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1

Decoys in Predation and Parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey or host-parasite dynamics can be altered by the presence of other species through several mechanisms. One such mechanism is the ‘‘decoy effect,’’ which itself can take a variety of forms. In its simplest form, the third species, which is inedible to the predator, nonetheless interferes with predation because the predator spends time investigating these decoys. The effect of this

Michael H. F. Wilkinson

2003-01-01

2

'Decoy' and 'non-decoy' functions of DcR3 promote malignant potential in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells  

PubMed Central

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a ‘decoy’ for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has ‘non-decoy’ functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH.

TODA, MITSUNORI; KAWAMOTO, TERUYA; UEHA, TAKESHI; KISHIMOTO, KENTA; HARA, HITOMI; FUKASE, NAOMASA; ONISHI, YASUO; HARADA, RISA; MINODA, MASAYA; KUROSAKA, MASAHIRO; AKISUE, TOSHIHIRO

2013-01-01

3

Tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The

Wennekers; J. H. N

1981-01-01

4

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

Greco, N.P.

1984-04-17

5

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

6

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

7

Pyrophoric Alkylaluminum Compounds in Decoy Flares.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transportation and manufacturing of alklyaluminum compounds used in decoy flares by mixing in the solid or in the liquid state with nonpyrophoric materials are discussed. Methods for launching the flares from the aircraft as well as calculating and measur...

B. Gelin

1984-01-01

8

Infrared ship\\/decoy\\/missile encounter model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of missile-ship-countermeasures engagements are used to determine the effective ways of defending a ship against infrared-guided missile threats. This paper describes one type of simulation that models the engagement of a ship deploying IR decoys by an infrared-guided seeker-head missile. This model was developed to assess the efficiency of IR decoys in protecting ships against these missiles. The simulation,

Josee Morin; Francoise Reid; Andre Morin

1993-01-01

9

Tar sands development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands (also known as oil sands and bituminous sands) are sand deposits which are impregnated with dense viscous petroleum. Ultimate world reserves of bitumen in tar sands are about equal to ultimate reserves of crude oil in the U.S. However, the only tar-sand deposit of present commercial importance is in the Athabasca area of Alberta, Canada. The pioneer venture

1973-01-01

10

Construction and test of ligand decoy sets using MDock: community structure-activity resource benchmarks for binding mode prediction.  

PubMed

Two sets of ligand binding decoys have been constructed for the community structure-activity resource (CSAR) benchmark by using the MDock and DOCK programs for rigid- and flexible-ligand docking, respectively. The decoys generated for each complex in the benchmark thoroughly cover the binding site and also contain a certain number of near-native binding modes. A few scoring functions have been evaluated using the ligand binding decoy sets for their abilities of predicting near-native binding modes. Among them, ITScore achieved a success rate of 86.7% for the rigid-ligand decoys and 79.7% for the flexible-ligand decoys, under the common definition of a successful prediction as root-mean-square deviation <2.0 Å from the native structure if the top-scored binding mode was considered. The decoy sets may serve as benchmarks for binding mode prediction of a scoring function, which are available at the CSAR Web site ( http://www.csardock.org/). PMID:21755952

Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin

2011-09-26

11

Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors  

PubMed Central

Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks.

Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

2012-01-01

12

Data decoys for confidentiality in a distributed computation: matrix multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confidentiality of a distributed computation can be compromised if trust in the client machines cannot be assured. Strategically placed decoy data can provide a measure of confidentiality to a distributed computation by overwhelming an attacker with the combinatorial problem of differentiating live data from decoy data. This paper explores the nature of using decoy data in general and considers

Tobin Jackson; Delbert Hart

2004-01-01

13

Kentucky tar sand project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion

M. N. Kelley; H. D. II Jones; F. W. Lewis

1985-01-01

14

Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E): Better Ligands and Decoys for Better Benchmarking  

PubMed Central

A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target’s ligands by their Bemis–Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org.

2012-01-01

15

Oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the tar sand deposits of the world have drawn a great deal of attention as possible sources of enormous quantities of crude oil. The total in-place reserves are estimated at over 900 billion bbl, 3 times the liquid petroleum reserves of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, the largest deposits of tar sands occur in Canada, Venezuela,

Farouq Ali

1968-01-01

16

Lies and deception in bacterial gene regulation: the roles of nucleic acid decoys.  

PubMed

Bacteria use intricately interconnected mechanisms acting at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level to adjust gene expression to their needs. An intriguing example found in the chitosugar utilization systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella is uncovered in a study by Plumbridge and colleagues. Three transcription factors (TFs), a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) and a sRNA trap cooperate to set thresholds and dynamics in regulation of chitosugar utilization. Specifically, under inducing conditions a decoy site on the polycistronic chitobiose (chbBCARFG) mRNA sequesters sRNA ChiX, which represses synthesis of the separately encoded chitoporin ChiP. Base-pairing of ChiX with its decoy has no role for the chb genes themselves when the mRNA is in excess. In the absence of substrate, however, this base-pairing tightly represses chbC encoding a subunit of the chitosugar transporter. Thus, one and the same sRNA/mRNA interaction serves different regulatory functions under different environmental conditions. The employment of RNA decoys to control the activities of post-transcriptional regulators themselves is an increasingly recognized mechanism in gene regulation. Another observation in the current study highlights the possibility that decoy sites might even exist on the DNA controlling the availability of TFs for their target promoters. PMID:24707963

Göpel, Yvonne; Görke, Boris

2014-05-01

17

Serving Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition and estimation activity (page 12 of PDF), learners estimate serving sizes of different foods and compare their estimates to serving size information provided on nutrition food labels. A Quick Hand Measures guide helps learners visualize serving sizes of different foods using their hand (i.e. a closed fist = serving size of a piece of fruit). This activity also introduces learners to solid and liquid measures. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, reliable resource links and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

18

Basics of compounding with tars.  

PubMed

Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

Allen, Loyd V

2013-01-01

19

Experimental passive decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources by varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we have experimentally demonstrated the passive decoy-state method over a 50-km-long optical fiber and have obtained a key rate of about 100 bit/s. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

Sun, Qi-Chao; Wang, Wei-Long; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Fei; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Xianfeng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2014-08-01

20

Characterization of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), inductively coupled plasma\\/optical emission spectrometry (ICP\\/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM\\/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy

2010-01-01

21

Infrared ship/decoy/missile encounter model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of missile-ship-countermeasures engagements are used to determine the effective ways of defending a ship against infrared-guided missile threats. This paper describes one type of simulation that models the engagement of a ship deploying IR decoys by an infrared-guided seeker-head missile. This model was developed to assess the efficiency of IR decoys in protecting ships against these missiles. The simulation, Missile Infrared Decoy And Ship (MIDAS), is composed of three major blocks, the infrared scene generation, the seeker simulation and the missile dynamics simulation. The infrared scene generation block produces a three-dimensional IR scene from the target ship and flare models and transforms it into the two-dimensional IR image viewed by the seeker. The seeker simulation block is based on a generic conical scan seeker which uses a crossed-detector array for target detection. It processes the IR image to select a target and generates a steering command. The missile dynamics block computes the changes in missile trajectory according to the seeker steering command. The computations performed by each of the three blocks are explained in detail.

Morin, Josee; Reid, Francoise; Morin, Andre

1993-08-01

22

Kentucky tar sand project  

SciTech Connect

Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

1985-03-01

23

Serving Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

24

Serving Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

Brook, Les, Ed.

25

Decoy plasminogen receptor containing a selective Kunitz-inhibitory domain.  

PubMed

Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2' residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ?5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ? 0.2 to 0.3 ?M) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ?-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(?)-plasmin-KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the ?-plasmin-KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

Kumar, Yogesh; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Schmidt, Amy E; Ogueli, Godwin I; Ponnuraj, Sathya M; Rannulu, Nalaka; Loo, Joseph A; Bajaj, Madhu S; Bajaj, S Paul

2014-01-28

26

Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols  

SciTech Connect

Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

27

Characterization of acid tars.  

PubMed

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

2010-03-15

28

Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution Over 120 km Fibre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD), being capable of beating PNS attack and being unconditionally secure, has become attractive recently. However, in many QKD systems, disturbances of transmission channel make the quantum bit error rate (QBER) increase, which limits both security distance and key bit rate of real-world decoy state QKD systems. We demonstrate the two-intensity decoy QKD with a one-way Faraday-Michelson phase modulation system, which is free of channel disturbance and keeps an interference fringe visibility (99%) long period, over a 120km single mode optical fibre in telecom (1550 nm) wavelength. This is the longest distance fibre decoy state QKD system based on the two-intensity protocol.

Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu; Chen, Wei; Xu, Fang-Xing; Wu, Qing-Lin; Guo, Guang-Can

2008-10-01

29

Decoy state quantum key distribution in telecom dark fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imperfect components of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system will degrade its security. The highly attenuated weak coherent laser source used in today's QKD system is vulnerable to PNS attacks due to multi-photon optical pulses. Decoy State QKD, which is capable of beating PNS attacks and providing unconditional security, has been an attractive scheme recently. We have used a one way Faraday-Michelson phase modulated QKD system to implement 123km decoy state QKD in the lab. Furthermore a field decoy state QKD experiment of 32km dark fiber in Beijing is fulfilled. The optical pulse repetition rate is 1MHz and the final secure key is 9.59×10-7 (6.784×10-6) bit per pulse for 123km (32km). The experiment result indicates that the decoy state scheme can be successfully used in real-life metropolitan QKD sessions.

Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-fu; Yin, Zhen-qiang; Wu, Qing-lin; Wei, Guo; Guo, Guang-can

2008-03-01

30

Pyrofora Alkylaluminiumfoereningar i Motmedelsfacklor (Pyrophoric Alkylaluminium Compounds in Decoy Flares).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of using pyrophoric materials in flares for decoying infrared seeking missiles is discussed in an earlier FOA-report. Among these materials some alkylaluminium compounds have been chosen for closer examination. Problems in connection with ...

B. Gelin

1984-01-01

31

Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state  

SciTech Connect

To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan [Key Lab of Quantum Information, CAS, USTC (China)

2007-07-15

32

Treatment of hot tar burns  

PubMed Central

Hot tar burns, although rare, usually occur in workers in the paving and roofing industries. When tar is heated to high temperatures it can cause deep burns, and its removal often causes further damage. However, the use of one of the polysorbates (surface-active agents) makes removal easy and painless. ImagesFIG. 1

Bose, B.; Tredget, T.

1982-01-01

33

Twin Screw Extruder Production of MTTP Decoy Flares SERDP WP-1240.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort is to develop an environmentally acceptable decoy flare formulation and process to produce aircraft decoy flares without the use of HAP or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). A continuous TSE will be used to compound magnesium, ...

C. Campbell

2005-01-01

34

Effects of Towed-Decoys against an Anti-Air Missile with a Monopulse Seeker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis evaluates the protection provided by towed decoys deployed by an aircraft during an engagement against an anti-air missile equipped with a monopulse seeker. The research emphasizes the use of passive decoys. Many of the operational parameters ...

J. H. Yeh

1995-01-01

35

Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

Ackerman, J. T.; Eadie, J. M.; Szymanski, M. L.; Caswell, J. H.; Vrtiska, M. P.; Raedeke, A. H.; Checkett, J. M.; Afton, A. D.; Moore, T. G.; Caswell, F. D.; Walters, R. A.; Humburg, D. D.; Yee, J. L.

2006-01-01

36

On the Response Policy of Software Decoys: Conducting Software-Based Deception in the Cyber Battlespace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent software decoys employ deception techniques to maintain the interaction between themselves and calling processes or threads that violate the contracts of the software components that the decoys defend. The software decoy's goal is to learn about the nature of such interactions before either terminating the interaction or treating the calling process or thread as a cyber combatant. Software components

James Bret Michael

2002-01-01

37

Mathematical Simulation of Using Decoying and Killing Missiles to Counter Anti-Radiation Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of intercepting anti-radiation missiles (ARM) using decoying and killing missiles (DKM) is proposed in this paper. (Decoying and killing missiles are actually surface-to-air missiles with their guidance heads replaced by decoying jammers.) A ...

S. Zhou B. Tao

1997-01-01

38

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice.  

PubMed

We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

2013-01-01

39

Tar sands. (FL74-56)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of in-place deposits, tar sands are a relatively small hydrocarbon resource. Though ''small'' by comparison with coal and shale, tar sands have been commercially processed since 1968, and a second plant is now under construction. Many processes have been proposed to extract the bitumen from tar sands. These include both in-situ methods, and processing of mined tar sands.

1974-01-01

40

Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

Shams Mousavi, S. H. [Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Photonic and Communication Systems, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Gallion, P. [TELECOM ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, 46 rue Barrault, 75013 Paris (France)

2009-07-15

41

Decoy Strategies: The Structure of TL1A:DcR3 Complex  

SciTech Connect

Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side-chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as antideterminants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands.

C Zhan; Y Patskovsky; Q Yan; Z Li; U Ramagopal; H Cheng; M Brenowitz; X Hui; S Nathenson; S Almo

2011-12-31

42

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with intensity fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, proven to be more desirable than the active ones in some scenarios, also have the problem of device imperfections like intensity fluctuations. In this paper, the formula of key generation rate of the passive decoy-state protocol using the weak coherent pulse (WCP) source with intensity fluctuation is given, and then the influence of intensity fluctuations on the performance of the passive decoy-state protocol is rigorously characterized. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that intensity fluctuations have non-negligible influence on the performance of the passive decoy-state QKD protocol with WCP source. Most importantly, our simulations show that, under the same deviation of intensity fluctuations, the passive decoy-state method performs better than the active one decoy-state method and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy-state method.

Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-su; Li, Hong-wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

2014-03-01

43

Efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with quantified security.  

PubMed

We analyse the finite-size security of the efficient Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol implemented with decoy states and apply the results to a gigahertz-clocked quantum key distribution system. Despite the enhanced security level, the obtained secure key rates are the highest reported so far at all fibre distances. PMID:24150299

Lucamarini, M; Patel, K A; Dynes, J F; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z L; Penty, R V; Shields, A J

2013-10-21

44

Neutral particle beams show potential for decoy discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is receiving increased attention as part of the SDI due to the possibility of automated discrimination between decoys and warheads during intermediate ICBM flight phases. The NPBs would scan targets with high velocity hydrogen or deuterium particles, eliciting gamma ray and neutron emissions that would be proportional to the mass of the object. A 100

Philip J. Klass

1986-01-01

45

Correlation Parameters Simulation for Towed Radar Active Decoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Towed Radar Active Decoy (TRAD) is an essential way to counter the mono-pulse radar seeker, both ground to air and air to air. It has some successful battle documentation, but the actual effect is usually limited by multiple factor. This thesis briefly introduced the mechanism of TRAD, some key parameters related to its effectiveness are analyzed, such as the

Yunsheng Zhou

2012-01-01

46

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

47

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

48

Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar Ss dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water,

A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. D. Timrot

1981-01-01

49

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar containing the tar free radical cause DNA nicks in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

The ability of aqueous extracts of cigarette tar to nick DNA was investigated using viable mammalian cells. Tar extracts contain a radical with a stable electron spin resonance (ESR) signal at g = 2.0036 characteristic of a semiquinone. The association of the tar component that carries the ESR signal with DNA was demonstrated using viable rat alveolar macrophages. The formation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by cigarette tar extracts in viable rat thymocytes follows saturation kinetics, indicating a tar component associates with DNA and then nicks it. These studies support our hypothesis that tar components that contain the cigarette tar radical can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA.

Stone, K K; Bermudez, E; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

50

Fume Emissions from Coal-Tar Pitch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar and to determine a first estimate of the emission factor for coal-tar fumes under conditions similar to those found ...

D. C. Hittle J. J. Stukel

1976-01-01

51

Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is 1010. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

2014-05-01

52

The impact of phantom decoys on choices in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-dependent choice is an important aspect of decision making. The paper examines context-dependent choice in cats (Felis catus), with particular reference to the effect of local context, on the basis of hypotheses developed in the field of human decision\\u000a making. Cats were initially confronted with two different feeding options. This binary choice set was later manipulated incorporating\\u000a a decoy that

Daniele Scarpi

2011-01-01

53

Modulation of macrophage differentiation and activation by decoy receptor 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor su- perfamily and is readily detected in certain can- cer patients. Recently, we demonstrated that DcR3.Fc-treated dendritic cells skew T cell re- sponses to a T helper cell type 2 phenotype. In this study, we further asked its ability to modulate CD14 monocyte differentiation into macro-

Yung-Chi Chang; Tsui-Ling Hsu; Hsi-Hsien Lin; Chung-Ching Chio; Allen W. Chiu; Nien-Jung Chen; Chi-Hung Lin; Shie-Liang Hsieh

2004-01-01

54

Tar sands and oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worlds largest potential liquid-hydrocarbon reserves are not recoverable by ordinary oil-producing methods. These reserves are the Athabasca tar sands of northern Alberta in Canada and the Green River oil shales of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The two deposits differ in their chemistry, physical state, and history. Both contain hydrocarbons that can be converted economically into petroleum products. Both occur

de Never

1966-01-01

55

Spectroscopic characterization of visbreaking tars  

SciTech Connect

Visbreaking (VB) is a thermal cracking process, widely used in the refineries of Western Europe to obtain distillates (gasoil, naphtha) from a petroleum residue (feedstock). The visbroken residue (tar) is used to produce fuel oil, after addition of the appropriate amounts of cutter-stock. Even if the highest conversion of feedstock would be desirable, the severity of the VB process is limited by the stability of the resulting VB tars. The stability index (SI) here employed is: SI = I + V{sub cet}, where V{sub cet} is the maximum amount of n-cetane, expressed as ml of cetane for g of sample, that can be added before the flocculation of asphaltenes starts. VB tars having SI<1.1 are considered to be unstable and cannot be used in the preparation of fuel oils with the appropriate specifications. Several papers can be found in the literature dealing with the molecular changes occuring during the VB process. The present paper is aimed at verifying the amount of information that can be extracted from optical spectroscopies and, in particular, the possibility of directly monitoring the physico-chemical modifications caused by VB process. To this purpose a series of VB tars, produced from a single feedstock at different severities, were investigated by a number of spectroscopic techniques, viz.: NIR; UV-Vis; Fluorescence; {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NUR, EPR.

Scotti, R.; Clericuzio, M.; Pirovano, C. [Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy)

1995-12-31

56

Spectrum-based method to generate good decoy libraries for spectral library searching in peptide identifications.  

PubMed

As spectral library searching has received increasing attention for peptide identification, constructing good decoy spectra from the target spectra is the key to correctly estimating the false discovery rate in searching against the concatenated target-decoy spectral library. Several methods have been proposed to construct decoy spectral libraries. Most of them construct decoy peptide sequences and then generate theoretical spectra accordingly. In this paper, we propose a method, called precursor-swap, which directly constructs decoy spectral libraries directly at the "spectrum level" without generating decoy peptide sequences by swapping the precursors of two spectra selected according to a very simple rule. Our spectrum-based method does not require additional efforts to deal with ion types (e.g., a, b or c ions), fragment mechanism (e.g., CID, or ETD), or unannotated peaks, but preserves many spectral properties. The precursor-swap method is evaluated on different spectral libraries and the results of obtained decoy ratios show that it is comparable to other methods. Notably, it is efficient in time and memory usage for constructing decoy libraries. A software tool called Precursor-Swap-Decoy-Generation (PSDG) is publicly available for download at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/PSDG/. PMID:23560440

Cheng, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Chia-Feng; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

2013-05-01

57

[Effect of high-temperature phase change material on the performance of infrared decoy].  

PubMed

The impact of the high-temperature phase change material on conventional infrared decoy's combustion performance and infrared radiation characteristics was studied. The selected high-temperature phase change materials did not reduce infrared radiation in the 3-5 microm or 8-14 microm band of infrared decoy, while extended the burning time, and reduced the burning rate of the grain, thus prolonged the effective interference time of IR decoy. The results show the phase change material is effective infrared decoy functional additives. PMID:24409710

Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Xin; Han, Ai-Jun; Ye, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Min-Chun

2013-10-01

58

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

59

Decoy oligodeoxynucleotide targeting activator protein-1 (AP1) attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine experimental colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various therapies are used for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), though none seem to be extremely effective. AP-1 is a major transcription factor that upregulates genes involved in immune and proinflammatory responses. We investigated decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeting AP-1 to prevent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Functional efficacies of synthetic decoy and scrambled ODNs were evaluated in vitro by

Ichiro Moriyama; Shunji Ishihara; M Azharul Karim Rumi; M D Monowar Aziz; Yoshiyuki Mishima; Naoki Oshima; Chikara Kadota; Yasunori Kadowaki; Yuji Amano; Yoshikazu Kinoshita

2008-01-01

60

Consensus scoring for enriching near-native structures from protein-protein docking decoys  

PubMed Central

The identification of near native protein-protein complexes among a set of decoys remains highly challenging. A strategy for improving the success rate of near native detection is to enrich near native docking decoys in a small number of top ranked decoys. Recently, we found that a combination of three scoring functions (energy, conservation and interface propensity) can predict the location of binding interface regions with reasonable accuracy. Here, these three scoring functions are modified and combined into a consensus scoring function called ENDES for enriching near native docking decoys. We found that all individual scores result in enrichment for the majority of 28 targets in ZDOCK2.3 decoy set and the 22 targets in Benchmark 2.0. Among the three scores, the interface propensity score yields the highest enrichment in both sets of protein complexes. When these scores are combined into the ENDES consensus score, a significant increase in enrichment of near-native structures is found. For example, when 2000 dock decoys are reduced to 200 decoys by ENDES, the fraction of near-native structures in docking decoys increases by a factor of about six in average. ENDES was implemented into a computer program that is available for download at http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

Liang, Shide; Meroueh, Samy O.; Wang, Guangce; Qiu, Chao; Zhou, Yaoqi

2008-01-01

61

Comparison of the emission of IR decoy flare under controlled laboratory and on-field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the optical properties of decoy flares such as peak intensity, rise time and function time as well as the trajectory after being ejected are crucial to ensure the decoy effectiveness and the protection of the aircraft. The Countermeasures Laboratory of the \\

Carmen Sánchez Oliveros; Laura Martín Aragón; Raquel Macias Jareño

2009-01-01

62

Thermal recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the progress made in developing improved technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands, it is logical to assume that as the world's supply of light and heavy oil is depleted, production of synthetic oil from the bitumen resources in tar sands will accelerate. As most of the known deposits of tar sands were discovered by accident, there is reason to believe that a worldwide exploration program based on sound geological principles will discover much more of this material. The long lead times required to turn this massive resource into acceptable alternative refinery feedstock at a reasonable price make it imperative that we vigorously pursue the development of recovery technology at this time if we are to avoid shortages of liquid fuel early in the next century. There is no question that the light-crude-oil substitute developed from this resource will be more expensive than the conventional light and heavy crudes being used today. However, there is reason to believe that the differential in costs will narrow as the search for new sources of light oil swings to deeper targets in more remote and hostile environments, such as the continental shelves and arctic islands, and more expensive enhancedrecovery techniques are used to recover the oil now left behind in deep depleted light- and heavy-oil reservoirs.

Carrigy, M.A.

1983-12-01

63

Reduction of Blood Pressure by AT1 Receptor Decoy Peptides  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background We previously identified the binding of the chaperone protein gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor–associated protein (GABARAP) to a sequence on the carboxy-terminus of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor (AT1R) and showed that this binding enhances AT1R trafficking to the cell surface as well as angiotensin signaling. Methods In this study, we treated sodium-depleted mice with decoy peptides consisting either of a fusion of the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin and the GABARAP/AT1R binding sequence or penetratin fused to a mutated AT1R sequence. We used telemetry to measure blood pressure. Results Systolic and diastolic pressure fell during the 24 hours following decoy peptide injection but not after control peptide injection. Active cell-penetrating decoy peptide decreased 24-hour average systolic blood pressure from 129.8 ± 4.7 mmHg to 125.0 ± 6.0 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation). Diastolic blood pressure fell from 99.0 ± 7.1 mmHg to 95.0 ± 9.2 mmHg (n=5). Administration of the control peptide raised systolic blood pressure from 128.7 ± 1.3 mmHg to 131.7 ± 2.9 mmHg and diastolic pressure from 93.9 ± 4.5 mmHg to 95.9 ± 4.2 mmHg (n=5). The decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after active peptide administration were statistically significant compared to control peptide administration (P<0.05, two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Conclusion These results indicate the physiological and potentially therapeutic relevance of inhibitors of GABARAP/AT1R binding.

Re, Richard N.; Chen, Ben; Alam, Jawed; Cook, Julia L.

2013-01-01

64

Quantum key distribution with passive decoy state selection  

SciTech Connect

We propose a quantum key distribution scheme which closely matches the performance of a perfect single photon source. It nearly attains the physical upper bound in terms of key generation rate and maximally achievable distance. Our scheme relies on a practical setup based on a parametric downconversion source and present day, nonideal photon-number detection. Arbitrary experimental imperfections which lead to bit errors are included. We select decoy states by classical postprocessing. This allows one to improve the effective signal statistics and achievable distance.

Mauerer, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine [Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Max Planck Research Group, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, 91058 Erlangen, Gernany (Germany)

2007-05-15

65

Decoy Oligonucleotide Rescues IGF1R Expression from MicroRNA-223 Suppression  

PubMed Central

A mature miRNA generally suppresses hundreds of mRNA targets. To evaluate the selective effect of synthetic oligonucleotide decoys on hsa-miR-223 activity, reporters containing 3’ untranslated regions (UTR) of IGF1R, FOXO1, POLR3G, FOXO3, CDC27, FBXW7 and PAXIP1 mRNAs were constructed for the luciferase assay. The oligonucleotide decoys were designed and synthesized according to mature miR-223 sequence and its target mRNA sequence. Quantitative RT-PCR & western analysis were used to measure miR-223-targeted mRNA expression, Interestingly, apart from the antisense oligonucleotide, decoy nucleotides which were complementary to the 5’, central or 3’ region of mature miR-223 suppressed miR-223 targeting the 3’UTR of IGF1R, FOXO1, FOXO3, CDC27, POLR3G, and FBXW7 mRNAs and rescued the expression of these genes to varying degrees from miR-223 suppression at both mRNA and protein levels. All decoys had no effect on PAXIP1 which was not targeted by miR-223. The decoy 1 that was based on the sequence of IGF1R 3’UTR rescued the expression of IGF1R more significantly than other decoy nucleotides except the antisense decoy 4. Decoy 1 also rescued the expression of FOXO3 and POLR3G of which their 3’UTRs have similar binding sites for miR-223 with IGF1R 3’UTR. However decoy 1 failed to recover Sp1, CDC27 and FBXW7 expression. These data support that the sequence-specific decoy oligonucleotides might represent exogenous competing RNA which selectively inhibits microRNA targeting.

Wang, Rong; He, Bao Mei; Qi, Bing; Xu, Chang Jun; Wu, Xing Zhong

2013-01-01

66

Future of heavy crude and tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 106 papers which were presented at the First International Conference on the Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, held in Edmonton, Alberta are incorporated in this volume. They are grouped under the following sections: (1) role of heavy crude oils and tar sands in world energy; (2) major known occurrences; (3) chemistry and geochemistry; (4) geology; (5) resource

R. F. Meyer; C. T. Steele

1981-01-01

67

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

68

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

69

Protocol choice and parameter optimization in decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been demonstrated in both laboratories and field tests using attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. Although researchers have studied various decoy-state MDI-QKD protocols with two or three decoy states, a clear comparison between these protocols is still missing. This invokes the question of how many types of decoy states are needed for practical MDI-QKD. Moreover, the system parameters to implement decoy-state MDI-QKD are only partially optimized in all previous works, which casts doubt on the actual performance of former demonstrations. Here, we present analytical and numerical decoy-state methods with one, two, and three decoy states. We provide a clear comparison among these methods and find that two decoy states already enable a near-optimal estimation and more decoy states cannot improve the key rate much in either asymptotic or finite-data settings. Furthermore, we perform a full optimization of system parameters and show that full optimization can significantly improve the key rate in the finite-data setting. By simulating a real experiment, we find that full optimization can increase the key rate by more than one order of magnitude compared to nonoptimization. A local search method to optimize efficiently the system parameters is proposed. This method can be four orders of magnitude faster than a trivial exhaustive search to achieve a similar optimal key rate. We expect that this local search method could be valuable for general fields in physics.

Xu, Feihu; Xu, He; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

2014-05-01

70

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

71

Reduction of Decoy Receptor 3 Enhances TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Most human pancreatic cancer cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic cancer cells utilize their extracellular molecules to counteract the proapoptotic signaling mediated by the TNF family are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that DcR3, a secreted decoy receptor that malignant pancreatic cancer cells express at a high level, acts as an extracellular antiapoptotic molecule by binding to TRAIL and counteracting its death-promoting function. The reduction of DcR3 with siRNA unmasked TRAIL and greatly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Gemcitabine, a first-line drug for pancreatic cancer, also reduced the level of DcR3. The addition of DcR3 siRNA further enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Notably, our in vivo study demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine could be enhanced via further reduction of DcR3, suggesting that downregulation of DcR3 in tumor cells could tip the balance of pancreatic cells towards apoptosis and potentially serve as a new strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Wang, Wei; Yang, Shanmin; Su, Ying; Zhang, Hengshan; Liu, Chaomei; Li, Xinfeng; Lin, Ling; Kim, Sunghee; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Lurong

2013-01-01

72

Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling by TRAM-derived Decoy Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Toll/IL-1R domain- (TIR-) containing adapter inducing IFN-?-(TRIF-) related adapter molecule (TRAM) serves as a bridging adapter that enables recruitment of TRIF to activated TLR4 and thereby mediates the induction of TRIF-dependent cytokines. A library of cell-permeating decoy peptides derived from TRAM TIR domain has been screened for the ability of individual peptides to inhibit TLR4 signaling in primary murine macrophages. Peptides derived from TRAM TIR BB loop (TM4) and C helix (TM6) inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent cytokines, as well as MAPK activation. TM4 and TM6 did not block macrophage activation induced by TLR2, TLR9, or RIG-I-like receptor agonists. Both TM4 and TM6 blocked co-immunoprecipitation of TRAM and TLR4 ectopically expressed in HEK293T cells. Both peptides also blocked the LPS-induced recruitment of MyD88 to TLR4 in primary murine macrophages. In vivo examination of TRAM-derived peptides demonstrated that all peptides that were inhibitory in vitro, profoundly suppressed systemic inflammatory response elicited in mice by a sublethal LPS dose, and protected mice against a lethal LPS challenge. This research identifies novel TLR inhibitors effective in vitro and in vivo and validates the approach taken in this study as a rational way for development of signaling inhibitors and lead therapeutics.

Piao, Wenji; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y.

2013-01-01

73

Photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme is presented based on recent experimental advancements. A new upper bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses is given, which seems inherent as long as weak coherent sources and high lossy channel are used. This implies that our scheme is optimal in long-distance QKD with weak coherent sources. We show that Eve's coherent multiphoton pulse (CMP) attack is more efficient than a symmetric individual attack when the quantum bit error rate is small, so that the CMP attack should be considered to ensure the security of the final key. Our results show that a not-so-weak pulse can be used to transmit the key. Optimal intensity of the laser source is presented which provides a 23.9 km increase in the transmission distance.

Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan Yonggang [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Graduation University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China)

2006-03-15

74

Neutral particle beams show potential for decoy discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is receiving increased attention as part of the SDI due to the possibility of automated discrimination between decoys and warheads during intermediate ICBM flight phases. The NPBs would scan targets with high velocity hydrogen or deuterium particles, eliciting gamma ray and neutron emissions that would be proportional to the mass of the object. A 100 milliamp beam current with an energy of 5 MeV delivering 10 MW/sq cm has been produced at Los Alamos. Key developments needed for orbital tests are efficient stripping of electrons from the excited atoms to prevent their interaction with the terrestrial magnetic field, a proven beam focusing device, elimination of ion acoustic instabilities, weight reduction, a high-quality ion source, magnetooptical expansion of the beam from 1 cm diam to 1 m diam, and accurate aiming techniques.

Klass, P.J.

1986-12-01

75

Surface temperature distribution and infrared radiation feature of a spatial balloon decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space heat flux that the spatial balloon decoy gets is calculated in the appropriate coordinate system and the earth heat flux is calculated accurately with the use of the unit hemisphere method. The surface temperature distribution of the balloon decoy is got by solving the transient heat balance equations with the use of the finite element software, ANSYS 10.0. On the basis of the solved surface temperature distribution, taking the balloon decoy as a point object, the spatial distribution of infrared radiation intensity in 3~6um and in 6~16um is calculated. Finally, the differences of the surface temperature distribution and the infrared radiation intensity spatial distribution between the spatial balloon decoy got in this paper and a spatial target got in our previous work are compared and analyzed in detail. The research results of this paper have referential value on infrared automatic target recognition (ATR) of spatial targets.

Wu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Xiang-Yin; Yang, Hua; Huang, Chao-Chao

2009-07-01

76

Solvent leaching of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Solvent flooding is the basis of a wide range of enhanced oil recovery methods, and has been shown to be a possible method of creating initial steam injectivity in tar sands. This paper presents a unique model of dissolution of a semi-solid bitumen, resulting from the injection of a solvent. The solution of the mathematical equations, describing this phenomena is discussed. Results, including a series of two-dimensional problems, are presented. Numerical aspects are addressed. It is shown that three dimensionless groups control the bitumen leaching process. In the absence of fluid flow, the dissolution of bitumen is governed by the Damkohler and solvent capacity numbers. In the absence of dissolution, the Peclet number governs miscible displacement in the fluid phase. This paper presents computational results for a series of two-dimensional problems for a five-spot flow geometry, showing the importance of the model developed.

Oguztoreli, M.; Faroqu, S.M.

1983-11-01

77

Method for treatment of tar-bearing fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described of producing a fuel gas which contains condensable tar vapor when it leaves a gasifier, the improvement wherein the tar-bearing gases are treated to remove tar therefrom. The process consists of: (a) continuously conducting hot fuel gas from a gasifier to and discharging it into a spray chamber where the hot tar-bearing gas is contacted with

L. L. Frauen; S. Kasper

1986-01-01

78

Free energies of protein decoys provide insight into determinants of protein stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the stability of decoy structures of several proteins (from the CASP3 models and the Park and Levitt decoy set) relative to the native structures. The calculations were done with the force field-consistent ES\\/IS method, in which an implicit solvent (IS) model is used to calculate the average solvation free energy for snapshots from explicit simulations (ES). The

Yury N. Vorobjev; Jan Hermans

2001-01-01

79

Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y{sub n} for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to 1, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Soujaeff, Alexandre; Takeuchi, Shigeki [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Information Technology R and D Center, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); JST-CREST/Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-12 Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

2008-02-15

80

Implementation of an information system for the traceability of live decoy birds.  

PubMed

In the Veneto region (northern Italy), some geographic areas in the Po Valley have a large concentration of industrial poultry farms and are located close to wet areas with high populations of wild waterfowl. Live decoy birds belonging to the orders of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes can constitute a "bridge" for avian influenza (AI) viruses between the wild reservoir and the rural holdings where live decoy birds are usually kept, sometimes together with poultry. Thus, the use of live decoy birds during bird hunting could increase the risk of exposure of poultry farms to AI viruses. Since 2008, this kind of hunting has been strictly regulated with regard to the detection and use of live decoy birds. In order to guarantee the application of appropriate AI risk-modulating and monitoring measures in the management of the live decoys according to the European Union (EU) provisions, a solid and well-structured information system has been created. The Regional Data Bank (RDB) of farms and livestock, which has been operating since 1997, also contains data on farms and poultry movements. Therefore, the RDB management software was updated to collect data from the hunters who keep live decoy birds, and specific functions were integrated to ensure the traceability of these birds. Each live decoy bird has been identified by an irremovable ring. The individual code of each ring is recorded in the RDB and linked to both the holder's code and the hunting area. Transfers and death/slaughtering of the registered birds are recorded, too. The activation of a computerized data collection system has proven to be a prerequisite for the implementation of a control system for live decoy birds and provides an essential tool for the management of AI emergencies. PMID:23402130

Bortolotti, Laura; Rizzo, Simone; Favero, Laura; Bonfanti, Lebana; Comin, Arianna; Marangon, Stefano

2012-12-01

81

Therapeutic effects of STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide on human lung cancer in xenograft mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is usually constitutively activated in a variety of malignancies. Therefore, STAT3 may be a promising target for treatment of tumor cells. To explore the possibility of a double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeted blocking STAT3 over-activated tumor cells, we, here, evaluate the efficacy of STAT3 decoy ODN on human lung cancer cells

Xulong Zhang; Jian Zhang; Lihua Wang; Haiming Wei; Zhigang Tian

2007-01-01

82

Developments in tar sands in 1984  

SciTech Connect

Interest and activity in tar sands development are progressing slowly with cautious optimism. Scaled-down, modular, in-situ pilot projects allow companies to react quickly to fluctuations in market conditions or the global economy. In addition, new drilling techniques and increasing efficient methods of bitumen recovery are being field tested. Since most worldwide tar sand production is from Canada, this paper centers on Canadian issues and project developments in the Peace River, Cold Lake, Athabasca, and Wabasca regions. The improvements there can be used as a model for other tar sands projects in similar economic situations and geological regions. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Seifert, S.R.; Lennox, T.R.

1985-10-01

83

Developments in tar sands in 1984  

SciTech Connect

Interest and activity in tar sands development are progressing slowly with cautious optimism. Scaled-down, modular, in-situ pilot projects allow companies to react quickly to fluctuations in market conditions or the global economy. In addition, new drilling techniques and increasingly efficient methods of bitumen recovery are being field tested. Since most worldwide tar sand production is from Canada, this paper centers on Canadian issues and project developments in the Peace River, Cold Lake, Athabasca, and Wabasca regions. The improvements there can be used as a model for other tar sands projects in similar economic situations and geologic regions.

Seifert, S.R.; Lennox, T.R.

1985-10-01

84

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

SciTech Connect

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial development. The tenacious attitude of both industry and certain governments in the pursuit of tar sands development will keep the greater tar sands dream alive.

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1982-11-01

85

United states tar sands as a petroleum source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of the U.S. tar sand deposits includes the following topics: geographic and geologic distribution, tar sand host rocks, impregnating material, a comparison between the U.S. and Canadian deposits, thermal recovery of tar sands, recent U.S. tar sand mining and separation experience, and price and incentives. Several U.S. tar sand deposits compare favorably with Athabasca in having big reserves

Ball

1967-01-01

86

Recent activity in U. S. tar sand  

SciTech Connect

A review of the U.S. tar sand resources is presented. The total oil-in-place in 550 occurrences of tar sand in 22 states is estimated to be between 25 and 36 billion barrels, of which at least 80% is located in Utah. The lack of commercial oil production is attributed to the lack of proven technology, marketability of the produced oil, and a moratorium on leasing of federally controlled tar sand properties. Current activities to develop the U.S. tar sand resources include reservoir characterization and evaluation by industry, states, and DOE, oil recovery research by industry and universities, and few field mini-tests and pilot work by industry and DOE.

Marchant, L.C. (U.S. Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, Laramie, WY); Stosur, J.J. (U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD); Cupps, C.Q.

1980-01-01

87

Method of Producing Epoxide Tars Containing Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for producing epoxide tars (resins) containing phosphorus by means of interaction of diepoxides with the products of acids of phosphorus is presented. Derivatives of phosphorus acids are used with the dichlorides of phosphoric, phosphorous, and p...

E. V. Kuznetsov R. S. Ivanova V. A. Maslov

1965-01-01

88

Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts  

SciTech Connect

Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

1980-12-01

89

Serve Our Seniors, Inc.-  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revised menu guidelines, written by the California Department of Aging (CDA) for senior nutrition programs, were tested by Serve Our Seniors, Inc. in a demonstration program from January '91 through June '92. Results showed improved nutrient value of the meals through increasing fiber, and decreasing sugar and fat. New menus were accepted by senior participants with little resistance. Project food

Shiomi Wilson; Joan Barry

1993-01-01

90

Serving the Undocumented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

Pluviose, David

2007-01-01

91

Thermal and Catalytic Cracking of Tars and Tar Constituents from Coal-Gasification Processes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to screen catalysts and determine operating conditions for maximizing gas and char production from the pyrolysis of coal gasification tars. The product yields from cracking a bituminous coal tar in a fixed-bed reactor were...

W. Y. Wen

1983-01-01

92

MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

2009-09-01

93

StatServ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offering links to software, publications, data mining, meetings, jobs, consulting, online information (such as courses, datasets, text books, etc.), and institutions, StatServ is your one-stop site for finding information on statistics. The software list contains the linked name of the software and developer, a brief description, and its availability. The Data mining section is a self-contained unit, providing general explanations of data mining and books, conferences, journals, reports, and software that deal with data mining. A search mechanism allows visitors a quick and easy method for finding specific information. Links to newsgroups and mailing lists are also available at the site.

94

Practical decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all the detection attacks; thus when it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if a practical weak coherent source is used by Alice and Bob. However, until now, the analysis of decoy-state MDI-QKD with a weak coherent source is incomplete. In this paper, we derive, with only vacuum+weak decoy state, some tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of error rate for the fraction of signals in which both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to the untrusted third party Charlie. The numerical simulations show that our method with only vacuum+weak decoy state can asymptotically approach the theoretical limit of the infinite number of decoy states. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of date is also considered based on the standard statistical analysis.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2013-05-01

95

Artefacts and biases affecting the evaluation of scoring functions on decoy sets for protein structure prediction  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Decoy datasets, consisting of a solved protein structure and numerous alternative native-like structures, are in common use for the evaluation of scoring functions in protein structure prediction. Several pitfalls with the use of these datasets have been identified in the literature, as well as useful guidelines for generating more effective decoy datasets. We contribute to this ongoing discussion an empirical assessment of several decoy datasets commonly used in experimental studies. Results: We find that artefacts and sampling issues in the large majority of these data make it trivial to discriminate the native structure. This underlines that evaluation based on the rank/z-score of the native is a weak test of scoring function performance. Moreover, sampling biases present in the way decoy sets are generated or used can strongly affect other types of evaluation measures such as the correlation between score and root mean squared deviation (RMSD) to the native. We demonstrate how, depending on type of bias and evaluation context, sampling biases may lead to both over- or under-estimation of the quality of scoring terms, functions or methods. Availability: Links to the software and data used in this study are available at http://dbkgroup.org/handl/decoy_sets. Contact: simon.lovell@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Lovell, Simon C.

2009-01-01

96

Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security.  

PubMed

Experimental one-way decoy pulse quantum key distribution running continuously for 60 hours is demonstrated over a fiber distance of 20km. We employ a decoy protocol which involves one weak decoy pulse and a vacuum pulse. The obtained secret key rate is on average over 10kbps. This is the highest rate reported using this decoy protocol over this fiber distance and duration. PMID:19547178

Dynes, J F; Yuan, Z L; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J

2007-06-25

97

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

98

Selected Constituents in the Smoke of Domestic Low Tar Cigarettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoki...

W. H. Griest R. B. Quincy M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

99

Tar Sand Process Water Control Technology. Draft Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The location, geology, reservoir and oil properties of the major tar sand deposits of the United States are described. Past and present tar sand oil recovery processes are discussed with reference to their state of development, water requirements, waste t...

R. Kahle

1981-01-01

100

IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have been developed to solve these problems. One solution uses recorded IR imagery from a decoy deployment trial, while the other solution generates IR imagery and is thus independent of trials. In the first solution, a combination of hardware and software is used that allows recording of a scene with an infrared camera, and simulating a missile seeker. A pre-processing algorithm corrects the recorded images before they are fed into the seeker algorithm of the simulated missile. To perform this correction the pre-processing uses the speed, distance to the target and field of view of the IR camera as fixed parameters and the speed and starting distance of the simulated missile as variable parameters. Modtran and the Navy Aerosol Model are used to calculate the atmospheric transmission effects in the pre-processing. The second solution generates artificial IR images that are subsequently fed into the seeker algorithm. This solution also allows variation of those parameters that are fixed when recorded IR imagery is used. Examples are among others: the signature of the target ship, the orientation, size and speed of the target ship, the type of decoy, the timing of the decoy sequence, atmospheric conditions etc. With these tools the effectiveness of decoy deployment in various scenarios can be evaluated.

de Jong, Wim; Dam, Frans A.; Kunz, Gerard J.; Schleijpen, Ric

2004-12-01

101

Sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc)-bearing Liposomal Decoys Capture Influenza A Virus*  

PubMed Central

Influenza is a severe disease in humans and animals with few effective therapies available. All strains of influenza virus are prone to developing drug resistance due to the high mutation rate in the viral genome. A therapeutic agent that targets a highly conserved region of the virus could bypass resistance and also be effective against multiple strains of influenza. Influenza uses many individually weak ligand binding interactions for a high avidity multivalent attachment to sialic acid-bearing cells. Polymerized sialic acid analogs can form multivalent interactions with influenza but are not ideal therapeutics due to solubility and toxicity issues. We used liposomes as a novel means for delivery of the glycan sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc). LSTc-bearing decoy liposomes form multivalent, polymer-like interactions with influenza virus. Decoy liposomes competitively bind influenza virus in hemagglutination inhibition assays and inhibit infection of target cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition is specific for influenza virus, as inhibition of Sendai virus and respiratory syncytial virus is not observed. In contrast, monovalent LSTc does not bind influenza virus or inhibit infectivity. LSTc decoy liposomes prevent the spread of influenza virus during multiple rounds of replication in vitro and extend survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of virus. LSTc decoy liposomes co-localize with fluorescently tagged influenza virus, whereas control liposomes do not. Considering the conservation of the hemagglutinin binding pocket and the ability of decoy liposomes to form high avidity interactions with influenza hemagglutinin, our decoy liposomes have potential as a new therapeutic agent against emerging influenza strains.

Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Weirich, Kim L.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Li, Jing; Shriver, Zachary H.; Ashour, Joseph; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Finberg, Robert W.; Comolli, James C.; Wang, Jennifer P.

2013-01-01

102

Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

Skinner, Q.

1980-03-01

103

Tar decanter sludge as a resource material  

SciTech Connect

Tar decanter sludge (TDS) is a solid hazardous waste produced as a by-product of tar separation from flushing liquor in coke plants. For many years, TDS was buried in authorized land-fills near the coke plants. However, because of the ballooning costs associated with an environmentally acceptable burial under current standards, attention has focused on utilizing TDS as a resource material instead. This paper reviews, the properties of TDS and various upgrading/processing techniques, resulting in its use as an additive to the coal charged to the coke ovens, as a fuel, or as a feedstock for making higher-value products.

Stipanovich, J.

1986-01-01

104

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with nonclassical light generated in a one-dimensional waveguide.  

PubMed

We investigate a decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme with a sub-Poissonian single-photon source, which is generated on demand by scattering a coherent state off a two-level system in a one-dimensional waveguide. We show that, compared to coherent state decoy-state QKD, there is a two-fold increase of the key generation rate. Furthermore, the performance is shown to be robust against both parameter variations and loss effects of the system. PMID:23455244

Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J; Baranger, Harold U

2013-03-01

105

Tar sands: a new fuels industry takes shape. [Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems have delayed exploitation of tar sands in Alberta, but they have certainly not halted it. One by one, these problems have been overcome until, today, tar sands are the most promising near term alternative source of fossil fuels. One company has been mining tar sands and extracting oil from them for 10 yr, the last 2 yr at a

Maugh; T. H. II

1978-01-01

106

An evaluation of in-situ recovery of tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several field tests of in-situ recovery of tar and heavy oil expose the difficulty of achieving an acceptable economic process. The technical problems encountered in achieving successful projects are: adequate communication between wells, mobilization of the tar and maintenance of production wells. If currently available technology for the recovery of tar sand is to compete economically with world prices for

R. L. Arscott; A. David

1977-01-01

107

Hot-Recycling of Tar-Containing Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot recycling in pavement construction leads to the emission of hazardous compounds when tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is used. This is due to the relatively high content of substances such as phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tar. The latter are of special interest, because some PAHs have carcinogenic and\\/or mutagenic properties. High tar content in combination with

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2010-01-01

108

Thermal recovery of hydrocarbon from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method for the recovery of oil from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formations containing low API gravity viscous oils or bitumens. More particularly, the invention relates to the production of bitumens and hydrocarbons from reservoirs of low mobility, such as tar sand formations. This can be achieved by the injection of a mixture of an oxygen-containing gas

D. A. Redford; S. M. Creighton

1977-01-01

109

Economic Potential of Domestic Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of the domestic tar sand resources and the technologies currently available for recovering them indicates that: (1) Much of the resource is lean and scattered, having too little overburden for an in situ thermal process and too much overburden fo...

V. A. Kuuskraa S. Chalton T. M. Doscher

1978-01-01

110

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

111

Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

2000-01-01

112

Information on tar and nicotine yields on cigarette packages.  

PubMed Central

We examined information on tar and nicotine yields on the packages of 160 cigarette brands, 58 percent of the 275 brands for which tar and nicotine yields were listed in a recent Federal Trade Commission report. The tar yield was indicated on 14 percent, the nicotine yield was indicated on 11 percent. As tar yield increased among brands, the yield was progressively less likely to be shown on the package and was not disclosed on the package of any cigarette yielding 11 mg or more of tar.

Davis, R M; Healy, P; Hawk, S A

1990-01-01

113

Refining similarity scoring to enable decoy-free validation in spectral library searching.  

PubMed

Spectral library searching is a maturing approach for peptide identification from MS/MS, offering an alternative to traditional sequence database searching. Spectral library searching relies on direct spectrum-to-spectrum matching between the query data and the spectral library, which affords better discrimination of true and false matches, leading to improved sensitivity. However, due to the inherent diversity of the peak location and intensity profiles of real spectra, the resulting similarity score distributions often take on unpredictable shapes. This makes it difficult to model the scores of the false matches accurately, necessitating the use of decoy searching to sample the score distribution of the false matches. Here, we refined the similarity scoring in spectral library searching to enable the validation of spectral search results without the use of decoys. We rank-transformed the peak intensities to standardize all spectra, making it possible to fit a parametric distribution to the scores of the nontop-scoring spectral matches. The statistical significance of the top-scoring match can then be estimated in a rigorous manner according to Extreme Value Theory. The overall result is a more robust and interpretable measure of the quality of the spectral match, which can be obtained without decoys. We tested this refined similarity scoring function on real datasets and demonstrated its effectiveness. This approach reduces search time, increases sensitivity, and extends spectral library searching to situations where decoy spectra cannot be readily generated, such as in searching unidentified and nonpeptide spectral libraries. PMID:24115759

Shao, Wenguang; Zhu, Kan; Lam, Henry

2013-11-01

114

Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light  

SciTech Connect

We propose an efficient decoy-state protocol for practical quantum key distribution using coherent states. The protocol uses four intensities of different coherent light. A good final key rate is achieved by our protocol with typical parameters of existing practical setups, even with a very low channel transmittance.

Wang Xiangbin [IMAI Quantum Computation and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg. 201, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan)

2005-07-15

115

Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries from juvenile European starlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit consumption by large fl ocks of juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) is a serious problem for growers of strawberries, grapes, apples, cherries, blueberries, and other small fruit. This study examined if numbers of juvenile European starlings foraging in blueberry orchards could be reduced by catching them in decoy traps and relocating the birds elsewhere. From late July through August

MICHAEL R. CONOVER; RICHARD A. DOLBEER

116

Encapsulation of NF-?B decoy oligonucleotides within echogenic liposomes and ultrasound-triggered release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) have additional promise, beyond diagnostic agents, as vehicles for delivering oligonucleotides (ODN), especially if the release of the agent can be triggered and its uptake can be enhanced by ultrasound application at a specific site. The purpose of this study was to co-encapsulate air and NF-?B decoy ODN within ELIP allowing ultrasound to release encapsulated ODN from

Kyle D. Buchanan; Shao-Ling Huang; Hyunggun Kim; David D. McPherson; Robert C. MacDonald

2010-01-01

117

Efficacy of Sunflower Decoy Plots for Blackbird Control and Supplemental Stopover Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots (WCSP) were planted and monitored during a two-year trial\\/research program to monitor the effect of decoy plots on blackbird use of nearby commercial sunflower and abundance of nonblackbird migratory species within the plots. In the two year evaluation period, in excess of 975 hours were spent by three researchers in the plots monitoring damage, vegetation, and

Heath M. Hagy; Jon Raetzman; George M. Linz; William J. Bleier

118

Genesis of Infrared Decoy Flares: The Early Years from 1950 into the 1970s. First Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of decoy flares did not follow a direct or pre-planned path. Instead, the development was influenced by many factors and requirements existing at the time. One of the most important of these is that the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), In...

B. E. Douda

2009-01-01

119

Fiber optic microwave link applications in towed decoy electronic countermeasure systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of towed decoy theory of operation is discussed to develop microwave link requirements. Different fiber optic microwave link approaches including band shifting with wavelength division multiplexing, extenal modulation, and directly modulated lasers are discussed. A military airborne environment is described. Electro-mechanical towline cables are discussed. Future trends for fiber optic microwave links in electronic warfare systems are identified.

Benton, Noel B.

1995-10-01

120

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.  

PubMed

Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation. PMID:11827123

Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

2001-12-01

121

The kick serve in tennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kick serve in tennis is not only the most difficult stroke for players to master but is also the most difficult stroke to understand. The ball must be served by swinging upwards at the ball to generate topspin and the ball must be served down below the horizontal in order to land in the service court. The racquet head

Rod Cross

2012-01-01

122

Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines student tuition, ad valorem property taxes, and state appropriations utilizing a revenue-per-contact-hour model to identify disparities in the Texas' community college funding mechanism. Methodology is presented to identify differences between and among Caucasian-serving, African-American-serving, Hispanic-serving, and other…

Waller, Lee; Glasscock, Herlinda M.; Glasscock, Ronnie L.; Fulton-Calkins, Patsy J.

2006-01-01

123

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

124

Self-Serving and Group-Serving Bias in Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined self-serving and group-serving attribution biases under conditions of individual and group success and failure. Previous research has found evidence for a self-serving bias in the context of laboratory groups, especially in conditions of group success. The present study used 52 male and female intercollegiate athletes involved in team sports who rated the performance of themselves and teammates

Donald M. Taylor; Janet R. Doria

1981-01-01

125

Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

1974-01-01

126

Tar sands of Alberta, Canada. [Review on reserves, history, properties and composition, technology, and commercial ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion is presented under the following section headings: occurrence and reserves; history of the Athabasca tar sands; properties and characteristics of Athabasca tar sands, including bulk properties, properties of tar sand minerals, bitumen properties, and properties of refined products; technology of the recovery of values from tar sands, including in-situ processes, mining, processing of mined tar sands for bitumen

1976-01-01

127

Tar sand and heavy oil resources and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-sand resources in the U.S. are not as concentrated as the Canadian Athabasca deposits, but they are significant; the amount recoverable is estimated to be 25 to 35 billion barrels. Some of the characteristics of tar sands and heavy oil sands and their occurrence are discussed. The single large-scale production of bitumen from tar sands is the operation of Great

1972-01-01

128

Genesis of tar sands production: reversing mother nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the U.S. may not have the magnitude of tar sands resource known to exist in Canada and Venezuela, sizeable tar sands deposits, exceeding 1,000,000 bbl in place, are known to exist in California, Kentucky, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. One such deposit is of 50-ft thick layer of partially consolidated sandstone and hydrocarbon known as the South Texas Tar

Loosley

1982-01-01

129

Concise security bounds for practical decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its ability to tolerate high channel loss, decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) has been one of the main focuses within the QKD community. Notably, several experimental groups have demonstrated that it is secure and feasible under real-world conditions. Crucially, however, the security and feasibility claims made by most of these experiments were obtained under the assumption that the eavesdropper is restricted to particular types of attacks or that the finite-key effects are neglected. Unfortunately, such assumptions are not possible to guarantee in practice. In this work, we provide concise and tight finite-key security bounds for practical decoy-state QKD that are valid against general attacks.

Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Curty, Marcos; Walenta, Nino; Xu, Feihu; Zbinden, Hugo

2014-02-01

130

Passive decoy state SARG04 quantum-key-distribution with practical photon-number resolving detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SARG04 protocol has its advantages in defending photon number splitting attack, benefited from two-photon pulses part. In this paper, we present a passive decoy state SARG04 scheme combining with practical photon number resolving (PNR) detectors. Two kinds of practical detectors, transition-edge sensor and time-multiplexing detector, are taken into consideration. Theoretical analysis shows that both of them are compatible with the passive decoy state SARG04. Compared with the original SARG04, two detectors can boost the key generation rate and maximal secure distance obviously. Meanwhile, the result shows that quantum efficiency and dark count of the detector influence the maximal distance slightly, which indicates the prospect of implementation in real quantum key distribution system with imperfect practical PNS detectors.

Xu, Fang-Xing; Wang, Shuang; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can

2010-10-01

131

Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor.  

PubMed

Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse gamma-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking. PMID:18070938

Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M; Fremont, Daved H

2007-12-24

132

Frequent gene amplification and overexpression of decoy receptor 3 in glioblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) gene is amplified at high frequency in human lung, colon, and liver cancers. DcR3 has been demonstrated to produce a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that negatively regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis. In this study we examined DcR3 gene amplification, DcR3 mRNA expression, and DcR3 protein expression in 46 human astrocytic brain tumors

Yasuaki Arakawa; Osamu Tachibana; Mitsuhiro Hasegawa; Tadao Miyamori; Junkoh Yamashita; Yutaka Hayashi

2005-01-01

133

Surveillance of influenza viruses in waterfowl used as decoys in andalusia, Spain.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8-19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

2014-01-01

134

Upper bounds of eavesdropper's performances in finite-length code with the decoy method  

SciTech Connect

Security formulas of quantum key distribution (QKD) with imperfect resources are obtained for finite-length code when the decoy method is applied. This analysis is useful for guaranteeing the security of implemented QKD systems. Our formulas take into account the effect of the vacuum state and dark counts in the detector. We compare the asymptotic key generation rate in the presence of dark counts to that without the presence of dark counts.

Hayashi, Masahito [ERATO-SORST Quantum Computation and Information Project, JST, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2007-07-15

135

Homomeric and heteromeric interactions of the extracellular domains of death receptors and death decoy receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death receptors (DRs) can induce apoptosis by oligomerization with TRAIL, whereas death decoy receptors (DcRs) cannot, due to their lack of functional intracellular death domains. However, it is not known whether DRs and DcRs can interact with one another to form oligomeric complexes prior to TRAIL binding. To address this issue, the extracellular domains (ECDs) of DR4 (sDR4), DR5 (sDR5),

Hyun-Wook Lee; Seung-Hyun Lee; Hae-Won Lee; Yeon-Woo Ryu; Myung-Hee Kwon; Yong-Sung Kim

2005-01-01

136

Network properties of decoys and CASP predicted models: a comparison with native protein structures.  

PubMed

Protein structure space is believed to consist of a finite set of discrete folds, unlike the protein sequence space which is astronomically large, indicating that proteins from the available sequence space are likely to adopt one of the many folds already observed. In spite of extensive sequence-structure correlation data, protein structure prediction still remains an open question with researchers having tried different approaches (experimental as well as computational). One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify the native protein structures from a milieu of decoys/models. In this work, a rigorous investigation of Protein Structure Networks (PSNs) has been performed to detect native structures from decoys/models. Ninety four parameters obtained from network studies have been optimally combined with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive a general metric to distinguish decoys/models from the native protein structures with an accuracy of 94.11%. Recently, for the first time in the literature we had shown that PSN has the capability to distinguish native proteins from decoys. A major difference between the present work and the previous study is to explore the transition profiles at different strengths of non-covalent interactions and SVM has indeed identified this as an important parameter. Additionally, the SVM trained algorithm is also applied to the recent CASP10 predicted models. The novelty of the network approach is that it is based on general network properties of native protein structures and that a given model can be assessed independent of any reference structure. Thus, the approach presented in this paper can be valuable in validating the predicted structures. A web-server has been developed for this purpose and is freely available at . PMID:23694935

Chatterjee, S; Ghosh, S; Vishveshwara, S

2013-07-01

137

Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern.

Jurado-Tarifa, Estefania; Napp, Sebastian; Gomez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Morente, Manuel; Jaen-Tellez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio

2014-01-01

138

Distinguish the target and the towed decoy based on time-domain waveform design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range difference between the target and the towed radar active decoy (TRAD) supplies the opportunity to distinguish them in distance for the radar seeker. Based on detailed analysis about this range difference, the Step Frequency-Pulse Doppler (SF-PD) waveform was adopted to replace the conditional quasi-continuous waveform, and appropriate parameters were designed to supply a relative strong Doppler resolution as

Zhi-yong Song; Yi-long Zhu; Huai-tie Xiao; Zai-qi Lu

2011-01-01

139

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2009-04-01

140

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2010-04-01

141

Selective targeting of a TNFR decoy receptor pharmaceutical to the primate brain as a receptor-specific IgG fusion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoy receptors, such as the human tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), are potential new therapies for brain disorders. However, decoy receptors are large molecule drugs that are not transported across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB transport of a TNFR decoy receptor, the human TNFR-II extracellular domain was re-engineered as a fusion protein with a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb)

Ruben J. Boado; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Jeff Zhiqiang Lu; Qing-Hui Zhou; William M. Pardridge

2010-01-01

142

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Decoy, TOY, Attenuates Gram-Negative Bacterial Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane glycolipid, induces sepsis through its interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To block interaction between LPS/MD-2 complex and TLR4, we designed and generated soluble fusion proteins capable of binding MD-2, dubbed TLR4 decoy receptor (TOY) using ‘the Hybrid leucine-rich repeats (LRR) technique’. TOY contains the MD-2 binding ectodomain of TLR4, the LRR motif of hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR), and the Fc domain of IgG1 to make it soluble, productive, and functional. TOY exhibited strong binding to MD-2, but not to the extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in vivo. TOY significantly extended the lifespan, when administered in either preventive or therapeutic manners, in both the LPS- and cecal ligation/puncture-induced sepsis models in mice. TOY markedly attenuated LPS-triggered NF-?B activation, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and thrombus formation in multiple organs. Taken together, the targeting strategy for sequestration of LPS/MD-2 complex using the decoy receptor TOY is effective in treating LPS- and bacteria-induced sepsis; furthermore, the strategy used in TOY development can be applied to the generation of other novel decoy receptor proteins.

Jung, Keehoon; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Kim, Ho Min; Park, Beom Seok; Hwang, Seong-Ik; Lee, Jie-Oh; Kim, Sun Chang; Koh, Gou Young

2009-01-01

143

Reactive oxygen intermediates cause rapid release of the interleukin-1 decoy receptor from human myelomonocytic cells.  

PubMed

Free radicals play an important role in inflammation. We found that reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) inhibit interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) binding on human myelomonocytes. Production of superoxide anion (O2-) by Xanthine (X) and Xanthine-Oxidase (XO) or NADPH caused a reduction (48% +/- 15% in 25 experiments) in the IL-1beta binding of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes that was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was only active on monocytes and this effect was prevented by catalase. O2(-)-induced loss of IL-1beta binding on PMN reached half maximum at 5 minutes and peaked after 30 minutes. The reduction of IL-1beta binding was due to reduction of IL-1beta receptors (R) on PMN surface without any change in affinity. ROI-induced reduction of surface IL-1R was not caused by receptor internalization, but rather by the release of a soluble form (45 kD) of the type II decoy R. The action of ROI on IL-1 binding was selective because major histocompatibility complex class I, CD18 and CD16 were unaffected. The O2(-)-induced release of IL-1 decoy R was not affected by protein synthesis inhibitors, but was partially blocked by protease inhibitors. Release of the IL-1 type II decoy R might represent one mechanism by which ROI antagonize and limit the proinflammatory effects of IL-1. PMID:8634411

Sambo, P; Fadlon, E J; Sironi, M; Matteucci, C; Introna, M; Mantovani, A; Colotta, F

1996-03-01

144

The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary.

King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

2003-01-01

145

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

146

Pour Some: Measure Serving Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Make snack time into measuring time and learn to read Nutrition Facts labels. Try this when youâre using âpourableâ foods, such as cereal, yoghurt, or juice. As a group, choose measurements for each serving size. For instance, 1/4 cup is a âsmallâ serving of cereal; 1/2 cup is âmediumâ; and ¾ cup is âlarge.â A pair circulates with the food and measuring cup, taking and filling everyoneâs orders. Then, explore whatâs on the âserving sizeâ on the food package Nutrition Facts label. How does it compare to the serving size? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

147

Bioassay of Coke Oven Coal Tar Carcinogenic Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The carcinogenicity of coke oven coal tar was investigated. C3H-mice were treated dermally twice a week with 50 milligrams of various benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) solutions in toluene, whole coal tar containing different amounts of BaP, the light oil coal...

E. Bingham

1982-01-01

148

Canada goes after the energy in the tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca tar sands are scattered across a boggy wilderness in northern Alberta. Until recently, the cost of getting at that oil was discouragingly high. But now, with growing energy demands, rising world oil prices, and a pledge of subsidies from the Canadian government, the tar sands are at last beginning to yield oil on an impressive scale. Over the

Nulty

1978-01-01

149

The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

1998-01-01

150

Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.

W. H. Griest; R. B. Quincy; M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

151

Production of petroleum pitches from heavy cracked tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher quality of electrode products can be achieved by using components of all-petroleum origin in the electrode paste. Petroleum pitch is a very desirable binder for use in electrode paste. In [i], a rapid process was proposed for the production of petroleum pitch from tars obtained by distillate cracking. However, if this pitch manufacturing process is applied to tars produced

R. N. Gimaev; V. V. Taushev

1985-01-01

152

Hot water extraction of bitumen from Utah tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utah tar sands are distinctly different from Canadian tar sands both with regard to chemical composition and physical properties, specifically viscosity. Flow curves for Utah and Athabasca bitumens were determined as a function of temperature. For all temperatures, both bitumen samples exhibited Newtonian behavior. Utah bitumen is significantly more viscous than Athabasca bitumen by more than an order of magnitude.

J. E. Sepulveda; J. D. Miller; A. G. Oblad

1976-01-01

153

Flotation behavior of digested asphalt ridge tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot water process for Utah tar sands differs from that used for Canadian tar sands due to inherent differences in respective bitumen viscosities and the nature of bitumen-sand association. Although contact angle measurements of solvent extracted Asphalt Ridge bitumen indicated moderate hydrophobicity, air bubble attachment to the bitumen concentrate is not possible. This suggests that flotation separation is dependent

R. J. Smith; J. D. Miller

1981-01-01

154

Tar processing and gas phase hydrogenation in Leuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown coal tar processed in the liquid phase consisted of 45% middle oil plus gasoline and 55% residue. The tar had up to 1% dust (benzene-insolubles) with 50% ash and contained up to 2% water. Before processing, the dust and water had to be removed by centrifuging in order to avoid fouling the equipment and the catalyst and disrupting

1937-01-01

155

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

156

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

157

Investigation of the distribution of tar components by fractions as a function of the tar moisture level  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the fractions obtained in the refining of coal tar was presented. The concentrations of the various components of the fractions were determined as a function of the moisture. Six fractions were obtained--a light fraction, a phenolic fraction, a naphthalene fraction, a wash oil fraction, and two anthracene fractions. An increase in moisture level of the tar caused

T. Y. Gogoleva; A. A. Plastun; L. S. Maksimov

1982-01-01

158

Influence of pentylenetetrazol and NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on p38 expression in neuron-like cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and nuclear factor ? B (NF-?B) decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on p38 expression in neuron-like PC12 cells. In addition, the role of NF-?B activation in the pathogenesis of epilepsy was explored. p38 expression levels in control and PTZ-treated neuron-like PC12 cells were examined using western blotting. NF-?B decoy ODNs were transfected into the neuron-like PC12 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. NF-?B activation was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and p38 expression levels were assessed using western blotting prior to and following transfection of decoy ODNs. Western blot analysis revealed that p38 levels in PTZ-treated neuron-like PC12 cells were significantly higher than those in control cells. CLSM demonstrated that the decoy ODNs inhibited NF-?B activation in neuron-like PC12 cells, and western blotting indicated that the decoy ODNs did not reduce p38 levels. The results of this study indicate that PTZ enhances p38 expression levels and activates NF-?B in PC12 cells. However, NF-?B does not modulate p38 expression levels.

YANG, JIA-JUN; LI, WEI-HUA; LIU, BANG-JIAN; TANG, RONG-HUA; ZHANG, YU-HONG

2014-01-01

159

Role of STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on cell invasion and chemosensitivity in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported that STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer. STAT3 has been proposed to play an important role in ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. This mechanism, however, is still not thoroughly understood. In this study, to investigate the role of STAT3 on ovarian cancer cells, we used decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) technology to regulate STAT3 in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells in vitro. Cell invasive power and chemo-sensitivity were assessed in the cells transfected with STAT3 decoy ODN and control ODN. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and Akt. Results showed that STAT3 decoy ODN inhibited cancer cell invasive power and enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel for SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. The mechanism involved the inhibition of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and pAkt by STAT3 decoy ODN. These three proteins were probably the target proteins of STAT3. These findings suggest that STAT3 is a key factor for ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. STAT3 decoy ODN may prove to be a beneficial therapeutic agent, especially for invasive or chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:20113836

Zhang, Xiaolei; Liu, Peishu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Ancong; Yang, Meixiang

2010-02-01

160

Wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack against plug-and-play quantum key distribution systems with decoy states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to collect information about the key without being discovered. For example, without the decoy-state method, Eve can perform the photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack and get full information without introducing any perturbation, since weak laser pulses are widely used in practical systems instead of single-photon sources. However, the decoy-state method against PNS attack itself may introduce another loophole while closing the loophole of multiphoton pulses. In this paper, a fatal loophole of practical decoy-state plug-and-play QKD systems has been exploited and a wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting (WSPNS) attack scheme against plug-and-play QKD systems with the decoy-state method is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the eavesdropper can get full information about the key generated between the legitimate parties just like the PNS attack was performed in plug-and-play QKD systems without the decoy-state method.

Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2012-09-01

161

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

1980-05-01

162

Dutch policy on destruction of PAH's from tar-containing asphalt mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Re-use of waste materials has a long history in the Netherlands. Coal tar has been used as a binder in road construction. When the carcinogenic properties of the PAH in tar became apparent the use of tar in roads was abandoned. At that time, tar used as a b inder was present in about 25% of the road system.

Willem M. A. J. Willart

163

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

164

Learning from Decoys to Improve the Sensitivity and Specificity of Proteomics Database Search Results  

PubMed Central

The statistical validation of database search results is a complex issue in bottom-up proteomics. The correct and incorrect peptide spectrum match (PSM) scores overlap significantly, making an accurate assessment of true peptide matches challenging. Since the complete separation between the true and false hits is practically never achieved, there is need for better methods and rescoring algorithms to improve upon the primary database search results. Here we describe the calibration and False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation of database search scores through a dynamic FDR calculation method, FlexiFDR, which increases both the sensitivity and specificity of search results. Modelling a simple linear regression on the decoy hits for different charge states, the method maximized the number of true positives and reduced the number of false negatives in several standard datasets of varying complexity (18-mix, 49-mix, 200-mix) and few complex datasets (E. coli and Yeast) obtained from a wide variety of MS platforms. The net positive gain for correct spectral and peptide identifications was up to 14.81% and 6.2% respectively. The approach is applicable to different search methodologies- separate as well as concatenated database search, high mass accuracy, and semi-tryptic and modification searches. FlexiFDR was also applied to Mascot results and showed better performance than before. We have shown that appropriate threshold learnt from decoys, can be very effective in improving the database search results. FlexiFDR adapts itself to different instruments, data types and MS platforms. It learns from the decoy hits and sets a flexible threshold that automatically aligns itself to the underlying variables of data quality and size.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Dhirendra; Dash, Debasis

2012-01-01

165

Comparison of the emission of IR decoy flare under controlled laboratory and on-field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the optical properties of decoy flares such as peak intensity, rise time and function time as well as the trajectory after being ejected are crucial to ensure the decoy effectiveness and the protection of the aircraft. The Countermeasures Laboratory of the "Institute of technology Marañosa" (ITM) has performed a measurement campaign during the spring of 2008 to determine the IR decoy signature in both wind tunnel test and in-flight conditions. Both tests are complementary because of the different test conditions that influence the behavior of the flare burn profile. Deviations were found between two sets of data due to high wind-stream and high altitudes. Comparison of both sets of results allows extrapolating the measurements in stationary conditions to that of a real scenario. Besides, these comparisons are useful to validate IR flare emission simulation software. The radiant intensity and burn time was calculated trough a sequence of calibrated images. The effect of the influent parameter on the emitted intensity were also Identified and measured. Analysis of in-flight measurements took into account the altitude, aerodynamic conditions, angle aspect and of course the wind speed. Sky radiance and atmospheric transmittance were also calculated. The radiation measurements of IR flares on flight and wind tunnel test are performed with a MWIR camera equipped with a 350mm focal length lens. Besides the camera a Circular Variable Filter (CVF) spectrorradiometer was used for the tunnel test. For the field trial an automatic tracking system of targets were used in order to determine the flare trajectory.

Sánchez Oliveros, Carmen; Martín Aragón, Laura; Macias Jareño, Raquel

2009-09-01

166

Designing CXCL8-based decoy proteins with strong anti-inflammatory activity in vivo  

PubMed Central

IL (interleukin)-8 [CXCL8 (CXC chemokine ligand 8)] exerts its role in inflammation by triggering neutrophils via its specific GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), CXCR1 (CXC chemokine receptor 1) and CXCR2, for which additional binding to endothelial HS-GAGs (heparan sulphate-glycosaminoglycans) is required. We present here a novel approach for blocking the CXCL8-related inflammatory cascade by generating dominant-negative CXCL8 mutants with improved GAG-binding affinity and knocked-out CXCR1/CXCR2 activity. These non-signalling CXCL8 decoy proteins are able to displace WT (wild-type) CXCL8 and to prevent CXCR1/CXCR2 signalling thereby interfering with the inflammatory response. We have designed 14 CXCL8 mutants that we subdivided into three classes according to number and site of mutations. The decoys were characterized by IFTs (isothermal fluorescence titrations) and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) to determine GAG affinity. Protein stability and structural changes were evaluated by far-UV CD spectroscopy and knocked-out GPCR response was shown by Boyden chamber and Ca2+ release assays. From these experiments, CXCL8(?6F17KF21KE70KN71K) emerged with the most promising in vitro characteristics. This mutant was therefore further investigated in a murine model of mBSA (methylated BSA)-induced arthritis in mice where it showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results, we propose that dominant-negative CXCL8 decoy proteins are a promising class of novel biopharmaceuticals with high therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

Falsone, Angelika; Wabitsch, Veronica; Geretti, Elena; Potzinger, Heide; Gerlza, Tanja; Robinson, James; Adage, Tiziana; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Kungl, Andreas J.

2013-01-01

167

Meals Served in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

Vivigal, Lisa

168

GENERAL: Fluctuation Analysis of Decoy State QKD with Finite Data-Set Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decoy state method quantum key distribution (QKD) is one of the promising practical solutions for BB84 QKD with coherent light pulses. The number of data-set size in practical QKD protocol is always finite, which will cause statistical fluctuations. In this paper, we apply absolutely statistical fluctuation to amend the yield and error rate of the quantum state. The relationship between exchanged number of quantum signals and key generation rate is analyzed in our simulation, which offers a useful reference for experiment.

Tang, Shao-Jie; Jiao, Rong-Zhen

2010-09-01

169

Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber.  

PubMed

The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultralow-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite statistics without the use of Gaussian approximations in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to photon-number-splitting attacks and highly resistant to Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber. PMID:17358462

Rosenberg, Danna; Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R; Hiskett, Philip A; Peterson, Charles G; Hughes, Richard J; Lita, Adriana E; Nam, Sae Woo; Nordholt, Jane E

2007-01-01

170

Bright integrated photon-pair source for practical passive decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a bright, nondegenerate type-I parametric down-conversion source, which is well suited for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution. We show the photon-number-resolved analysis over a broad range of pump powers and we prove heralded higher-order n-photon states up to n =4. The inferred photon click statistics exhibit excellent agreements to the theoretical predictions. From our measurement results we conclude that our source meets the requirements to avert photon-number-splitting attacks.

Krapick, S.; Stefszky, M. S.; Jachura, M.; Brecht, B.; Avenhaus, M.; Silberhorn, C.

2014-01-01

171

Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit\\/s secure key rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first gigahertz clocked decoy-protocol quantum key distribution\\u000a(QKD). Record key rates have been achieved thanks to the use of\\u000aself-differencing InGaAs avalanche photodiodes designed specifically for high\\u000aspeed single photon detection. The system is characterized with a secure key\\u000arate of 1.02 Mbit\\/s for a fiber distance of 20 km and 10.1 kbit\\/s for 100 km.\\u000aAs

A. R. Dixon; Z. L. Yuan; J. F. Dynes; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

2008-01-01

172

Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate.  

PubMed

We report the first gigahertz clocked decoy-protocol quantum key distribution (QKD). Record key rates have been achieved thanks to the use of self-differencing InGaAs avalanche photodiodes designed specifically for high speed single photon detection. The system is characterized with a secure key rate of 1.02 Mbit/s for a fiber distance of 20 km and 10.1 kbit/s for 100 km. As the present advance relies upon compact non-cryogenic detectors, it opens the door towards practical and low cost QKD systems to secure broadband communication in future. PMID:19581967

Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J

2008-11-10

173

Decoys and Regulatory "Receptors" of the IL-1/Toll-Like Receptor Superfamily  

PubMed Central

Members of the IL-1 family play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Members of IL-1R like receptor (ILR) family include signaling molecules and negative regulators. The latter include decoy receptors (IL-1RII; IL-18BP) and “receptors” with regulatory function (TIR8/SIGIRR; IL-1RAcPb; DIGIRR). Structural considerations suggest that also TIGIRR-1 and IL-1RAPL may have regulatory function. The presence of multiple pathways of negative regulation of members of the IL-1/IL-1R family emphasizes the need for a tight control of members of this fundamental system.

Garlanda, Cecilia; Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Gentile, Stefania; Mantovani, Alberto

2013-01-01

174

FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

1980-09-01

175

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Alabama Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tar sand deposits of northwest Alabama contain large reserves of oil, part of which may one day be tapped to supplement conventional oil production. The largest reserves occur in the Hartselle Sandstone and Price Mountain Formation, both of Mississipp...

G. V. Wilson

1983-01-01

176

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

177

Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) Improves Gait Function  

MedlinePLUS

... positive short-term results A study of gait mechanics in patients who underwent total ankle replacement (TAR) ... improvement in nearly all measured parameters of gait mechanics (measured preoperatively, 1 year postoperative, and 2 years ...

178

Chlorinated solvents for tar sands: Fast and efficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands in the United States represent a significant petroleum resource. Total reserve in the U.S. is estimated at >50 billion bbl with the majority being contained in Utah deposits. Although the surface mining potential for tar sands is only a small fraction of the total resource, it could support in excess of ten 20,000 bbl\\/day plants for a period

G. A. Gimber; K. O. Groves; E. M. Haschke; G. E. Rademacher

1983-01-01

179

Classification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and decoys by a support vector machine.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase has long been considered as a target for Alzheimer disease therapy. In this work, several classification models were built for the purpose of distinguishing acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and decoys. Each molecule was initially represented by 211 ADRIANA.Code and 334 MOE descriptors. Correlation analysis, F-score and attribute selection methods in Weka were used to find the best reduced set of descriptors, respectively. Additionally, models were built using a Support Vector Machine and evaluated by 5-, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation. The best model gave a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.99 and a prediction accuracy (Q) of 99.66% for the test set. The best model also gave good result on an external test set of 86 compounds (Q=96.51%, MCC=0.93). The descriptors selected by our models suggest that H-bond and hydrophobicity interactions are important for the classification of AChEIs and decoys. PMID:22263859

Wang, Kai; Hu, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Aixia

2012-07-01

180

A novel decoy receptor fusion protein for FGF-2 potently inhibits tumour growth.  

PubMed

Background:Antiangiogenic therapies have been proven effective in cancer treatment. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been functionally implicated in tumour angiogenesis and is an important target of antiangiogenic therapies. The aim of this work was to develop a novel FGF-2 inhibitor for cancer therapy.Methods:Eleven fusion proteins were developed by fusing various truncated extracellular regions of FGFR1 with the Fc region of IgG1. The optimal decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding affinity for FGF-2 was identified by an FGF-2-binding assay and its potential antitumour effects were investigated.Results:We obtained a soluble decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding activity for FGF-2, named FGF-Trap. Fibroblast growth factor-Trap significantly abolished FGF-2-stimulated activation of FGF signalling as demonstrated by its suppression of FGF-2-mediated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, upregulation of cyclins D1 and E and the increase in mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor R1 and R2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). Furthermore, FGF-Trap effectively suppressed FGF-2-induced proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Most importantly, FGF-Trap potently inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis in Caki-1 and A549 xenograft models in vivo.Conclusions:Fibroblast growth factor-Trap potently inhibits tumour growth by blocking FGF-2 signalling pathways and could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer patients. PMID:24874473

Li, D; Wei, X; Xie, K; Chen, K; Li, J; Fang, J

2014-07-01

181

Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) utilizes the laws of quantum mechanics to achieve information-theoretically secure key generation. This field is now approaching the stage of commercialization, but many practical QKD systems still suffer from security loopholes due to imperfect devices. In fact, practical attacks have successfully been demonstrated. Fortunately, most of them only exploit detection-side loopholes, which are now closed by the recent idea of measurement-device-independent QKD. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the source, which may still leave QKD systems insecure. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an attack that exploits a source-side loophole existing in qubit-based QKD systems using a weak coherent state source and decoy states. Specifically, by implementing a linear-optics unambiguous state discrimination measurement, we show that the security of a system without phase randomization—which is a step assumed in conventional security analyses but sometimes neglected in practice—can be compromised. We conclude that implementing phase randomization is essential to the security of decoy-state QKD systems under current security analyses.

Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Liu, Yang; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-08-01

182

Characterization and treatment of tars and biomass gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis have the potential to make a significant impact on energy supplies in the United States and have demonstrated their commercial potential in many projects around the country. The environmental aspects of biomass gasification need to be defined to assure that the technology makes its maximum impact on energy supplies. One area that needs further development is characterization and treatment of the tar byproduct from gasifiers and pyrolyzers. This paper examines the effect of the type of gasifier/pyrolyzer and the processing conditions on the yield and properties of tars and condensates. End use limitations for tars are discussed. Wet scrubbing is the most common method of tar removal from gases. The scrub liquor will require treatment to remove organics before it can be disposed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a catalytic tar destruction process that will treat the hot, raw gas from the gasifier and convert the tars to gas. The process increases the gas yield and cold gas efficiency of the gasification process, produces a clean gas that can be used for many applications, and produces a clean condensate that can be disposed with minimal treatment. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Elliott, D.C.; Mudge, L.K.

1988-08-01

183

Fiber and free-space practical decoy state QKD for both BB84 and SARG04 protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber and free-space practical decoy state quantum key distribution has been simulated for both BB84 and SARG04 protocols. The numerical simulation has shown that the fiber based QKD and free space QKD systems using the proposed method for BB84 are able to achieve both a higher secret key rate and greater secure distance than that of SARG04.

Ali, S.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.

2010-11-01

184

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

185

Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km.  

PubMed

We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8 bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites. PMID:17358463

Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

2007-01-01

186

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

PubMed Central

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-01-01

187

Three-intensity decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) in practice with limited resources, when there are only three different states in implementing the decoy-state method. We present a tighter explicit formula to estimate the lower bound of the yield of two-single-photon pulses sent by Alice and Bob. Moreover, we show that the bounding of this yield and phase flip error of single-photon pulse pairs can be further improved by using other constraints which can be solved by a simple and explicit program. Our methods here can significantly improve the key rate and the secure distance of MDI-QKD with only three intensities.

Yu, Zong-Wen; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Wang, Xiang-Bin

2013-12-01

188

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-04-01

189

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with large random errors of light intensity  

SciTech Connect

We show how to do decoy-state quantum key distribution efficiently with large random errors in the intensity control. We present a theorem for efficiently calculating the lower bound of single-photon counts with many undetermined parameters. In the calculation of the single-photon counts of our protocol, the linear terms of the intensity fluctuation disappear and only the quadratic terms take effect. Given that the intensity fluctuation is upper bounded by {+-}5%, {+-}10%, and {+-}15%, the verified lower bound of the percentage of untagged bits from our protocol is as large as 99.7%, 99.0%, and 97.9% of that from an ideal protocol where the light intensity is exactly controlled.

Wang, Xiang-Bin [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Satima 332-0012 (Japan)

2007-05-15

190

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.  

PubMed

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-01-01

191

Spectral Probabilities and Generating Functions of Tandem Mass Spectra: a Strike Against Decoy Databases  

PubMed Central

A key problem in computational proteomics is distinguishing between correct and false peptide identifications. We argue that evaluating the error rates of peptide identifications is not unlike computing generating functions in combinatorics. We show that the generating functions and their derivatives (spectral energy and spectral probability) represent new features of tandem mass spectra that, similarly to ?-scores, significantly improve peptide identifications. Furthermore, the spectral probability provides a rigorous solution to the problem of computing statistical significance of spectral identifications. The spectral energy/probability approach improves the sensitivity-specificity trade-off of existing MS/MS search tools, addresses the notoriously difficult problem of “one-hit-wonders” in mass spectrometry, and often eliminates the need for decoy database searches. We therefore argue that the generating function approach has the potential to increase the number of peptide identifications in MS/MS searches.

Kim, Sangtae; Gupta, Nitin; Pevzner, Pavel A.

2009-01-01

192

Efficient encrypting procedure using amplitude and phase as independent channels to display decoy objects.  

PubMed

Objects acting as inputs of encrypting optical systems can be regarded as having two independent channels: amplitude and phase. In this context, we can use the term "complex objects" to refer these input objects. In this work we explore the way to perform an undercover operation where one channel (amplitude) is used to depict decoy information to confuse intruders, while the other (phase) operates with the true information. Besides, we use the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to transform the amplitude and phase encrypted information into pure phase data, therefore increasing the efficiency of the technique as only a single matrix containing these data needs to be sent. Finally, as an example to show the potential of the method, we combine the separate channels in a multiplexing technique with the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to generate an efficient multiuser secure process. PMID:19516344

Fredy Barrera, John; Torroba, Roberto

2009-06-10

193

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

194

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

195

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.  

PubMed

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772

Mazela, Bart?omiej

2007-01-01

196

Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

Fogel, S.

1987-09-01

197

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

198

How electroencephalography serves the anesthesiologist.  

PubMed

Major clinical endpoints of general anesthesia, such as the alteration of consciousness, are achieved through effects of anesthetic agents on the central nervous system, and, more precisely, on the brain. Historically, clinicians and researchers have always been interested in quantifying and characterizing those effects through recordings of surface brain electrical activity, namely electroencephalography (EEG). Over decades of research, the complex signal has been dissected to extract its core substance, with significant advances in the interpretation of the information it may contain. Methodological, engineering, statistical, mathematical, and computer progress now furnishes advanced tools that not only allow quantification of the effects of anesthesia, but also shed light on some aspects of anesthetic mechanisms. In this article, we will review how advanced EEG serves the anesthesiologist in that respect, but will not review other intraoperative utilities that have no direct relationship with consciousness, such as monitoring of brain and spinal cord integrity. We will start with a reminder of anesthestic effects on raw EEG and its time and frequency domain components, as well as a summary of the EEG analysis techniques of use for the anesthesiologist. This will introduce the description of the use of EEG to assess the depth of the hypnotic and anti-nociceptive components of anesthesia, and its clinical utility. The last part will describe the use of EEG for the understanding of mechanisms of anesthesia-induced alteration of consciousness. We will see how, eventually in association with transcranial magnetic stimulation, it allows exploring functional cerebral networks during anesthesia. We will also see how EEG recordings during anesthesia, and their sophisticated analysis, may help corroborate current theories of mental content generation. PMID:24415399

Marchant, Nicolas; Sanders, Robert; Sleigh, Jamie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Brichant, Jean François; Laureys, Steven; Bonhomme, Vincent

2014-01-01

199

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2010-07-01

200

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2010-07-01

201

29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 7 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2009-07-01

202

29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Labor 8 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term....

2009-07-01

203

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.  

PubMed

A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion. PMID:17631358

Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

2007-09-01

204

Jupiter Formed with More Tar than Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental abundances in Jupiter determined from Galileo probe measurements are compared to recently revised solar system abundances. When normalized to the abundance of sulfur, the most abundant refractory rock-forming element reliably determined in Jupiter's atmosphere by the Galileo probe, abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon are 1 times solar, the observed oxygen is depleted by a factor of 4, and carbon is enriched 1.7 times. The fairly uncertain nitrogen abundance ranges from 1 to 3 times solar. The oxygen abundance in Jupiter derived from the observed atmospheric water abundance is only a lower limit to the total planetary oxygen because oxygen is also bound to rock-forming elements such as magnesium or silicon sequestered deep in the planet. The sulfur abundance constrains the amount of rock-forming elements on Jupiter. Considering the amount of oxygen bound to silicate rock, the total oxygen abundance on Jupiter of 0.47 times solar system indicates an overall oxygen depletion by about a factor of 2. The hydrogen and helium abundances in the Jovian atmosphere are depleted (0.48 and 0.39 times solar system, respectively). These relative depletions may indicate the extent of hydrogen and helium partitioning from the molecular envelope into Jupiter's metallic layer. A formation scenario for Jupiter is proposed to explain the relative oxygen depletion and, at the same time, the relative carbon enrichment. In essence, the model assumes that at the time of Jupiter's formation, abundant carbonaceous matter was present near 5.2 AU rather than abundant water ice, increasing the surface mass density of solids in the solar nebula accretion disk. Carbonaceous matter, which has high sticking probabilities, was the agent that sped up accumulation of solid matter of proto-Jupiter. This led to runaway accretion of the planet. Major consequences of this scenario are that the water ice condensation front (the snow line) typically placed near 5.2 AU in solar nebula models must be replaced by a carbonaceous condensation/evaporation front (the ``tar line'') and that the snow line is located farther out in the solar nebula.

Lodders, Katharina

2004-08-01

205

Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to ?g/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

1980-09-01

206

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

207

Tumour-associated macrophages targeted transfection with NF-?B decoy/mannose-modified bubble lipoplexes inhibits tumour growth in tumour-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2 phenotype that promotes tumour progression, and conversion of M2 TAM toward a tumouricidal M1 phenotype is a promising anti-cancer therapy. As NF-?B is a key regulator of macrophage polarization, we developed an in vivo TAM-targeting delivery system that combines mannose-modified bubble liposomes/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) and ultrasound (US) exposure. We investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection on TAM phenotype in solid tumour-bearing mice. Post-transfection tumour growth and survival rates were also recorded. Th2 cytokine (IL-10) level in TAM was significantly lower by NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure, while Th1 cytokine levels (IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6) were significantly higher when compared with controls. In addition, mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and arginase were significantly lower in TAM post-NF-?B decoy transfection. Importantly, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection inhibited tumour growth and prolonged survival rates in mice. Therefore, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure may be an effective approach for anti-cancer therapy based on TAM phenotypic conversion from M2 toward M1. PMID:24579693

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2014-06-01

208

Temperature impact on the formation of tar from biomass pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar evolution was measured as a function of temperature during wood pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor operated at near atmospheric pressure. The yields of total tar and phenolic compounds were markedly reduced whereas aromatic compounds increased with increasing temperature between 700 and 900°C. The chemical distribution of principal tar constituents at selected time points was obtained by intermittent sampling using

Qizhuang Yu; Claes Brage; Guanxing Chen; Krister Sjöström

1997-01-01

209

Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Coal Tar Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIOSH recommends that occupational exposure to coal tar products in the workplace be controlled so that employees are not exposed to coal tar, coal tar pitch, creosote, or mixtures of these substances at a concentration greater than 0.1 milligrams per cub...

1977-01-01

210

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

211

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2009-07-01

212

Evaluation of in-situ recovery of tar sands. [Field tests; economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several field tests of in-situ recovery of tar and heavy oil expose the difficulty of achieving an acceptable economic process. The technical problems encountered in achieving successful projects are: adequate communication between wells, mobilization of the tar and maintenance of production wells. If currently available technology for the recovery of tar sand is to compete economically with world prices for

R. L. Arscott; A. David

1977-01-01

213

Switching to ultralow nicotine cigarettes: Effects of different tar yields and blocking of olfactory cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve female smokers smoked two of each of three types of cigarettes in three sessions. One cigarette was smoked with and the other one without nose blocking. Total puff volumes increased for ultralow tar\\/nicotine (tn) cigarettes as compared with habitual regular tar\\/ nicotine (TN) cigarettes and regular tar\\/ultralow nicotine (Tn) cigarettes, as the result of an increase in the number

B. Baldinger; M. Hasenfratz; K. Bättig

1995-01-01

214

Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA)

Philipp Blum; Anne Sagner; Andreas Tiehm; Peter Martus; Thomas Wendel; Peter Grathwohl

2011-01-01

215

77 FR 48431 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard...temporary safety zone on the Pamlico and Tar Rivers, Washington, NC. This action is necessary...vessels from a portion of the Pamlico River and Tar River during Beaufort...

2012-08-14

216

Effect of feed source in the hot water processing of Utah tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing strategy for the effective separation of bitumen from low grade (< 10% by wt bitumen) Utah tar sands by a hot water process differs significantly from that used for the processing of high grade (> 10% by wt bitumen) Utah tar sands. Excellent separations (coefficient of separation = 0.9) can be achieved for high grade Utah tar sands

J. D. Miller; M. Misra

1979-01-01

217

Preparation of Coal Tar Pitch Based Mesoporous Activated Carbon by Template and KOH Activation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous activated carbons (MACs) were prepared by template synthesis and KOH activation, using modified coal tar pitch and nanosized silica respectively as carbon precursor and imprinting template. The effects of the dispersion of the nanosized silica template in coal tar pitch, the washing procedures, and the mixing ratio of coal tar pitch to template(C\\/T) on the porous properties of MACs

Lei Mao; Shitang Tong; Xiaohua Zhang; Mingxia Fan; Liu Wan; Charles Q. Jia

2011-01-01

218

Transgenic Expression of Decoy Receptor 3 Protects Islets from Spontaneous and Chemical-induced Autoimmune Destruction in Nonobese Diabetic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoy receptor 3 (DCR3) halts both Fas ligand- and LIGHT-induced cell deaths, which are required for pancreaticcell damage in autoimmune diabetes. To directly investigate the therapeutic potential of DCR3 in preventing this disease, we generated transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, which overexpressed DCR3 incells. Transgenic DCR3 protected mice from autoimmune and cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes in a dose-dependent manner and signifi- cantly reduced

Hsiang-Hsuan Sung; Jyuhn-Huarng Juang; Yu-Chun Lin; Chien-Hung Kuo; Jung-Tung Hung; An Chen; Der-Ming Chang; Sun-Yran Chang; Shie-Liang Hsieh; Huey-Kang Sytwu

2004-01-01

219

Target-decoy search strategy for increased confidence in large-scale protein identifications by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has become the preferred method for conducting large-scale surveys of proteomes. Automated interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) spectra can be problematic, however, for a variety of reasons. As most sequence search engines return results even for 'unmatchable' spectra, proteome researchers must devise ways to distinguish correct from incorrect peptide identifications. The target-decoy

Joshua E Elias; Steven P Gygi

2007-01-01

220

A decoy set for the thermostable subdomain from chicken villin headpiece, comparison of different free energy estimators  

PubMed Central

Background Estimators of free energies are routinely used to judge the quality of protein structural models. As these estimators still present inaccuracies, they are frequently evaluated by discriminating native or native-like conformations from large ensembles of so-called decoy structures. Results A decoy set is obtained from snapshots taken from 5 long (100 ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the thermostable subdomain from chicken villin headpiece. An evaluation of the energy of the decoys is given using: i) a residue based contact potential supplemented by a term for the quality of dihedral angles; ii) a recently introduced combination of four statistical scoring functions for model quality estimation (FRST); iii) molecular mechanics with solvation energy estimated either according to the generalized Born surface area (GBSA) or iv) the Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (PBSA) method. Conclusion The decoy set presented here has the following features which make it attractive for testing energy scoring functions: 1) it covers a broad range of RMSD values (from less than 2.0 Å to more than 12 Å); 2) it has been obtained from molecular dynamics trajectories, starting from different non-native-like conformations which have diverse behaviour, with secondary structure elements correctly or incorrectly formed, and in one case folding to a native-like structure. This allows not only for scoring of static structures, but also for studying, using free energy estimators, the kinetics of folding; 3) all structures have been obtained from accurate MD simulations in explicit solvent and after molecular mechanics (MM) energy minimization using an implicit solvent method. The quality of the covalent structure therefore does not suffer from steric or covalent problems. The statistical and physical effective energy functions tested on the set behave differently when native simulation snapshots are included or not in the set and when averaging over the trajectory is performed.

Fogolari, Federico; Tosatto, Silvio CE; Colombo, Giorgio

2005-01-01

221

Inhibition of Tissue Factor Expression in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Nanoparticles Loading NF-?B Decoy Oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a nuclear factor-kappa B decoy oligonucleotides strategy on the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) expression in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) by polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles delivery system and to evaluate this new vector for in vitro gene therapy. Nanoparticles were formulated using poly D,L-polylactic acid with surface modifying by polysorbates 80. 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT)

Huafang Wang; Yu Hu; Tao Guo; Heng Mei; Xiaoping Zhang; Wangqiang Sun

2008-01-01

222

Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths, when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for a realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. The proposed method improves the existing key generation rate even in the asymptotic setting.

Hayashi, Masahito; Nakayama, Ryota

2014-06-01

223

Decoy receptor 3 protects non-obese diabetic mice from autoimmune diabetes by regulating dendritic cell maturation and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, regulates immune responses through competing with receptors of Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A). We have previously demonstrated that transgenic expression of DcR3 in a ? cell-specific manner significantly protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we further investigated the

Yen-Ling Wang; Feng-Cheng Chou; Hsiang-Hsuan Sung; Pao-Luo Fan; Chao-Wen Hsueh; Wen-Chi Lin; Shyi-Jou Chen; Wan-Wan Lin; Huey-Kang Sytwu

2010-01-01

224

G4-DNA formation in the HRAS promoter and rational design of decoy oligonucleotides for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation, transcription increased 5-fold, but when we stabilized the G-quadruplexes by guanidinium phthalocyanines, transcription decreased to 20% of control. By ChIP we found that sequence hras-1 is bound only by MAZ, while hras-2 is bound by MAZ and Sp1: two transcription factors recognizing guanine boxes. We also discovered by EMSA that recombinant MAZ-GST binds to both HRAS quadruplexes, while Sp1-GST only binds to qhras-1. The over-expression of MAZ and Sp1 synergistically activates HRAS transcription, while silencing each gene by RNAi results in a strong down-regulation of transcription. All these data indicate that the HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors. Finally, we designed decoy oligonucleotides mimicking the HRAS quadruplexes, bearing (R)-1-O-[4-(1-Pyrenylethynyl) phenylmethyl] glycerol and LNA modifications to increase their stability and nuclease resistance (G4-decoys). The G4-decoys repressed HRAS transcription and caused a strong antiproliferative effect, mediated by apoptosis, in T24 bladder cancer cells where HRAS is mutated. PMID:21931711

Membrino, Alexandro; Cogoi, Susanna; Pedersen, Erik B; Xodo, Luigi E

2011-01-01

225

CANADIAN ENERGY PROSPECTS: NATURAL GAS, TAR SANDS, AND OIL POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief overview of recent oil and gas developments in Canada. It describes marketing problems that the Canadian natural gas industry is facing and reports on some encouraging new developments in the recovery of bitumen from the Alberta tar sands deposits. Finally, the paper analyzes the current pricing, royalty, and taxation regime existing in Canada and where

BRIAN L. SCARFE

1985-01-01

226

Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new

Stauffer

1993-01-01

227

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.---GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it

C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

1981-01-01

228

Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract  

SciTech Connect

The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

1980-02-14

229

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

230

Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

Schamaun, J.T.

1980-01-01

231

Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muggah Creek estuary has accumulated contaminants from 100 years of iron, steel and coke manufacturing in its contributing watershed. The estuary, locally known as the Tar Ponds, contains sediments contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A program of groundwater modelling was aimed at estimating current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, via groundwater. The conceptual model developed for

Mark King

232

The Production of Oil from Intermountain West Tar Sands Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than 1 billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of 28 billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits, arrang...

J. M. Glassett J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

233

Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

2008-12-01

234

Synthetic liquid fuels from oil shale, tar sands, and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings contains 12 papers discussing - the national and international outlooks for synthetic, liquid hydrocarbons; thermal analysis of oil shales; oil shale processing; oil reserves in shales of the Green River formation in Colorado; disposal of oil shale ash; retorting of coal, oil shale and tar sands; coal liquefaction; some solutions for future gas supply; and Alberta's synthetic crude oil

1970-01-01

235

Emissions of tar-containing binders: Field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2009-01-01

236

Geology and Resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, Southeastern Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of th...

G. F. Dana R. L. Oliver J. R. Elliott

1984-01-01

237

Seychelles beach tars, well oil tied to same source rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical analyses of beach-stranded tars from Seychelles can be correlated to comparable analyses of an oil sample from a well in the Seychelles offshore. The analyses also enable the precursor source rock to be characterized. Such a source rock was encountered in the three offshore wells and is extensively developed to the west and south of the granitic islands. The

Plummer

1995-01-01

238

Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development  

SciTech Connect

The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

1979-06-01

239

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 1. Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1977 estimated primary, secondary, and tertiary recoverable reserves assigned to the heavy oil belt of west Canada are 34 billion bbl for tar sands deposits and 2 billion bbl for conventional heavy oil. Application of tertiary recovery techniques will substantially increase the recoverable reserves. Conventional heavy oil occurs in lower Cretaceous strata and appears to be associated with a

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. N. Wennekers

1979-01-01

240

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 2 (Conclusion). Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the large reserves of W. Canadian tar sands deposits, 35 billion bbl of oil can be recovered economically by open pit mining, dredging, hot water extraction, and fuel substitution. On heavy oil reserves in Canada, application of economically proven tertiary recovery could permit the production of 2.5 billion bbl of oil from the Lloydminster Fields and 3.7 billion

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. Wennekers

1979-01-01

241

Characterisation of naturally and artificially weathered pine tar coatings by visual assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarring experiments with pine tar from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) obtained from a traditionally accomplished kiln production have been carried out, in order to investigate potentials of improvement concerning tarring of the preserved Norwegian medieval stave churches. Pine tar coated test panels of pine wood were exposed to three different natural climates in Norway and on a regular basis characterised

Inger Marie Egenberg; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

2003-01-01

242

Studies on the composition and aging of marine tars. Final report, 30 Jun 1972--10 Jan 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental aging of Arctic diesel, gasoline, motor oil, benzene, and petroleum ether in marine simulated environment failed to produce any tar-like material. Bunker C produced tars quickly. Southern Louisiana crude oil failed to form tars even when asphalt was added to the solution before aging. Presumably some combination of surface energy and mutual solubilities prevents tar formation in this case.

D. R. Schink; L. Jeffrey; C. W. Poag; R. D. Grigsby; J. R. Gormly

1974-01-01

243

Subjective and discriminative stimulus effects of two de-nicotinized cigarettes with different tar yields.  

PubMed

The role of tar yield in the subjective and discriminative stimulus effects of cigarette smoking was examined. Current smokers (n=18) smoked two non-nicotine cigarettes with FTC yields of 0.06 mg nicotine and 12.4 mg (low tar) or 17.9 mg tar (high tar). Physiological measures and visual analog scales were completed over a 30-min period. Dosing order was determined randomly and counterbalanced. After sampling both cigarettes, volunteers smoked a third, test cigarette. Half of the volunteers received the low-tar cigarette and half the high-tar cigarette. Volunteers identified the test cigarette (i.e., A or B) at 5, 30, 60, 300, and 900 s after the first puff. Eight of the eighteen participants correctly identified the test cigarette on 4/5 of trials. No significant changes in visual analog scale scores were found among the non-discriminators. However, among discriminators, the low-tar cigarette produced significant positive effects including good drug effects and stimulation relative to the high-tar cigarette. Relative to the low-tar cigarette, the high-tar cigarette produced negative effects including harshness, heaviness, and intensity of flavor. Average tar yield of these participants' usual cigarettes was 9.75 mg, lower than that of the low-tar cigarette used here, possibly accounting for their greater liking of the low-tar cigarette. No changes in blood pressure or heart rate were observed and both cigarettes produced similar carbon monoxide increases, indicating similar depth of inhalation when smoking each. Results suggest cigarette tar yields may play a role in cigarette smoking preferences. Further research is needed to verify whether preferences are maintained after associations with nicotine delivery are extinguished. PMID:11260814

Schuh, L M; Stamat, H M; Downey, K K; Schuh, K J

2001-02-01

244

The Murine Gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 Acts as an Immunogenic Decoy to Limit Virion Neutralization  

PubMed Central

Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but fail to block and even enhance its infection of IgG Fc receptor-bearing cells, suggesting that the antibody response to infection is actually poor at ablating virion infectivity completely. Here we analyzed this effect further by quantitating the glycoprotein-specific antibody response of MHV-68 carrier mice. Gp150 was much the commonest glycoprotein target and played a predominant role in driving Fc receptor-dependent infection: when gp150-specific antibodies were boosted, Fc receptor-dependent infection increased; and when gp150-specific antibodies were removed, Fc receptor-dependent infection was largely lost. Neither gp150-specific monoclonal antibodies nor gp150-specific polyclonal sera gave significant virion neutralization. Gp150 therefore acts as an immunogenic decoy, distorting the MHV-68-specific antibody response to promote Fc receptor-dependent infection and so compromise virion neutralization. This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins.

Gillet, Laurent; May, Janet S.; Colaco, Susanna; Stevenson, Philip G.

2007-01-01

245

Thioaptamer decoy targeting of AP-1 proteins influences cytokine expression and the outcome of arenavirus infections.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is caused by a number of viruses, including arenaviruses. The pathogenesis is believed to involve dysregulation of cytokine production. The arenaviruses Lassa virus and Pichinde virus have a tropism for macrophages and other reticuloendothelial cells and both appear to suppress the normal macrophage response to virus infection. A decoy thioaptamer, XBY-S2, was developed and was found to bind to AP-1 transcription factor proteins. The P388D1 macrophage-like cell line contains members of the AP-1 family which may act as negative regulators of AP-1-controlled transcription. XBY-S2 was found to bind to Fra-2 and JunB, and enhance the induction of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha, while reducing the binding to AP-1 promoter elements. Administration of XBY-S2 to Pichinde virus-infected guinea pigs resulted in a significant reduction in Pichinde virus-induced mortality and enhanced the expression of cytokines from primary guinea pig macrophages, which may contribute to its ability to increase survival of Pichinde virus-infected guinea pigs. These data demonstrate a proof of concept that thioaptamers can be used to modulate the outcome of in vivo viral infections by arenaviruses by the manipulation of transcription factors involved in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:17325372

Fennewald, Susan M; Scott, Erin P; Zhang, Lihong; Yang, Xianbin; Aronson, Judith F; Gorenstein, David G; Luxon, Bruce A; Shope, Robert E; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T; Herzog, Norbert K

2007-03-01

246

Significance of increased expression of decoy receptor 3 in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Considerable evidence has indicated that apoptosis plays an important role in hepatocyte death in chronic liver disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver regeneration in the disease are largely unknown. Plausibly, certain molecules expressed to counteract apoptosis might provide survival advantage of certain liver cells. Therefore, we investigated a possible expression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family in chronic liver diseases since DcR3 is known to inhibit apoptosis mediated by pro-apoptotic TNF family ligands including FasL. Methods A series of liver biopsies from patients with different stages of fibrosis were subjected to immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Both DcR3 protein and mRNA were mainly expressed in biliary epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in the diseased livers. Most noticeably, intense DcR3 expression was observed in newly developing biliary ductules in regenerative nodules as well as dysplastic nodules of cirrhotic livers. In addition, DcR3 secretion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in culture was via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Conclusion DcR3 was specifically expressed in chronic liver diseases and HCC cells, and DcR3 might facilitate the survival of liver cells by exerting its anti-apoptotic activity during the progression of liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinogenesis.

Kim, Sunghee; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Zardavas, Dimitrios; Zhang, Lurong

2012-01-01

247

A decoy receptor 3 analogue reduces localised defects in phagocyte function in pneumococcal pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic strategies to modulate the host response to bacterial pneumonia are needed to improve outcomes during community-acquired pneumonia. This study used mice with impaired Fas signalling to examine susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and decoy receptor 3 analogue (DcR3-a) to correct factors associated with increased susceptibility. Methods Wild-type mice and those with varying degrees of impairment of Fas (lpr) or Fas ligand signalling (gld) were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae and microbiological and immunological outcomes measured in the presence or absence of DcR3-a. Results During established pneumonia, neutrophils became the predominant cell in the airway and gld mice were less able to clear bacteria from the lungs, demonstrating localised impairment of pulmonary neutrophil function in comparison to lpr or wild-type mice. T-cells from gld mice had enhanced activation and reduced apoptosis in comparison to wild-type and lpr mice during established pneumonia. Treatment with DcR3-a reduced T-cell activation and corrected the defect in pulmonary bacterial clearance in gld mice. Conclusions The results suggest that imbalance in tumour necrosis factor superfamily signalling and excessive T-cell activation can impair bacterial clearance in the lung but that DcR3-a treatment can reduce T-cell activation, restore optimal pulmonary neutrophil function and enhance bacterial clearance during S pneumoniae infection.

Daigneault, Marc; Thompson, Alfred A R; Walmsley, Sarah R; Gill, Sharonjit K; Witcher, Derrick R; Wroblewski, Victor J; Hellewell, Paul G; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

2012-01-01

248

Reconstructing Protein Structures by Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields and Iterative Decoy Set Construction  

PubMed Central

Predicting the fold of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the grand problems in computational biology. While there has been progress towards a solution, especially when a protein can be modelled based on one or more known structures (templates), in the absence of templates, even the best predictions are generally much less reliable. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the sequence alone, when templates of known structure are not available. This approach relies on a simple reconstruction procedure guided by a novel knowledge-based evaluation function implemented as a class of artificial neural networks that we have designed: Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields (NNPIF). This evaluation function takes into account the contextual information for each residue and is trained to identify native-like conformations from non-native-like ones by using large sets of decoys as a training set. The training set is generated and then iteratively expanded during successive folding simulations. As NNPIF are fast at evaluating conformations, thousands of models can be processed in a short amount of time, and clustering techniques can be adopted for model selection. Although the results we present here are very preliminary, we consider them to be promising, with predictions being generated at state-of-the-art levels in some of the cases.

Mirabello, Claudio; Adelfio, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

2014-01-01

249

Refining near-native protein-protein docking decoys by local resampling and energy minimization  

PubMed Central

How to refine a near-native structure to make it closer to its native conformation is an unsolved problem in protein-structure and protein–protein complex-structure prediction. In this article, we first test several scoring functions for selecting locally resampled near-native protein–protein docking conformations and then propose a computationally efficient protocol for structure refinement via local resampling and energy minimization. The proposed method employs a statistical energy function based on a Distance-scaled Ideal-gas REference state (DFIRE) as an initial filter and an empirical energy function EMPIRE (EMpirical Protein-InteRaction Energy) for optimization and re-ranking. Significant improvement of final top-1 ranked structures over initial near-native structures is observed in the ZDOCK 2.3 decoy set for Benchmark 1.0 (74% whose global rmsd reduced by 0.5 Å or more and only 7% increased by 0.5 Å or more). Less significant improvement is observed for Benchmark 2.0 (38% versus 33%). Possible reasons are discussed.

Liang, Shide; Wang, Guangce; Zhou, Yaoqi

2013-01-01

250

Reconstructing protein structures by neural network pairwise interaction fields and iterative decoy set construction.  

PubMed

Predicting the fold of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the grand problems in computational biology. While there has been progress towards a solution, especially when a protein can be modelled based on one or more known structures (templates), in the absence of templates, even the best predictions are generally much less reliable. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the sequence alone, when templates of known structure are not available. This approach relies on a simple reconstruction procedure guided by a novel knowledge-based evaluation function implemented as a class of artificial neural networks that we have designed: Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields (NNPIF). This evaluation function takes into account the contextual information for each residue and is trained to identify native-like conformations from non-native-like ones by using large sets of decoys as a training set. The training set is generated and then iteratively expanded during successive folding simulations. As NNPIF are fast at evaluating conformations, thousands of models can be processed in a short amount of time, and clustering techniques can be adopted for model selection. Although the results we present here are very preliminary, we consider them to be promising, with predictions being generated at state-of-the-art levels in some of the cases. PMID:24970210

Mirabello, Claudio; Adelfio, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

2014-01-01

251

Professional and Part-Time Chemokine Decoys in the Resolution of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflammation is essential for protection from infection and for the repair of damaged tissue. Much is now known about how inflammation is induced and maintained, but the processes underlying the resolution of inflammation are often overlooked. However, resolution is an essential component of all successful inflammatory responses because it ensures the restoration of tissue homeostasis and prevents immunopathology of the type seen in chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Small secreted proteins called chemokines, acting through chemokine receptors, are known to be critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment and function during the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Thus, their efficient removal would seem to be a prerequisite for successful resolution. In recent years, it has emerged that specialized chemokine "decoy" receptors exist that actively participate in this process. Moreover, other chemokine receptors have been proposed to lead a double life and perform opposing roles during inflammation: leukocyte recruitment (by signaling) and resolution (by chemokine sequestration). A recent study provides further support for this theory by showing that apoptotic inflammatory leukocytes increase the number of surface chemokine receptors and that these receptors can remove chemokines from inflamed tissue. Leukocyte apoptosis is already known to aid resolution, not just because it eliminates leukocytes from inflamed tissues, but also because their consumption by macrophages leads to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The new work indicates that chemokine sequestration may be another mechanism exploited by dying cells to assist in the resolution of inflammation.

Chris Hansell (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology Infection and Inflammation REV); Robert Nibbs (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation REV)

2007-05-01

252

Target-decoy approach and false discovery rate: when things may go wrong.  

PubMed

The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available. PMID:21953092

Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A

2011-07-01

253

Allosteric competitive inactivation of hematopoietic CSF-1 signaling by the viral decoy receptor BARF1.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic human colony-stimulating factor 1 (hCSF-1) is essential for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and microbial infections and cancer. The human pathogen Epstein-Barr virus secretes the lytic-cycle protein BARF1 that neutralizes hCSF-1 to achieve immunomodulation. Here we show that BARF1 binds the dimer interface of hCSF-1 with picomolar affinity, away from the cognate receptor-binding site, to establish a long-lived complex featuring three hCSF-1 at the periphery of the BARF1 toroid. BARF1 locks dimeric hCSF-1 into an inactive conformation, rendering it unable to signal via its cognate receptor on human monocytes. This reveals a new functional role for hCSF-1 cooperativity in signaling. We propose a new viral strategy paradigm featuring an allosteric decoy receptor of the competitive type, which couples efficient sequestration and inactivation of the host growth factor to abrogate cooperative assembly of the cognate signaling complex. PMID:22902366

Elegheert, Jonathan; Bracke, Nathalie; Pouliot, Philippe; Gutsche, Irina; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Verstraete, Kenneth; Bekaert, Anaïs; Burmeister, Wim P; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lambrecht, Bart N; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Savvides, Savvas N

2012-09-01

254

Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available.

Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

2011-07-01

255

The Presence of Conspecific Decoys Enhances the Attractiveness of an NaCl Resource to the Yellow-Spined Locust, Ceracris kiangsu  

PubMed Central

Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl—treated filter paper. In a two—choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCL) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl—treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources.

Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

2011-01-01

256

In Situ Recovery of Oil from Utah Tar Sand: A Summary of Tar Sand Research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand depos...

L. C. Marchant J. D. Westhoff

1985-01-01

257

DOE small business program solicits EOR and tar sands projects  

SciTech Connect

Small Business Innovation Research, SBIR, program awards are made in three phases: 1. approximately 100 fixed-price awards in amounts up to $50,000 for a period of 6 1/2 months; 2. promising results from Phase 1 will result in cost-reimbursable awards during FY1988 in amounts up to $500,000 for a 2-year period; 3. non-Federal capital will be used for commercial application of the research. Methods for enhanced oil recovery and recovery of bitumens from tar sands are being sought only in the following areas: new processes for fluid diversion; innovative tracking of flood fronts in recovery processes; and improved recovery efficiency in heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. Four award winners for FY1986 are listed and the methods briefly described.

Not Available

1986-12-01

258

An overview of the tar sand resources of Utah  

SciTech Connect

Utah contains 53 shallow tar sand deposits that contain between 19.4 and 29.2 billion bbl of hydrocarbons. This amount is nearly 100 times the total published proven reserves of crude oil in all of Utah. Over 96% of this resource occurs in eight deposits, located in the Uinta basin and in southeastern central Utah. Currently, only small production of tar sand occurs in the state and a low level of research is being done on the deposits due to low oil prices. During the period of high oil prices in the early 1980s, many companies explored these deposits, performed feasibility studies, and developed processes for extracting the oil, but much is still to be learned. New recovery processes may allow future development of this huge resource.

Bishop, C.E.; Tripp, B.T. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01

259

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

260

Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows:

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

261

Tar sands, heavy-oil push building rapidly in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convinced that tar sands and heavy oil represent Canada's best hope for petroleum self-sufficiency, companies and government alike there are pushing development of extraction and upgrading projects in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Three multibillion-dollar commercial projects are planned or already under construction, and numerous pilot projects are in progress to test ways to produce and process the hard-to-get hydrocarbons. In addition,

Tippee

1978-01-01

262

Syncrude develops tar sands, aided by unique utility hookup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many energy-intensive process industries are confronted with power supply and demand margins. Such is the case with Syncrude Canada Ltd., a refinery that is currently producing ca. 100,000 bpd from N. Alberta's oil-rich Athabasca tar sands. Syncrude mines the oil sands using huge draglines, each weighing more than 6000 tons and using close to 10 MW. When all 4 are

Ujimoto

1981-01-01

263

The Kentucky tar sand project: Bitumen recovery by solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas Gas Development Corporation selected the Dravo solvent extraction process for a proposed 5000-barrel-per-day plant to produce heavy oil from a tar sand deposit in Kentucky. A 200-ton-per-day pilot plant has demonstrated the process concept and collected design data. The company applied for financial assistance from the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation for the proposed production plant.

M. N. Kelley; P. A. Fedde

1985-01-01

264

Oil from tar sands--a significant new plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first synthetic crude oil from Canada's Athabasca tar sands has been in commercial production since October, when the new 45,000 b\\/cd (design capacity) installation of Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. at Fort McMurray, Alberta, began operations. Besides the oil, the plant is designed to produce about 2,600 tons\\/cd of petroleum coke, for use as plant fuel, and 314 tons\\/cd

Uhl

1967-01-01

265

REMEDIATION OF THE TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE: AN UPDATE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is a portion of an abandoned lead and zinc mining area known as the Tri-State Mining District (OK, KS and MO) and includes approximately 104 km2 of disturbed land and contaminated water resources in extreme northeastern Oklahoma. Underground mining from the 1890s through the 1960s degraded over 1000 surface ha, and produced nearly 500 km

Robert W. Nairn

266

Wound botulism among black tar heroin users--Washington, 2003.  

PubMed

During August 22-26, 2003, four injection-drug users (IDUs) in Yakima County, Washington, sought medical care at the same hospital with complaints of several days of weakness, drooping eyelids, blurred vision, and difficulty speaking and swallowing. All four were regular, nonintravenous injectors of black tar heroin (BTH), and one also snorted BTH. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases, which implicated wound botulism (WB) as the cause of illness. PMID:13679792

2003-09-19

267

Quantitative Tar and Plastic Waste Distributions in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE report in this letter the first quantitative data on tar and plastic waste distributions in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean. During the Canadian Transpac-72 cruise, thirty-seven surface tows were made with a neuston net to collect particu-late pollutants quantitatively. (The net, a Kahl Scientific model with a mouth 80 cm by 30.5 cm and a 150 µm

C. S. Wong; David R. Green; Walter J. Cretney

1974-01-01

268

Sydney Tar Ponds: Some Problems in Quantifying Toxic Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate\\u000a a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia,\\u000a Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials

EDWARD FURIMSKY

2002-01-01

269

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

270

Outbreak of necrotizing fasciitis due to Clostridium sordellii among black-tar heroin users.  

PubMed

In California, black tar heroin (BTH) use among injection drug users (IDUs) has resulted in an increased number of cases of wound botulism due to Clostridium botulinum, tetanus due to Clostridium tetani, and necrotizing soft-tissue infections due to a variety of clostridia. From December 1999 to April 2000, nine IDUs in Ventura County, California, developed necrotizing fasciitis; 4 died. Cultures of wound specimens from 6 case patients yielded Clostridium sordellii. Some of the patients appeared to have the toxic shock syndrome previously reported to be characteristic of toxin-mediated C. sordellii infection, which is characterized by hypotension, marked leukocytosis, and hemoconcentration. The suspected source of this outbreak was contaminated BTH that was injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly ("skin popped"). This outbreak of C. sordellii infection serves as another example of how BTH can potentially serve as a vehicle for transmitting severe and often deadly clostridial infections, and reinforces the need to educate IDUs and clinicians about the risks associated with skin popping of BTH. PMID:15127359

Kimura, Akiko C; Higa, Jeffrey I; Levin, Robert M; Simpson, Gail; Vargas, Yolanda; Vugia, Duc J

2004-05-01

271

An NMR study of the HIV-1 TAR element hairpin.  

PubMed

The TAR hairpin is an important part of the 5' long terminal repeat of HIV-1 and appears to be recognized by a cellular protein. A 14-base model of the native TAR hairpin 5'-GAGC[CUGGGA]-GCUC-3' (loop bases in square brackets) has been studied by proton, phosphorus, and natural abundance carbon NMR; these results are compared to other published NMR studies of the TAR hairpin. Assignments of all nonexchangeable protons and of all the stem-exchangeable protons have been made, as well as all phosphorus and many carbon resonances. Large J1'2' and J3'4' proton-proton coupling in the C5, G8, and G9 sugars indicate an equilibrium between C2'- and C3'-endo forms; these data show a dynamic loop structure. We see three broad imino resonances that have not been reported before; these resonances are in the right region for unbonded loop imino protons. These peaks suggest the protons are protected from fast exchange with the solvent by the structure of the hairpin loop. Simulated annealing and molecular dynamics with 148 distance constraints, 11 hydrogen bonds, and 84 torsion angle constraints showed a wide variety of structures. Certain trends are evident, such as continuation of the A-form helix on the 3' side of the hairpin loop. The ensemble of calculated structures agree with most chemical modification data. PMID:8241143

Jaeger, J A; Tinoco, I

1993-11-23

272

Encapsulation of NF-? B Decoy Oligonucleotides within Echogenic Liposomes and Ultrasound-Triggered Release  

PubMed Central

Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) have additional promise, beyond diagnostic agents, as vehicles for delivering oligonucleotides (ODN), especially if the release of the agent can be triggered and its uptake can be enhanced by ultrasound application at a specific site. The purpose of this study was to co-encapsulate air and NF-?B decoy ODN within ELIP allowing ultrasound to release encapsulated ODN from ELIP, and to accurately quantify release of encapsulated ODN from ELIP upon ultrasound application. FITC-labeled sense ODN (2 mM) was incorporated within ELIP using freeze/thaw method. Encapsulation efficiency of FITC-ODN was spectrofluorometrically analyzed by quenching fluorescence of unencapsulated FITC-ODN using a complementary strand tagged with Iowa Black FQ-ODN. Quenching of FITC-ODN (0.05 ?M) with Iowa Black FQ-ODN (0.1 ?M) was found to be efficient (92.4 ± 0.2 %), allowing accurate determination of encapsulated ODN. Encapsulation efficiency of ODN was 14.2 ± 2.5 % in DPPC/DOPC/DPPG/CH liposomes and 29.6 ± 1.5 % in DPPC/DOPE/DPPG/CH liposomes. Application of ultrasound (1 MHz continuous wave, 0.26 MPa peak-to-peak pressure amplitude, 60 seconds.) to the latter formulation triggered 41.6 ± 4.3 % release of ODN from ODN-containing ELIP. We have thus demonstrated that ODN can be encapsulated into ELIP and released efficiently upon ultrasound application. These findings suggest potential applications for gene therapy in atherosclerosis treatment.

Buchanan, Kyle D.; Huang, Shao-Ling; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D.; MacDonald, Robert C.

2011-01-01

273

Therapeutic effect of in vivo transfection of transcription factor decoy to NF-kappaB on septic lung in mice.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in regulating expression of several genes involved in the pathophysiology of endotoxic shock. We investigated whether in vivo introduction of synthetic double-stranded DNA with high affinity for the NF-kappaB binding site could block expression of genes mediating pulmonary vascular permeation and thereby provide effective therapy for septic lung failure. Endotoxic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin in mice. We introduced NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) in vivo 1 h after endotoxic shock by using a gene transfer kit. At 10 h, blood samples were collected for measurement of histamine and for blood-gas analysis. Gene and protein expression levels of target molecules were determined by means of Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. The transpulmonary flux of (125)I-labeled albumin was used as an index of lung vascular permeability. Administration of endotoxin caused marked increases in plasma histamine and gene and protein expressions of histidine decarboxylase, histamine H(1) receptors, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissues. Elevated lung vascular permeability was also found. Blood-gas analysis showed concurrent decreases in arterial Po(2), Pco(2), and pH. All of these events induced by endotoxin were significantly inhibited by transfection of NF-kappaB decoy ODN but not by its mutated (scrambled) form (used as a control). Our results indicate for the first time the potential usefulness of NF-kappaB decoy ODN for gene therapy of endotoxic shock. PMID:15298852

Matsuda, Naoyuki; Hattori, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yoshika; Nishihira, Jun; Jesmin, Subrina; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Gando, Satoshi

2004-12-01

274

Selective Targeting of a TNFR Decoy Receptor Pharmaceutical to the Primate Brain as a Receptor-Specific IgG Fusion Protein  

PubMed Central

Decoy receptors, such as the human tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), are potential new therapies for brain disorders. However, decoy receptors are large molecule drugs that are not transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB transport of a TNFR decoy receptor, the human TNFR-II extracellular domain was re-engineered as a fusion protein with a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the TNFR therapeutic decoy receptor across the BBB. The HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was expressed in stably transfected CHO cells, and was analyzed with electrophoresis, Western blotting, size exclusion chromatography, and binding assays for the HIR and TNF?. The HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was radiolabeled by trititation, in parallel with the radio-iodination of recombinant TNFR:Fc fusion protein, and the proteins were co-injected in the adult Rhesus monkey. The TNFR:Fc fusion protein did not cross the primate BBB in vivo, but the uptake of the HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was high and 3% of the injected dose was taken up by the primate brain. The TNFR was selectively targeted to brain, relative to peripheral organs, following fusion to the HIRMAb. This study demonstrates that decoy receptors may be re-engineered as IgG fusion proteins with a BBB molecular Trojan horse that selectively targets the brain, and enables penetration of the BBB in vivo. IgG-decoy receptor fusion proteins represent a new class of human neurotherapeutics.

Boado, Ruben J.; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Pardridge, William M.

2010-01-01

275

Selective targeting of a TNFR decoy receptor pharmaceutical to the primate brain as a receptor-specific IgG fusion protein.  

PubMed

Decoy receptors, such as the human tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), are potential new therapies for brain disorders. However, decoy receptors are large molecule drugs that are not transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB transport of a TNFR decoy receptor, the human TNFR-II extracellular domain was re-engineered as a fusion protein with a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the TNFR therapeutic decoy receptor across the BBB. The HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was expressed in stably transfected CHO cells, and was analyzed with electrophoresis, Western blotting, size exclusion chromatography, and binding assays for the HIR and TNFalpha. The HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was radio-labeled by trititation, in parallel with the radio-iodination of recombinant TNFR:Fc fusion protein, and the proteins were co-injected in the adult Rhesus monkey. The TNFR:Fc fusion protein did not cross the primate BBB in vivo, but the uptake of the HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein was high and 3% of the injected dose was taken up by the primate brain. The TNFR was selectively targeted to brain, relative to peripheral organs, following fusion to the HIRMAb. This study demonstrates that decoy receptors may be re-engineered as IgG fusion proteins with a BBB molecular Trojan horse that selectively targets the brain, and enables penetration of the BBB in vivo. IgG-decoy receptor fusion proteins represent a new class of human neurotherapeutics. PMID:20100527

Boado, Ruben J; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Pardridge, William M

2010-03-01

276

Plasma gasification of wood and production of gas with low content of tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of biomass is a very smart way of its utilization. Tar content in the produced gas always plays an important\\u000a role because high tar content disables some potentialities of the further treatment of the produced gas. There is a strong\\u000a effort to produce gas with low tar content from this point of view. High concentrations of hydrogen and

M. Hlína; M. Hrabovský; V. Kopecký; M. Konrád; T. Kavka; S. Skoblja

2006-01-01

277

Production and processing of U. S. tar sands: an environmental assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and processing of U.S. tar sands bitumen. With the possible exception attributable to chemical differences between tar

N. A. Frazier; D. W. Hissong; W. E. Ballantyne; E. J. Mazey

1976-01-01

278

Differential growth kinetics are exhibited by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR mutants.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) TAR element is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. Mutagenesis has demonstrated that a stable stem-loop RNA structure containing both loop and bulge structures transcribed from TAR is the major target for tat activation. Though transient assays have defined elements critical for TAR function, no studies have yet determined the role of TAR in viral replication because of the inability to generate viral stocks containing mutations in TAR. In the current study, we developed a strategy which enabled us to generate stable 293 cell lines which were capable of producing high titers of different viruses containing TAR mutations. Viruses generated from these cell lines were used to infect both T-lymphocyte cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viruses containing TAR mutations in either the upper stem, the bulge, or the loop exhibited dramatically decreased HIV-1 gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested. However, we were able to isolate lymphoid cell lines which stably expressed gene products from each of these TAR mutant viruses. Though the amounts of virus in these cell lines were roughly equivalent, cells containing TAR mutant viruses were extremely defective for gene expression compared with cell lines containing wild-type virus. The magnitude of this decrease in viral gene expression was much greater than previously seen in transient expression assays using HIV-1 long terminal repeat chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs. In contrast to the defects in viral growth found in T-lymphocyte cell lines, several of the viruses containing TAR mutations were much less defective for gene expression and replication in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results indicate that maintenance of the TAR element is critical for viral gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested, though the cell type which is infected is also a major determinant of the replication properties of TAR mutant viruses. Images

Harrich, D; Hsu, C; Race, E; Gaynor, R B

1994-01-01

279

Separation of Bitumen from Utah Tar Sands by a Hot Water Digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sand deposits in the state of Utah contain more than 25 billion bbl of in-place bitumen. Although 30 times smaller than the well-known Athabasca tar sands, Utah tar sands do represent a significant domestic energy resource comparable to the nat.ional cplde oil reserv~-(31-.3 billion bbl). Based upon a detailed analysis of the physical and'chemical properties of both the bitumen

J. E. Sepulveda; J. D. Miller

280

The prognostic significance of overexpression of the decoy receptor for Fas ligand (DcR3) in patients with gastric carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Abstract.  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background:   The FasL-Fas system has an important role in mediating immune-cytotoxic killing of cells such as virus-infected or tumor\\u000a cells. It was recently reported that there is a soluble decoy receptor (DcR3), which binds to FasL and inhibits FasL-induced\\u000a apoptosis, and certain tumors may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing a decoy receptor that blocks\\u000a FasL. We evaluated

Yasushi Takahama; Yukishige Yamada; Koji Emoto; Heisuke Fujimoto; Tomoyoshi Takayama; Masatoh Ueno; Hideki Uchida; Shuya Hirao; Takashi Mizuno; Yoshiyuki Nakajima

2002-01-01

281

Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

282

HMGA1 directly interacts with TAR to modulate basal and Tat-dependent HIV transcription  

PubMed Central

The transactivating response element (TAR) of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is essential for promoter transactivation by the viral transactivator of transcription (Tat). The Tat-TAR interaction thereby recruits active positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) from its inactive, 7SK/HEXIM1-bound form, leading to efficient viral transcription. Here, we show that the 7SK RNA-associating chromatin regulator HMGA1 can specifically bind to the HIV-1 TAR element and that 7SK RNA can thereby compete with TAR. The HMGA1-binding interface of TAR is located within the binding site for Tat and other cellular activators, and we further provide evidence for competition between HMGA1 and Tat for TAR-binding. HMGA1 negatively influences the expression of a HIV-1 promoter-driven reporter in a TAR-dependent manner, both in the presence and in the absence of Tat. The overexpression of the HMGA1-binding substructure of 7SK RNA results in a TAR-dependent gain of HIV-1 promoter activity similar to the effect of the shRNA-mediated knockdown of HMGA1. Our results support a model in which the HMGA1/TAR interaction prevents the binding of transcription-activating cellular co-factors and Tat, subsequently leading to reduced HIV-1 transcription.

Eilebrecht, Sebastian; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Benecke, Bernd-Joachim; Bell, Brendan; Benecke, Arndt G.

2013-01-01

283

About CTEP — CTMBTECH ListServ  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical Trials Monitoring Branch (CTMB) has established a special electronic mailing list called the CTMBTECH ListServ. The ListServ is designated to communicate technical discussions regarding the redesign of the current CTMB Audit Database System (CTMB-ADS) to a WEB-based system. Those who subscribe to the CTMBTECH ListServ are able to participate in discussions concerning the redesign of the CTMB-ADS by sending and receiving email messages to and from the CTMB and other Cooperative Groups.

284

A secreted decoy of InR antagonizes insulin/IGF signaling to restrict body growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Members of the insulin peptide family have conserved roles in the regulation of growth and metabolism in a wide variety of metazoans. Drosophila insulin-like peptides (Dilps) promote tissue growth through the single insulin-like receptor (InR). Despite the important role of Dilps in nutrient-dependent growth control, the molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of circulating Dilps is not well understood. Here, we report the function of a novel secreted decoy of InR (SDR) as a negative regulator of insulin signaling. SDR is predominantly expressed in glia and is secreted into the hemolymph. Larvae lacking SDR grow at a faster rate, thereby increasing adult body size. Conversely, overexpression of SDR reduces body growth non-cell-autonomously. SDR is structurally similar to the extracellular domain of InR and interacts with several Dilps in vitro independent of Imp-L2, the ortholog of the mammalian insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7). We further demonstrate that SDR is constantly secreted into the hemolymph independent of nutritional status and is essential for adjusting insulin signaling under adverse food conditions. We propose that Drosophila uses a secreted decoy to fine-tune systemic growth against fluctuations of circulating insulin levels.

Okamoto, Naoki; Nakamori, Rinna; Murai, Tomoka; Yamauchi, Yuki; Masuda, Aya; Nishimura, Takashi

2013-01-01

285

HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Switches the Pathway of TAR RNA/DNA Annealing from Loop-Loop "Kissing" to "Zipper"  

PubMed Central

Summary The chaperone activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nucleotide (nt) mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is ?10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable “kissing” loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by ?105-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate (?104-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction (?10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct “zipper” pathway involving nucleation at the 3?/5? terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC.

Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

2009-01-01

286

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

287

CSAR Data Set Release 2012: Ligands, Affinities, Complexes, and Docking Decoys  

PubMed Central

A major goal in drug design is the improvement of computational methods for docking and scoring. The Community Structure Activity Resource (CSAR) has collected several data sets from industry and added in-house data sets that may be used for this purpose (www.csardock.org). CSAR has currently obtained data from Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, and Vertex and is working on obtaining data from several others. Combined with our in-house projects, we are providing a data set consisting of 6 protein targets, 647 compounds with biological affinities, and 82 crystal structures. Multiple congeneric series are available for several targets with a few representative crystal structures of each of the series. These series generally contain a few inactive compounds, usually not available in the literature, to provide an upper bound to the affinity range. The affinity ranges are typically 3–4 orders of magnitude per series. For our in-house projects, we have had compounds synthesized for biological testing. Affinities were measured by Thermofluor, Octet RED, and isothermal titration calorimetry for the most soluble. This allows the direct comparison of the biological affinities for those compounds, providing a measure of the variance in the experimental affinity. It appears that there can be considerable variance in the absolute value of the affinity, making the prediction of the absolute value ill-defined. However, the relative rankings within the methods are much better, and this fits with the observation that predicting relative ranking is a more tractable problem computationally. For those in-house compounds, we also have measured the following physical properties: logD, logP, thermodynamic solubility, and pKa. This data set also provides a substantial decoy set for each target consisting of diverse conformations covering the entire active site for all of the 58 CSAR-quality crystal structures. The CSAR data sets (CSAR-NRC HiQ and the 2012 release) provide substantial, publically available, curated data sets for use in parametrizing and validating docking and scoring methods.

2013-01-01

288

Decoy receptor 3 suppresses TLR2-mediated B cell activation by targeting NF-?B.  

PubMed

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble protein in the TNFR superfamily. Its known ligands include Fas ligand, homologous to lymphotoxin, showing inducible expression, and competing with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, TNF-like molecule 1A, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. DcR3 has been reported to modulate the functions of T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages; however, its role in regulating B cell activation is largely unknown. In this study, we found that the DcR3.Fc fusion protein bound to human and mouse B cells and suppressed the activation of B cells. DcR3.Fc attenuated Staphylococcus aureus, IgM-, Pam(3)CSK(4)-, and LPS-mediated B cell proliferation but did not affect cytokine-induced B cell growth. In the presence of these mitogens, DcR3.Fc did not induce B cell apoptosis, suggesting that DcR3 may inhibit the signal(s) important for B cell activation. Because the combination of Fas.Fc, LT-?R.Fc (homologous to lymphotoxin, showing inducible expression, and competing with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes receptor), and DR3.Fc (TNF-like molecule 1A receptor) did not suppress B cell proliferation and because the biological effect of DcR3.Fc on B cells was not blocked by heparin, we hypothesize that a novel ligand(s) of DcR3 mediates its inhibitory activity on B cells. Moreover, we found that TLR2-stimulated NF-?B p65 activation and NF-?B-driven luciferase activity were attenuated by DcR3.Fc. The TLR2-induced cytokine production by B cells was consistently reduced by DcR3. These results imply that DcR3 may regulate B cell activation by suppressing the activation of NF-?B. PMID:22581854

Huang, Zi-Ming; Kang, Jhi-Kai; Chen, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Tz-Hau; Chang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Yung-Chi; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Leu, Chuen-Miin

2012-06-15

289

Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest distribution and annual harvest rates of mallards due to increasing use of SWDs by hunters in North America.

Szymanski, M. L.; Afton, A. D.

2005-01-01

290

Death decoy receptor overexpression and increased malignancy risk in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and death decoy receptor (DcR3) as colorectal cancer prognostic indicators. METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma specimens from 300 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the staining patterns of HER2 and DcR3. Classification of HER2 staining was carried out using the United States Food and Drug Administration semi-quantitative scoring system, with scores of 0 or 1+ indicating a tumor-negative (normal expression) status and scores of 2+ and 3+ indicating a tumor-positive (overexpression) status. Classification of DcR3 was carried out by quantitating the percentage of positive cells within the stained section, with < 10% indicating a tumor-negative status and ? 10% indicating a tumor-positive status. Correlation of the HER2 and DcR3 staining status with clinicopathological parameters [age, sex, tumor size, differentiation, and the tumor, node, metastasis (pTNM) classification] and survival was statistically assessed. RESULTS: Tumor-positive status for HER2 and DcR3 was found in 18.33% and 58.33% of the 300 colorectal carcinoma specimens, respectively. HER2 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor size (P = 0.003) but not with other clinicopathological parameters. DcR3 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), pTNM stage (P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). However, correlation coefficient analysis did not indicate that a statistically significant correlation exists between tumor-positive status for the HER2 and DcR3 overexpression (P = 0.236). Patients with specimens classified as DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) rate than those without DcR3 overexpression (median OS: 42.11 vs 61.21 mo; HR = 50.27, 95%CI: 44.90-55.64, P < 0.001). HER2 overexpression had no significant impact on median OS (35.10 mo vs 45.25 mo; HR = 44.40, 95%CI: 39.32-49.48, P = 0.344). However, patients with specimens classified as both HER2- and DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly poorer median OS than those with only HER2 overexpression (31.80 mo vs 52.20 mo; HR = 35.10, 95%CI: 22.04-48.16, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: HER2 overexpression is not an independent prognostic marker of colorectal cancer, but DcR3 overexpression is highly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor OS.

Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Da-Xin

2014-01-01

291

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21

292

Predation in the Presence of Decoys: An Inhibitory Factor on Pathogen Control by Bacteriophages or Bdellovibrios in Dense and Diverse Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several attempts have been made at the removal of specific pathogens from the intestinal microflora using either bacteriophages or “predatory” bacteria such as Bdellovibrio spp. To date these attempts have had mixed success. A mechanism explaining these findings based on competitive hindrance by non-prey, or decoy species is put forward. It is shown that this hindrance tends to damp out

MICHAEL H. F. WILKINSON

2001-01-01

293

Biochemical mechanisms that interact with membrane-associated IL1 RII (60-kDa decoy) receptors in populations of adherent macrophages and vascular endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to identify the potential biochemical mechanisms that alter the integrity of membrane-associated IL-1 RII (decoy) receptor complexes expressed by populations of adherent macrophages and vascular endothelium. The initial research strategy utilized to achieve this objective involved delineating the ability of macrophage activation or exposure of macrophages and vascular endothelium to a spectrum of enzyme

Cody Coyne; Jeff Baravick; Trey Howell; Erica Baravick; Carla Willetto; Brad W Fenwick

2001-01-01

294

Linear high-boost fusion of Stokes vector imagery for effective discrimination and recognition of real targets in the presence of multiple identical decoys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the use of imaging polarimetry has received considerable attention for use in automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. In military remote sensing applications, there is a great demand for sensors that are capable of discriminating between real targets and decoys. Accurate discrimination of decoys from real targets is a challenging task and often requires the fusion of various sensor modalities that operate simultaneously. In this paper, we use a simple linear fusion technique known as the high-boost fusion method for effective discrimination of real targets in the presence of multiple decoys. The HBF assigns more weight to the polarization-based imagery in forming the final fused image that is used for detection. We have captured both intensity and polarization-based imagery from an experimental laboratory arrangement containing a mixture of sand/dirt, rocks, vegetation, and other objects for the purpose of simulating scenery that would be acquired in a remote sensing military application. A target object and three decoys that are identical in physical appearance (shape, surface structure and color) and different in material composition have also been placed in the scene. We use the wavelet-filter joint transform correlation (WFJTC) technique to perform detection between input scenery and the target object. Our results show that use of the HBF method increases the correlation performance metrics associated with the WFJTC-based detection process when compared to using either the traditional intensity or polarization-based images.

El-Saba, Aed; Sakla, Wesam A.

2010-04-01

295

Composition and Properties of Coal Tar DNAPLs at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal tar is a persistent source of groundwater contamination in the subsurface at many former manufactured gas plants (MGPs). Remediation of coal tar remains a significant environmental challenge due to its complex chemical composition, existence as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), and tendency to alter the wettability of porous media systems. Changes in wettability are believed to occur due to the presence of ashphaltenes, a complex group of high molecular weight surface active compounds. Despite thousands of former MGPs in the US, a thorough investigation into the literature identified less than twenty sites from which coal tar DNAPL was analyzed to obtain data on chemical composition and/or physical properties. Currently, no study exists in the literature which considers multiple samples from a single site. In order to understand the potential universe of coal tar DNAPL and identify current data gaps, we compile all available literature data on coal tar DNAPL including: chemical composition, density, viscosity, and interfacial tension. We also conduct an analysis of multiple coal tar samples from a former MGP and evaluate changes in coal tar composition along the migration path of a DNAPL plume. Finally, we present a method for analyzing the asphaltene content of coal tar along with the results of this analysis.

Birak, P. S.; Hauswirth, S. C.; Williams, D. A.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2007-12-01

296

Role for Nuclear Energy in the Recovery of Oil from the Tar Sands of Alberta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the n...

V. R. Puttagunta R. O. Sochaski R. F. S. Robertson

1976-01-01

297

Energy requirements for the production of a synthetic crude oil from Athabasca tar sands. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed process analysis is provided of operations for producing syncrude from tar sands at the Athabasca deposit in Alberta, Canada. A comparison is made of the calculated net energy requirement of the syncrude with those determined previously for other sources of oil. Also investigated are the effects of such parameters as tar sand grade and overburden ratio on the

Hemming

1976-01-01

298

Review of Formulation and Testing Procedures for Coal Tar Epoxy (SSPC Paint 16-68T).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Corps of Engineers uses the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) specification 16-68T for coal tar epoxy paint extensively. Although performance of the material is unquestioned, difficulty in obtaining the coal tar pitch used in its manufacture ha...

A. Beitelman

1976-01-01

299

The reduction and control technology of tar during biomass gasification\\/pyrolysis: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is an important primary energy source as well as renewable energy source. As the most promising biomass utilization method, gasification\\/pyrolysis produces not only useful fuel gases, char and chemicals, but also some byproducts like fly ash, NOx, SO2 and tar. Tar in the product gases will condense at low temperature, and lead to clogged or blockage in fuel lines,

Jun Han; Heejoon Kim

2008-01-01

300

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen,

J. G. Reynolds; R. W. Crawford

1988-01-01

301

Clay Minerals in a Utah Tar Sand and Their Potential Effects on Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because demand for petroleum is ever increasing, all petroleum resources including tar sand should be considered for development. The PR Spring tar sand deposit contains 4.4 billion barrels of oil within an area of 185,000 acres. The bitumen impregnation ...

G. M. Mason T. E. Owen R. L. Daley R. C. Donovan

1986-01-01

302

Oil-impregnated rocks of Utah: USERDA field experiment to recover oil from tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration is equipping a field experiment to test the reverse combustion process for recovery of oil from a tar sand on a 10-acre site on the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit near Vernal, Utah. A tar sand section 10 ft thick at the top of the Rim Rock Sandstone (Mesaverde, Upper Cretaceous) has been selected

Marchant

1976-01-01

303

OIL RECOVERY FROM A UTAH TAR SAND DEPOSIT BY IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. tar sand resource consists of an estimated 30 billion barrels (4.7Gm ) of oil. Most of this resource is in six large deposits in Utah. Through research and development to prove tar sand oil recovery methods, the Department of Energy is attempting to stimulate commercialization of this resource. Two in situ combustion field experiments have been conducted

L. A. Johnson; L. J. Fahy; M. W. Thornton

304

Steam catalytic gasification of municipal solid waste for producing tar-free fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a two-region municipal solid waste (MSW) steam catalytic gasification process was proposed. The gasifier was composed of two individual reactors: one is the gasification reactors and the other is the catalytic reactor. The MSW was initially gasified and the produced tar was gasified in the gasification reactor, and further, the tar not gasified entered the catalytic reactor

Yanwen Guan; Siyi Luo; Shiming Liu; Bo Xiao; Lei Cai

2009-01-01

305

PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium

Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin

2006-01-01

306

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests undertaken to determine the carcinogenicity of oil shale tars are surveyed. Presented are test data describing the carcinogenicity of: primary oil shale processing products, secondary oil shale processing products, oil shale asphalts, commerical oil shale products, and tars. Higher carcinogenic activity was found to occur in products processed at high temperatures. Methods that can be employed to reduce occupational

P. A. Bogovski; F. Vinkmann

1979-01-01

307

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2013-04-01

308

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

309

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

...2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS...740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The...

2014-04-01

310

Optimized Detection of Tar Content in the Manufacturing Process Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to model and optimize the detection of tar in cigarettes during the manufacturing process and show that low yield cigarettes contain similar levels of nicotine as compared to high yield cigarettes while B (Benzene), T(toluene) and X (xylene) (BTX) levels increase with increasing tar yields. A neuro-fuzzy system which comprises a fuzzy inference structure

Zikrija Avdagic; Lejla Begic Fazlic; Samim Konjicija

2009-01-01

311

Shakedown operations in commercial production of sulfuric acid from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe process technology for processing acid tars to obtain sulfuric acid by means of high temperature splitting to regenerate spent sulfuric acid contaminated with organic impurities. An illustration presents a simplified flow plan for acid tar processing. The authors conclude, from experience with this unit, that process indexes meet design requirements, in particular with respect to the degree

V. M. Perfilev; V. B. Golyshev; A. D. Goncharenko; A. M. Shtafinskaya; V. S. Sushchev

1985-01-01

312

Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

Soderberg

1988-01-01

313

Task 3.9 -- Catalytic tar cracking. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure swing adsorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means to remove these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generate useful products, e.g., methane gas, which is crucial to the operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. The objectives of this project are to investigate whether gasification tars can be cracked by synthetic nickel-substituted micamontmorillonite, zeolite, or dolomite material; and whether the tars can be cracked selectively by these catalysts to produce a desired liquid and/or gas stream. Results to date are presented in the cited papers.

Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.

1995-12-31

314

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600[degree]C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600[degree]C. Similar to virgin'' chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750[degree]C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750[degree]C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO[sub x] conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

315

Tar removal during the fluidized bed gasification of plastic waste.  

PubMed

A recycled polyethylene was fed in a pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.381 m and a maximum feeding capacity of 90 kg/h. The experimental runs were carried out under various operating conditions: the bed temperature was kept at about 850 degrees C, the equivalence ratio varied between 0.2 and 0.35, the amount of bed material was between 131 and 215 kg, the fluidizing velocity was between 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, quartz sand and olivine were used as bed material, and air and steam were used as fluidizing reactants. The results confirm that the tar removal treatments applied inside the gasifier (primary methods) can eliminate or strongly reduce the need for a further downstream cleanup of the syngas. In particular, the utilization of a natural olivine as an in situ tar reduction agent remarkably improves the quality of the product gas, in terms of both high hydrogen volumetric fraction and larger syngas yield. PMID:18693006

Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

2009-02-01

316

Potential turbine fuels from western Kentucky tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

The declining quality of petroleum is a particular problem for aviation turbine fuels. Since these fuels are required to meet stringent corrosion, thermal stability and purity specification, very little in the way of contaminants or heteroatoms can be tolerated. However, heavier and more sour crude supplied result in lower straight-run turbine fuel yields, higher sulfur contents, and higher aromatic contents. While all turbine fuels were originally prepared from high quality stocks by distillation, many commercial and military fuels now require hydrotreatment to meet specifications. The work described in this program extrapolates these present trends to very heavy feedstocks. Tar sands bitumen and heavy crude oils are low API gravity, high viscosity hydrocarbonaceous materials commonly exhibiting high levels of heteroatomic species, high metals content and high levels of asphaltenes, plus water and solids not readily separated by conventional technology without dilution. Tar sands bitumen is highly cyclic with many polycyclic rings and naphthenic constituents. Sulfur is primarily in thiophenic structures, with nitrogen included in the ring structure. Asphaltenes are in high proportion, with a large amount of sulfur, nitrogen and metallic inclusions. Each of these characteristics represent specific concerns to refiners.

Moore, H.F.; Johnson, C.A.; Sutton, W.A.; Benslay, R.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

1987-04-01

317

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed

Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

1979-06-01

318

Enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene in oil tar-contaminated soils supplemented with Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has shown promise as an organism suitable for the breakdown of a broad spectrum of environmental pollutants, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The focus of this study was to determine whether P. chrysosporium could effectively operate in an actual field sample of oil tar-contaminated soil. The soil was loaded with [14C]phenanthrene to serve as a model compound representative of the PAHs. Soil with the native flora present under static, aerobic conditions with buffering (pH 5.0 to 5.5) displayed full mineralization on the order of 20% in 21 days. The addition of P. chrysosporium was synergistic, with full mineralization on the order of 38% in 21 days. In addition to full mineralization, there was an increase in the proportion of radiolabelled polar extractives, both soluble and bound, in the presence of P. chrysosporium. From this study, it is apparent that the native soil microflora can be prompted into full mineralization of PAHs in some contaminated soils and that this mineralization can be enhanced when supplemented with the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium. With further refinement, this system may prove an effective bioremediation technology for soils contaminated with PAHs.

Brodkorb, T S; Legge, R L

1992-01-01

319

5.NF How many servings of oatmeal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A package contains 4 cups of oatmeal. There is $\\frac{1}{3}$ cup of oatmeal in each serving. How many servings of oatmeal are there in the package? Exp...

320

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar

M. R. Pittelkow; H. O. Perry; S. A. Muller; W. Z. Maughan; P. C. OBrien

1981-01-01

321

Periorbital comedones and their relationship to pitch tar: A cross-sectional analysis and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Comedones, often in a periorbital distribution, have been claimed to be associated with pitch tar.Objective: This cross-sectional study compares the incidence of periorbital comedones between a group of individuals exposed to pitch tar and a control group.Methods: The incidence of periorbital comedones was determined in workers (n = 55) at a tar distillation plant. A comparison group (n =

Brian B. Adams; Viziam B. Chetty; Diya F. Mutasim

2000-01-01

322

Residue contact-count potentials are as effective as residue-residue contact-type potentials for ranking protein decoys  

PubMed Central

Background For over 30 years potentials of mean force have been used to evaluate the relative energy of protein structures. The most commonly used potentials define the energy of residue-residue interactions and are derived from the empirical analysis of the known protein structures. However, single-body residue 'environment' potentials, although widely used in protein structure analysis, have not been rigorously compared to these classical two-body residue-residue interaction potentials. Here we do not try to combine the two different types of residue interaction potential, but rather to assess their independent contribution to scoring protein structures. Results A data set of nearly three thousand monomers was used to compare pairwise residue-residue 'contact-type' propensities to single-body residue 'contact-count' propensities. Using a large and standard set of protein decoys we performed an in-depth comparison of these two types of residue interaction propensities. The scores derived from the contact-type and contact-count propensities were assessed using two different performance metrics and were compared using 90 different definitions of residue-residue contact. Our findings show that both types of score perform equally well on the task of discriminating between near-native protein decoys. However, in a statistical sense, the contact-count based scores were found to carry more information than the contact-type based scores. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that the performance of either type of score is very similar on a range of different decoys. This similarity suggests a common underlying biophysical principle for both types of residue interaction propensity. However, several features of the contact-count based propensity suggests that it should be used in preference to the contact-type based propensity. Specifically, it has been shown that contact-counts can be predicted from sequence information alone. In addition, the use of a single-body term allows for efficient alignment strategies using dynamic programming, which is useful for fold recognition, for example. These facts, combined with the relative simplicity of the contact-count propensity, suggests that contact-counts should be studied in more detail in the future.

Bolser, Dan M; Filippis, Ioannis; Stehr, Henning; Duarte, Jose; Lappe, Michael

2008-01-01

323

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.9 catalytic tar cracking  

SciTech Connect

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment, including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure-swing absorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means of removing these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generating useful products, such as methane gas, which is crucial to operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. Aerosol tars are not readily removed from gas streams by conventional means and, as a consequence, often end up plugging filters or fouling fuel cells, turbines, or sorbents. Catalytic cracking of these tars to molecular moieties of C{sub 10} or smaller would prevent the problems commonly attributed to the tars. As an example, the moving Bourdon fixed-bed gasifier, by virtue of its efficient countercurrent heat exchange and widespread commercial use, may offer the lowest-cost integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system if tar generation and wastewater contamination can be minimized. We evaluate the potential of selected catalysts to minimize tar accumulation and maximize char conversion to useful liquid and/or gaseous products. Owing to the potential for production of extremely toxic nickel carbonyl gas, care must be exercised in the use of a NISMM catalyst for cracking tars at high temperatures in reducing atmospheres such as those produced by coal gasification. We observed a fifty percent or more of tar produced during steam gasification of Beulah lignite at temperatures of 400{degrees}-800+{degrees}C when cracked by either dolomite or zeolite maintained at a temperature of 50{degrees}C-100{degrees}C below that of the reactor.

Timpe, R.C.

1995-09-01

324

Serving Ethnic Minorities. Topical Paper 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…

Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others

325

Science To Serve the Common Good.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

Brewer, Garry D.

1997-01-01

326

Ready, Willing, and Unable to Serve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americans have always answered the call to military service. Hundreds of thousands of young men and women throughout America have put their lives on the line in both Afghanistan and Iraq, and served with honor on humanitarian and other missions around the...

2009-01-01

327

"Gateway" Districts Struggle to Serve Immigrant Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2012-01-01

328

Students Serving Students. Linking Learning with Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Dropout Prevention Center designed a project, Student Serving Students, to see if students in kindergarten through twelfth grade could help other students who were at risk of dropping out of school. Communities in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina developed a variety of ways for students to meet the needs of children at risk.…

Wright, Jan; Smink, Jay; Duckenfield, Marty

329

Technology Transfer Center | Institutes Served By TTC  

Cancer.gov

The Technology Transfer Center (TTC) provides technology transfer services to NCI. In addition, TTC is a designated Competitive Service Center (CSC) for technology transfer, offering to other NIH institutes a range of services from consultations to full technology transfer services. TTC serves the twelve institutes listed below.

330

Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

2011-01-01

331

Serving Multicultural Patients: Community Pharmacist Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of community pharmacists in New York City toward serving multicultural customers. The study also examined the effect of demographic factors on cultural sensitivity of pharmacists. A survey instrument was developed consisting of twenty-one attitude questions on a Likert scale. Factor Analysis revealed six dimensions underlying cultural sensitivity in pharmacy practice. A

Madhu Agrawal

1999-01-01

332

Making a Difference by Serving All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Randi Brown came to school psychology almost as a family business. Her grandmother was a school psychologist and the first licensed psychologist in the state of New York. Randi graduated with a doctoral degree from Yeshiva University and has served students in Westchester County, New York, for 18 years. She exemplifies the dedication typical of so…

Olley, Rivka I.

2009-01-01

333

Experimental decoy-state quantum key distribution with a sub-poissionian heralded single-photon source.  

PubMed

We have experimentally demonstrated a decoy-state quantum key distribution scheme (QKD) with a heralded single-photon source based on parametric down-conversion. We used a one-way Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with a four states and one-detector phase-coding scheme, which is immune to recently proposed time-shift attacks, photon-number splitting attacks, and can also be proven to be secure against Trojan horse attacks and any other standard individual or coherent attacks. In principle, the setup can tolerate the highest losses or it can give the highest secure key generation rate under fixed losses compared with other practical schemes. This makes it a quite promising candidate for future quantum key distribution systems. PMID:18352685

Wang, Qin; Chen, Wei; Xavier, Guilherme; Swillo, Marcin; Zhang, Tao; Sauge, Sebastien; Tengner, Maria; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can; Karlsson, Anders

2008-03-01

334

Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD. PMID:23348739

van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Bergboer, Judith G M; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; Hato, Stanleyson V; van der Valk, Pieter G M; Schröder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

2013-02-01

335

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California  

SciTech Connect

Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

2000-01-01

336

Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.  

PubMed

Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

2014-03-01

337

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K. A.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Hostettler, F. D.; Lorenson, T. D.

2000-01-01

338

Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2008-12-01

339

Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

2012-06-01

340

Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III  

Cancer.gov

NCI developed a database to facilitate the examination of dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) in terms of servings from each of The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups. This database builds on a similar one, previously developed by the USDA Food Surveys Research Group for their 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

341

Lossless Fast Serving Radio Network Controller relocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility is one of the major features of wireless communication systems. In Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) All-IP networks, two new approaches to support real-time relocation of Serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC) were introduced by 3GPP TR 25.936. Both of these approaches duplicate packets during the relocation process, which consumes extra resources and also some packets may be lost. Afterward,

Wilayat Khan

2010-01-01

342

Minority-Serving Institutions of Higher Education: Serving Communities, Revitalizing the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher education (IHEs) that serve minority populations are unique both in their missions and in their day-to-day operations. Some of these colleges and universities are located in remote regions of the country, while others serve congested urban neighborhoods. Their constituents range from Native Americans, the country's oldest…

US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2009

2009-01-01

343

Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

344

Do smokers of lower tar cigarettes consume lower amounts of smoke components? Results from the Scottish Heart Health Study.  

PubMed

Data on 1133 men and 1621 women who smoke solely cigarettes with a known tar yield are extracted from the baseline population survey of the Scottish Heart Health Study. The expired-air carbon monoxide (CO-E), serum thiocyanate and serum cotinine values are compared between smokers in three tar groups: low (below 13 mg/cig.), middle (14-15 mg/cig.) and high tar (above 15 mg/cig.). An index of tar consumption is calculated assuming that the intake of different smoke components relative to one another is in proportion to their concentration in the smoke. CO-E and cotinine are found to peak in the middle tar group. Thiocyanate only tends to increase from low to middle tar group for women and from middle to high tar group for men. Tar consumption increases with tar yield of the cigarette smoked, but the increase is much lower than would be expected. We conclude that the tar yield of a cigarette is not an accurate guide to the amount of smoke components consumed by its smoker. Health professionals should be aware of these limitations of tar yield as a measure of cigarette strength. PMID:1326360

Woodward, M; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

1992-06-01

345

Fifty years' experience of reduced-tar cigarettes: what do we know about their health effects?  

PubMed

Since the 1950s, cigarettes sold in the United States have undergone a progressive modification, including the addition of filters and a reduction in the average machine-measured tar and nicotine yield per cigarette by over 60%. These, and other, temporal changes in manufactured cigarettes, coupled with the complexity of smoking behavior, make it difficult to assess the impact of the newer cigarettes on health. Recently, some researchers have suggested that the newer products, marketed as being less harmful, may in fact provide no benefit compared to the older, higher tar cigarettes. The primary purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the available epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of low-tar cigarettes. This body of data provides the only means of assessing the effects of long-term exposure to these products, as they are actually used. After identifying important methodological problems confronting research in this area, studies of lung cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and total mortality are examined in terms of their strengths and weaknesses and their results. Thirty-five studies of lung cancer are suggestive that smokers of low tar cigarettes have a lower risk (by 20-30%) compared to smokers of higher tar cigarettes. Only a minority of studies of heart disease provide evidence of a reduction in risk, on the order of 10%. Studies concerning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent, but the majority suggest decreased risk in smokers of lower tar cigarettes. Finally, studies that included total mortality indicate with a high degree of consistency that the total death rate is reduced in smokers of lower tar cigarettes, on the order of 10-20%. Because of the multiplicity of factors involved in smoking behavior, including compensation for reduced nicotine, and the modest magnitude of the apparent reduction in risk, the relative benefits of low tar cigarettes remain uncertain. Additional analyses of existing data sets could further clarify the impact of low-tar cigarettes. PMID:12955615

Kabat, Geoffrey C

2003-09-15

346

Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria.

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

1994-01-01

347

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01

348

Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

2006-06-15

349

Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes. Design Analysis of the association between the tar rating of the brand of cigarette smoked in 1982 and mortality from lung cancer over the next six years. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses used to

Jeffrey E Harris; Michael J Thun; Alison M Mondul; Eugenia E Calle

2004-01-01

350

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01

351

Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

1970-01-01

352

Issues in serving the forensic client.  

PubMed

In the course of a study of a team model of intensive case management for people with serious mental illness who are homeless and leaving Philadelphia jails, several issues regarding the interaction of mental health and jail systems have arisen. Among these issues are continuity of care in an unpredictable jail system, extensive involvement of family members in the charges brought against clients, and the use of legal sanctions toward therapeutic outcomes. This article discusses these issues both as they have appeared in the literature and as they have affected the progress of the study. Implications for community mental health system interactions with jails in serving forensic clients are explored. PMID:7863370

Solomon, P; Draine, J

1995-01-01

353

Information technology and under-served communities.  

PubMed

Advances in information technology (IT) and telecommunications offer many potential benefits to Australia's under-served communities. However, there is also a risk that some of these communities will only be further disadvantaged, as IT will not contribute greatly to bringing groups such as the mentally ill and illiterate into the mainstream of the community. However, other under-served groups may experience service improvements. For people who do not have English as their first language, IT developments provide opportunities for cheaper and easier service and information delivery in their own languages. Telemedicine and IT also have the potential to make working in rural areas more attractive. On the other hand, telemedicine may be used as a means to bypass local health service providers, as has happened with other service industries. The health sector, though, is well behind these other industries in adopting IT and telecommunications. The growth of telemedicine projects is one indication that progress is being made, however. Two case studies--of telepsychiatry, and of medical education at Flinders University--provide examples of major Australian successes. The medical workforce implications will involve the overall numbers and mix of practitioners, their geographical distribution, changing professional boundaries and changing skill requirements. The only certain effect is that if IT changes the nature of medical work, large numbers of medical practitioners will need to improve their computer skills and older practitioners will find this most difficult. PMID:10628012

Swanson, B

1999-01-01

354

Synthetic Resin Primer for Coal-Tar Enamel. A Water Resources Technical Publication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes laboratory research and field experience which was initially directed toward evaluating the bonding qualities of coal-tar primer. This work, which also included synthetic resin primed coatings, revealed a significant conclusion: synt...

J. L. Kiewit H. K. Uyeda

1967-01-01

355

Investigation of Aromatic Fractions from Coal Tar Produced by an Underground Coal Gasification Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of an aromatic fraction from a coal tar produced from an underground coal gasification test shows mostly methylated naphthalenes, anthracenes, and phenanthrenes. The similarity between various aromatic fractions and the corresponding similarity o...

F. D. Guffey G. W. Gardner S. B. King

1977-01-01

356

Analysis of Compound Types and Properties of Utah and Athabasca Tar Sand Bitumens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties and molecular composition were examined in detail for tar sand bitumens representative of four major deposits in Utah and Alberta. Methods for bitumen extraction, separation, and compound type (functional group) analysis are presented. Results ...

J. W. Bunger K. P. Thomas S. M. Dorrence

1975-01-01

357

Energy Requirements for the Production of a Synthetic Crude Oil from Athabasca Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed process analysis is provided of operations for producing syncrude from tar sands at the Athabasca deposit in Alberta, Canada. A comparison is made of the calculated net energy requirement of the syncrude with those determined previously for oth...

D. F. Hemming

1976-01-01

358

International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands (2nd). Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands clearly demonstrated that the world has abundant heavy and extra heavy crudes that will sustain the petroleum age for decades. Perhaps even more important for many developed and developing c...

1982-01-01

359

Vapor phase cracking of prompt tars from pyrolysis of sweet gum hardwood  

SciTech Connect

The vapor phase cracking of tar freshly generated by pyrolysis of sweet gum hardwood was studied as a function of temperature (500-800/sup 0/C) at residence times of 0.9 - 2.2 sec to obtain quantitative yields and kinetics. For residence times of about 1 sec, tar conversion ranged from 10 wt% at 500/sup 0/C to 32 wt% at 600/sup 0/C and reached 85 wt% at 800/sup 0/C. The major products of tar cracking are carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ethylene. Kinetic parameters obtained by fitting first-order reaction models to the data allow extents of tar cracking and resulting gaseous product yields to be predicted with an error generally less than ten percent.

Boroson, M.L.; Howard, J.B.; Longwell, J.P.; Peters, W.A.

1986-01-01

360

Ranking Methodology for Determining the Relative Favorability for Commercial Development of US Tar-Sand Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a part of the DOE's program to stimulate petroleum production from unconventional sources, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a methodology to compare and rank tar sand deposits, based on their suitability for commercial development. Majo...

P. L. Aamodt J. G. Freiwald

1983-01-01

361

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free ...

K. L. Skubal R. G. Luthy

1994-01-01

362

Extraction of tar sands or oil shale with organic sulfoxides or sulfones  

SciTech Connect

Tar sands and oil shales are extracted with aliphatic or aromatic sulfoxides or sulfones whereby both non-polar organic constituents, e.g., hydrocarbons, and more polar constituents, E.G., phenols, are solubilized and recovered for conventional processing.

Rudnick, L. R.

1980-12-30

363

Process Train Evaluation for Treatment of Tar Sands Wastewaters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activated carbon, ozone and reverse osmosis were evaluated in treating two tar sand wastewaters generated by steam flooding (1S) and reverse combustion (2C) procedures. Substrates for these studies included untreated and pretreated (filtration, foam fract...

R. A. Sierka

1983-01-01

364

A State Management Protocol for IntServ, DiffServ and Label Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing Quality of Service ( QOS )i n an eff icient and scalable manner in the Internet is a topic of active research. The technologies that have drawn the most attention are In- tegrated Services(IntServ), Differential Services(DiffServ) and Label Switching(MPLS). While these technologies are orthogonal in many respects and can coexist, they are all similar with respect to the fact

Hari Adiseshu; Guru M. Parulkar; Raj Yavatkar

1998-01-01

365

Hypertonic Mannitol Loading of NF-kB Transcription Factor Decoys in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Blocks Upregulation of ICAM-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—An acute inflammatory response exacerbates tissue injury during acute ischemic stroke. The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)- kB plays a key role in endothelial cell activation and the inflammatory response. Targeted genetic disruption of NF-kB activation in cerebral endothelial cells may be protective in stroke. We determined whether a NF-kB transcription factor decoy (TFD) could block intercellular adhesion

David C. Hess; Eugene Howard; Charles Cheng; James Carroll; W. David Hill

366

Shedding of the Type II IL1 Decoy Receptor Requires a Multifunctional Aminopeptidase, Aminopeptidase Regulator of TNF Receptor Type 1 Shedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of the type II IL-1 decoy receptor (IL-1RII) generates soluble IL-1-binding proteins that prevent excessive bioactivity by binding free IL-1. In this study we report that an aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase regulator of TNFR1 shedding (ARTS-1), is required for IL-1RII shedding. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate an association between endogenous membrane-associated ARTS-1 and a 47-kDa IL-1RII, consistent with

Xinle Cui; Farshid N. Rouhani; Feras Hawari; Stewart J. Levine

2003-01-01

367

Inhibition of NF?B activation using cis-element ‘decoy’ of NF?B binding site reduces neointimal formation in porcine balloon-injured coronary artery model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of DNA technology to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes has important therapeutic potential. The transcription factor NF?B plays a pivotal role in the transactivation of inflammatory and adhesion molecule genes, leading to vascular lesion formation. Double-stranded DNA with high affinity for NF?B may be introduced as ‘decoy’ cis elements to bind NF?B and block the activation of genes

K Yamasaki; T Asai; M Shimizu; M Aoki; N Hashiya; H Sakonjo; H Makino; Y Kaneda; T Ogihara; R Morishita

2003-01-01

368

Molecular strategy using cis-element ‘decoy’ of E2F binding site inhibits neointimal formation in porcine balloon-injured coronary artery model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factor E2F plays a pivotal role in the transactivation of cell cycle regulatory genes, leading to vascular lesion formation. Double-stranded DNA with high affinity for E2F as ‘decoy’ cis elements may block the activation of genes mediating the cell cycle, resulting in an effective therapeutic agent for treating intimal hyperplasia. In this study, we tested the feasibility of E2F

T Nakamura; R Morishita; T Asai; N Tsuboniwa; M Aoki; H Sakonjo; K Yamasaki; N Hashiya; Y Kaneda; T Ogihara

2002-01-01

369

A 2.5kV to 22V, 1kW radar decoy power supply using silicon carbide semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.5kVdc to 22Vdc 1kW power supply utilizing 3.2kV silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs and Schottky diodes is presented. The power supply provides power to solid-state microwave power amplifiers in an aircraft towed radar decoy. High voltage silicon carbide semiconductors are utilized to switch the high voltage at high frequency without requiring input series connection of devices or converters. A half

Amit K. Jain; David McIntosh; Matt Jones; Brian Ratliff

2011-01-01

370

Immunomodulatory effect of decoy receptor 3 on the differentiation and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in nonobese diabetic mice: from regulatory mechanism to clinical implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the regulatory effects of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells (DCs), bone marrow- derived DCs (BM-DCs) from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were cultured with recombinant DcR3.Fc protein. Their differentiating phenotypes and T cell-stimulating functions were then evalu- ated. Expression of CD11c, CD40, CD54, and major histocompatibility complex I-Ag7 was re- duced in

Shu-Fen Wu; Tan-Mei Liu; Yu-Chun Lin; Huey-Kang Sytwu; Hsueh-Fen Juan; Shui-Tein Chen; Kuo-Liang Shen; Sheng-Chuan Hsi; Shie-Liang Hsieh

2003-01-01

371

Efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), on cattle in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in Zimbabwe. The tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containingo-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin).o-Nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of theA. hebraeum attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone,

R. A. I. Norval; Daniel E. Sonenshine; Sandra A. Allan; Michael J. Burridge

1996-01-01

372

Amplification and expression of a decoy receptor for Fas ligand (DcR3) in virus (EBV or HTLV-I) associated lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) binds to FasL and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis, and is considered to play a role in the immune escape system of neoplastic cells. To examine the involvement of DcR3 in the immune evasions of virus-associated lymphoma, we analyzed the amplification and expression of DcR3, using dot blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), in 45

Koichi Ohshima; Seiji Haraoka; Midori Sugihara; Junji Suzumiya; Chika Kawasaki; Motonobu Kanda; Masahiro Kikuchi

2000-01-01

373

Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ?PAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ?PAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

2010-12-01

374

Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can affect amphibians in lethal and many sublethal ways. There are many natural and\\u000a anthropogenic sources of PAHs in aquatic environments. One potentially significant source is run off from surfaces of parking\\u000a lots and roads that are protected with coal tar sealants. Coal tar is 50% or more PAH by wet weight and is used in

Thomas BommaritoDonald; Donald W. Sparling; Richard S. Halbrook

2010-01-01

375

Echoing in situ combustion oil recovery project in a Utah tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. tar sand resource consists of an estimated 30 billion bbl (4.7 cu g) of oil. Most of this resource is in 6 large deposits in Utah. Through research and development to prove tar sand oil recovery methods, the U.S. Department of Energy is attempting to stimulate commercialization of this resource. Two in situ combustion field experiments have been

L. A. Jr. Johnson; L. J. Fahy; L. J. Jr. Romanowski

1978-01-01

376

Activity of the production of energy from tar sands of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known U.S. tar sand deposits contain an estimated 24 to 30 billion bbl of oil-in-place, of which nearly 90% is in Utah in six giant deposits large enough to support relatively large production projects at current or foreseeable crude oil price levels. Several tar sand recovery projects have been proposed by private corporations. However, the necessary oil proudction technology is

L. C. Marchant; C. S. Land; C. Q. Cupps

1976-01-01

377

Properties of Utah tar sands: Threemile Canyon area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of detailed analyses of 4 cores from the Threemile Canyon area in the P.R. Spring tar sand deposit in Utah are reported by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The cores were obtained by the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey as part of a 17-corehole evaluation program in the P.R. Spring, Hill Creek, and Rim Rock tar sand deposits. Average

L. C. Marchant; L. A. Johnson; C. Q. Cupps

1974-01-01

378

Activity of the production of energy from tar sands of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tar sand recovery projects have been proposed by private corporations. Known tar sand deposits the U.S. contain an estimated 24 to 30 billion bbl of oil-in-place. Nearly 90% of this resource is in Utah and is contained in 6 giant deposits large enough to support relatively large production projects at current or foreseeable cruce oil price levels. However, the

L. C. Marchant; C. S. Land; C. Q. Cupps

1976-01-01

379

Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Prosthecate Bacterium Brevundimonas abyssalis TAR-001T  

PubMed Central

We report the 3.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Brevundimonas abyssalis strain TAR-001T, isolated from deep-sea floor sediment. The draft genome sequence of strain TAR-001T consists of 2,979,700 bp in 128 contigs, with a G+C content of 68.2%, 2,946 potential coding sequences (CDS), 3 rRNAs, and 41 tRNAs.

Nishi, Shinro; Usui, Keiko; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Tadashi; Hatada, Yuji

2013-01-01

380

Synergistic induction of DNA strand breakage by cigarette tar and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of human cancer at a variety of sites, although its carcinogenic mechanisms remains unestablished. Cigarette smoke can be divided into two phases, gas phase and particulate matter (tar). Both phases contain high concentrations of oxidants and free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and quinone/hydroquinone complex in the tar. We have found that incubation of pBR322 plasmid DNA with aqueous extracts of cigarette tar and a NO-releasing compound (diethylamine NONOate) caused synergistic induction of DNA single-strand breakage, whereas either cigarette tar alone or NO alone induced much less strand breakage. This synergistic effect of cigarette tar and NO on DNA strand breakage was prevented by high concentrations of superoxide dismutase, carboxy-PTIO (an NO-trapping agent) or N-acetylcysteine, whereas hydroxyl radical scavengers such as dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and D-mannitol did not show inhibitory effects. Possible mechanisms for this synergistic effect mediated by cigarette tar and NO are proposed, including involvement of peroxynitrite, which is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent formed rapidly by the reaction between NO and O2.-. NO is present in the gas phase of smoke and may be formed by a constitutive or inducible NO synthase in the lung, whereas O2.- is generated by auto-oxidation of polyhydroxyaromatic compounds such as catechol and 1,4-hydroquinone present in cigarette tar. Thus, potent reactive species including peroxynitrite formed by the interaction between cigarette tar and NO may play an important role in smoking-related diseases including lung cancer. PMID:9230280

Yoshie, Y; Ohshima, H

1997-07-01

381

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering ¹⁴COâ evolved during biotransformation of the [¹⁴C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There

K. L. Skubal; R. G. Luthy

1994-01-01

382

Catalytic cracking of a coal tar in a fluid bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-derived tar from the Coal Technology Corporation's mild gasification process was catalytically cracked in a fluid bed reactor. Several commercial catalysts were tested and their effectiveness in decomposing tar and releasing sulfur was compared. The effects of process variables such as temperature and residence time were also tested. It was found that the Linde LZ-Y82 zeolite was the most

Douglas Velegol; Mridul Gautam; Abolghasem Shamsi

1997-01-01

383

Structural and dynamic characterization of the upper part of the HIV-1 cTAR DNA hairpin  

PubMed Central

First strand transfer is essential for HIV-1 reverse transcription. During this step, the TAR RNA hairpin anneals to the cTAR DNA hairpin; this annealing reaction is promoted by the nucleocapsid protein and involves an initial loop–loop interaction between the apical loops of TAR and cTAR. Using NMR and probing methods, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of the top half of the cTAR DNA (mini-cTAR). We show that the upper stem located between the apical and the internal loops is stable, but that the lower stem of mini-cTAR is unstable. The residues of the internal loop undergo slow motions at the NMR time-scale that are consistent with conformational exchange phenomena. In contrast, residues of the apical loop undergo fast motions. The lower stem is destabilized by the slow interconversion processes in the internal loop, and thus the internal loop is responsible for asymmetric destabilization of mini-cTAR. These findings are consistent with the functions of cTAR in first strand transfer: its apical loop is suitably exposed to interact with the apical loop of TAR RNA and its lower stem is significantly destabilized to facilitate the subsequent action of the nucleocapsid protein which promotes the annealing reaction.

Zargarian, Loussine; Kanevsky, Igor; Bazzi, Ali; Boynard, Jonathan; Chaminade, Francoise; Fosse, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

2009-01-01

384

Structural and dynamic characterization of the upper part of the HIV-1 cTAR DNA hairpin.  

PubMed

First strand transfer is essential for HIV-1 reverse transcription. During this step, the TAR RNA hairpin anneals to the cTAR DNA hairpin; this annealing reaction is promoted by the nucleocapsid protein and involves an initial loop-loop interaction between the apical loops of TAR and cTAR. Using NMR and probing methods, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of the top half of the cTAR DNA (mini-cTAR). We show that the upper stem located between the apical and the internal loops is stable, but that the lower stem of mini-cTAR is unstable. The residues of the internal loop undergo slow motions at the NMR time-scale that are consistent with conformational exchange phenomena. In contrast, residues of the apical loop undergo fast motions. The lower stem is destabilized by the slow interconversion processes in the internal loop, and thus the internal loop is responsible for asymmetric destabilization of mini-cTAR. These findings are consistent with the functions of cTAR in first strand transfer: its apical loop is suitably exposed to interact with the apical loop of TAR RNA and its lower stem is significantly destabilized to facilitate the subsequent action of the nucleocapsid protein which promotes the annealing reaction. PMID:19417069

Zargarian, Loussiné; Kanevsky, Igor; Bazzi, Ali; Boynard, Jonathan; Chaminade, Françoise; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

2009-07-01

385

Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: A preliminary report.  

PubMed

Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-?B could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-?B activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-?B binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-?, MCP1, MIP1? and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-?B ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:24814879

Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Sato, Taishi; Keeney, Michael; Li, Chenguang; Pajarinen, Jukka; Yang, Fan; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B

2014-08-01

386

Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum.  

PubMed

We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly acidic conditions. Concentrations of 10 coal tar compounds, representing mono-, poly-, and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that constitute crude coal tar were monitored in the effluent over a period of 377 days. Most compounds appeared in the effluent within the first 0.1 pore volume eluted indicating the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear to inhibit coal tar dissolution and subsequent transport, even though only a small portion of tar was in direct contact with fractures and macropores that control most flow. PMID:22209208

Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry D; Broholm, Mette M; McCarthy, John F; Driese, Steven G; Sayler, Gary S

2012-02-15

387

Selection of TAR RNA-Binding Chameleon Peptides by Using a Retroviral Replication System  

PubMed Central

The interaction between the arginine-rich motif (ARM) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein and TAR RNA is essential for Tat activation and viral replication. Two related lentiviruses, bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and Jembrana disease virus (JDV), also require Tat ARM-TAR interactions to mediate activation, but the viruses have evolved different RNA-binding strategies. Interestingly, the JDV ARM can act as a “chameleon,” adopting both the HIV and BIV TAR binding modes. To examine how RNA-protein interactions may evolve in a viral context and possibly to identify peptides that recognize HIV TAR in novel ways, we devised a retroviral system based on HIV replication to amplify and select for RNA binders. We constructed a combinatorial peptide library based on the BIV Tat ARM and identified peptides that, like the JDV Tat ARM, also function through HIV TAR, revealing unexpected sequence characteristics of an RNA-binding chameleon. The results suggest that a retroviral screening approach may help identify high-affinity TAR binders and may provide new insights into the evolution of RNA-protein interactions.

Xie, Baode; Calabro, Valerie; Wainberg, Mark A.; Frankel, Alan D.

2004-01-01

388

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

1986-07-11

389

27 CFR 31.30 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Restaurants serving liquors with meals. 31...Agencies and Persons § 31.30 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve...

2009-04-01

390

27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving liquors with meals. 31...Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve...

2010-04-01

391

A mathematical model for the solvent leaching of tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Solvent flooding is the basis for a wide range of EOR methods and has been shown to be a possible method of creating initial steam injectivity in tar sands. This paper presents a unique model of the dissolution of a semisolid bitumen, resulting from the injection of a solvent. The solution of the mathematical equations describing this phenomenon is discussed. Results, including a series of two-dimensional (2D) problems, are presented. Numerical aspects are addressed. The mathematical treatment is based on a pore model that contains bitumen particles dissolving in an interstitial solution. Macroscopic transport mechanisms, based on the microscopic phenomenon, trace the course of diffusing species in a dynamically interactive solid/liquid network. The bitumen particles are given a spherical symmetry such that a radial dissolution integro-differential equation accounts for the volume changes from solvent transfer into an initially immobile bitumen. An overall numerical approach to the nonlinar system of equations determines the state vector of pressure, saturation, and concentration of the leaching solution. The authors show that three dimensionless groups control the bitumen-leaching process. The Damkohler and solvent capacity numbers govern the dissolution process, while the Peclet number governs miscible displacement.

Oguztoreli, M.; Faroug Ali, S.M.

1986-11-01

392

Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Analytics and Synthesis

2013-01-01

393

Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.  

PubMed

To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

2014-04-15

394

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

There is significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly because of the central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes-gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal beneficiation. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for more reliable correlation for prediction of vapor pressure of heavy, primary coal tars. The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to extending the work on measurements of vapor pressures of tars. For this purpose, cellulose tar and cellulose tar related compounds have been selected as model systems. Cellulose tar has a much narrower distribution of molecular weight than does coal tar, and it is much more homogeneous. Thus it is better to develop the methods to be used for coal tars on this simpler model system first.

Suuberg, E.M.

1995-12-31

395

Inhibition of lymphogenous metastasis using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of a soluble VEGFR-3 decoy receptor.  

PubMed

The presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes is a strong indicator of poor patient survival in many types of cancer. It has recently been shown that the lymphangiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR3), may play a pivotal role in the promotion of metastasis to regional lymph nodes. In this study, human prostate and melanoma tumor models that preferentially metastasize to the lymph nodes following s.c. tumor cell implantation were established from lymph node metastases via in vivo selection. Melanoma tumor cell sublines established from lymph node metastasis express higher amounts of VEGF-C than the parental tumor cells. The inhibition of tumor-derived VEGF-C with a soluble VEGFR3 decoy receptor, sVEGFR3-Fc, expressed via a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector, potently blocks tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis to the lymph nodes, when the treatment was initiated before the tumor implantation. In addition, sVEGFR3-Fc serum levels required for efficient blockade of lymph node metastases are strictly dependent on the VEGF-C levels generated by the primary tumor. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of sVEGFR3-Fc may represent a feasible therapeutic strategy for blockade of lymphogenous metastasis. PMID:16061674

Lin, JianMin; Lalani, Alshad S; Harding, Thomas C; Gonzalez, Melissa; Wu, Wei-Wei; Luan, Bo; Tu, Guang Huan; Koprivnikar, Kathryn; VanRoey, Melinda J; He, Yulong; Alitalo, Kari; Jooss, Karin

2005-08-01

396

A Soluble Fn14-Fc Decoy Receptor Reduces Infarct Volume in a Murine Model of Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TWEAK acts on responsive cells via binding to a small cell surface receptor named Fn14. Recent studies have demonstrated that TWEAK can stimulate numerous cellular responses including cell proliferation, migration, and proinflammatory molecule production, but the role of this cytokine in cardiovascular disease and stroke has not been established. The present study investigated whether TWEAK or Fn14 expression was regulated in a murine model of cerebral ischemia and whether TWEAK played a role in ischemia-mediated cell death. We found that TWEAK and Fn14 were expressed by primary mouse cerebral cortex-derived astrocytes and neurons cultured in vitro. Also, both the TWEAK and Fn14 proteins were present at elevated levels in the ischemic penumbra region after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Finally, we report that intracerebroventricular injection of a soluble Fn14-Fc decoy receptor immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion significantly reduced infarct volume and the extent of microglial cell activation and apoptotic cell death in the ischemic penumbra. We conclude that the cytokine TWEAK may play an important role in ischemia-induced brain injury and that inhibition of TWEAK expression or function in the brain may represent a novel neuroprotective strategy to treat ischemic stroke.

Yepes, Manuel; Brown, Sharron A.N.; Moore, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Elizabeth P.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01

397

Decoy receptor 3 polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of esophageal cancer in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Abstract Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for more than 90% of ECs. We hypothesized that genetic factors might play an important role in ESCC carcinogenesis. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), namely, rs2297441 G?>?A and rs2257440 T?>?C, on the ESCC risk. In all, 629 ESCC cases and 686 controls were included. Genotypes were determined using the ligation detection reaction method. When the DcR3 rs2297441 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the GA genotype showed no association with the ESCC risk (GA versus GG: adjusted OR?=?1.11, 95% CI?=?0.88-1.40, p?=?0.396); similarly, even the TT genotype showed no association with the ESCC risk (AA versus GG: adjusted OR?=?0.80, 95% CI?=?0.55-1.18, p?=?0.268). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the DcR3 rs2257440 T?>?C polymorphism was not associated with the ESCC risk. DcR3 rs2297441 G?>?A and DcR3 rs2257440 T?>?C polymorphisms may not contribute to the ESCC risk, and additional, larger studies are required to confirm our results. PMID:24786982

Ren, Zhengbing; Zhu, Jingfeng; Gu, Haiyong; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Suocheng; Rong, Guoxiang; Sun, Bin

2014-06-01

398

Novel VEGF Decoy Receptor Fusion Protein Conbercept Targeting Multiple VEGF Isoforms Provide Remarkable Anti-Angiogenesis Effect In Vivo  

PubMed Central

VEGF family factors are known to be the principal stimulators of abnormal angiogenesis, which play a fundamental role in tumor and various ocular diseases. Inhibition of VEGF is widely applied in antiangiogenic therapy. Conbercept is a novel decoy receptor protein constructed by fusing VEGF receptor 1 and VEGF receptor 2 extracellular domains with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin. In this study, we systematically evaluated the binding affinity of conbercept with VEGF isoforms and PlGF by using anti-VEGF antibody (Avastin) as reference. BIACORE and ELISA assay results indicated that conbercept could bind different VEGF-A isoforms with higher affinity than reference. Furthermore, conbercept could also bind VEGF-B and PlGF, whereas Avastin showed no binding. Oxygen-induced retinopathy model showed that conbercept could inhibit the formation of neovasularizations. In tumor-bearing nude mice, conbercept could also suppress tumor growth very effectively in vivo. Overall, our study have demonstrated that conbercept could bind with high affinity to multiple VEGF isoforms and consequently provide remarkable anti-angiogenic effect, suggesting the possibility to treat angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer and wet AMD etc.

Wang, Qin; Li, Tao; Wu, Zhigang; Wu, Quan; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Delun; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

399

Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations

FRANS J. JONGENEELEN; PAUL T. J. SCHEEPERS; ANITA GROENENDIJK; LEON A. G. J. M. VAN AERTS; ROB B. M. ANZION; ROBERT P. BOS; SIEBRAND J. VEENSTRA

1988-01-01

400

The tar fraction of cigarette smoke does not promote arteriosclerotic plaque development.  

PubMed Central

In addition to being the single greatest known environmental cause of cancer, cigarette smoke (CS) is also a major contributor to heart disease. We reported previously that 1) inhalation of either mainstream or sidestream CS promotes aortic arteriosclerotic plaque development; 2) 1,3 butadiene, a vapor-phase component of CS, promotes plaque development at 20 ppm, which at the time was only 2 times higher than the threshold limit value; and 3) individual tar fraction carcinogens in CS, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines, either do not promote plaque development or do so only at high concentrations. These results suggested that the tar fraction is not the primary source of plaque-promoting agents in CS. We asked whether repeated exposure to the tar fraction of CS, collected in a cold trap (TAR), promotes plaque development in an avian model of arteriosclerosis. Acetone extracts of mainstream CS tar from burning, unfiltered reference cigarettes were solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and injected weekly into cockerels for 16 weeks (25 mg/kg/week). Positive controls were injected weekly with the synthetic PAH carcinogen, 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) dissolved in DMSO and negative controls were injected with DMSO. Plaque location and prevalence did not differ from group to group. Morphometric analysis of plaque cross-sectional areas showed that plaque sizes, which are log-normally distributed, were significantly larger in the DMBA cockerels compared to both the TAR and DMSO groups. There were no significant differences in plaque size between DMSO and TAR cockerels. The results reported here, combined with other recent findings, support the conclusion that the primary arteriosclerotic plaque-promoting components of CS are in the vapor phase. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Penn, A; Keller, K; Snyder, C; Nadas, A; Chen, L C

1996-01-01

401

Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls (TBs) are spherical, organic aerosol particles that occur in smoke from biomass burning (BB). They absorb sunlight and thereby cause warming of the atmosphere. This study reports a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of TBs from BB smoke samples collected within minutes to hours from emission in a tropical area of Mexico. Their spherical shapes as seen in both scanning electron microscope images and with electron tomography indicate that they were solid when collected. They consist of C and minor O, S, K, and N. The hygroscopic growth factor for our relatively fresh TBs is 1.09 ± 0.04 at a relative humidity of 100%. In samples <0.6 km and >1.6 km from the fire, an average of ˜1 and 14%, respectively, of particles with aerodynamic diameter from 50 to 300 nm consisted of TBs. For the latter, more aged samples, the total volume was roughly double that of soot, and their total calculated light absorption at a wavelength of 550 nm was between 74 and 96% that of soot, with the exact amount depending on the size, shape, and coating of the soot. In general, the TBs that we analyzed were similar to those from North America, southern Africa, and Europe in terms of size, external mixing, relative freedom of inclusions, and composition. This and previous studies show that TBs result from a range of biomass fuels. Their distribution from various regions across the globe, combined with their optical properties, suggests they have important effects on regional and perhaps global climate.

Adachi, Kouji; Buseck, Peter R.

2011-03-01

402

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

1981-06-01

403

Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l -1 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l -1 or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers.

Williams, G. M.; Pickup, R. W.; Thornton, S. F.; Lerner, D. N.; Mallinson, H. E. H.; Moore, Y.; White, C.

2001-12-01

404

Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Garbarino, J. R.; Hult, M. F.

1983-01-01

405

The Cracking Experiment Research of Tar by CaO Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tar from rice husk gasification for power generation was taken as an example to be catalytically cracked by CaO catalyst. The experimental results showed the cracking efficiency of tar greatly increased from 28.66% by thermal cracking to 65.6% by catalytic cracking, the gas compositions from tar being cracked were H2, CO, CH4, and CO2, and the H2 was a majority of them. The DSC and XRT analysis revealed that the deposit carbon could be found after tar was catalytically cracked and the deposit carbon efficiency could reach 30.51%. The SEM photographs of CaO catalyst used as catalyst showed that the CaO catalyst was enwrapped by the deposit carbon and decreased its catalytic activity, at the same time, the pressure drop of gas passing through catalyst bed increased because of the deposit carbon, it was different for us to operate the cracking reactor of tar and CaO catalyst in the cracking reactor must be regenerated for its stable operation.

Lit, X. H.; Mi, T.; We, Z. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Wu, Q. X.

406

Field scale characterization and modeling of contaminant release from a coal tar source zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coal tar contaminated site was characterized using traditional and innovative investigation methods. A careful interpretation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data allowed for the conceptualization of the heterogeneous coal tar distribution in the subsurface. Past and future contaminant release from the source zone was calculated using a modeling framework consisting of a three-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and two hydrogeochemical models (MIN3P). Computational time of long-term simulations was reduced by simplifying the coal tar composition using 3 composite and 2 individual constituents and sequential application of a 2D centerline model (for calibration and predictions) and a 3D model (only for predictions). Predictions were carried out for a period of 1000 years. The results reveal that contaminant mass flux is governed by the geometry of zones containing residual coal tar, amount of coal tar, its composition and the physicochemical properties of the constituents. The long-term predictions made using the 2D model show that even after 1000 years, source depletion will be small with respect to phenanthrene, 89% of initial mass will be still available, and for the moderately and sparingly soluble composite constituents, 60% and 98%, respectively.

D'Affonseca, Fernando M.; Blum, Philipp; Finkel, Michael; Melzer, Reiner; Grathwohl, Peter

2008-11-01

407

Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-04-15

408

Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: a new approach to safer smoking.  

PubMed Central

The logic of expecting people who cannot stop smoking to switch to cigarettes that have hardly any nicotine is questionable. Tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes available in Britain today correlate 0-93, and further reduction of tar intake is limited by the reluctance of smokers to tolerate similar reductions in nicotine. A new approach would be to aim at lowering tar yields of cigarettes from the present average of 18 mg to around 6 mg but maintaining nicotine yields at around 1-0 to 1-2 mg, which would be acceptable to most smokers. This approach requires that emphasis be placed on tar: nicotine ratios as well as on the absolute yields. These ratios for brands on sale in Britain today average 14-2 and range from 9-6 to 20-8. They provide an additional guide for comparing the relative harmfulness of different brands. For example, 35% of cigarette smokers in Britain smoke either Embassy Filter or Players No 6 Filter; by changing to John Player Carlton King Size they could reduce their tar intake by more than 20% without having to suffer any nicotine deprivation.

Russell, M A

1976-01-01

409

Effects of the reforming reagents and fuel species on tar reforming reaction.  

PubMed

In this study, using wood chips and polyethylene (PE) as fuels, the effects of air and/or steam as reagents on the tar reforming were clarified quantitatively with a simulated gasifier/reformer apparatus of a two-staged gasification process. The results show that when only steam or air was supplied into the reformer, the tar residual rate (defined as the ratio of the tar amount in the reformed gas to the tar amount in the pyrolysis gas) and the carbon particulate concentration in both reformed gases produced from pyrolysis gases of wood chips and PE decreased with the increase of the steam ratio (H(2)O/C, 0-1.0) or the air ratio (ER, 0-0.30). Supplying steam into the reformer to suppress carbon particulate formation for PE pyrolysis gas is more effective than for wood chips pyrolysis gas. Comparing with the results of steam only reforming, the effect of air supply on reduction of the tar residual rate was more significant, while that on suppression of carbon particulate formation was smaller. PMID:19665371

Wang, Yin; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2009-12-01

410

Coal Tar 2% Foam in Combination with a Superpotent Corticosteroid Foam for Plaque Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated, multi-system disease that is treated with a variety of medicines, including topical corticosteroids and, historically, coal tar. In this case, the authors evaluated whether combination therapy with coal tar foam 2% and a topical corticosteroid would induce a remission and maintain clearance of plaque-type psoriasis over an eight-week period. A 59-year-old Caucasian woman with plaque psoriasis of her elbows presented to the authors' dermatology clinic and was treated with clobetasol propionate 0.05% emollient foam in combination with coal tar 2% foam twice daily to her elbows for two weeks. After two weeks, the patient was switched to a maintenance regimen of twice-daily coal tar 2% foam during the week and twice-daily application of the corticosteroid on the weekends. The patient exhibited very favorable clearance of her plaque psoriasis on this regimen at her eight-week follow-up visit. In this case, the combination of coal tar 2% foam and clobetasol propionate 0.05% emollient foam twice daily was used effectively to induce remission of localized plaque psoriasis followed by an efficacious maintenance regimen, which incorporated intermittent therapy with both topical agents.

Frankel, Amylynne J.; Del Rosso, James Q.

2010-01-01

411

UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS MOLECULAR SIEVE IN CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF COAL TAR COMPOUNDS Pemanfaatan Zeolit Aktif sebagai Molecular Sieve untuk Pengisi Kolom Kromatografi pada Pemisahan Komponen Tar Batu Bara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of activated zeolite (ZAA) as molecular sieve to separate compounds of coal tar from vaccum fractional distillation, have been done. The size of zeolite was 10-20 mesh and used as solid phase in column chromatography with length of 30 cm. The first step of the research was coal pyrolisis and the product (tar) was distillated by fractional column and

Dwi Retno; Nurotul Wahidiyah; Bambang Setiaji; Iqmal Tahir

412

Multivariate statistical methods for the environmental forensic classification of coal tars from former manufactured gas plants.  

PubMed

Compositional disparity within a set of 23 coal tar samples (obtained from 15 different former manufactured gas plants) was compared and related to differences between historical on-site manufacturing processes. Samples were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction prior to analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A suite of statistical techniques, including univariate analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, two-dimensional cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA), were investigated to determine the optimal method for source identification of coal tars. The results revealed that multivariate statistical analysis (namely, PCA of normalized, preprocessed data) has the greatest potential for environmental forensic source identification of coal tars, including the ability to predict the processes used to create unknown samples. PMID:22335394

McGregor, Laura A; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Daéid, Niamh Nic; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert M

2012-04-01

413

Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts  

SciTech Connect

We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence of superoxide dismutase lead to lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. This method was applied to many kinds of research and commercial cigarettes. With a few exceptions, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed after a fixed time from each cigarette smoke was proportional to its tar yield.

Nakayama, T.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1989-01-01

414

Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Tuesday released this 251-page monograph detailing the dangers of "low tar" cigarettes. The monograph, the thirteenth in NCI's Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph Series, reports findings that reductions in cancer rates are due to decreases in smoking prevalence not to changes in cigarette design, which according to NCI, have done little to address public health needs in the past 50 years. NCI here reports on ways in which smokers compensate for lower levels of tar and nicotine, reasons why Federal Trade Commission (FTC) testing methods are inadequate, and marketing methods designed to give smokers a false sense of security regarding low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Users can download the monograph by chapter or as a whole in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

415

Effect of genetic variants in two chemokine decoy receptor genes, DARC and CCBP2, on metastatic potential of breast cancer.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of two chemokine decoy receptors (CDRs), DARC and D6, on breast cancer metastasis is mainly due to their ability to sequester pro-malignant chemokines. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the DARC and CCBP2 (encoding D6) genes may be associated with breast cancer progression. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic contributions of DARC and CCBP2 to metastatic potential, indicated by lymph node metastasis (LNM). Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (potentially functional SNPs and block-based tagging SNPs) in DARC and CCBP2 were genotyped in 785 breast cancer patients who had negative lymph nodes and 678 patients with positive lymph nodes. Two non-synonymous SNPs, rs12075 (G42D) in DARC and rs2228468 (S373Y) in CCBP2, were observed to be associated with LNM in univariate analysis and remained significant after adjustment for conventional clinical risk factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.79) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98), respectively. Additional functional experiments revealed that both of these significant SNPs could affect metastasis of breast cancer in xenograft models by differentially altering the chemokine sequestration ability of their corresponding proteins. Furthermore, heterozygous GD genotype of G42D on human erythrocytes had a significantly stronger chemokine sequestration ability than homozygous GG of G42D ex vivo. Our data suggest that the genetic variants in the CDR genes are probably associated with the varied metastatic potential of breast cancer. The underlying mechanism, though it needs to be further investigated, may be that CDR variants could affect the chemokine sequestration ability of CDR proteins. PMID:24260134

Yang, Chen; Yu, Ke-Da; Xu, Wen-Huan; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Fan, Lei; Ou, Zhou-Luo; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2013-01-01

416

Effect of Genetic Variants in Two Chemokine Decoy Receptor Genes, DARC and CCBP2, on Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effect of two chemokine decoy receptors (CDRs), DARC and D6, on breast cancer metastasis is mainly due to their ability to sequester pro-malignant chemokines. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the DARC and CCBP2 (encoding D6) genes may be associated with breast cancer progression. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic contributions of DARC and CCBP2 to metastatic potential, indicated by lymph node metastasis (LNM). Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (potentially functional SNPs and block-based tagging SNPs) in DARC and CCBP2 were genotyped in 785 breast cancer patients who had negative lymph nodes and 678 patients with positive lymph nodes. Two non-synonymous SNPs, rs12075 (G42D) in DARC and rs2228468 (S373Y) in CCBP2, were observed to be associated with LNM in univariate analysis and remained significant after adjustment for conventional clinical risk factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.79) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98), respectively. Additional functional experiments revealed that both of these significant SNPs could affect metastasis of breast cancer in xenograft models by differentially altering the chemokine sequestration ability of their corresponding proteins. Furthermore, heterozygous GD genotype of G42D on human erythrocytes had a significantly stronger chemokine sequestration ability than homozygous GG of G42D ex vivo. Our data suggest that the genetic variants in the CDR genes are probably associated with the varied metastatic potential of breast cancer. The underlying mechanism, though it needs to be further investigated, may be that CDR variants could affect the chemokine sequestration ability of CDR proteins.

Xu, Wen-Huan; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Fan, Lei; Ou, Zhou-Luo; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2013-01-01

417

Use of a Molecular Decoy to Segregate Transport from Antigenicity in the FrpB Iron Transporter from Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe3+ with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe3+ ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe3+ binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe3+-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe3+. The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a ‘molecular decoy’ to distract immune surveillance.

Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.; Derrick, Jeremy P.

2013-01-01

418

Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.  

PubMed

FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a 'molecular decoy' to distract immune surveillance. PMID:23457610

Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M; Rigby, Stephen E J; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C J; Feavers, Ian M; Derrick, Jeremy P

2013-01-01

419

Effect of cigarette tar content and smoking habits on respiratory symptoms in women.  

PubMed

Standardized respiratory disease questionnaires (ATS-DLD-78) were administered to 5,686 adult women. Risk factors were evaluated by logistic analysis that adjusted for multiple potential confounding factors. Among current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was consistently the strongest risk factor for chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, and dyspnea. The odds ratios for these symptoms in a smoker of 25 or more cigarettes per day relative to a smoker of 1--14 cigarettes per day were 4.74, 4.21, 2.05, and 3.71, respectively. Ex-smokers showed risks between those of current and never smokers. Cigarette tar content was a significant independent risk factor for chronic cough (p = 0.005) and of borderline significance for chronic phlegm (p = 0.077). High tar cigarette smokers in this population (average, 22 mg) had an odds ratio of 2.01 for chronic cough and 1.59 for chronic phlegm relative to low tar cigarette smokers (average, 7 mg). The effect of cigarette tar was linear and independent of cigarettes smoked per day. Smoke inhalation was a significant risk factor for chronic cough (p = 0.029) and for chronic phlegm (p = 0.038). Tar content and smoke inhalation were not significant risk factors for wheeze or dyspnea. Cigarette particulate content (tar) appears to be causally linked to cough and phlegm production., but the association of cigarette smoking and symptoms of wheeze and dyspnea may be more strongly related to the vapor phase of cigarette smoke. PMID:7091875

Schenker, M B; Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

1982-06-01

420

Preparation of spherical activated phenol-formaldehyde beads from bamboo tar for adsorption of toluene.  

PubMed

Bamboo tar is a waste by-product from the process of bamboo charcoal production. After distillation under reduced pressure, bamboo tar becomes a highly viscous liquid containing phenolic compounds at more than 70 wt%. Therefore, bamboo tar could be an excellent replacement for the phenolic compounds produced by the decomposition of petroleum. In this study, bamboo tar was mixed with formalin under a weak alkaline condition to form cured phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads through suspension polymerization. In total, 35% of the obtained PF resin produced spherical beads with a particle size ranging from 9 to 16 mesh. The char yield after 500 degrees C carbonization was 60.4 wt%, according to thermogravimetric analysis. This high char yield is advantageous for the subsequent activation process. After physical activation using CO2 at 900 degrees C for 2 hr the carbide yield was up to 73.0 wt%. The specific surface area of activated PF beads was dependent on the activation time and temperature. Toluene adsorption results suggest that the activated PF beads are applicable to the adsorption and recovery of VOC gases. Monolayer adsorption may limit the VOC adsorption with activated PF beads because the adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir model. Implications: Bamboo tar is shown to be a good replacement for the phenolic compounds from decomposition of petroleum to form activated phenol-formaldehyde (PF) beads. Toluene adsorption tests suggest that the activated PF beads have potential to adsorb and recover VOC gases. Nevertheless, due to the low specific surface area of the activated PF beads from bamboo tar, a further enhancement in both meso- and microporosity is needed in the future experiments. The experimental data provide a contribution to better understanding the possibility of resource recovery of waste agricultural by-products and their potential application in environment protection. PMID:24010379

Huang, Ying-Pin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Liu, Szu-Chen

2013-08-01

421

Specific interactions between HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein and the TAR element.  

PubMed

During retroviral reverse transcription, the minus-strand strong-stop DNA (ss-cDNA) is transferred to the 3' end of the genomic RNA and this requires the repeat (R) sequences present at both ends of the genome. In vitro, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) R sequence can promote DNA strand transfer when present in ectopic internal positions. Using HIV-1 model systems, the R sequences and nucleocapsid protein (NC) were found to be key determinants of ss-cDNA transfer. To gain insights into specific interactions between HIV-1 NC and RNA and the influence of NC on R folding, we investigated the secondary structures of R in two natural contexts, namely at the 5' or 3' end of RNAs representing the terminal regions of the genome, and in two ectopic internal positions that also support efficient minus-strand transfer. To investigate the roles of NC zinc fingers and flanking basic domains in the NC/RNA interactions, we used NC mutants. Analyses of the viral RNA/NC complexes by chemical and enzymatic probings, and gel retardation assays were performed under conditions allowing ss-cDNA transfer by reverse transcriptase. We report that NC binds the TAR apical loop specifically in the four genetic contexts without changing the folding of the TAR hairpin and R region significantly, and this requires the NC zinc fingers. In addition, we show that efficient annealing of cTAR DNA to the 3' R relies on sequence complementarities between TAR and cTAR terminal loops. These findings suggest that the TAR apical loop in the acceptor RNA is the initiation site for the annealing reaction that is chaperoned by NC during the minus-strand transfer. PMID:15854644

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Françoise; Ficheux, Damien; Moumen, Abdeladim; Gorelick, Robert; Negroni, Matteo; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Fossé, Philippe

2005-05-20

422

Compositional and pH effects on the interfacial tension between complex tar mixtures and aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Tars at former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) are a major environmental concern and present a number of challenges to remediators. This experimental study investigates the relationship between composition and tar-water interfacial tension (IFT), a property of primary importance in determining the transport of tar in porous media. Nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar were characterized by means of fractionation, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and vapor pressure osmometry. The tar-aqueous IFT of the tars, as well as resins and asphaltenes extracted therefrom, were measured over a range of pH. The IFTs were found to be strongly dependent on pH, with the lowest values obtained at high pH. The reduction of IFT at high pH was found to correlate well with the I(C?O) values from the FTIR analysis, which provide an indication of the relative amount of carbonyl groups present. Reductions of IFT at low pH were also observed and found to correlate well with the extractable base concentration. The aromaticity and asphaltene average molar mass are also correlated with IFT reductions at both low and high pH, suggestive of compositional patterns related to the tar source material. PMID:22901363

Hauswirth, Scott C; Schultz, Pamela B; Miller, Cass T

2012-09-18

423

Time-economics of developing low-grade petroleum deposits, as exemplified by the Athabasca tar sands of Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much oil is there in the Athabasca tar sands. How long will it last, and at what cost. This report attempts to answer these questions through an examination of the geography and geology of the tar sands and of the economics of extracting oil from them. Emphasis is placed on the time factor, i.e., the length of time in

Dawson-Grove

1979-01-01

424

Technology Assessment: Environmental, Health, and Safety Impacts Associated with Oil Recovery from US Tar-Sand Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) sy...

J. I. Daniels L. R. Anspaugh Y. E. Ricker

1981-01-01

425

U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development programs for heavy oil and tar sand recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main emphasis of the DOE tar sand program described is to develop in situ techniques capable of recovering bitumen from domestic tar sand deposits. This program primarily involves field experiments of in situ techniques (in situ combustion and steam drive). Supporting activities include resource assessment, upgrading and surface processing research, and environmental permitting and control. 5 refs.

1981-01-01

426

Steam reforming of tar from a biomass gasification process over Ni\\/olivine catalyst using toluene as a model compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ni\\/olivine catalyst, previously developed for biomass gasification and tar removal during fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass, was tested in a fixed bed reactor in toluene steam reforming as a tar destruction model reaction. The influence of the catalyst preparation parameters (nickel precursor, calcination temperature and nickel content) and operating parameters (reaction temperature, steam to carbon S\\/C ratio and

D. ?wierczy?ski; S. Libs; C. Courson; A. Kiennemann

2007-01-01

427

Characteristics of tar, NOx precursors and their absorption performance with different scrubbing solvents during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently thermal utilizations of sewage sludge, especially pyrolysis and gasification, are regarded as promising technologies due to efficient utilization of fuel gas. In this study, characteristics of tar and NOx precursors were investigated during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Moreover, absorption performance for tar and NOx precursors were also studied by using four kinds of scrubbing mediums: cooking oil, diesel

Hongfang Chen; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

428

A Public Participation GIS Application for Citizen-based Watershed Monitoring in the Pamlico-Tar River Basin, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality is a serious concern throughout eastern North Carolina due to development pressure, agricultural runoff, and animal operations. A local environmental organization was concerned that water quality monitoring in the Pamlico-Tar River basin is hampered due to a sparse network of sampling sites and inconsistent data collection. Consequently, a volunteer watershed monitoring project was initiated by Pamlico-Tar River Foundation

2008-01-01

429

Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.  

PubMed

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA-DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop-loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop-loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open 'Y' conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the 'Y' conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part. PMID:21724607

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Françoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; René, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe

2011-10-01

430

Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein  

PubMed Central

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA–DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop–loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop–loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open ‘Y’ conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the ‘Y’ conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part.

Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Francoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; Rene, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fosse, Philippe

2011-01-01

431

An investigation of the effect of pressure on the chemical composition of high-temperature tar during heating  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is presently refined at coking plants in tube ovens with a one- or two-column system. It is heated in the radiative part to 400/sup 0/C at a pressure not exceeding 500 kPa. Recently the attention of specialists has been drawn to the process of refining tar under high pressure (1,5). It is clear that a change in the technological regime should lead to a change not only in the physicochemical properties of the tar, but also its chemical composition. However, there is no information on experiments in this area of coal tar refining. In the present article the authors give the results of an investigation of the chemical composition of tar dewatered in an industrial tube oven and subjected to refining at 350/sup 0/C for 30 minutes at pressures of the inert gas (helium) from 500 to 2000 kPa. The characteristics of the original dewatered tar are given. Thermal treatment of tar at high pressures causes a change in the chemical composition in the direction of a significant increase in the highly condensed compounds, which must be taken into consideration when organizing a process for treatment of tar at high pressures.

Chistyakov, A.N.; Lisin, S.N.

1983-01-01

432

Utilization of Trace Metals in Source Diagnosing of Tar Balls From the Mediterranean City of Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents a forensic chemical analysis to identify the source(s) of tar balls polluting several beaches of the Mediterranean city of Alexandria, Egypt. Concentrations of six metals (vanadium [V], nickel [Ni], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], cobalt [Co], and copper [Cu]) were studied in tar balls, collected from different locations along the coast of the city and in Egyptian crude

A. H. Hegazi

2009-01-01

433

Analytical study on mesocarbon microbeads derived from coal tar pitch  

SciTech Connect

Pitches have been recognized as excellent precursors for carbon materials and their properties are considered to be influential on the properties and function of carbon material. For this reason, their detailed characterization is being required. Successful pitch characterization must satisfy the following points: (1) very complicated pitches can be clearly distinguished; (2) the performance of the final carbon product can be predicted by characterizing the precursor pitch at its molecular level; and (3) a satisfactory explanation can be provided for chemical and physical behavior of pitches for a given utilization process based on their structural differences. Successful pitch characterization is quite difficult to be attained because pitches are very complex mixtures containing several hundred compounds with different functionalities. Thus, the methods for their characterization are limited to the measurements of average structural parameters, such as softening point (SP), H/C atomic ratio, quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) fractions, aromaticity, carbon yield, etc.. Although these parameters can give a fairly good evaluation about pitch quality, they can not always explain why pitches with similar characteristics on traditional characterization techniques display a significantly different behavior. This fact provides a challenging subject in the field of pitch characterization. At the same time, there is a possibility that in a given case satisfactory important factors remain undetected due to the limitation of analytical techniques, thus leading to serious problems in the pitch utilization. Therefore, it seems to be essential to know, for a given utilization of pitches, which of the pitch properties normally measured is important and how this affects the behavior of pitch. Another serious difficulty in pitch characterization is the fact that pitches are normally not completely soluble in solvents. There is no single analytical technique which can provide complete information about structures of pitches. Thus, the combination of different analytical techniques seems to be best for the characterization of such materials. The first objective of this paper is to give an insight into structural features of two kinds of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) derived from different coal tar pitches, by conducting butylation of MCMB with butyl iodide catalyzed by dibutylzinc and characterizing their butylated products according to conventional techniques. The second one is to differentiate two MCMB in terms of chemical structure based on IR, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Most of this information is extracted from the authors' earlier and just completed papers, cited in the references.

Zhang, Y.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M.

1999-07-01

434

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

2004-08-01

435

Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

2006-02-01

436

Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

Ochoa-Díaz, R.

2013-11-01

437

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. Both the gas saturation method and the Knudsen effusion method are being used. Results are presented for anthracene, naphthacene, pentacene, and a mixture of anthracene and perylene obtained using the effusion method.

Suuberg, E.M.

1995-10-01

438

Crystallization studies of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein and its trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA.  

PubMed

Small single crystals are reported of a complex between a small peptide fragment of the HIV-1 Tat protein and a fragment of the RNA to which it binds. Tat is responsible for enhancing the level of expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and is a logical target for AIDS therapy. Tat may function to increase the level of transcription initiation or to prevent premature termination of transcripts. In vitro, Tat binds through its basic domain (two Lys and six Arg in nine residues) to a three-nucleotide bulge of a stem-loop RNA structure called TAR. Complex formation between Tat and TAR is necessary for Tat activity. Peptides which contain the basic region of Tat also bind to TAR RNA. We have carried out crystallization experiments on a 27-nucleotide fragment of TAR RNA and on complexes between two Tat peptides and TAR. PMID:15299414

McKenna, M C; Anderson, D; Cascio, D; Eisenberg, D

1994-07-01

439

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

440

Serving advertisements using user request information and user information  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Ads are scored using, at least, user information and information associated with a user request, such as a search query or a document request. The scores may be used in determining whether to serve ads, how to serve ads, to order ads, to filter ads, etc. Items of user information, request-associated information, and/or ad information can be weighted based on previous uses of such information in the serving of ads and the performance of those served ads.

2013-01-08

441

Application of MM/PBSA colony free energy to loop decoy discrimination: toward correlation between energy and root mean square deviation.  

PubMed

Accurate free energy estimation is needed in many predictive tasks. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) approach has proven to be accurate. However, the correlation between the estimated free energy and the distance (e.g., root mean square deviation [RMSD]) from the most stable conformation is hindered by the strong free energy dependence on minor conformational variations. In this paper, a protocol for MM/PBSA free energy estimation is designed and tested on several loop decoy sets. We show that further integration of MM/PBSA free energy estimator with the colony energy approach makes the correlation between the free energy and RMSD from the native structure apparent, for the test sets on which it could be applied. Our results suggest that (1) the MM/PBSA free energy estimator is able to detect native-like structures for most decoy sets, and (2) application of the colony energy approach greatly hampers the MM/energy strong dependence on minor conformational changes. PMID:15772305

Fogolari, Federico; Tosatto, Silvio C E

2005-04-01

442

Application of MM/PBSA colony free energy to loop decoy discrimination: Toward correlation between energy and root mean square deviation  

PubMed Central

Accurate free energy estimation is needed in many predictive tasks. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) approach has proven to be accurate. However, the correlation between the estimated free energy and the distance (e.g., root mean square deviation [RMSD]) from the most stable conformation is hindered by the strong free energy dependence on minor conformational variations. In this paper, a protocol for MM/PBSA free energy estimation is designed and tested on several loop decoy sets. We show that further integration of MM/PBSA free energy estimator with the colony energy approach makes the correlation between the free energy and RMSD from the native structure apparent, for the test sets on which it could be applied. Our results suggest that (1) the MM/PBSA free energy estimator is able to detect native-like structures for most decoy sets, and (2) application of the colony energy approach greatly hampers the MM/energy strong dependence on minor conformational changes.

Fogolari, Federico; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

2005-01-01

443

Interruption of intrachromosomal looping by CCCTC binding factor decoy proteins abrogates genomic imprinting of human insulin-like growth factor II.  

PubMed

Monoallelic expression of IGF2 is regulated by CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) binding to the imprinting control region (ICR) on the maternal allele, with subsequent formation of an intrachromosomal loop to the promoter region. The N-terminal domain of CTCF interacts with SUZ12, part of the polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2), to silence the maternal allele. We synthesized decoy CTCF proteins, fusing the CTCF deoxyribonucleic acid-binding zinc finger domain to CpG methyltransferase Sss1 or to enhanced green fluorescent protein. In normal human fibroblasts and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines, the CTCF decoy proteins bound to the unmethylated ICR and to the IGF2 promoter region but did not interact with SUZ12. EZH2, another part of PRC2, was unable to methylate histone H3-K27 in the IGF2 promoter region, resulting in reactivation of the imprinted allele. The intrachromosomal loop between the maternal ICR and the IGF2 promoters was not observed when IGF2 imprinting was lost. CTCF epigenetically governs allelic gene expression of IGF2 by orchestrating chromatin loop structures involving PRC2. PMID:21536749

Zhang, He; Niu, Beibei; Hu, Ji-Fan; Ge, Shengfang; Wang, Haibo; Li, Tao; Ling, Jianqun; Steelman, Brandon N; Qian, Guanxiang; Hoffman, Andrew R

2011-05-01

444

Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

2012-06-01

445

Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism  

PubMed Central

Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.

Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

2012-01-01

446

Catalytic tar decomposition of biomass pyrolysis gas with a combination of dolomite and silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the catalytic effects of dolomite and silica on biomass tar decomposition were investigated. The concentration of naphthalene is of particular interest since it is the most difficult compound to decompose when dolomite is used as catalyst. The two catalysts were tested in different combinations to see whether synergetic effects on the cracking of naphthalene could be found.

Carin Myrén; Christina Hörnell; Emilia Björnbom; Krister Sjöström

2002-01-01

447

MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

448

PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.; Wilson, J. T.

2009-01-01

449

Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

450

Cost Comparison of Nuclear and Fossil Power for the Alberta Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One technique envisaged for commercial development of the Alberta tar sands is in-situ removal of bitumen by injection of steam into the formation at high temperature and pressure. The 3000 MW of thermal power required for a typical 20 Gg/d plant could be...

R. O. Sochaski D. W. Smith

1977-01-01

451

The production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than 1 billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of 28 billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits, arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface mining oil recovery operations, are as

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

452

Water quality at the LETC TS1S tar-sand steamflood site. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality was monitored during the LETC TS-1S steamflood experiment conducted in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit near Vernal, Utah. Ground-water samples were collected by personnel from the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) and from Western Wyoming College. Samples were analyzed for 41 water quality constituents by Western Wyoming College. TDS and major inorganic ion

J. J. Ahern; C. Goodwin

1982-01-01

453

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or ``tar balls,''

Jenny L. Hand; W. C. Malm; Alexander Laskin; D. E. Day; Tae-bum Lee; Chong M. Wang; C. E. Carrico; John R. Carrillo; James P. Cowin; J. G. Collett; Martin J. Iedema

2005-01-01

454

Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

2007-01-01

455

Field Experiment of Reverse Combustion Oil Recovery from a Utah Tar Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment to recover oil from tar sand by reverse combusion was conducted at Northwest Asphalt Ridge, near Vernal, Utah. This test was in a 10-ft interval of the Rim Rock sandstone member of the Mesa Verde Formation at a depth of 300 ft. Ignition...

C. S. Land C. Q. Cupps L. C. Marchant F. M. Carlson

1977-01-01

456

Analysis of Reverse Combustion in Tar Sands: A One-Dimensional Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a one-dimensional numerical model which simulates oil recovery from tar sands by reverse combustion. The method of lines is used to solve the nonlinear differential equations describing the flow. The effects of volumetric air flux on ...

A. Amr

1980-01-01

457

On the Periphery of the Tar Sands. Documents in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the diary of Karl Clark that focuses on his experiences in the Athabasca tar sands. The diary helps decipher the nature of 1920s town life and the pioneering spirit involved in exploring the oil sands. Includes background information on Clark. (CMK)

Hodysh, Henry W.

2000-01-01

458

Effect of Gentian Violet, Corticosteroid and Tar Preparations in Staphylococcus-aureus-Colonized Atopic Eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In atopic eczema (AE), skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus plays a possible role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with AE were screened for their cutaneous colonization with S. aureus. The antibacterial and clinical efficacy of topical therapy with the antiseptic dye gentian violet, a potent glucocorticosteroid or a tar solution (liquor carbonis detergens) was evaluated

Knut Brockow; Petra Grabenhorst; Dietrich Abeck; Bernd Traupe; Johannes Ring; Udo Hoppe; Florian Wolf

1999-01-01

459

Evaluation of Pump Used for In Situ Oil Recovery from Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment is being conducted near Vernal, Utah for oil recovery from tar sands by in-situ combustion. The principal mechanical problem was identified as repeated failure of the pumps used to lift the oil from the production wells. The primary pro...

J. T. McCabe J. P. McGee

1977-01-01

460

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

461

PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

462

Small-bodied Fishes of Tar Creek and Other Small Streams in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes of small streams in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, were collected by seine from July 2004 through October 2005 to provide base-line data on species occurrences in Tar Creek and surrounding watersheds. Nine sites within the study area have been receiving mine drainage contaminated with iron, zinc, lead and cadmium for at least three decades fol- lowing the cessation of mining

Courtney M. Franssen; Melody A. Brooks; Randy W. Parham; Katherine G. Sutherland; William J. Matthews

463

Recycle of tar decanter sludge for coal blend bulk density control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, the EPA has classified tar decanter sludge (TDS) from coke plant by-products operations as a hazardous waste. At Republic Steel's Cleveland Works, TDS is routinely added to the coal blend. This paper describes the use of a TDS - oil mixture for controlling coal blend bulk density. This system eliminates the problem of TDS disposal and reduces

1983-01-01

464

Thermal Remediation of Tar-Contaminated Soil and Oil-Contaminated Gravel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of remediation of coal tar- contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel by incineration with environmentally acceptable performance. In addition to adequate decontamination and emission control, effort was devoted to treating the special feedstocks with difficult handling properties by use of conventional combustion and feeding systems. Analysis of the results showed that

Edward J. Anthony; Jinsheng Wang; Dave Martin

465

Effectiveness of Low and High Tar Acid Creosotes as Determined by Stake Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1977 results of stake tests with low and high tar acid content creosotes (high temperature and low temperature creosotes) placed since 1952 are given. It was found that the amount of the residue with boiling temperatures higher than 355°C is correlated with the performance of the pure creosotes, irrespective of the processes used in producing the creosotes. The addition

P. F. Coetzee; G. S. Vermaak; P. Quinn

1978-01-01

466

Determination of the Major Elements and Trace Metals Present in Bitumen from Several Tar Sand Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the analyses of 14 tar sand samples for the concentration of major elements and trace metals are presented. Ten samples were obtained from the Uinta Basin of Utah, three from the southeastern part of Utah, and one from New Mexico. In genera...

K. P. Thomas M. A. Witt

1985-01-01

467

Toxicity of weathered coal tar for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) embryos and larvae.  

PubMed

Weathered coal tar collected from the Connecticut River near Holyoke, Massachusetts, was toxic to shortnose sturgeon embryos and larvae in whole sediment flow-through and elutriate static-renewal laboratory exposures. Sterile laboratory sand and clean Connecticut River sand, collected upstream from the coal tar depo