicate that TRBP might function to antagonize the translational inhibitory effect that can be mediated through cellular protein kinase, PKR. Here, we report on the

Edward D. Blair; Christopher M. Roberts; B. Wendy Snowden; Anne Gatignol; Monsef Benkirane; Kuan-Teh Jeang

1995-01-01

448

Quantitative determination of benzo[a]pyrene in tar-containing drugs by an isotope dilution method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determination of benzoSTAa!pyrene (BP) in tar-containing ; drugs was studied by employing tritiated BP instead of ¹⁴C-BP. The ; analytical procedure was examined as follows: solvent extraction, thin-layer ; chromatography, and ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry. The recovery of BP ; in the whole analytical procedure was examined by repeating the procedure after ; adding 4.4 or 33.0 mu g of

Y. Masuda; K. Shimamura; R. Kagawa

1973-01-01

449

Candida digboiensis sp. nov., a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oilfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains (TERI-6T and TERI-7) of a novel yeast species were isolated from acidic tar sludge-contaminated soil samples collected from Digboi Refinery, Assam, India. These two yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on corn meal, malt, Gorodkowa, YM or V8 agars. Physiologically, the novel isolates were most closely related to

G. S. Prasad; S. Mayilraj; Nitu Sood; Vijeyta Singh; Kakoli Biswas; Banwari Lal

2005-01-01

450

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this

Marcel Culcasi; Agnès Muller; Anne Mercier; Jean-Louis Clément; Olivier Payet; Antal Rockenbauer; Véronique Marchand; Sylvia Pietri

2006-01-01

451

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

452

Stretching has no effect on tennis serve performance.  

PubMed

Stretching prior to vigorous physical activity has been shown to decrease high-force muscular performance, but little is known about the effect of stretching on speed and accuracy movements. Serving percentage and radar measurements of ball speed were studied to examine the acute effect of stretching on tennis serve performance. Eighty-three tennis players from beginning level to advanced volunteered to serve following traditional (T) warm-up and traditional plus stretching (S) conditions. Service speeds and service percentage of each condition were measured. Dependent t-tests showed nonsignificant effects of stretching on service speed (p = 0.06) or accuracy (p = 0.35), and this lack of an effect was similar for all skill levels, age, and gender. The large sample and good statistical power in this study indicated that these observations are not likely type II errors. There was no short-term effect of stretching in the warm-up on the tennis serve performance of adult players, so adding stretching to the traditional 5-minute warm-up in tennis does not affect serve performance. PMID:15320640

Knudson, Duane V; Noffal, Guillermo J; Bahamonde, Rafael E; Bauer, Jeff A; Blackwell, John R

2004-08-01

453

An 8-Stage Model for Evaluating the Tennis Serve  

PubMed Central

Background: The tennis serve is a complex stroke characterized by a series of segmental rotations involving the entire kinetic chain. Many overhead athletes use a basic 6-stage throwing model; however, the tennis serve does provide some differences. Evidence Acquisition: To support the present 8-stage descriptive model, data were gathered from PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases using keywords tennis and serve for publications between 1980 and 2010. Results: An 8-stage model of analysis for the tennis serve that includes 3 distinct phases—preparation, acceleration, and follow-through—provides a more tennis-specific analysis than that previously presented in the clinical tennis literature. When a serve is evaluated, the total body perspective is just as important as the individual segments alone. Conclusion: The 8-stage model provides a more in-depth analysis that should be utilized in all tennis players to help better understand areas of weakness, potential areas of injury, as well as components that can be improved for greater performance. PMID:23016050

Kovacs, Mark; Ellenbecker, Todd

2011-01-01

454

In vitro selection identifies key determinants for loop-loop interactions: RNA aptamers selective for the TAR RNA element of HIV-1.  

PubMed Central

We selected RNA aptamers specific for the trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA, a stem-loop structure crucial for the transcription of the integrated genome of the human immunodeficiency virus. Most of the selected sequences could be folded as imperfect hairpins and displayed a 5'-GUCCCAGA-3' consensus motif constituting the apical loop. The six central bases of this consensus sequence are complementary to the entire TAR loop, leadin