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1

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

2

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

3

Routing Around Decoys Max Schuchard1  

E-print Network

, University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT Decoy Routing is a new approach to Internet censorship circum routing aims to ham- per nation-state level Internet censorship by having routers, rather than end hosts, BGP, Telex, Cirripede, Censorship 1. INTRODUCTION Decoy routing [19, 27, 18], as exemplified by Telex

Minnesota, University of

4

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

5

Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors  

PubMed Central

Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

2012-01-01

6

No Direction Home: The True Cost of Routing Around Decoys  

E-print Network

of the Internet may lead to mistaken conclusions about the feasibility of decoy routing and other censorship--Decoy routing is a recently proposed approach for censorship circumvention. It relies on cooperating ISPs in the middle of the Internet to deploy the so called "decoy routers" that proxy network traffic from users

Shmatikov, Vitaly

7

Basics of compounding with tars.  

PubMed

Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

Allen, Loyd V

2013-01-01

8

Experimental passive decoy-state quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources of varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy-state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we experimentally demonstrate the passive decoy-state method over a 50 km long optical fiber and obtain a key rate of about 100 bit s?1. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

Sun, Qi-Chao; Wang, Wei-Long; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Fei; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Xianfeng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2014-08-01

9

Durandal: fast exact clustering of protein decoys.  

PubMed

In protein folding, clustering is commonly used as one way to identify the best decoy produced. Initializing the pairwise distance matrix for a large decoy set is computationally expensive. We have proposed a fast method that works even on large decoy sets. This method is implemented in a software called Durandal. Durandal has been shown to be consistently faster than other software performing fast exact clustering. In some cases, Durandal can even outperform the speed of an approximate method. Durandal uses the triangular inequality to accelerate exact clustering, without compromising the distance function. Recently, we have further enhanced the performance of Durandal by incorporating a Quaternion-based characteristic polynomial method that has increased the speed of Durandal between 13% and 27% compared with the previous version. Durandal source code is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software/durandal_released_qcp.tgz. Alternatively, a compiled version of Durandal is also distributed with the nightly builds of the Phenix (http://www.phenix-online.org/) crystallographic software suite (Adams et al., Acta Crystallogr Sect D 2010, 66, 213). PMID:22120171

Berenger, Francois; Shrestha, Rojan; Zhou, Yong; Simoncini, David; Zhang, Kam Y J

2012-02-01

10

SPINNING-WING DECOYS IN MINNESOTA 993 Effects of spinning-wing decoys on  

E-print Network

-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breed- ing populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in North America. Key words Anas platyrhynchos, crippling, duck hunting, flock behavior, hunting nesting females and many hatch-year states are concerned that local mallard (Anas (HY) mallards

Afton, Alan D.

11

Tuning inflammation and immunity by chemokine sequestration: decoys and more  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of chemokine receptors are structurally unable to elicit migration or conventional signalling responses after ligand engagement. These 'silent' (non-signalling) chemokine receptors regulate inflammatory and immune reactions in different ways, including by acting as decoys and scavengers. Chemokine decoy receptors recognize distinct and complementary sets of ligands and are strategically expressed in different cellular contexts. Importantly, viruses and parasites

Raffaella Bonecchi; Massimo Locati; Alberto Mantovani

2006-01-01

12

Faux hos: woman police attitudes about decoy sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the practice of using female police officers as decoy sex workers. A snowball sample yielded 14 female police officers who are assigned to work decoy operations. Semi?structured interview questions were related to perception of their roles in the department, job satisfaction, motivation for accepting a vice position, perceptions of opportunities for advancement, perceived risks in working the

Mary Maguire; Thomas Nolan

2011-01-01

13

Decoy Plasminogen Receptor Containing a Selective Kunitz-Inhibitory Domain  

PubMed Central

Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2? residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ?5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ? 0.2 to 0.3 ?M) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ?-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(?)-plasmin–KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the ?-plasmin–KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

2015-01-01

14

Targeting a KH-domain protein with RNA decoys.  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins are involved in the regulation of many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression. Targeted interference with RNA-protein interactions could offer novel approaches to modulation of expression profiles, alteration of developmental pathways, and reversal of certain disease processes. Here we investigate a decoy strategy for the study of the alphaCP subgroup of KH-domain RNA-binding proteins. These poly(C)-binding proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of posttranscriptional controls. Three categories of RNA decoys to alphaCPs were studied: poly(C) homopolymers, native mRNA-binding sites, and a high-affinity structure selected from a combinatorial library. Native chemistry was found to be essential for alphaCP decoy action. Because alphaCP proteins are found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, decoy cassettes were incorporated within both nuclear (U1 snRNA) and cytoplasmic (VA1 RNA) RNA frameworks. Several sequences demonstrated optimal decoy properties when assayed for protein-binding and decoy bioactivity in vitro. A subset of these transcripts was shown to mediate targeted inhibition of alphaCP-dependent translation when expressed in either the nucleus or cytoplasm of transfected cells. Significantly, these studies establish the feasibility of developing RNA decoys that can selectively target biologic functions of abundant and widely expressed RNA binding proteins. PMID:12358435

Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Eastmond, Dawn L; Liebhaber, Stephen A

2002-01-01

15

Effectiveness of Spinning-Wing Decoys Varies Among Dabbling Duck Species and Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and increase kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota

JOSHUA T. ACKERMAN; JOHN M. EADIE; MICHAEL L. SZYMANSKI; JASON H. CASWELL; MARK P. VRTISKA; ANDREW H. RAEDEKE; J. MICHAEL CHECKETT; ALAN D. AFTON; THOMAS G. MOORE; F. DALE CASWELL; RICH A. WALTERS; DALE D. HUMBURG; JULIE L. YEE

2006-01-01

16

Juniper tar poisoning.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day. PMID:15732446

Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

2005-01-01

17

Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols  

E-print Network

Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

Patrick Rice; Jim Harrington

2009-01-23

18

Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols  

SciTech Connect

Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

19

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

20

Structural bioinformatics DOCKGROUND Protein-Protein Docking Decoy Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A protein-protein docking decoy set is built for the DOCKGROUND unbound benchmark set. The GRAMM-X docking scan was used to generate 100 non-native and at least one near- native match per complex for 61 complexes. The set is a publicly available resource for the development of scoring functions and knowledge-based potentials for protein docking methodologies. Availability: The decoys are

Shiyong Liu; Ying Gao; Ilya A. Vakser

21

Serving Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition and estimation activity (page 12 of PDF), learners estimate serving sizes of different foods and compare their estimates to serving size information provided on nutrition food labels. A Quick Hand Measures guide helps learners visualize serving sizes of different foods using their hand (i.e. a closed fist = serving size of a piece of fruit). This activity also introduces learners to solid and liquid measures. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, reliable resource links and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

22

RNA decoys: an emerging component of plant regulatory networks?  

PubMed

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants. PMID:22899065

Banks, Isaac R; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-09-01

23

Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, M.P.; Raedeke, A.H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

2006-01-01

24

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

25

Topical tar: back to the future.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions. PMID:19185953

Paghdal, Kapila V; Schwartz, Robert A

2009-08-01

26

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

27

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice  

PubMed Central

We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

2013-01-01

28

Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

Shams Mousavi, S. H. [Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Photonic and Communication Systems, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Gallion, P. [TELECOM ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, 46 rue Barrault, 75013 Paris (France)

2009-07-15

29

Decoy Strategies: The Structure of TL1A:DcR3 complex  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as anti-determinants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands. PMID:21300286

Zhan, Chenyang; Patskovsky, Yury; Yan, Qingrong; Li, Zhenhong; Ramagopal, Udupi; Cheng, Huiyong; Brenowitz, Michael; Hui, Xiao; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2011-01-01

30

Inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation by E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotide in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor E2F coordinately activates several cell cycle-regulatory genes. We attempted to inhibit the proliferation of mesangial cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting E2F activity using a 25-bp decoy oligodeoxynucleotide that contained consensus E2F binding site sequence (E2F-decoy) as a competitive inhibitor. The decoy's effect on human mesangial cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The E2F decoy inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas a mismatch control oligodeoxynucleotide had little effect. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the decoy's inhibitory effect was due to the binding of the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide to E2F. The effect of the E2F decoy was then tested in a rat anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis model. The E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotide was introduced into the left kidney 36 h after the induction of glomerulonephritis. The administration of E2F decoy suppressed the proliferation of mesangial cells by 71%. Furthermore, treatment with the E2F decoy inhibited the glomerular expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at the protein level as well as the mRNA level. These findings indicate that decoy oligonucleotides can suppress the activity of the transcription factor E2F, and may thus have a potential in treating glomerulonephritis. PMID:9616230

Maeshima, Y; Kashihara, N; Yasuda, T; Sugiyama, H; Sekikawa, T; Okamoto, K; Kanao, K; Watanabe, Y; Kanwar, Y S; Makino, H

1998-01-01

31

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

32

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

33

Antineoplastic Effect of Decoy Oligonucleotide Derived from MGMT Enhancer  

PubMed Central

Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25460932

Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

2014-01-01

34

Secure and efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with inexact pulse intensities  

E-print Network

We present a general theorem for the efficient verification of the lower bound of single-photon transmittance. We show how to do decoy-state quantum key distribution efficiently with large random errors in the intensity control. In our protocol, the linear terms of fluctuation disappear and only the quadratic terms take effect. We then show the unconditional security of decoy-state method with whatever error pattern in intensities of decoy pulses and signal pulses provided that the intensity of each decoy pulse is less than $\\mu$ and the intensity of each signal pulse is larger than $\\mu'$.

X. B. Wang

2006-11-22

35

TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

36

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2013-01-01

37

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2014-01-01

38

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

39

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

40

Coal tar phototoxicity: kinetics and exposure parameters  

SciTech Connect

Two manifestations of coal tar phototoxicity were examined: delayed erythema and skin pain (tar smarts) by quantifying the amount (dose) of UVA and exposure conditions required to induce these phenomena in normal human skin. The minimal UVA dose required to induce delayed erythema (minimal phototoxic dose or MPD) and the minimal UVA dose required to induce an immediate smarting reaction (minimal smarting dose or MSD) were recorded in 32 subjects in a variety of settings. A log-log dose-response model described the relation between the interval of time tar was left on the skin and lowering of MPD. We examined 4 different methods of tar removal and showed that several methods using more than water alone were equally effective--judging by resultant phototoxicity. The time between tar removal and UVA irradiation is important. Even 30 min was sufficient for the MPD to increase from 3.77 +/- 1.55 to 6.1 +/- 4.0 J/cm2. The smarting reaction shows a similar dependence on the time interval between tar removal and exposure. The mean MSD was less than the mean MPD at all times tested. Both manifestations of coal tar phototoxicity, reduced delayed erythema threshold and susceptibility to the smarting reaction, persisted at least 30 h after tar removal.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1983-10-01

41

Detecting Traffic Snooping in Tor Using Decoys Sambuddho Chakravarty, Georgios Portokalidis, Michalis Polychronakis, and  

E-print Network

Detecting Traffic Snooping in Tor Using Decoys Sambuddho Chakravarty, Georgios Portokalidis,mikepo,angelos}@cs.columbia.edu Abstract. Anonymous communication networks like Tor partially pro- tect the confidentiality of their users implementation in the Tor network using decoy IMAP and SMTP servers. During the course of ten months, our system

Keromytis, Angelos D.

42

DARS (Decoys As the Reference State) Potentials for Protein-Protein Docking  

E-print Network

DARS (Decoys As the Reference State) Potentials for Protein-Protein Docking Gwo-Yu Chuang,* Dima with success in the discrimination stage of protein- protein docking (9­15). More recently, it was shown, and y Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Decoys

Vajda, Sandor

43

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF A GREAT HORNED OWL DECOY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE AND ADULT GRAY JAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) decoy on the feeding behavior of adult and juvenile Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were tested by comparing the feeding activity of the jays in the presence of the decoy with that in the presence of a Ring-necked Duck mount and in the absence of other species' models. The owl decoy had

W. A. MONTEVECCHI; A. D. MACCARONE

44

Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA.  

PubMed

Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ?35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

2015-02-17

45

Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, contain particles of talc, barite, Fe sulfide, and Fe oxide. Physical characteristics of the Escanaba Trough tar mounds indicate that viscous petroleum flowed onto the sea floor and condensed into solid deposits that accreted by eruption of flow lobes through breakout points on mound surfaces. The occurrence and composition of the tar mounds further indicate a hydrothermal origin for the petroleum, contemporaneous formation with sulfide deposits, and generation by rapid pyrolysis of organic matter in the sediment.

Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

2002-12-01

46

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

47

Reduction of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide intake in low tar smokers.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine, cotinine, and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations were measured in 392 smokers (255 women and 137 men) of "middle tar" (17-22 mg), "low to middle" (11-16 mg), and "low tar" (less than 11 mg) cigarettes. Since tar intake cannot yet be measured directly, we devised an index to estimate it based on the use of measured levels of an intake marker (eg, blood nicotine) and the ratio of the tar to marker yields of the cigarettes. This approach was validated by its ability to enhance the prediction of levels of one marker by use of another. In a practical test, using COHb and the CO/nicotine yield ratio of the cigarettes, the mean blood nicotine concentration of the low tar smokers was predicted to be 31.9 ng/ml compared with the measured mean of 31.8 ng/ml. Our main findings were that despite substantial compensatory increases in inhalation, the low tar smokers took in about 25% less tar, about 15% less nicotine, and about 10% less carbon monoxide than smokers of middle and low to middle tar cigarettes. These results indicate that low tar cigarettes of the type available in Britain since the late 1970s are likely to prove less harmful than other brands. Monitoring of smoke intakes could supplement epidemiological approaches and provide earlier evidence of whether changing cigarette designs lead to any significant dosage reduction that could affect the risk of disease. PMID:3711773

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Saloojee, Y

1986-01-01

48

Potential application of visible passive imaging polarimetry in the discrimination of real targets and decoys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been renewed interests in utilizing imaging polarimetry in target detection and discrimination. A greater demand is the need for a sensor capable of discriminating between real military targets and decoys in the battlefield deployments. This paper demonstrates the potential application of passive visible imaging polarimetry in discriminating real targets from identical (same paint type, surface structure, and color) decoys, based on their composite materials. Target material made of steel is compared to three different decoy materials (wood, ceramic, and cardboard) are considered in this study.

El-Saba, Aed M.

2005-03-01

49

Surface temperature distribution and infrared radiation feature of a spatial balloon decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space heat flux that the spatial balloon decoy gets is calculated in the appropriate coordinate system and the earth heat flux is calculated accurately with the use of the unit hemisphere method. The surface temperature distribution of the balloon decoy is got by solving the transient heat balance equations with the use of the finite element software, ANSYS 10.0. On the basis of the solved surface temperature distribution, taking the balloon decoy as a point object, the spatial distribution of infrared radiation intensity in 3~6um and in 6~16um is calculated. Finally, the differences of the surface temperature distribution and the infrared radiation intensity spatial distribution between the spatial balloon decoy got in this paper and a spatial target got in our previous work are compared and analyzed in detail. The research results of this paper have referential value on infrared automatic target recognition (ATR) of spatial targets.

Wu, Xiao-di; Lv, Xiang-yin; Yang, Hua; Huang, Chao-chao

2009-07-01

50

Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y{sub n} for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to 1, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Soujaeff, Alexandre; Takeuchi, Shigeki [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Information Technology R and D Center, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); JST-CREST/Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-12 Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

2008-02-15

51

Energy Functions that Discriminate X-ray and Near-native Folds from Well-constructed Decoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study generates ensembles of decoy or test structures for eight small proteins with a variety of different folds. Between 35,000 and 200,000 decoys were generated for each protein using our four-state off-lattice model together with a novel relaxation method. These give compact self-avoiding conformations each constrained to have native secondary structure. Ensembles of these decoy conformations were used to

Britt Park; Michael Levitt

1996-01-01

52

Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion  

SciTech Connect

High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1996-10-01

53

Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

2014-09-30

54

Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors  

PubMed Central

Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback–Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors. PMID:22855685

Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

55

Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

Skinner, Q.

1980-03-01

56

Tar sand evaluation using geophysical well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logging can provide a record of the lithological variations and oil yield of tar sands. Probes lowered into bore holes at the end of insulated cables yield such records as the spontaneous potential log, the focused resistivity log, the gamma-ray log, the acoustic log and the neutron log. The accuracy of correlations between gamma-ray log response and fines

WALTER H. FERTL; GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN

1978-01-01

57

Quasi-Genes: The Many-Body Theory of Gene Regulation in the Presence of Decoys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During transcriptional regulation, transcription factor proteins bind to particular sites in the genome in order to switch genes on or off. The regulatory binding site intended for a transcription factor is just one out of millions of potential sites where the transcription factor can bind. Specificity of a binding motif determines whether less than one or up to tens of thousands of strong affinity binding sites can be expected by pure chance. The roles that these additional "decoy" binding sites play in the functioning of a cell are currently unknown. We incorporate decoys into traditional mass action and stochastic models of a simple gene network-the self-regulated gene-and use numerical and analytical techniques to quantify the effects that these extra sites have on altering gene expression properties. Counter-intuitively, we find that if bound transcription factors are protected from degradation, the mean steady state concentration of unbound transcription factors, , is insensitive to the addition of decoys. Many other gene expression properties do change as decoys are added. Decoys linearly increase the time necessary to reach steady state. Noise buffering by decoys occurs because of a coupling between the unbound proteomic environment and the reservoir of sites that can be very large, but the noise reduction is limited Poisson statistics because of the inherent noise resulting from binding and unbinding of transcription factors to DNA. This noise buffering is optimized for a given protein concentration when decoys have a 1/2 probability of being occupied. Decoys are able to preferentially stabilize one state of a bimodal system over the other, and exponentially increase the time to epigenetically switch between these states. In the limit that binding and unbinding rates are fast compared to the fluctuations in transcription factor copy number, we exploit timescale differences to collapse the model and derive analytical expressions that explain our numerical results. In analogy to traditional many-body systems, we derive effective parameters to describe a "quasi-gene" which can be used to approximate the influence of decoy binding sites on simple gene networks.

Burger, Anat

58

Practical decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all the detection attacks; thus when it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if a practical weak coherent source is used by Alice and Bob. However, until now, the analysis of decoy-state MDI-QKD with a weak coherent source is incomplete. In this paper, we derive, with only vacuum+weak decoy state, some tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of error rate for the fraction of signals in which both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to the untrusted third party Charlie. The numerical simulations show that our method with only vacuum+weak decoy state can asymptotically approach the theoretical limit of the infinite number of decoy states. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of date is also considered based on the standard statistical analysis.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2013-05-01

59

Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

2000-01-01

60

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

61

Security of decoy-state protocols for general photon-number-splitting attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decoy-state protocols provide a way to defeat photon-number-splitting attacks in quantum cryptography implemented with weak coherent pulses. We point out that previous security analyses of such protocols relied on assumptions about eavesdropping attacks that considered treating each pulse equally and independently. We give an example to demonstrate that, without such assumptions, the security parameters of previous decoy-state implementations could be worse than the ones claimed. Next we consider more general photon-number-splitting attacks, which correlate different pulses, and give an estimation procedure for the number of single-photon signals with rigorous security statements. The impact of our result is that previous analyses of the number of times a decoy-state quantum cryptographic system can be reused before it makes a weak key must be revised.

Somma, Rolando D.; Hughes, Richard J.

2013-06-01

62

The use of decoys to attract Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The number of Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey has declined in recent years. Decoys were used at two recently abandoned Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey to encourage nesting. The sites were chosen because of their apparent suitability as colony sites and the relative ease of protecting them from human disturbance and predators. Least Terns were observed flying over and landing at both sites, although nesting occurred at only one site. The effect of decoys was statically significant at the colony site used for nesting. At this site, 44.5% of the landings occurred in the plot containing decoys and only 10.6% o the landings were in the control plot. Nesting was initiated among the decoys. These results indicate that decoys can be used to attract Least Terns to abandoned colony sites and may be useful for managing Least Terns and other colonial nesting birds.

Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

1984-01-01

63

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

64

A Helpful Serving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

Rockower, David

2006-01-01

65

Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.  

PubMed

Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

2013-05-01

66

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2011-01-01

67

The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

68

On the Evolution of Decoys in Plant Immune Iaroslav Ispolatov and Michael Doebeli  

E-print Network

On the Evolution of Decoys in Plant Immune Systems Iaroslav Ispolatov and Michael Doebeli by the effector, trigger the plant immune response. Here we present a proof-of-principle model for the functioning Biological Theory 5(3) 2010, 256­263. c 2011 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research #12

Doebeli, Michael

69

Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light  

SciTech Connect

We propose an efficient decoy-state protocol for practical quantum key distribution using coherent states. The protocol uses four intensities of different coherent light. A good final key rate is achieved by our protocol with typical parameters of existing practical setups, even with a very low channel transmittance.

Wang Xiangbin [IMAI Quantum Computation and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg. 201, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan)

2005-07-15

70

Virus Encoded MHC-Like Decoys Diversify the Inhibitory KIR Repertoire  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in the control of viral infections and tumors. Their functions are regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. A subset of these receptors in human NK cells are the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with the highly polymorphic MHC class I molecules. One important function of NK cells is to detect cells that have down-regulated MHC expression (missing-self). Because MHC molecules have non polymorphic regions, their expression could have been monitored with a limited set of monomorphic receptors. Surprisingly, the KIR family has a remarkable genetic diversity, the function of which remains poorly understood. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is able to evade NK cell responses by coding “decoy” molecules that mimic MHC class I. This interaction was suggested to have driven the evolution of novel NK cell receptors. Inspired by the MCMV system, we develop an agent-based model of a host population infected with viruses that are able to evolve MHC down-regulation and decoy molecules. Our simulations show that specific recognition of MHC class I molecules by inhibitory KIRs provides excellent protection against viruses evolving decoys, and that the diversity of inhibitory KIRs will subsequently evolve as a result of the required discrimination between host MHC molecules and decoy molecules. PMID:24130473

Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Ke?mir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.

2013-01-01

71

A review on the decoy-state method for practical quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

We present a review on the historic development of the decoy state method, including the background, principles, methods, results and development. We also clarify some delicate concepts. Given an imperfect source and a very lossy channel, the photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack can make the quantum key distribution (QKD) in practice totally insecure. Given the result of ILM-GLLP, one knows how to distill the secure final key if he knows the fraction of tagged bits. The purpose of decoy state method is to do a tight verification of the the fraction of tagged bits. The main idea of decoy-state method is changing the intensities of source light and one can verify the fraction of tagged bits of certain intensity by watching the the counting rates of pulses of different intensities. Since the counting rates are small quantities, the effect of statistical fluctuation is very important. It has been shown that 3-state decoy-state method in practice can work even with the fluctuations and other errors.

Xiang-Bin Wang

2005-09-19

72

Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breed- ing populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experi- mental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2

Michael L. Szymanski; Alan D. Afton

2005-01-01

73

Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations  

E-print Network

Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations Christopher James, Generalized Belief Propagation, Free Energy, Protein- Protein Interactions #12;Abstract We present a physics for a given complex, and Generalized Belief Propa- gation to perform the free energy calculation. Our method

Langmead, Christopher James

74

Tar contamination on beaches in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar pollution on Curaçao beaches was monitored at 10 stations around the island on monthly visits for 14 months. Accumulated tar at stations in coastal areas susceptible to tar pollution (the wave-exposed northeast coast and the industrial, central south-west coast) averaged 954 ± 779 g m?1 (SD), excluding the most grossly polluted study site. Two wave-sheltered southwest coast beaches lying

Adolphe O. Debrot; John E. Bradshaw; Aubrey B. Tiel

1995-01-01

75

Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions  

PubMed Central

This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

2011-01-01

76

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

77

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

78

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

79

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

80

Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

2006-04-15

81

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

82

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

83

Tar sands program FY80. Annual report, October 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for assisting the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Tar Sands Program in the areas of reservoir access and alternate extraction concepts. Activities in the first area have concentrated on high-temperature packers, insulated injection string installation, steam quality measurements, sand control, and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric surveying. Also, a tar sands permeability enhancement workshop was held, and

J. R. Wayland; A. J. Mulac; R. L. Fox; L. C. Bartel

1981-01-01

84

Catalyst poisoning during tar-sands bitumen upgrading  

SciTech Connect

A number of hydrotreating catalysts are used in commercial heavy oil upgrading facilities. One of these, a CoO/MoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst has been evaluated in a pilot plant CSTR for Tar-Sands Bitumen upgrading. Following its use in a test of 200 hours duration, the catalyst was removed, de-oiled, regenerated by air-calcination to remove the coke, and then re-tested. Samples of the coked, fresh and regenerated catalyst were each examined using surface analytical techniques. ESCA and SIMS analysis of the coked and regenerated catalyst samples show, as expected, significant contamination of the catalyst with Ni and V. In addition, the SIMS analysis clearly reveals that the edges of the catalyst pellets are rich in Ca, Mg and Fe while the Ni, V and coke are evenly distributed. Regeneration of the catalyst by calcination removes the carbonaceous material but appears not to change the distribution of the metal contaminants. Retesting of the regenerated catalyst shows a performance similar to that of the fresh catalyst. These data serve to support the view that catalyst deactivation during early use is not due to the skin of Ca and Mg on the pellets but rather via the poisoning of active sites by carbonaceous species.

Carruthers, J.D.; Brinen, J.S.; Komar, D.A.; Greenhouse, S. [CYTEC Industries, Stamford, CT (United States)

1994-12-31

85

Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.  

PubMed

A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

2013-05-01

86

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

87

Serving the Undocumented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

Pluviose, David

2007-01-01

88

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

89

The specific hydrolysis of HIV1 TAR RNA element with the anti-TAR hammerhead ribozyme: structural and functional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main transcriptional regulator of the human immunodeficiency virus is the Tat protein, which recognises and binds to a fragment RNA at the 5? end of viral mRNA, named transactivation response element (TAR) RNA. Extensive mutagenesis studies have shown that a region of TAR RNA important for Tat binding involves a set of nucleotides surrounding a characteristic UCU nucleotide bulge.

Eliza Wyszko; Miroslawa Z Barciszewska; Rolf Bald; Volker A Erdmann; Jan Barciszewski

2001-01-01

90

What are Tar Balls and How Do They Form? Tar balls, the little, dark-colored pieces of oil that  

E-print Network

crude oils mix with water to form an emulsion that often looks like chocolate pudding. This emulsion patches into smaller pieces, or tar balls. While some tar balls may be as large as pancakes, most are coin on the outside and soft and gooey on the inside, not unlike a toasted marshmallow. Turbulence in the water

91

Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of southern California: Implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironm...

92

Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

2012-04-01

93

Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy.  

PubMed

In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-?B itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-?B was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity. PMID:25550185

Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

2015-02-01

94

Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

2014-01-01

95

Expression of chemokine decoy receptors and their ligands at the porcine maternal–fetal interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful pregnancy requires coordinated maternal–fetal cross-talk to establish vascular connections that support conceptus growth. In pigs, two waves of spontaneous fetal loss occur and 30–40% of conceptuses are lost before parturition. Previous studies associated these losses with decreased angiogenic and increased inflammatory cytokines. Chemokines, a sub-category of cytokines, and decoy receptors control leukocyte trafficking, angiogenesis and development. The availability of

Jocelyn M Wessels; Nicola F Linton; Marianne J van den Heuvel; Sonya A Cnossen; Andrew K Edwards; Barbara Anne Croy; Chandrakant Tayade

2011-01-01

96

Blockade of Experimental Atopic Dermatitis via Topical NF-?B Decoy Oligonucleotide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin inflammatory disease. Long-term use of topical corticosteroids in skin inflammation poses risks of systemic and local side effects. The NF-?B transcription factor family plays a central role in the progression and maintenance of AD. This study explores the possibility of using topical NF-?B Decoy as a novel therapeutic alternative for targeting Th1\\/Th2-driven

Maya Dajee; Tony Muchamuel; Brian Schryver; Aung Oo; Jennifer Alleman-Sposeto; Christopher G De Vry; Srinivasa Prasad; Donald Ruhrmund; Radha Shyamsundar; Debra Mutnick; Kim Mai; Tina Le; Christi Parham; Jie Zhang; Laszlo Komuves; Timothy Colby; Susan Hudak; Leslie M McEvoy; Rolf O Ehrhardt

2006-01-01

97

Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

2014-07-01

98

StatServ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offering links to software, publications, data mining, meetings, jobs, consulting, online information (such as courses, datasets, text books, etc.), and institutions, StatServ is your one-stop site for finding information on statistics. The software list contains the linked name of the software and developer, a brief description, and its availability. The Data mining section is a self-contained unit, providing general explanations of data mining and books, conferences, journals, reports, and software that deal with data mining. A search mechanism allows visitors a quick and easy method for finding specific information. Links to newsgroups and mailing lists are also available at the site.

99

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

100

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

101

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16

102

Influence of pentylenetetrazol and NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on p38 expression in neuron-like cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and nuclear factor ? B (NF-?B) decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on p38 expression in neuron-like PC12 cells. In addition, the role of NF-?B activation in the pathogenesis of epilepsy was explored. p38 expression levels in control and PTZ-treated neuron-like PC12 cells were examined using western blotting. NF-?B decoy ODNs were transfected into the neuron-like PC12 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. NF-?B activation was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and p38 expression levels were assessed using western blotting prior to and following transfection of decoy ODNs. Western blot analysis revealed that p38 levels in PTZ-treated neuron-like PC12 cells were significantly higher than those in control cells. CLSM demonstrated that the decoy ODNs inhibited NF-?B activation in neuron-like PC12 cells, and western blotting indicated that the decoy ODNs did not reduce p38 levels. The results of this study indicate that PTZ enhances p38 expression levels and activates NF-?B in PC12 cells. However, NF-?B does not modulate p38 expression levels. PMID:25009589

YANG, JIA-JUN; LI, WEI-HUA; LIU, BANG-JIAN; TANG, RONG-HUA; ZHANG, YU-HONG

2014-01-01

103

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

104

Accurate Assignment of Significance to Neuropeptide Identifications Using Monte Carlo K-Permuted Decoy Databases  

PubMed Central

In support of accurate neuropeptide identification in mass spectrometry experiments, novel Monte Carlo permutation testing was used to compute significance values. Testing was based on k-permuted decoy databases, where k denotes the number of permutations. These databases were integrated with a range of peptide identification indicators from three popular open-source database search software (OMSSA, Crux, and X! Tandem) to assess the statistical significance of neuropeptide spectra matches. Significance p-values were computed as the fraction of the sequences in the database with match indicator value better than or equal to the true target spectra. When applied to a test-bed of all known manually annotated mouse neuropeptides, permutation tests with k-permuted decoy databases identified up to 100% of the neuropeptides at p-value < 10?5. The permutation test p-values using hyperscore (X! Tandem), E-value (OMSSA) and Sp score (Crux) match indicators outperformed all other match indicators. The robust performance to detect peptides of the intuitive indicator “number of matched ions between the experimental and theoretical spectra” highlights the importance of considering this indicator when the p-value was borderline significant. Our findings suggest permutation decoy databases of size 1×105 are adequate to accurately detect neuropeptides and this can be exploited to increase the speed of the search. The straightforward Monte Carlo permutation testing (comparable to a zero order Markov model) can be easily combined with existing peptide identification software to enable accurate and effective neuropeptide detection. The source code is available at http://stagbeetle.animal.uiuc.edu/pepshop/MSMSpermutationtesting. PMID:25329667

Andrén, Per E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

2014-01-01

105

Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-02-07

106

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

107

Classification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and decoys by a support vector machine.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase has long been considered as a target for Alzheimer disease therapy. In this work, several classification models were built for the purpose of distinguishing acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and decoys. Each molecule was initially represented by 211 ADRIANA.Code and 334 MOE descriptors. Correlation analysis, F-score and attribute selection methods in Weka were used to find the best reduced set of descriptors, respectively. Additionally, models were built using a Support Vector Machine and evaluated by 5-, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation. The best model gave a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.99 and a prediction accuracy (Q) of 99.66% for the test set. The best model also gave good result on an external test set of 86 compounds (Q=96.51%, MCC=0.93). The descriptors selected by our models suggest that H-bond and hydrophobicity interactions are important for the classification of AChEIs and decoys. PMID:22263859

Wang, Kai; Hu, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Aixia

2012-07-01

108

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

109

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

110

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

111

A caspase-like decoy molecule enhances the activity of a paralogous caspase in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Caspases are cysteine proteases that play critical roles in apoptosis and other key cellular processes. A mechanism of caspase regulation that has been described in mammals and nematodes involves caspase-like decoy molecules, enzymatically inactive caspase homologs that have arisen by gene duplication and acquired the ability to regulate other caspases. Caspase-like decoy molecules are not found in Drosophila melanogaster, raising the question of whether this type of caspase regulation exists in insects. Phylogenomic analysis of caspase genes from twelve Drosophila and three mosquito species revealed several examples of duplicated caspase homologs lacking critical catalytic residues, making them candidate caspase-like decoy molecules. One of these, CASPS18 from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is a homolog of the D. melanogaster caspase Decay and contains substitutions in two critical amino acid positions, including the catalytic cysteine residue. As expected, CASPS18 lacked caspase activity, but co-expression of CASPS18 with a paralogous caspase, CASPS19, in mosquito cells or co-incubation of CASPS18 and CASPS19 recombinant proteins resulted in greatly enhanced CASPS19 activity. The discovery of potential caspase-like decoy molecules in several insect species opens new avenues for investigating caspase regulation in insects, particularly in disease vectors such as mosquitoes. PMID:20417712

Bryant, Bart; Ungerer, Mark C.; Liu, Qingzhen; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Clem, Rollie J.

2010-01-01

112

HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):265270, Fall 2007 Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries  

E-print Network

consumption by large flocks of juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) is a serious problem for growers starlings. Key words: blueberries, decoy traps, human­wildlife conflicts, relocation, starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, translocation, trapping Small fruit such as blueberries, cherries, and grapes are often subject

113

Predation in the Presence of Decoys: An Inhibitory Factor on Pathogen Control by Bacteriophages or Bdellovibrios in Dense  

E-print Network

Predation in the Presence of Decoys: An Inhibitory Factor on Pathogen Control by Bacteriophages microflora using either bacteriophages or "predatory" bacteria such as Bdellovibrio spp. To date than bacteriophages in their prey selection, each strain preying on a range of gram-negative species

Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

114

Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

1983-01-01

115

New glycoproteomics software, GlycoPep Evaluator, generates decoy glycopeptides de novo and enables accurate false discovery rate analysis for small data sets.  

PubMed

Glycoproteins are biologically significant large molecules that participate in numerous cellular activities. In order to obtain site-specific protein glycosylation information, intact glycopeptides, with the glycan attached to the peptide sequence, are characterized by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). While several emerging automated tools are developed, no consensus is present in the field about the best way to determine the reliability of the tools and/or provide the false discovery rate (FDR). A common approach to calculate FDRs for glycopeptide analysis, adopted from the target-decoy strategy in proteomics, employs a decoy database that is created based on the target protein sequence database. Nonetheless, this approach is not optimal in measuring the confidence of N-linked glycopeptide matches, because the glycopeptide data set is considerably smaller compared to that of peptides, and the requirement of a consensus sequence for N-glycosylation further limits the number of possible decoy glycopeptides tested in a database search. To address the need to accurately determine FDRs for automated glycopeptide assignments, we developed GlycoPep Evaluator (GPE), a tool that helps to measure FDRs in identifying glycopeptides without using a decoy database. GPE generates decoy glycopeptides de novo for every target glycopeptide, in a 1:20 target-to-decoy ratio. The decoys, along with target glycopeptides, are scored against the ETD data, from which FDRs can be calculated accurately based on the number of decoy matches and the ratio of the number of targets to decoys, for small data sets. GPE is freely accessible for download and can work with any search engine that interprets ETD data of N-linked glycopeptides. The software is provided at https://desairegroup.ku.edu/research. PMID:25137014

Zhu, Zhikai; Su, Xiaomeng; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

2014-09-16

116

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

117

Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that currently do not meet the…

Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

2010-01-01

118

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2010-07-01

119

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

120

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2012-07-01

121

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2011-07-01

122

Cell Host & Microbe HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR  

E-print Network

be targeted to improve the efficacy of antiviral therapy. INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- quently, an urgent need exists for new HIV therapies that are less prone to the generation of resistantCell Host & Microbe Article HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR by an Indirect Compensatory

Schaffer, David V.

123

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

124

Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

2008-12-01

125

Sandia tar-sands subprogram FY81 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During FY81, Sandia National Laboratories assisted the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Tar Sands Program in the areas of reservoir access and alternate extraction concepts. This report covers the work done in the areas of controlled source audio magnetotelluric mapping, radio-frequency heating instrumentation, and joint US\\/Canadian permeability enhancement.

J. R. Jr

1982-01-01

126

Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T. [SGI, Gothenburg (Sweden)

2007-09-30

127

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

128

SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

129

Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

Compton, L. E.

1982-01-01

130

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

131

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.  

PubMed

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-01-01

132

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

PubMed Central

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-01-01

133

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2014-04-01

134

Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: Virulence targets or guarded decoys?  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. PMID:21227738

Block, Anna; Alfano, James R.

2011-01-01

135

Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization  

E-print Network

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum+weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Xiang-Chun Ma; Chun-Yan Li; Lin-Mei Liang

2014-07-15

136

Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality  

SciTech Connect

Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

Stauffer, T.

1993-10-15

137

New Hampshire 4-H Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve  

E-print Network

to thank fire, police, and other town safety service workers. Forestry Work with local officials and land kitchen or senior center. Volunteer to assist with serving meals at such facilities. Prepare a meal

New Hampshire, University of

138

Oral nuclear factor-?B decoy oligonucleotides delivery system with chitosan modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres for inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Chitosan (CS)-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (NS) were developed and evaluated for use with a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) decoy oligonucleotide (ODN) oral delivery system in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Decoy ODN-loaded PLGA NS were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion method, and the physicochemical properties of NS were investigated. CS-modified PLGA NS (CS-PLGA NS) showed positive zeta potential, while unmodified PLGA NS (plain-PLGA NS) were negatively charged. Decoy ODN uptake studies with Caco-2 cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that CS-PLGA NS were more effectively taken up by the cells than plain-PLGA NS. Decoy ODN-loaded CS-PLGA NS were able to improve the stability of ODN against DNase I or an acidic medium, such as gastric juice. Daily oral administration of CS-PLGA NS in a rat model significantly improved dextran sulfate sodium-induced diarrhea, bloody feces, shortening of colon length, and myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, decoy ODN-loaded CS-PLGA NS were specifically deposited and adsorbed on the inflamed mucosal tissue of the UC model rat. These results suggested that CS-PLGA NS provide an effective means of colon-specific oral decoy ODN delivery in UC. PMID:20934748

Tahara, Kohei; Samura, Sota; Tsuji, Kaori; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Tsukada, Yusuke; Bando, Yohei; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

2011-01-01

139

Decoy-DNA against special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 inhibits the growth and invasive ability of human breast cancer.  

PubMed

"Triple-negative" (TN) breast cancers, which are characterized by estrogen receptor (-), progesterone receptor (-), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-), are typically associated with poor prognosis because of their aggressive tumor phenotypes. In recent years, the number of patients with breast cancers has remarkably increased, but there are only few available drugs for treatment of TN breast cancers. The development of novel drugs targeting TN breast cancer is urgently required. In the present study, we focused on the function of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) as a target molecule for the treatment of TN breast cancers. By recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcriptional factors, SATB1 regulates the expression of >1,000 genes related to cell growth and translocation. We synthesized a decoy DNA against SATB1, including the recognition sequence of SATB1. We examined the inhibitory effects of the decoy DNAs on cellular proliferation of a TN metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). SATB1-decoy DNA inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Especially, it was significant that SATB1-decoy DNA drastically reduced the invasive and metastatic capacity of MBA-MB-231 cells. Further, in the case of MCF7 cells (SATB1-negative breast cancer cell line), SATB1-decoy DNA did not exhibit any inhibitory effect. These data suggest that SATB1-decoy DNA may be an effective candidate for use as a molecular-targeting drug for treatment of TN breast cancer. PMID:21500976

Yamayoshi, Asako; Yasuhara, Mariko; Galande, Sanjeev; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

2011-01-01

140

The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low?tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low?tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low?tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low?tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low?tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low?tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low?tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low?tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low?tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low?tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low?tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low?tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low?tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low?tar brands in the mid?1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low?tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low?tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low?tar brands. Over the past 30?years, the marketing of low?tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher?tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands dominating the market, and may have kept concerned smokers from quitting. PMID:17130371

Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

2006-01-01

141

Simultaneous upgrading of tar sand bitumen and coal by corefining  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process is described for simultaneously corefining a mixture of comminuted coal and tar sand bitumen to form a liquid refinery feed stock, having improved hydrocarbon content and viscosity and reduced organo-metallic and metal components, which process comprises: (a) combining bitumen substantially separated from tar sands with comminuted raw coal at a coal to liquid weight ratio of from about 1:2 to about 1 to 50 to form a slurry mixture; (b) subjecting the slurry mixture resulting from step (a) to hydrocracking conditions in the absence of added catalyst to produce off-gases and a mixture of co-refined bitumen and coal liquid and coal ash residues; and (c) recovering the corefined improve coal-bitumen liquid as a refinery feedstock.

Hsich, C.R.; Donaldson, W.I.

1988-08-16

142

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

143

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

144

DOE small business program solicits EOR and tar sands projects  

SciTech Connect

Small Business Innovation Research, SBIR, program awards are made in three phases: 1. approximately 100 fixed-price awards in amounts up to $50,000 for a period of 6 1/2 months; 2. promising results from Phase 1 will result in cost-reimbursable awards during FY1988 in amounts up to $500,000 for a 2-year period; 3. non-Federal capital will be used for commercial application of the research. Methods for enhanced oil recovery and recovery of bitumens from tar sands are being sought only in the following areas: new processes for fluid diversion; innovative tracking of flood fronts in recovery processes; and improved recovery efficiency in heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. Four award winners for FY1986 are listed and the methods briefly described.

Not Available

1986-12-01

145

Decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol is proposed to remove the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the assumption that the encoding systems are perfectly characterized. In contrast, the MDI-QKD protocol based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (CHSH-MDI-QKD) weakens this assumption, which only requires the quantum state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space and the devices are independent. In experimental realizations, the weak coherent state, which is always used in QKD systems due to the lack of an ideal single-photon source, may be prepared in the high-dimensional space. In this paper, we investigate the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with s (3?s?5) intensities, including one signal state and s -1 decoy states, and we also consider the finite-size effect on the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with five intensities. Simulation results show that this scheme is very practical.

Zhang, Chun-Mei; Li, Mo; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Han, Yun-Guang; Xu, Man-Li; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2014-09-01

146

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

147

Emissions of tar-containing binders: a laboratory study.  

PubMed

In Switzerland, hot recycling of tar-containing pavements is a subject of much dispute between environmentalists, road authorities and constructors. The main reason for this controversy comes from a lack of knowledge about the amount of hazardous compounds emitted, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the resulting health risk for road workers. On this background we decided to initiate a research project to study the emission behaviour of tar-containing materials. Mixtures of tar and bitumen with variable PAH content were heated in an open reactor flask at different temperatures to identify and quantify the key parameters of PAH emissions. The expected linear correlation between PAH concentration in the fumes and in the binder was found only for binder mixtures with PAH concentrations above 5000 ppm. This was traced back to the problem that a change of the PAH content in the binder was always accompanied by a change of other parameters, like viscosity. In the experiments with temperature variation, emissions of individual PAHs correlated well with vapor pressure. However, for Naphthalene and, in a lesser degree, for 3-ring PAHs too, a partial depletion of these compounds in the vapour was observed in some experiments. The effect is a slower increase with temperature for these compounds compared to 4-6-ring PAHs. This is one reason why the commonly used set of EPA-PAHs, which includes naphthalene and 3-ring PAHs, is considered inappropriate for the assessment of the health hazard in the case of tar-containing materials in hot recycling. PMID:17365290

Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

2007-02-15

148

Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel  

E-print Network

that only about 40 GtC of the tar sands are presently economically extractable. However, if an addiction to tar sands is established, as it would be with big pipelines, you can be confident that the addiction the potential of people dedicated to a righteous cause to initiate a broader public recognition

Hansen, James E.

149

Systemic administration of a cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy oligonucleotide inhibits tumor growth without inducing toxicological effects.  

PubMed

Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to tumorigenesis in most malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Intravenous delivery of a chemically modified cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide with improved serum and thermal stability demonstrated antitumor efficacy in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression such as cyclin D1 and Bcl-X(L) in a mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy of the cyclic STAT3 decoy after multiple intravenous doses in Foxn1 nu mice in anticipation of clinical translation. The two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of cyclic STAT3 decoy demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume compared with the control groups (mutant cyclic STAT3 decoy or saline) in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression. There was no dose-dependent effect of cyclic STAT3 decoy on tumor volume or STAT3 target gene expression. There were no significant changes in body weights between the groups during the dosing period, after the dosing interval or on the day of euthanasia. No hematology or clinical chemistry parameters suggested toxicity of the cyclic STAT3 decoy compared with saline control. No gross or histological pathological abnormalities were noted at necropsy in any of the animals. These findings suggest a lack of toxicity of intravenous administration of a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. In addition, comparable antitumor effects indicate a lack of dose response at the two dose levels investigated. PMID:24395569

Sen, Malabika; Paul, Kathleen; Freilino, Maria L; Li, Hua; Li, Changyou; Johnson, Daniel E; Wang, Lin; Eiseman, Julie; Grandis, Jennifer R

2014-01-01

150

Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.  

PubMed

Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

2014-08-01

151

Meals Served in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

Vivigal, Lisa

152

Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

153

Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

2015-02-01

154

Reconstructing protein structures by neural network pairwise interaction fields and iterative decoy set construction.  

PubMed

Predicting the fold of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the grand problems in computational biology. While there has been progress towards a solution, especially when a protein can be modelled based on one or more known structures (templates), in the absence of templates, even the best predictions are generally much less reliable. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the sequence alone, when templates of known structure are not available. This approach relies on a simple reconstruction procedure guided by a novel knowledge-based evaluation function implemented as a class of artificial neural networks that we have designed: Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields (NNPIF). This evaluation function takes into account the contextual information for each residue and is trained to identify native-like conformations from non-native-like ones by using large sets of decoys as a training set. The training set is generated and then iteratively expanded during successive folding simulations. As NNPIF are fast at evaluating conformations, thousands of models can be processed in a short amount of time, and clustering techniques can be adopted for model selection. Although the results we present here are very preliminary, we consider them to be promising, with predictions being generated at state-of-the-art levels in some of the cases. PMID:24970210

Mirabello, Claudio; Adelfio, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

2014-01-01

155

Professional and Part-Time Chemokine Decoys in the Resolution of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflammation is essential for protection from infection and for the repair of damaged tissue. Much is now known about how inflammation is induced and maintained, but the processes underlying the resolution of inflammation are often overlooked. However, resolution is an essential component of all successful inflammatory responses because it ensures the restoration of tissue homeostasis and prevents immunopathology of the type seen in chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Small secreted proteins called chemokines, acting through chemokine receptors, are known to be critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment and function during the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Thus, their efficient removal would seem to be a prerequisite for successful resolution. In recent years, it has emerged that specialized chemokine "decoy" receptors exist that actively participate in this process. Moreover, other chemokine receptors have been proposed to lead a double life and perform opposing roles during inflammation: leukocyte recruitment (by signaling) and resolution (by chemokine sequestration). A recent study provides further support for this theory by showing that apoptotic inflammatory leukocytes increase the number of surface chemokine receptors and that these receptors can remove chemokines from inflamed tissue. Leukocyte apoptosis is already known to aid resolution, not just because it eliminates leukocytes from inflamed tissues, but also because their consumption by macrophages leads to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The new work indicates that chemokine sequestration may be another mechanism exploited by dying cells to assist in the resolution of inflammation.

Chris Hansell (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology Infection and Inflammation REV); Robert Nibbs (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation REV)

2007-05-01

156

An anti-let-7 sponge decoys and decays endogenous let-7 functions.  

PubMed

The let-7 family contains 12 members, which share identical seed regions, suggesting that they may target the same mRNAs. It is essential to develop a means that can regulate the functions of all members. Using a DNA synthesis technique, we have generated an anti-let-7 sponge aiming to modulate the function of all members. We found that products of the anti-let-7 construct could bind and inactivate all members of the let-7 family, producing decoy and decay effects. To test the role of the anti-let-7 sponge, we stably expressed the anti-let-7 construct in two types of cells, the breast carcinoma cells MT-1 and the oldest and most commonly used human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. We found that expression of anti-let-7 increased cell survival, invasion and adhesion, which corroborate with known functions of let-7 family members. We further identified a novel target site across all species of the let-7 family in hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HAS2 overexpression produced similar effects as the anti-let-7 sponge. Silencing HAS2 expression by siRNAs produced opposite effects to anti-let-7 on cell survival and invasion. The ability of anti-let-7 to regulate multiple members of the let-7 family allows us to observe their multiple functions using a single reagent. This approach can be applied to other family members with conserved sequences. PMID:22871741

Yang, Xiangling; Rutnam, Zina Jeyapalan; Jiao, Chunwei; Wei, Duo; Xie, Yizhen; Du, Jun; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Burton B

2012-08-15

157

A novel conserved mechanism for plant NLR protein pairs: the "integrated decoy" hypothesis.  

PubMed

Plant immunity is often triggered by the specific recognition of pathogen effectors by intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLR). Plant NLRs contain an N-terminal signaling domain that is mostly represented by either a Toll-interleukin1 receptor (TIR) domain or a coiled coil (CC) domain. In many cases, single NLR proteins are sufficient for both effector recognition and signaling activation. However, many paired NLRs have now been identified where both proteins are required to confer resistance to pathogens. Recent detailed studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana TIR-NLR pair RRS1 and RPS4 and on the rice CC-NLR pair RGA4 and RGA5 have revealed for the first time how such protein pairs function together. In both cases, the paired partners interact physically to form a hetero-complex receptor in which each partner plays distinct roles in effector recognition or signaling activation, highlighting a conserved mode of action of NLR pairs across both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We also describe an "integrated decoy" model for the function of these receptor complexes. In this model, a plant protein targeted by an effector has been duplicated and fused to one member of the NLR pair, where it acts as a bait to trigger defense signaling by the second NLR upon effector binding. This mechanism may be common to many other plant NLR pairs. PMID:25506347

Cesari, Stella; Bernoux, Maud; Moncuquet, Philippe; Kroj, Thomas; Dodds, Peter N

2014-01-01

158

Allosteric competitive inactivation of hematopoietic CSF-1 signaling by the viral decoy receptor BARF1.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic human colony-stimulating factor 1 (hCSF-1) is essential for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and microbial infections and cancer. The human pathogen Epstein-Barr virus secretes the lytic-cycle protein BARF1 that neutralizes hCSF-1 to achieve immunomodulation. Here we show that BARF1 binds the dimer interface of hCSF-1 with picomolar affinity, away from the cognate receptor-binding site, to establish a long-lived complex featuring three hCSF-1 at the periphery of the BARF1 toroid. BARF1 locks dimeric hCSF-1 into an inactive conformation, rendering it unable to signal via its cognate receptor on human monocytes. This reveals a new functional role for hCSF-1 cooperativity in signaling. We propose a new viral strategy paradigm featuring an allosteric decoy receptor of the competitive type, which couples efficient sequestration and inactivation of the host growth factor to abrogate cooperative assembly of the cognate signaling complex. PMID:22902366

Elegheert, Jonathan; Bracke, Nathalie; Pouliot, Philippe; Gutsche, Irina; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Verstraete, Kenneth; Bekaert, Anaïs; Burmeister, Wim P; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lambrecht, Bart N; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Savvides, Savvas N

2012-09-01

159

An anti-let-7 sponge decoys and decays endogenous let-7 functions  

PubMed Central

The let-7 family contains 12 members, which share identical seed regions, suggesting that they may target the same mRNAs. It is essential to develop a means that can regulate the functions of all members. Using a DNA synthesis technique, we have generated an anti-let-7 sponge aiming to modulate the function of all members. We found that products of the anti-let-7 construct could bind and inactivate all members of the let-7 family, producing decoy and decay effects. To test the role of the anti-let-7 sponge, we stably expressed the anti-let-7 construct in two types of cells, the breast carcinoma cells MT-1 and the oldest and most commonly used human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. We found that expression of anti-let-7 increased cell survival, invasion and adhesion, which corroborate with known functions of let-7 family members. We further identified a novel target site across all species of the let-7 family in hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HAS2 overexpression produced similar effects as the anti-let-7 sponge. Silencing HAS2 expression by siRNAs produced opposite effects to anti-let-7 on cell survival and invasion. The ability of anti-let-7 to regulate multiple members of the let-7 family allows us to observe their multiple functions using a single reagent. This approach can be applied to other family members with conserved sequences. PMID:22871741

Yang, Xiangling; Rutnam, Zina Jeyapalan; Jiao, Chunwei; Wei, Duo; Xie, Yizhen; Du, Jun; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Burton B.

2012-01-01

160

In-Bed Catalytic Tar Reduction in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Steam Gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nickel-enriched catalytic bed material was tested for tar reduction in a 100 kWth dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier. Gas composition and tar content were measured after the reactor and compared with data from gasification tests without a catalytic bed material. H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 contents in the product gas, as well as tar conversion rates, are reported

Christoph Pfeifer; Reinhard Rauch; Hermann Hofbauer

2004-01-01

161

Effects of intratracheal administration of nuclear factor-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on long-term cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and pathology in mice  

PubMed Central

To determine if nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation may be a key factor in lung inflammation and respiratory dysfunction, we investigated whether NF-?B can be blocked by intratracheal administration of NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and whether decoy ODN-mediated NF-?B inhibition can prevent smoke-induced lung inflammation, respiratory dysfunction, and improve pathological alteration in the small airways and lung parenchyma in the long-term smoke-induced mouse model system. We also detected changes in transcriptional factors. In vivo, the transfection efficiency of NF-?B decoy ODNs to alveolar macrophages in BALF was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled NF-?B decoy ODNs and flow cytometry post intratracheal ODN administration. Pulmonary function was measured by pressure sensors, and pathological changes were assessed using histology and the pathological Mias software. NF-?B and activator protein 1(AP-1) activity was detected by the electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA). Mouse cytokine and chemokine pulmonary expression profiles were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue homogenates, respectively, after repeated exposure to cigarette smoke. After 24 h, the percentage of transfected alveolar macrophages was 30.00 ± 3.30%. Analysis of respiratory function indicated that transfection of NF-?B decoy ODNs significantly impacted peak expiratory flow (PEF), and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology displayed evidence of decreased macrophage infiltration in airways compared to normal saline-treated or scramble NF-?B decoy ODNs smoke exposed mice. NF-?B decoy ODNs inhibited significantly level of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1? and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1) in lung homogenates compared to normal saline-treated smoke exposed mice. In contrast, these NF-?B decoy ODNs-treated mice showed significant increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor-?(TNF-?) and pro-MMP-9(pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9) in mice BALF. Further measurement revealed administration of NF-?B decoy ODNs did not prevent pathological changes. These findings indicate that NF-?B activation play an important role on the recruitment of macrophages and pulmonary dysfunction in smoke-induced chronic lung inflammation, and with the exception of NF-?B pathway, there might be complex mechanism governing molecular dynamics of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and structural changes in small airways and pulmonary parenchyma in vivo. PMID:19706153

2009-01-01

162

Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

PubMed Central

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

163

Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.  

PubMed

One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

2014-01-01

164

The Presence of Conspecific Decoys Enhances the Attractiveness of an NaCl Resource to the Yellow-Spined Locust, Ceracris kiangsu  

PubMed Central

Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl—treated filter paper. In a two—choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCL) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl—treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources. PMID:21539416

Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

2011-01-01

165

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

2011-05-01

166

Technologies for the development of Trinidad`s tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago possesses a tar sand deposit containing an estimated 950 million barrels of bitumen within its leases. The resource is a sand-stone reservoir, the Lower Morne L`Enfer Formation which is of Pliocene age. It spans 12.84 square kilometres (3,179 acres) and occurs as a surface and near surface deposit, of which a substantial portion may be exploitable by a surface mining/extraction type process. Geologically, the Formation was divided into five stratigraphic units A to E in order of decreasing depth. Electric log data indicated that units C and D were the most extensively developed and were the primary ore targets for a mining project. The sensitivity of potential reserves with depth was determined on moving a horizontal line down the resource. Potential mineable reserves increased gradually down to 120 metres (400 feet) sub-surface (30 metres sub-sea), after which it increased dramatically down to 270 metres (900 feet). Stripping ratios, defined as reject to pay, of probable mining projects ranged from 1.0 within the topography above sea-level to a value of about 1.4 to the base of the deposit. Processing of mined tar sands by solvent, aqueous, and thermal extraction was evaluated from tar sand characterization data and laboratory experimentation. Solvent extraction by several locally available solvents: naphtha, condensate, platformate, and kerosene was evaluated through dissolution studies and rotating disk experiments. Platformate, kerosene, and condensate were shown to have solubilities greater than 95% and dissolution fluxes of 2.3 to 9.0 x 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s at 500 rpm. These solvents were predicted to yield recoveries of 0.81 barrels/tonne of bitumen from good grade tar sand. The analysis done for a 25-year project producing 30,000 barrels/day yielded undiscounted supply costs for asphalt of $15.50 and for synthetic crude oil of $19.70 U.S./barrel.

Maharaj, U.S.; Sukhu, H. [Petroleum Co., Pointe-a-Pierre (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

167

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21

168

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26

169

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

170

?-Arrestin Recruitment and G Protein Signaling by the Atypical Human Chemokine Decoy Receptor CCX-CKR*  

PubMed Central

Chemokine receptors form a large subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that predominantly activate heterotrimeric Gi proteins and are involved in immune cell migration. CCX-CKR is an atypical chemokine receptor with high affinity for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 chemokines, but is not known to activate intracellular signaling pathways. However, CCX-CKR acts as decoy receptor and efficiently internalizes these chemokines, thereby preventing their interaction with other chemokine receptors, like CCR7 and CCR9. Internalization of fluorescently labeled CCL19 correlated with ?-arrestin2-GFP translocation. Moreover, recruitment of ?-arrestins to CCX-CKR in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 was demonstrated using enzyme-fragment complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods. To unravel why CCX-CKR is unable to activate Gi signaling, CCX-CKR chimeras were constructed by substituting its intracellular loops with the corresponding CCR7 or CCR9 domains. The signaling properties of chimeric CCX-CKR receptors were characterized using a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter gene assay. Unexpectedly, wild type CCX-CKR and a subset of the chimeras induced an increase in CRE activity in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 in the presence of the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin. CCX-CKR signaling to CRE required an intact DRY motif. These data suggest that inactive Gi proteins impair CCX-CKR signaling most likely by hindering the interaction of this receptor with pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins that transduce signaling to CRE. On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold ?-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways. PMID:23341447

Watts, Anne O.; Verkaar, Folkert; van der Lee, Miranda M. C.; Timmerman, Claudia A. W.; Kuijer, Martien; van Offenbeek, Jody; van Lith, Lambertus H. C. J.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob; Zaman, Guido J. R.; Vischer, Henry F.

2013-01-01

171

Controlled release of NFkappaB decoy oligonucleotides from biodegradable polymer microparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate a poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA/PEG) delivery system for nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) decoy phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (ODNs). PLGA/PEG microparticles loaded with ODNs were fabricated with entrapment efficiencies up to 70%. The effects of PEG contents (0, 5, and l0 wt%), ODN loading densities (0.4, 4, and 40 microg/mg), and pH of the incubation medium (pH 5, 7.4. and 10) on ODN release kinetics from the PLGA/PEG microparticles were investigated in vitro for up to 28 days. The release profiles in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were characterized by an initial burst during the first 2 days, a linear release phase until day 18, and a final release phase for the rest of the period. Up to 85% of the ODNs were released after 28 days in pH 7.4 PBS regardless of the ODN loading density and PEG content. Higher ODN loading densities resulted in lower entrapment efficiencies and greater initial burst effects. The bulk degradation of PLGA was not significantly affected by the PEG content and ODN loading density, but significantly accelerated at acidic buffer pH. Under acidic and basic conditions, the aggregation of microparticles resulted in significantly lower cumulative mass of released ODNs than that released at neutral pH. The effects of pH were reduced by the incorporation of PEG into PLGA microparticles. Since the PLGA degradation products are acidic, PLGA/PEG microparticles might provide a better ODN delivery vehicle than PLGA microparticles. These results suggest that PLGA/PEG microparticles are useful as delivery vehicles for controlled release of ODNs and merit further investigation in cell culture and animal models of glioblastoma. PMID:12059017

Zhu, Xun; Lu, Lichun; Currier, Bradford L; Windebank, Anthony J; Yaszemski, Michael J

2002-07-01

172

Improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method  

E-print Network

We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement device independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method. After introducing some relations among different fluctuation ratios, we reanalysis the effect of statistical fluctuations and obtain more tight estimations. Based on this, we find that the key rate is improved by about 97% than the result given by Xu., et al. (Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333) in the case of data-size $10^{12}$ for the distance 50km.

Zong-Wen Yu; Yi-Heng Zhou; Xiang-Bin Wang

2014-10-13

173

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

174

Maltose-binding protein interacts simultaneously and asymmetrically with both subunits of the Tar chemoreceptor.  

PubMed

The Tar chemotactic signal transducer of Escherichia coli mediates attractant responses to L-aspartate and to maltose. Aspartate binds across the subunit interface of the periplasmic receptor domain of a Tar homodimer. Maltose, in contrast, first binds to the periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP), which in its ligand-stabilized closed form then interacts with Tar. Intragenic complementation was used to determine the MBP-binding site on the Tar dimer. Mutations causing certain substitutions at residues Tyr-143, Asn-145, Gly-147, Tyr-149, and Phe-150 of Tar lead to severe defects in maltose chemotaxis, as do certain mutations affecting residues Arg-73, Met-76, Asp-77, and Ser-83. These two sets of mutations defined two complementation groups when the defective proteins were co-expressed at equal levels from compatible plasmids. We conclude that MBP contacts both subunits of the Tar dimer simultaneously and asymmetrically. Mutations affecting Met-75 could not be complemented, suggesting that this residue is important for association of MBP with each subunit of the Tar dimer. When the residues involved in interaction with MBP were mapped onto the crystal structure of the Tar periplasmic domain, they localized to a groove at the membrane-distal apex of the domain and also extended onto one shoulder of the apical region. PMID:9106209

Gardina, P J; Bormans, A F; Hawkins, M A; Meeker, J W; Manson, M D

1997-03-01

175

Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that

Ramesh Raju Mudunuri; Namit Jaiswal; Harold J. Vinegar; John Michael Karanikas

2010-01-01

176

Response and acclimatisation of symptomless smokers on changing to a low tar, low nicotine cigarette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten symptomless smokers were switched from their usual cigarette to a low tar, low nicotine test cigarette for two weeks to investigate their immediate response and subsequent acclimatisation to the test cigarette. The tar (T) and nicotine (N) yields of the test cigarettes were T = 3.8 mg, N = 0.6 mg; the median yields of the usual cigarettes were

G Woodman; S P Newman; D Pavia; S W Clarke

1987-01-01

177

Shakedown operations in commercial production of sulfuric acid from acid tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe process technology for processing acid tars to obtain sulfuric acid by means of high temperature splitting to regenerate spent sulfuric acid contaminated with organic impurities. An illustration presents a simplified flow plan for acid tar processing. The authors conclude, from experience with this unit, that process indexes meet design requirements, in particular with respect to the degree

V. M. Perfilev; V. B. Golyshev; A. D. Goncharenko; A. M. Shtafinskaya; V. S. Sushchev

1985-01-01

178

A Laboratory Study of Wilmington Tar Zone CO2 Injection Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a laboratory study of heavy-oil recovery by COâ injection to support the Wilmington, CA tar zone COâ injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Co. The study comprised (1) phase behavior of Wilmington tar zone reservoir oil and COâ, and (2) phase behavior of the oil and the refinery gas used for the field project, (3)

Vega Sankur; J. L. Creek; S. S. DiJulio; A. S. Emanuel

1986-01-01

179

Unconventional Pilot Steam Drive, Tar V Sand, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the design, implementation and history of the unconventional pilot steam drive (greater than 2,500 ft measured depth) that has been underway since December 24, 1980 in the Tar reservoir in the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes the project through November 30, 1983. The Tar V reservoir is a series of

K. D. Jung

1984-01-01

180

The reduction and control technology of tar during biomass gasification\\/pyrolysis: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is an important primary energy source as well as renewable energy source. As the most promising biomass utilization method, gasification\\/pyrolysis produces not only useful fuel gases, char and chemicals, but also some byproducts like fly ash, NOx, SO2 and tar. Tar in the product gases will condense at low temperature, and lead to clogged or blockage in fuel lines,

Jun Han; Heejoon Kim

2008-01-01

181

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2011-04-01

182

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2012-04-01

183

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2014-04-01

184

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2010-04-01

185

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2013-04-01

186

Thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 75 runs was made under thermal processing conditions at near-ambient pressure with tar sands from three different deposits: Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and Asphalt Ridge. Data from representatives runs for feed materials from each of the three deposits are given. A complete accounting of all the bitumen in the feed material was not achieved because of difficulties

K. M. Jayakar; J. D. Seader; A. G. Oblad; K. C. Hanks

1980-01-01

187

Investigation of Combustion Kinetic Cooking Oil Tar Samples with Thermogravimetric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking fire not only brought huge economic losses and adverse social impact. The combustible material of fire in fog discharge pipe is the cooking oil tar. In order to solve the problem of fire in fog discharge pipe, it is necessary to research the combustion characteristics of cooking oil tar and design feasible automatic fire alarm system and fire-extinguishing

Xie Zheng-wen; Su Kai-yu; Wu Chao

2011-01-01

188

Elucidation of interaction among cellulose, lignin and xylan during tar and gas evolution in steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time profiles of evolution rates of gas and tar in steam gasification of model biomass samples were examined using a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor to elucidate the interaction of the major biomass components (cellulose, xylan, lignin) during gas and tar evolution. Two types of model biomass samples (sample A: mixture of cellulose (65wt%) and lignin (35wt%); sample

Chihiro Fushimi; Shingo Katayama; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2009-01-01

189

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

190

Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.  

PubMed Central

TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) belongs to an RNA binding protein family that includes the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), Drosophila Staufen and Xenopus xlrbpa. One member of this family, PKR, is a serine/threonine kinase which has anti-viral and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we show that TRBP is a cellular down-regulator of PKR function. Assaying expression from an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone, we found that PKR inhibited viral protein synthesis and that over-expression of TRBP effectively countered this inhibition. In intracellular and in cell-free assays we show that TRBP directly inhibits PKR autophosphorylation through an RNA binding-independent pathway. Biologically, TRBP serves a growth-promoting role; cells that overexpress TRBP exhibit transformed phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic potential of TRBP and are consistent with the notion that intracellular PKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:9034343

Benkirane, M; Neuveut, C; Chun, R F; Smith, S M; Samuel, C E; Gatignol, A; Jeang, K T

1997-01-01

191

Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.  

PubMed

TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) belongs to an RNA binding protein family that includes the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), Drosophila Staufen and Xenopus xlrbpa. One member of this family, PKR, is a serine/threonine kinase which has anti-viral and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we show that TRBP is a cellular down-regulator of PKR function. Assaying expression from an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone, we found that PKR inhibited viral protein synthesis and that over-expression of TRBP effectively countered this inhibition. In intracellular and in cell-free assays we show that TRBP directly inhibits PKR autophosphorylation through an RNA binding-independent pathway. Biologically, TRBP serves a growth-promoting role; cells that overexpress TRBP exhibit transformed phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic potential of TRBP and are consistent with the notion that intracellular PKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:9034343

Benkirane, M; Neuveut, C; Chun, R F; Smith, S M; Samuel, C E; Gatignol, A; Jeang, K T

1997-02-01

192

Structure-based design of decoy chemokines as a way to explore the pharmacological potential of glycosaminoglycans  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of highly negatively charged, unbranched, O-linked polysaccharides that are involved in many diseases. Their role as a protein-binding matrix on cell surfaces has long been recognized, but therapeutic approaches to interfere with protein–GAG interactions have been limited due to the complex chemistry of GAGs, on one hand, and due to the lack of specific antibodies against GAGs, on the other hand. We have developed a protein engineering platform (the so-called CellJammer® technology), which enables us to introduce higher GAG-binding affinity into wild-type GAG-binding proteins and to combine this with impaired biological, receptor-binding function. Chemokines are among the prototypic GAG-binding proteins and here we present selected results of our CellJammer technology applied to several of these proinflammatory proteins. An overview is given of our lead decoy protein, PA401, which is a CXCL8-based mutant protein with increased GAG-binding affinity and decreased CXCR1/2 binding and activation. Major results from our CCL2 and CCL5 programmes are also summarized and the potential for clinical application of these decoy proteins is presented. PMID:22747966

Adage, Tiziana; Piccinini, Anna-Maria; Falsone, Angelika; Trinker, Martin; Robinson, James; Gesslbauer, Bernd; Kungl, Andreas J

2012-01-01

193

Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest distribution and annual harvest rates of mallards due to increasing use of SWDs by hunters in North America.

Szymanski, M.L.; Afton, A.D.

2005-01-01

194

Comparison and analysis on test methods of infrared radiant intensity of infrared decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research on infrared radiant characteristics of typical target is important for the detection and recognition of target, infrared simulation calculation and design of electro-optical countermeasures. Thus it is essential to select appropriate test method and optimal calculation method to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity. In this paper, three instruments including SR5000 spectroradiometer (CI, MigdalHaEmek, Israel), remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 (Bruker, Germany) and Image IR8325 (InfraTec Ltd, Germany) mid-infrared thermal imager were applied to test the infrared radiant (1?m-3?m - 3?m-5?m) intensity of decoy samples. Three methods were designed based on two operational principles including direct test and indirect test. The SR5000 spectroradiometer which is able to obtain the value of radian intensity immediately is regard as direct test. The other two instruments which deduce and calculate infrared radiant intensity according to Planck's law and Lambert's cosine law with some preliminary tested parameters such as the response voltage - the distribution of infrared radiant temperature of flaming samples and calibrated data by blackbody, however, are regard as indirect test. Reasons for the diversity of experiment results were provided through analysis on the concrete measurement theory and detailed calculation methods. Moreover, some rules and suggestions were put forward to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity when different methods were adopted. It is shown from experiment results that the average mid-infrared radiant intensity obtained from SR5000 was about 903W/Sr in near-infrared band - whereas Tensor 37 and Image IR8325 was about 834W/Sr and 547 W/Sr respectively. It was proved that maximum relative of calculated results from remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and results measured with SR5000 spectroradiometer is below 13%, which meet the general accuracy requirements. Although rigorous reasoning applied, results gained by Image IR8325 mid-infrared thermal imager varied so much from above-mentioned two instruments and the relative error is about 25%~40%. It is analyzed that complexity of the measurement procedure and similarity hypothesis is the main reason for the errors generated.

Chen, Chunsheng; Dai, Mengyan; Liu, Haifeng; Fang, Guofeng; Xie, Changyou; Zhang, Tong

2014-11-01

195

Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid ?-glycosyltransferase.  

PubMed

Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, resistance, and virulence. The search for the enzymes responsible for GlcNAcylation in Staphylococcus aureus has recently identified TarM and TarS with respective ?- and ?-(1-4) glycosyltransferase activities. The stereochemistry of the GlcNAc attachment is important in balancing biological processes, such that the interplay of TarM and TarS is likely important for bacterial pathogenicity and survival. Here we present the crystal structure of TarM in an unusual ternary-like complex consisting of a polymeric acceptor substrate analog, UDP from a hydrolyzed donor, and an ?-glyceryl-GlcNAc product formed in situ. These structures support an internal nucleophilic substitution-like mechanism, lend new mechanistic insight into the glycosylation of glycopolymers, and reveal a trimerization domain with a likely role in acceptor substrate scaffolding. PMID:25624472

Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Worrall, Liam James; Gruninger, Robert J; Wasney, Gregory A; Blaukopf, Markus; Baumann, Lars; Lameignere, Emilie; Solomonson, Matthew; Brown, Eric D; Withers, Stephen G; Strynadka, Natalie C J

2015-02-10

196

Impact of Asphaltenes and Resins on the Wetting Characteristics of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tars produced as a byproduct of coal and oil gasification at manufactured gas plants (MGPs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries were often released into the environment through poor disposal practices or leaks in holding tanks and piping. These tars are persistent contaminants, leaching polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into groundwater and posing a significant risk to human and ecological health. MGP tars also have several properties that make them notoriously difficult to remediate. They are denser than water, so they can migrate to depths which make direct removal difficult or impossible, and their relatively high viscosities and ability to alter the wetting characteristics of porous media result in inefficient removal by traditional pump-and-treat methods. In this study, we investigate the last of these properties. Previous studies have linked wetting changes to asphaltenes---polar, high molecular weight compounds present in the tars. However, we have conducted qualitative bottle tests for tar samples collected from two former MGPs which indicate that there is no direct correlation between asphaltene concentration and the tendency to alter wetting characteristics of porous media. To better understand the factors controlling wetting behavior, we isolate asphaltenes and resins, another class of polar compounds, from a tar sample and recombine them with the remaining PAH mixture to create a series of tars of varying composition. We assess the relative impact of each of the fractions on wettability through contact angle measurements conducted at three different pHs.

Hauswirth, S. C.; Birak, P. S.; Rylander, S.; Pedit, J. A.; Miller, C. T.

2008-12-01

197

Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California  

SciTech Connect

Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

2000-01-01

198

Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

2014-01-01

199

Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

2012-06-01

200

Relationship between cigarette yields, puffing patterns, and smoke intake: evidence for tar compensation?  

PubMed Central

The relationship between cigarette yields (of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide), puffing patterns, and smoke intake was studied by determining puffing patterns and measuring blood concentrations of nicotine and carboxy-haemoglobin (COHb) in a sample of 55 smokers smoking their usual brand of cigarette. Regression analyses showed that the total volume of smoke puffed from a cigarette was a more important determinant of peak blood nicotine concentration than the nicotine or tar yield of the cigarette, its length, or the reported number of cigarettes smoked on the test day. There was evidence of compensation for a lower tar yield over and above any compensation for nicotine. When nicotine yield was controlled for, smokers of lower-tar cigarettes not only puffed more smoke from their cigarettes than smokers of higher-tar cigarettes but they also had higher plasma nicotine concentrations, suggesting that they were compensating for the reduced delivery of tar by puffing and inhaling a greater volume of smoke. The results based on the COHb concentrations were consistent with this interpretation. If an adequate intake of tar proves to be one of the main motives for smoking, then developing a cigarette that is acceptable to smokers and also less harmful to their health will be much more difficult. PMID:6819031

Sutton, S R; Russell, M A; Iyer, R; Feyerabend, C; Saloojee, Y

1982-01-01

201

Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.  

PubMed

Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. PMID:24507874

He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

2014-03-01

202

Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R decoys quiescent cancer cells to cycle as visualized by FUCCI imaging and become sensitive to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Quiescent cancer cells are resistant to cytotoxic agents which target only proliferating cancer cells. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) decoyed cancer cells in monolayer culture and in tumor spheres to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, as demonstrated by fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging. A1-R infection of FUCCI-expressing subcutaneous tumors growing in nude mice also decoyed quiescent cancer cells, which were the majority of the cells in the tumors, to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, thereby making them sensitive to cytotoxic agents. The combination of A1-R and cisplatinum or paclitaxel reduced tumor size compared with A1-R monotherapy or cisplatinum or paclitaxel alone. The results of this study demonstrate that A1-R can decoy quiescent cancer cells to cycle to S/G2/M and sensitize them to cytotoxic chemotherapy. These results suggest a new paradigm of bacterial-decoy chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:25483077

Yano, Shuya; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Uehara, Fuminari; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

2014-12-15

203

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01

204

Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

1994-01-01

205

Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

2006-06-15

206

Serving the world's poor, profitably.  

PubMed

By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets. PMID:12227146

Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

2002-09-01

207

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01

208

PYRAMID SERVINGS SEARCH VERSION 2.0  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This search tool has been updated to display data from the Pyramid Servings Database for USDA Survey Food Codes Version 2.0. Pyramid Servings Search Version 2.0 is a simple, intuitive and an effective instrument for viewing information on the number of Pyramid Servings assigned to foods used to pro...

209

REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL  

E-print Network

REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL Requestor's Name of alcohol served and to prevent individuals from driving, if impaired, or returning to work. Approved: (1 Services, Building 400. NOTE: No alcohol may be served during sports activities until games are completed

210

Python programming --Web serving Finn Arup Nielsen  

E-print Network

Python programming -- Web serving Finn °Arup Nielsen Department of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical University of Denmark September 30, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Web serving Overview Google App Engine Finn °Arup Nielsen 1 September 30, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Web serving Methods

211

Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.  

PubMed

This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2013-12-01

212

Destruction of Tar During Oxidative and Nonoxidative Pyrolysis of Bituminous Coal in a Fluidized Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yields of tar on devolatilization of bituminous coal were measured in a small scale fluidized bed reactor, under conditions pertinent to large scale bubbling atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustors(AFBC). The tar was collected by cooling the entire product stream from the reactor using a water-cooled quartz tube, followed by a filter for particulate matter, and a polystyrene sorbent (XAD-2)

HÜSEYÍN VURAL; PETER M. WALSH; ADEL F. SAROFIM; J?NOS M. BEÉR

1989-01-01

213

A novel biomass air gasification process for producing tar-free higher heating value fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a promising sustainable energy source. A tar-free fuel gas can be obtained in a properly designed biomass gasification process. In the current study, a tar-free biomass gasification process by air was proposed. This concept was demonstrated on a lab-scale fluidized bed using sawdust under autothermic conditions. This lab-scale model gasifier combined two individual regions of pyrolysis, gasification, and

Yan Cao; Yang Wang; John T. Riley; Wei-Ping Pan

2006-01-01

214

Properties of Utah tar sands: Threemile Canyon area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of detailed analyses of 4 cores from the Threemile Canyon area in the P.R. Spring tar sand deposit in Utah are reported by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The cores were obtained by the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey as part of a 17-corehole evaluation program in the P.R. Spring, Hill Creek, and Rim Rock tar sand deposits. Average

L. C. Marchant; L. A. Johnson; C. Q. Cupps

1974-01-01

215

Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ?PAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ?PAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

2010-12-01

216

A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production  

SciTech Connect

Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.

Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Environmental Research Inst.

1996-11-01

217

Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.  

PubMed

This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix. PMID:19085592

Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

2009-01-01

218

Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.  

PubMed

Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations. PMID:12402101

Furimsky, Edward

2002-12-01

219

Improvements in the processing of coal tar and its fractions  

SciTech Connect

As soon as UKhIN was founded it took on the urgent problems of raising the technical standards of coal tar, fraction and pitch processing and extending the range of products to meet the demand from the expanding allied sectors of industry (chemical, organic synthesis, electrodes, etc.). One important research topic at UKhIN was the production of individual substances and technical products from various feedstocks. The results included the first production in the USSR, on an adequate scale, of products such as acenaphthene, anthracene, carbazole, phenanthrene, diphenylene oxide, fluorene, ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-methylnaphthalenes, indole, acridine, pyridine, ..cap alpha..-picoline, quinoline and its derivatives, phenol, cresol isomers, etc. For many years, the UKhIN program included work relating to the production of technical and refined naphthalene and the equipment needs. The results provided the basis for UKrNIIkhimmash designs of improved continuous apparatus for naphthalene fraction processing. Its adoption has increased labor productivity, automated process control, improved the degree of naphthalene recovery and improved working conditions. UKhIN participated on a large scale in the investigations, with NIOPIK and the chemical plants, to establish the possibility of making phtahlic anhydride from various naphthalene-containing feedstocks and organize phthalic anhydride production. Other important topics have been the catalytic refining of naphthalene fractions and refined anthracene production.

Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, M.A.

1980-01-01

220

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28

221

Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations

FRANS J. JONGENEELEN; PAUL T. J. SCHEEPERS; ANITA GROENENDIJK; LEON A. G. J. M. VAN AERTS; ROB B. M. ANZION; ROBERT P. BOS; SIEBRAND J. VEENSTRA

1988-01-01

222

Skin tumorigenesis in mice by petroleum asphalts and coal-tar pitches of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumorigenic effect of polynuclear hydrocarbons contained in petroleum asphalts and coal-tar pitches was investigated in mice given topical applications of coal-tars and asphalts. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the 2 media included coronene, picene, benzo(e)pyrene, chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and phenanthracene. Asphalt (2.5 mg) or coal-tar pitch (1.7 mg) was applied to a 1 square inch zone of the dorsal skin

L. Wallcave; H. Garcia; R. Feldman; W. Lijinsky; P. Shubik

1971-01-01

223

Solid-phase synthesis and thermal denaturation study of cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop.  

PubMed

Cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop have been synthesized following a convenient solid-phase strategy which allows on-resin cyclisation. UV-monitored thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that these cyclic PNAs are able to strongly interact with their TAR RNA target, very likely through the formation of a six-base pair stable complex, involving the TAR RNA loop. PMID:17826994

Upert, Gregory; Mehiri, Mohamed; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Condom, Roger; Patino, Nadia

2007-11-01

224

A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar.  

PubMed

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal. PMID:25190671

Hauswirth, Scott C; Miller, Cass T

2014-10-15

225

A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

2014-10-01

226

New perspective for the development of Bemolanga Tar Sand Project  

SciTech Connect

As known, Madagascar has available tar sand deposit which is estimated at 3 billions tons. During the past ten years, OMNIS, a stage agency for hydrocarbons exploration, performed studies (prefeasibility and feasibility) the aim of which was to produce a 15,000 BPD of synthetic crude to satisfy domestic petroleum needs this potential resource. In the framework of this project, some bitumen extraction processes were tested at the scales of laboratory and/or pilot-unit (CLARK HOT WATER process, TOSCO process, L.R. process, RTR process, and AOSTRA/Taciuk process). In addition, mining and upgrading engineering evaluations were carried out. The results of these investigations display that an ore open-pit mining exploitation, bitumen extraction and upgrading are technically feasible. Nevertheless, some problems arise for the economy of the whole project which is capital intensive and marginal. In the actual petroleum industry environment, where crude prices continue to drop and no perspective price increase is anticipated in the near future, it is difficult or even impossible to promote the project and attract petroleum companies. This unfavourable situation leads to review and consideration of alternatives for the development of this huge resource which could assist the Malagasy Republic with its economy. After the presentation of the main results issued from Bemolanga syncrude production project, this paper deals with such alternative and attempts to elaborate an outline for a new concept of the development of Bemolanga resource. This preliminary outline, considered in the actual Malagasy economic framework where private national and/or international investment is encouraged, tries to overcome the requirement of a high initial investment cost for an industrial scale plant by an approach via a demonstration unit which produces a road bitumen and could further finance the extension to an industrial syncrude production plant.

Rakoto-Andriantsilavo, M.D.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.; Spariharijaona, A. [Office des Mines Nationales et des Industries Strategiques, Antanarivo (Madagascar)

1995-12-31

227

Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.  

PubMed

The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers. PMID:11820470

Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

2001-12-15

228

Efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), on cattle in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in Zimbabwe. The tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containingo-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin).o-Nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of theA. hebraeum attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone,

R. A. I. Norval; Daniel E. Sonenshine; Sandra A. Allan; Michael J. Burridge

1996-01-01

229

A 2.5kV to 22V, 1kW radar decoy power supply using silicon carbide semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.5kVdc to 22Vdc 1kW power supply utilizing 3.2kV silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs and Schottky diodes is presented. The power supply provides power to solid-state microwave power amplifiers in an aircraft towed radar decoy. High voltage silicon carbide semiconductors are utilized to switch the high voltage at high frequency without requiring input series connection of devices or converters. A half

Amit K. Jain; David McIntosh; Matt Jones; Brian Ratliff

2011-01-01

230

Adult Day Care: Teaching and Serving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hattiesburg Senior Services Center, a cooperative project of the University of Southern Mississippi and the city, serves a wide range of older persons from the ambulatory to the frail. It also provides a closely supervised training laboratory for university students preparing for professions that serve aging populations. (SK)

Clayton, Kermeta "Kay"; Rowland, Virginia

1990-01-01

231

Science Serving Vermonters Dairy Center of Excellence  

E-print Network

Science Serving Vermonters Dairy Center of Excellence #12;The University of Vermont DAIRY CENTER of EXCELLENCE Science Serving Vermonters A New Way to Benefit Dairy Producers · Forging Partnerships: UVM, Farmers, Industry & Government · Engaging Vermont Farmers as Research Partners · Helping Vermont

Bermingham, Laura Hill

232

A beta-complex statistical four body contact potential combined with a hydrogen bond statistical potential recognizes the correct native structure from protein decoy sets.  

PubMed

We present a new four-body knowledge-based potential for recognizing the native state of proteins from their misfolded states. This potential was extracted from a large set of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography using BetaMol, a software based on the recent theory of the beta-complex (?-complex) and quasi-triangulation of the Voronoi diagram of spheres. This geometric construct reflects the size difference among atoms in their full Euclidean metric; property not accounted for in a typical 3D Delaunay triangulation. The ability of this potential to identify the native conformation over a large set of decoys was evaluated. Experiments show that this potential outperforms a potential constructed with a classical Delaunay triangulation in decoy discrimination tests. The addition of a statistical hydrogen bond potential to our four-body potential allows a significant improvement in the decoy discrimination, in such a way that we are able to predict successfully the native structure in 90% of cases. PMID:23568277

Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Deok-Soo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón

2013-08-01

233

An improved method for the construction of decoy peptide MS/MS spectra suitable for the accurate estimation of false discovery rates.  

PubMed

The relevance of libraries of annotated MS/MS spectra is growing with the amount of proteomic data generated in high-throughput experiments. These reference libraries provide a fast and accurate way to identify newly acquired MS/MS spectra. In the context of multiple hypotheses testing, the control of the number of false-positive identifications expected in the final result list by means of the calculation of the false discovery rate (FDR). In a classical sequence search where experimental MS/MS spectra are compared with the theoretical peptide spectra calculated from a sequence database, the FDR is estimated by searching randomized or decoy sequence databases. Despite on-going discussion on how exactly the FDR has to be calculated, this method is widely accepted in the proteomic community. Recently, similar approaches to control the FDR of spectrum library searches were discussed. We present in this paper a detailed analysis of the similarity between spectra of distinct peptides to set the basis of our own solution for decoy library creation (DeLiberator). It differs from the previously published results in some key points, mainly in implementing new methods that prevent decoy spectra from being too similar to the original library spectra while keeping important features of real MS/MS spectra. Using different proteomic data sets and library creation methods, we evaluate our approach and compare it with alternative methods. PMID:21898822

Ahrné, Erik; Ohta, Yuki; Nikitin, Frederic; Scherl, Alexander; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

2011-10-01

234

MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, we designed oligonucleotides that mimic one of the G-quadruplexes formed by NHE (G4-decoys). To increase their nuclease resistance, two locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifications were introduced at the 3?-end, whereas to enhance the folding and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased the Kaplan–Meier median survival time by 70%. Together, our data show that MAZ-specific G4-decoys mimicking a KRAS quadruplex are promising for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:23471001

Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina; Géci, Imrich; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

2013-01-01

235

The Cracking Experiment Research of Tar by CaO Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tar from rice husk gasification for power generation was taken as an example to be catalytically cracked by CaO catalyst. The experimental results showed the cracking efficiency of tar greatly increased from 28.66% by thermal cracking to 65.6% by catalytic cracking, the gas compositions from tar being cracked were H2, CO, CH4, and CO2, and the H2 was a majority of them. The DSC and XRT analysis revealed that the deposit carbon could be found after tar was catalytically cracked and the deposit carbon efficiency could reach 30.51%. The SEM photographs of CaO catalyst used as catalyst showed that the CaO catalyst was enwrapped by the deposit carbon and decreased its catalytic activity, at the same time, the pressure drop of gas passing through catalyst bed increased because of the deposit carbon, it was different for us to operate the cracking reactor of tar and CaO catalyst in the cracking reactor must be regenerated for its stable operation.

Lit, X. H.; Mi, T.; We, Z. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Wu, Q. X.

236

Field scale characterization and modeling of contaminant release from a coal tar source zone.  

PubMed

A coal tar contaminated site was characterized using traditional and innovative investigation methods. A careful interpretation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data allowed for the conceptualization of the heterogeneous coal tar distribution in the subsurface. Past and future contaminant release from the source zone was calculated using a modeling framework consisting of a three-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and two hydrogeochemical models (MIN3P). Computational time of long-term simulations was reduced by simplifying the coal tar composition using 3 composite and 2 individual constituents and sequential application of a 2D centerline model (for calibration and predictions) and a 3D model (only for predictions). Predictions were carried out for a period of 1000 years. The results reveal that contaminant mass flux is governed by the geometry of zones containing residual coal tar, amount of coal tar, its composition and the physicochemical properties of the constituents. The long-term predictions made using the 2D model show that even after 1000 years, source depletion will be small with respect to phenanthrene, 89% of initial mass will be still available, and for the moderately and sparingly soluble composite constituents, 60% and 98%, respectively. PMID:18538890

D'Affonseca, Fernando M; Blum, Philipp; Finkel, Michael; Melzer, Reiner; Grathwohl, Peter

2008-11-14

237

Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar aged in a large-scale, artificial aquifer experiment for five years was subsequently investigated for leaching behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After five years, the initially liquid coal tar had solidified and formed segregated particles with a grain size similar to that of the sandy aquifer material. The composition of the aged coal tar (ACT) with regard to PAHs was remarkably different from that of the original bulk coal tar (BCT), because most of the low-molecular-weight compounds had been depleted. Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 {sup o}C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2-to 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult's law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van't Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs.

Liu, L.H.; Endo, S.; Eberhardt, C.; Grathwohl, P.; Schmidt, T.C. [University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany)

2009-08-15

238

Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

1983-01-01

239

Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-04-15

240

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate  

PubMed Central

The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni2+. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40?Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58?Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P41212, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P212121 and C2, respectively. PMID:25195895

Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

2014-01-01

241

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate.  

PubMed

The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni(2+). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40?Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58?Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P41212, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P212121 and C2, respectively. PMID:25195895

Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A; Maruyama, Ichiro N

2014-09-01

242

Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Tuesday released this 251-page monograph detailing the dangers of "low tar" cigarettes. The monograph, the thirteenth in NCI's Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph Series, reports findings that reductions in cancer rates are due to decreases in smoking prevalence not to changes in cigarette design, which according to NCI, have done little to address public health needs in the past 50 years. NCI here reports on ways in which smokers compensate for lower levels of tar and nicotine, reasons why Federal Trade Commission (FTC) testing methods are inadequate, and marketing methods designed to give smokers a false sense of security regarding low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Users can download the monograph by chapter or as a whole in .pdf format.

243

A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean.  

PubMed

Data on beach debris and tar contamination is provided for 21 natural beach sites in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean. Transects amounting to a combined length of 991 m were sampled March-May 2011 and a total of 8960 debris items were collected. Highest debris and tar contamination were found on the beaches of the windward east-coast of the island where geometric mean debris concentrations (± approx. 70% confidence limits) were 115±58 items m(-1) and 3408±1704 g m(-1) of beach front. These levels are high compared to data collected almost 20 years earlier on the nearby island of Curaçao. Tar contamination levels averaged 223 g m(-1) on windward beaches. Contamination levels for leeward west-coast beaches were generally two orders of magnitude less than windward beaches. PMID:23497789

Debrot, Adolphe O; van Rijn, Jimmy; Bron, Patrick S; de León, Ramon

2013-06-15

244

Test requirements for coal-tar mixtures on airport pavements. Final report, May 1991-October 1992  

SciTech Connect

The research documented in this report represents an effort to evaluate the test procedures for coal tar mixtures. The various coal tar test methods have been evaluated under several levels of test variables. The and scuff resistance tests were evaluated under three types of shingles and an aluminum substrate. The fuel resistance test was evaluated under three levels of sand loading and three levels of film thickness. In addition, all of the tests were evaluated under two levels of humidity. The analysis of the data indicates that the effect of the substrate is insignificant in all of the tests. The effect of humidity is significant on some tests, while the effects of sand loading and film thickness are highly significant on the results of the fuel resistance tests.... Coal tar, Additive, Freeze-Thaw, Scuff, Peel, Tile, Shingle, Fuel resistance, Humidity, Brookfield, Viscosity.

Sebaaly, P.E.; Thirmarayappa, V.; Epps, J.

1993-01-01

245

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

1987-04-01

246

Technology for the production of Zero Q.I pitch from coal tar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero Quinoline Insolubles (Q.I) pitch is a special type of pitch obtained from pre-treatment of coal tar, which is converted into pitch. This is used for impregnation of electrodes for improving the strength, electrical properties and also used as a pre-cursor for Mesophase pitch for producing Mesophase pitch based carbon fibers, carbon foam, and Meso carbon micro beads. This paper discusses the technology of Q.I separation from Coal Tar by using decantation of Coal Tar mixed with Heavy Creosote Oil (HC Oil) at different temperatures. By this method we were able to produce the Zero Q.I pitch with a Q.I value of 0.1%.

Karthik, K.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Rao, C. V. Nageswara; Kumar, B. Vinod; Murty, J. V. S.

2013-06-01

247

A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objectives Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. Methods We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Results Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02). Conclusions These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. PMID:21882217

McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K.

2011-01-01

248

Dual vapor extraction on acidic sludge tar at a former refinery  

SciTech Connect

OHM Remediation Services Corp conducted a pilot-scale demonstration for a novel application of dual vapor extraction technology for the pretreatment of the acid tar sludge material. The acid tar sludge comprised of approximately 60% asphaltene hydrocarbon material, 20% clay, and up to 20% sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The liquid layer in the bottom of the pits has a low pH (<2) due to its high content of sulfuric acid. The acid tar sludge also has a high level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gas which is released with the sludge material is excavated or handled. The objective of the dual vapor extraction was to remove the SO{sub 2} vapors and liquid layer containing sulfuric acid prior to any further treatment. The dual vapor extraction would reduce the amount of alkaline reagent required for neutralization while eliminating the health and safety concerns. Overall, the DVE pilot demonstration successfully showed that both liquids and vapors could be removed from the acid tar sludge material. The liquid present in the lower portions of the pits will have pH values of 1.0 or less and acidities on the order of 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The liquid removed from the acid tar sludge material by a DVE system will have slightly higher pH ({approximately}1.5) and lower alkalinities ({approximately}3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The SO{sub 2} concentration in the vapors removed by the DVE system will be variable with initial levels approaching 1,200 ppmv SO{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase should decrease with time. A caustic scrubber solution will remove any SO{sub 2} from the vapor phase. After DVE treatment, the acid tar sludge material would have a slightly increased pH and a decreased SO{sub 2} concentration.

Lear, P.R.; Beall, P.; Townsend, S. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

249

How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss  

SciTech Connect

Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-12-15

250

Exploring the limits of fold discrimination by structural alignment: A large scale benchmark using decoys of known fold  

PubMed Central

Protein structure comparison by pairwise alignment is commonly used to identify highly similar substructures in pairs of proteins and provide a measure of structural similarity based on the size and geometric similarity of the match. These scores are routinely applied in analyses of protein fold space under the assumption that high statistical significance is equivalent to a meaningful relationship, however the truth of this assumption has previously been difficult to test since there is a lack of automated methods which do not rely on the same underlying principles. As a resolution to this we present a method based on the use of topological descriptions of global protein structure, providing an independent means to assess the ability of structural alignment to maintain meaningful structural correspondances on a large scale. Using a large set of decoys of specified global fold we benchmark three widely used methods for structure comparison, SAP, TM-align and DALI, and test the degree to which this assumption is justified for these methods. Application of a topological edit distance measure to provide a scale of the degree of fold change shows that while there is a broad correlation between high structural alignment scores and low edit distances there remain many pairs of highly significant score which differ by core strand swaps and therefore are structurally different on a global level. Possible causes of this problem and its meaning for present assessments of protein fold space are discussed. PMID:21704264

Hollup, Siv Midtun; Sadowski, Michael I.; Jonassen, Inge; Taylor, William R.

2011-01-01

251

Transcription factor decoy to study the molecular mechanism of negative regulation of renin gene expression in the liver in vivo.  

PubMed

Renin is synthesized in high quantities in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, but little or none is synthesized in the liver. Our previous in vitro and biochemical studies have demonstrated that tissue-specific expression of the mouse renin gene is regulated by the specific interaction between negative regulatory element (NRE) in the 5'-flanking region of the renin gene and NRE binding protein (NREB). In this study, we examined the hypothesis that this interaction between the NRE in the promoter region of the rat renin gene and the NREB in the liver contributes to the suppressed renin gene expression in this tissue in vivo. We used in vivo transfection of NRE transcription factor decoy (TFD) double-stranded oligonucleotide into the rat liver via portal vein infusion. A gel mobility shift assay showed that transfected NRE TFD blocked endogenous NREB binding with the rat renin gene. This resulted in enhanced hepatic renin mRNA expression, immunohistochemical detection of renin in the liver, and consequently, increased plasma renin concentration. Taken together, these results document the importance of NREB in the inhibition of renin gene expression in rat liver in vivo and suggest the possibility of in vivo renin gene modulation by the TFD approach. PMID:10325243

Tomita, S; Tomita, N; Yamada, T; Zhang, L; Kaneda, Y; Morishita, R; Ogihara, T; Dzau, V J; Horiuchi, M

1999-05-14

252

One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers  

E-print Network

The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

Woo, Grace

2008-10-18

253

In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

2010-09-21

254

Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

2004-08-01

255

Plantar pressures in the tennis serve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for

Olivier Girard; Frank Eicher; Jean-Paul Micallef; Grégoire Millet

2010-01-01

256

The Vibrio cholerae virulence regulatory cascade controls glucose uptake through activation of TarA, a small regulatory RNA  

PubMed Central

Summary Vibrio cholerae causes the severe diarrheal disease cholera. A cascade of regulators controls expression of virulence determinants in V. cholerae at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. ToxT is the direct transcription activator of the major virulence genes in V. cholerae. Here we describe TarA, a highly conserved, small regulatory RNA, whose transcription is activated by ToxT from toxboxes present upstream of the ToxT-activated gene tcpI. TarA regulates ptsG, encoding a major glucose transporter in V. cholerae. Cells overexpressing TarA exhibit decreased steady-state levels of ptsG mRNA and grow poorly in glucose-minimal media. A mutant lacking the ubiquitous regulatory protein Hfq expresses diminished TarA levels, indicating that TarA likely interacts with Hfq to regulate gene expression. RNAhybrid analysis of TarA and the putative ptsG mRNA leader suggests potential productive base-pairing between these two RNA molecules. A V. cholerae mutant lacking TarA is compromised for infant mouse colonization in competition with wild type, suggesting a role in the in vivo fitness of V. cholerae. Although somewhat functionally analogous to SgrS of E. coli, TarA does not encode a regulatory peptide, and its expression is activated by the virulence gene pathway in V. cholerae and not by glycolytic intermediates. PMID:21091503

Richard, Aimee; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Beyhan, Sinem; Yildiz, Fitnat; DiRita, Victor J.

2010-01-01

257

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents: Experimental Evaluation  

E-print Network

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents-misciblesolventsonthe solubility of coal tar. This study investigated this effect and the extent to whichmulticomponent coaltar data and Raoult's law assumption for aqueous solubility. For three solvents, n-butylamine,acetone,and 2

Peters, Catherine A.

258

Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

Ochoa-Díaz, R.

2013-11-01

259

Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

1981-08-01

260

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) analysis of heavy oil and tar sand samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLC–FID (Iatroscan) reproducibility of the fractionation [saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes (SARA)] of heavy oil and tar sands samples has been optimized by avoiding overloading and channeling caused by very small sample spot sizes at the origin of the silica - coated rods (S-III). Doping the rods with copper (II) sulfate increased the signal response for the saturate and

Chunqing Jiang; Steve R. Larter; Kimberley J. Noke; Lloyd R. Snowdon

2008-01-01

261

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

2011-01-01

262

EPR and FTIR Characterization of Paramagnetic Transition Metal Ions in Fossil Fuels: Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy have been applied to the bitumen and mineral fractions of a tar sand sample originating from Circle Cliffs, Utah to detect and identify paramagnetic transition metal ions present, indicate whether or not they are organically bound, and determine the identities of the complexes in which they occur. An EPR spectrum of the bitumen

Robert Anthony Shepherd

1985-01-01

263

MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

264

School Nurses as Advocates for Youth Tobacco Education Programs: The TAR WARS Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

School nurses are in a unique position to offer health-related curriculum to elementary school students. The TAR WARS program, an interactive tobacco education program aimed at fifth graders is an example of a program school nurses can teach without committing a hugh amount of resources. The program offers regional and state coordinated activities. While health-related curricula generally have been handled

Martin C. Mahoney; C. Mark Costley; Jeff Cain; Donna Zaiger; Sarah McMullen

1998-01-01

265

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California  

E-print Network

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point). Among the most visible manifestations of marine oil in the environment is the formation and beach accumulation is common on many California beaches due to chronic oil emissions from natural oil seeps

Luyendyk, Bruce

266

Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of distillate and residual lube oils, the lube stocks may be treated with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum. This removes unsaturates, aromatics, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds and resinous substances, all of which are materials that lower the stability and have a detrimental effect on the service indexes of commercial petroleum oils. Acid tar is formed as a

A. F. Frolov; T. S. Titova; I. V. Karpova; T. L. Denisova

1985-01-01

267

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

268

PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

2009-01-01

269

Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

270

Effect of short oil-length alkyd additive on the properties of coal tar binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Demands for coatings with superior technical characteristics have induced the use of composite coatings, which usually represent an extremely strong product. The resin blend technique is a simple and useful method for improving paint properties. Coal tar resins are the most economical coating extensively used in the industry; short oil-length alkyd resins are usually used for air and

H. Abd El-Wahab; F. Abd El-Hai; M. Abd El-Fattah; L. Lin

2011-01-01

271

PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States  

SciTech Connect

We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

2009-01-15

272

Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands James Hansen  

E-print Network

the fossil fuel industry while doing little to solve fossil fuel addiction. The Canadian public is also are aiming for. Tar sands make no economic sense if fossil fuels pay their true costs to society via a gradually rising fee collected from fossil companies in proportion to the amount of carbon in the fuel

Hansen, James E.

273

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.  

E-print Network

them b. Cheapest because: (1) direct/indirect subsidies, (2) human health costs not paid by fossil fuel Press Club on 29 August 2011. Figure 1. Total conventional fossil fuel emissions (purple) and 50% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels

Hansen, James E.

274

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

275

Tar pellets and plastics as attachment surfaces for lepadid cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stalked barnacle, Dosima fascicularis, attaches to small particles of floating debris at settlement, its buoyancy is maintained by secretion of a gas filled float. Tar pellets < 25 mm diameter and angular plastic fragments were the main attachment materials. Lepas pectinata attached to similar materials but of larger size, this species does not produce a float. Both species could

Dan Minchin

1996-01-01

276

CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH ASPHALTIC AND COAL TAR COATINGS USED IN POTABLE WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Carcinogenic response was assessed with 0.2 ml of 4 asphaltic and 3 coal tar based paints applied topically in acetone to the shaved back of female SENCAR mice. Two weeks later a promotion schedule involving application of 1 microgram of TPA in acetine 3 x weekly to the back was ...

277

Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

2012-06-01

278

Simultaneous PIXE and PIGME Analysis of a Nigerian Tar Sand Sample from a Deep Borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sands from a deep borehole in southwestern Nigeria were subjected to elemental analysis by simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) techniques. The concentration of 22 major, minor and trace elements, namely Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, Ga, Ge, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, Zn and

E. I. Obiajunwa; J. I. Nwachukwu

2000-01-01

279

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

280

Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age  

E-print Network

Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden b Upplands muse´et, St: Eriks gra¨nd 6, SE-753 10 Uppsala, Sweden Received 21 September 2004; received in revised form 15 June 2005; accepted 21

281

PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

282

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X  

E-print Network

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory analysis Group ID X X X X EXSAMPID Investigator's sample identifier X X X X SAMPDATE Date sample collected as YYYYMMDD X X X X SAMPTIME Time sample collected as HH:MM X X X X SITEID Site identifier X X X X STUDYID

283

Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as

M. A. Gerber; Mark A

2007-01-01

284

Plantar pressures in the tennis serve.  

PubMed

In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for each type of serve and service stance style in random order. Plantar pressure distribution was recorded using Pedar insoles divided into nine areas for analysis. Mean and peak pressures (+15.2%, P < 0.01 and +12.8%, P < 0.05) as well as maximal forces (+20.2%, P < 0.01) were higher under the lateral forefoot of the front foot in first than in second serves, while mean forces were higher (+17.2%, P < 0.05) under the lesser toes. Relative load was higher on the lateral forefoot (+20.4%, P < 0.05) but lower (-32.5%, P < 0.05) on the medial heel of the front foot with foot-up compared with foot-back stance. Using a foot-up stance, loading of the back foot was higher (+31.8%, P < 0.01) under the lateral mid-foot but lower (-29.9%, P < 0.01) under the medial forefoot. The type of serve and the stance style adopted have a significant effect on foot loading. Such findings might help improve mechanical efficiency of the serve. PMID:20496222

Girard, Olivier; Eicher, Frank; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Millet, Grégoire

2010-06-01

285

Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

2008-12-01

286

Acute effects of smoking of cigarettes with different tar content on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status.  

PubMed

In this study, acute effects of two different types of cigarette smoking on plasma oxidant/antioxidant status were investigated. For this purpose, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant potential (AOP) values were measured in the plasma samples before and after cigarette smoking at fasting. After the first blood sample was obtained, second and third samples were withdrawn at 1.5 h and 3 h. In the first group, subjects smoked five cigarettes with full flavor (FF), and in the second group, five cigarettes with full-flavor low tar (FFLT). Quality classification is made mainly on the basis of tar content of the products. The cigarette with 23 mg tar is defined as FF and that with 12 mg tar as FFLT. MDA level was found to be significantly increased in the 1.5-h plasma samples of both groups, but the increase was greater in the FF group. AOP values, however, were found to be lower in the 3-h plasma samples of both groups, but the decrease was greater in the FF group compared with the FFLT group. It appears that acute smoking causes oxidant stress in blood plasma once exposed to smoke, and then this effect (MDA) begins to decrease. On the other hand, AOP is lowered due to oxidant stress created by smoke. With regard to the types of cigarettes, the FF product seems to be more oxidant than the FFLT product. Our results suggest that antioxidant supplementation might be beneficial for the smokers to cope with the oxidant load derived from cigarette smoke. It is also clearly seen from these results that cigarette manufacturers should reduce tar/nicotine ratio in their products in order to lessen the toxic effects of smoking without causing increased need to smoke. PMID:10880149

Durak, I; Bingöl, N K; Avci, A; Cimen, M Y; Kaçmaz, M; Karaca, L; Oztürk, H S

2000-07-01

287

TAR independent activation of the human immunodeficiency virus in phorbol ester stimulated T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Multiple regulatory elements in the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat (HIV LTR) are required for activation of HIV gene expression. Previous transfection studies of HIV LTR constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene indicated that multiple regulatory regions including the enhancer, SP1, TATA and TAR regions were important for HIV gene expression. To characterize these regulatory elements further, mutations in these regions were inserted into both the 5' and 3' HIV LTRs and infectious proviral constructs were assembled. These constructs were transfected into either HeLa cells, Jurkat cells or U937 cells in both the presence and absence of phorbol esters which have previously been demonstrated to activate HIV gene expression. Viral gene expression was assayed by the level of p24 gag protein released from cultures transfected with the proviral constructs. Results in all cell lines indicated that mutations of the SP1, TATA and the TAR loop and stem secondary structure resulted in marked decreases in gene expression while mutations of the enhancer motif or TAR primary sequence resulted in only slight decreases. However, viruses containing mutations in either the TAR loop sequences or stem secondary structure which were very defective for gene expression in untreated Jurkat cells, gave nearly wild-type levels of gene expression in phorbol ester-treated Jurkat cells but not in phorbol ester-treated HeLa or U937 cells. High level gene expression of these TAR mutant constructs in phorbol ester-treated Jurkat cells was eliminated by second site mutations in the enhancer region or by disruption of the tat gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:2124973

Harrich, D; Garcia, J; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R

1990-01-01

288

Effect of Genetic Variants in Two Chemokine Decoy Receptor Genes, DARC and CCBP2, on Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effect of two chemokine decoy receptors (CDRs), DARC and D6, on breast cancer metastasis is mainly due to their ability to sequester pro-malignant chemokines. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the DARC and CCBP2 (encoding D6) genes may be associated with breast cancer progression. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic contributions of DARC and CCBP2 to metastatic potential, indicated by lymph node metastasis (LNM). Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (potentially functional SNPs and block-based tagging SNPs) in DARC and CCBP2 were genotyped in 785 breast cancer patients who had negative lymph nodes and 678 patients with positive lymph nodes. Two non-synonymous SNPs, rs12075 (G42D) in DARC and rs2228468 (S373Y) in CCBP2, were observed to be associated with LNM in univariate analysis and remained significant after adjustment for conventional clinical risk factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.79) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98), respectively. Additional functional experiments revealed that both of these significant SNPs could affect metastasis of breast cancer in xenograft models by differentially altering the chemokine sequestration ability of their corresponding proteins. Furthermore, heterozygous GD genotype of G42D on human erythrocytes had a significantly stronger chemokine sequestration ability than homozygous GG of G42D ex vivo. Our data suggest that the genetic variants in the CDR genes are probably associated with the varied metastatic potential of breast cancer. The underlying mechanism, though it needs to be further investigated, may be that CDR variants could affect the chemokine sequestration ability of CDR proteins. PMID:24260134

Xu, Wen-Huan; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Fan, Lei; Ou, Zhou-Luo; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2013-01-01

289

How does the tennis serve technique influence the serve-and-volley?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tennis, a high ball velocity and a fast run toward the net are key features to successful performance of “serve-and-volley” players. For the serve, tennis players can use two techniques: the foot-up (FU) or foot-back (FB) technique. The aim of this study was to determine if the running time toward the net after the serve and the ball velocity

Caroline Martin; Benoit Bideau; Guillaume Nicolas; Paul Delamarche; Richard Kulpa

2012-01-01

290

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

2013-05-01

291

Evaluation of Osteoclastogenesis via NF?B Decoy\\/mannosylated Cationic Liposome-Mediated Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production from Primary Cultured Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To explore the effect of NF?B activation in macrophages on osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells for potential application\\u000a as a new type of therapy for preventing bone loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Primary cultured macrophages and bone marrow cells were prepared from mice. As macrophage-targeted carriers, Mannosylated\\u000a cationic liposomes (Man-liposomes) were prepared and were allowed to form complexes with NF?B decoy (a double-stranded oligonucleotide).

Thuy Duong Dinh; Yuriko Higuchi; Shigeru Kawakami; Fumiyoshi Yamashita; Mitsuru Hashida

2011-01-01

292

How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

2013-01-01

293

Serving Economically Depressed Areas. Report 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Illinois to determine how effectively the vocational education system was meeting its responsibilities to serve persons in economically depressed areas under the terms of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984. State records showed that during fiscal year 1987, Illinois expended $982,956 of the $1,336,238…

Black, Hartzel; And Others

294

"Gateway" Districts Struggle to Serve Immigrant Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2012-01-01

295

Science To Serve the Common Good.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

Brewer, Garry D.

1997-01-01

296

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings  

E-print Network

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings 1 jar (26 oz.) mixed tropical fruit, drained 1 large banana, sliced 1 cup low-fat yogurt ¼ tsp. finely grated lime zest 2 Tbsp. fresh lime juice ¼ cup flaked coconut Lettuce leaves Directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the tropical fruit and banana. 2

Florida, University of

297

Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

2011-01-01

298

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD  

E-print Network

desserts. Safe Food Handling: · Wash your hands! This is the single most important thing you can doGENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD Revised September, 2008 Use Common Sense · Understand your liability and responsibilities. · Use food from a licensed and approved source. · Never leave food

299

GloServ: Global Service Discovery Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growth in ubiquitous computing technology in the past few years, the need for context-aware service dis- covery across wide area networks is becoming prevalent. We propose GloServ, which is a global service discovery architecture that locates services throughout wide and lo- cal area networks. It supports services encompassing dif- ferent domains such as events, people or places.

Knarig Arabshian; Henning Schulzrinne

2004-01-01

300

Ratio model serves suprathreshold color luminance discrimination  

E-print Network

Ratio model serves suprathreshold color­ luminance discrimination Marcel J. Sankeralli and Kathy T the responses of the three postreceptoral mechanisms are combined to subserve discrimination of suprathreshold model of suprathreshold color­luminance dis- crimination, in which discrimination depends on a ratio

Mullen, Kathy T.

301

Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

2010-01-01

302

Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

Tassew, Nardos Gobena

303

Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

304

Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.  

PubMed

This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. PMID:24860081

Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

2014-10-01

305

Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?  

SciTech Connect

LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine

2007-08-01

306

Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III  

Cancer.gov

NCI developed a database to facilitate the examination of dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) in terms of servings from each of The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups. This database builds on a similar one, previously developed by the USDA Food Surveys Research Group for their 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

307

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Serving Customized Master Menu  

E-print Network

Chicken Breast in a Pineapple Salsa sauce served with Wild and Long Grain Rice and Green Beans Fresh Healthy Oatmeal Cranberry Delight and Baby Carrots Cheddar Cheese Cubes and MG Crackers Beef & Potato Samosa Strawberry Applesauce and Social Tea Biscuit 0.5 2 0 2.5 1 2 3 1 2.5 2.5 1.25 3 1 2.5 1 2.5 1.5 3

Toronto, University of

308

Formation of DNA adducts in the skin of psoriasis patients, in human skin in organ culture, and in mouse skin and lung following topical application of coal-tar and juniper tar.  

PubMed

Preparations of coal-tar and juniper tar (cade oil) that are used in the treatment of psoriasis are known to contain numerous potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Evidence of covalent binding to DNA by components of these mixtures was sought in a) human skin biopsy samples from 12 psoriasis patients receiving therapy with these agents, b) human skin explants maintained in organ culture and treated topically with the tars, and c) the skin and lungs of mice treated with repeated doses of the formulations following the regimen used in the clinic. DNA was isolated from the human and mouse tissues and digested enzymically to mononucleotides. 32P-Post-labeling analysis revealed the presence of aromatic DNA adducts in the biopsy samples at levels of up to 0.4 fmol total adducts/microgram DNA. Treatment of human skin in organ culture produced similar levels of adducts, while treatment with dithranol, a non-mutagenic therapeutic agent, resulted in chromatograms indistinguishable from those from untreated controls. In mouse skin, coal-tar ointment and juniper tar gave similar DNA adduct levels, with a similar time-course of removal: maximum levels (0.5 fmol/microgram DNA) at 24 h after the final treatment declined rapidly to 0.05 fmol/microgram at 7 d, thereafter declining slowly over the succeeding 25 d. However, while coal-tar ointment produced only very low levels of adducts in mouse lung (less than 0.03 fmol/microgram DNA), juniper tar produced adducts at a high level (0.7 fmol/microgram DNA) that were persistent in this tissue. These results provide direct evidence for the formation of potentially carcinogenic DNA damage in human and mouse tissue by components of these therapeutic tar preparations. PMID:2299199

Schoket, B; Horkay, I; Kósa, A; Páldeák, L; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

1990-02-01

309

Mineralization of PAH's in a Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments and Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated with FISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization and with laboratory-scale incubations. Microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were thr...

310

Criteria for coal-tar seal coats on airport pavements. Volume 2. Laboratory and field studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Because coal tars are resistant to gasoline and jet fuel, they have been used for many years as a protective coating on asphalt pavements for airport parking areas, ramps, taxiways and runways. Applications include both coal tar emulsions and rubberized coal tar emulsions, applied with sand to provide skid resistance and stability to the seal costs. Volume II of the report includes the results of an experimental Laboratory and field investigation conducted at the University of Nevada at Reno. The focus on the University program was to develop test procedures that would measure workability, scuff, adhesion and fuel resistance properties of coal tar emulsion seal coats. This program developed a method for designing seal coat formulations test procedures that could be used for quality assurance purposes. Volume II includes the test data generated in the study, including measurements made on field sections.

Shook, J.E.; Jenkins, S.W.; Gardiner, M.S.; Newcomb, D.E.; Epps, J.A.

1990-01-01

311

Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

312

Heat-insulating and waterproofing coatings of epoxy-coal tar foamed plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Laboratory and full-scale investigations showed the possibility of using coatings of epoxy-coal tar foamed plastic for insulation-waterproofing\\u000a of hydraulic structures in regions with a rigorous climate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a It was established that in the case of the same insulating effect the insulation-waterproofing of epoxycoal tar foamed plastics\\u000a is one of the most economical in the construction of structures by

V. I. Sakharov

1975-01-01

313

Isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to identify culturable surfactant-producing bacterial species that inhabit the 40,000-year-old natural asphalt seep at the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Using phenanthrene, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tryptic soy broth as growth substrates, culturable bacteria from the tar pits yielded ten isolates, of which three species of gamma-proteobacteria produced biosurfactants that accumulated in spent culture medium. Partially purified biosurfactants produced by these strains lowered the surface tension of water from 70 to 35-55 mN/m and two of the biosurfactants produced 'dark halos' with the atomized oil assay, a phenomenon previously observed only with synthetic surfactants. Key findings include the isolation of culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria that comprise a relatively small fraction of the petroleum-degrading community in the asphalt. PMID:22851192

Belcher, Richard W; Huynh, Kelvin V; Hoang, Timothy V; Crowley, David E

2012-12-01

314

Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar cracking catalyst is studied at low temperature. Reaction conditions of the catalyst bed are discussed, including catalytic temperature and steam ratio. High energy efficiency and hydrogen-rich, low-tar product gas can be achieved in a properly designed multi-stage gasification process, together with high-performance catalyst. In addition, considering the economical feasibility, a newly-developed Ni-loaded brown coal char is developed and evaluated as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst shows a good ability and a hopeful prospect oftar decomposition, gas quality improvement and catalytic stability.

Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Due Dung; Morishita, Kayoko; Li, Liuyun; Takarada, Takayuki

315

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

316

True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

Boade, R. R.

1980-01-01

317

Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-23

318

The TAR model: use of therapeutic state transitions for quality assurance reporting in chronic disease management.  

PubMed

Chronic disease management represents one of the challenges for health informatics and demands the appropriate application of information technology for improved patient care. This paper presents an approach to quality assurance reporting wherein the recommendations of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are considered in the context of empirical therapeutic state-transitions (in terms of changes in individual patient prescriptions over time). We apply a Transition-based Audit Report (TAR) model to antihypertensive prescribing and related data as stored in a New Zealand General Practice Management System database. The results provide a set of quality indicators and specific patient cohorts for potential practice quality improvement with strong linkage to the selected guidelines and observed practice patterns. We see the TAR model primarily as a tool to enable internal quality improvement efforts, but also to be of relevance for focusing pay-for-performance programs. PMID:17911839

Gaikwad, R; Warren, J; Kenealy, T

2007-01-01

319

Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

320

NCI ‘s Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 13, “Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Tar Machine-Measured Yield  

Cancer.gov

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to testify today on the research findings of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), regarding the disease risk of so called low-tar or “light” cigarettes, and the challenges of conveying accurate information to smokers about the levels of tar, nicotine, and other hazardous chemicals in cigarette smoke.

321

Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions and determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with with diesel particulates. (4 refs.)

Albert, R.E.

1983-01-01

322

Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ? Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ? Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ? Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ? Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2013-05-15

323

Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices  

PubMed Central

We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m2. In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules. PMID:23667539

Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

2013-01-01

324

Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

2014-01-01

325

High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in deepwater horizon oil spill tar balls.  

PubMed

In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow-up studies. PMID:25647548

Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

2015-02-17

326

Detection of free radicals in aqueous extracts of cigarette tar by electron spin resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar (ACT) autooxidize to produce semiquinone, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals in air-saturated buffered aqueous solutions. The semiquinone species were detected by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and identified as o-and p-benzosemiquinone radicals by comparison with the ESR signals of catechol and hydroquinone radicals under similar conditions. The rate of formation of these radicals was dependent

Lun-Yi Zang; Koni Stone; William A. Pryor

1995-01-01

327

PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

328

Tar sand extraction by steam stimulation and steam drive: measurement of physical properties  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the following thermophysical properties of Utah tar sands is in progress: thermal conductivity, specific heat relative permeability, and viscosity (of the recovered bitumen). During the report period (October 1, 1978 to November 1, 1979), experimental procedures have been developed and a basic data set has been measured. Additionally, standard core analysis has been performed for four drill sites in the Asphalt Ridge, Utah area.

Linberg, W.R.

1980-09-10

329

Silica Removal From Steamflood-Produced Water: South Texas Tar Sands Pilot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steamflood-produced waters commonly contain suspended solids, oil, hardness-causing minerals, sulfide, and silica. Removal of these contaminants would make many of these waters suitable for recycling as steamer feedwater. Reuse of steamflood-produced waters increases steamer feedwater supplies and reduces water disposal requirements. This paper describes a field pilot study of silica removal from steamflood-produced water in the south Texas tar sands

S. A. Thomas; M. E. Yost; S. R. Cathey

1987-01-01

330

Flow cytometric analysis of red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) from Tar Creek Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSFS) was heavily mined from the 1890s to 1970 and currently is contaminated with lead, zinc, and\\u000a cadmium. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure variation in nuclear DNA content of red blood cells collected from Trachemys scripta living within TCSFS and reference sites, Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB) and Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR). We also

Kimberly A. Hays; Karen McBee

2007-01-01

331

Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.  

PubMed

Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

332

A cyst-like foreign body reaction to porcine decellularized membrane (TarSys).  

PubMed

A 58-year-old Caucasian woman with thyroid eye disease underwent a bilateral lower eyelid blepharoplasty with porcine decellularized membrane (TarSys) eyelid spacer graft placement. Three months postoperatively, she developed unusual cyst-like masses in both lower eyelids that were excised. These were found to be consistent with inflammatory cysts with a foreign body reaction. No such reaction has ever been reported. PMID:24145909

Kim, H Joon; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Wojno, Ted H

2014-01-01

333

GC/MS characterization of condensable tars in the output stream of a stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The output stream of the stirred fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was sampled for total entrained material. A major portion of the entrained material, in addition to particles, is condensable tar that is subsequently removed from the process gas by wet scrubbing. Characterization of the entrained materials, specifically the tar, is important to establish contaminant levels and to evaluate performance of downstream cleanup units. Samples of tars were collected from the process unit in a combined ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen sampler and stored in a refrigerator. The tar samples were then separated into asphaltene, neutral oil, tar acid, and base fractions by solvent extraction using toluene, pentane, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide extraction. Characterization of the fractions obtained from these tars include IR, UV, GC, and GC/MS analysis. The mass spectrometer analysis of the various isolates shows that many individual peaks in the gas chromatograph are in fact mixtures that can be readily identified by the mass spectrometer. It was found that many of the species identified in these fractions were members of aromatic homologous series consisting of parent, mono, di, and tri substituted compounds. Compound identification was made by comparison of the data system library and standard reference spectra. This paper will discuss the instrumental approach and limitation of the GC/MS and the results of the characterization studies of entrained hydrocarbons collected from the gasifier stream.

Lamey, S.C.; McCaskill, K.B.; Smith, R.R.

1981-12-01

334

Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China  

PubMed Central

While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

Yang, Gonghuan

2014-01-01

335

Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2012-01-01

336

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

337

Unconventional pilot steam drive, tar V sand, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the design, implementation and history of the unconventional pilot steam drive (greater than 2,500 ft measured depth) that has been underway since December 24, 1980 in the Tar reservoir in the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes the project through November 30, 1983. The Tar V reservoir is a series of interbedded sands, siltstones and shales in the Middle Repetto formation of lower Pliocene age. The Tar V reservoir in the Long Beach Unit is approximately 200 acres in areal extent, has a vertical gross thickness of 185 ft and a maximum vertical net oil sand thickness of 90 ft comprised of 8 to 10 separate sand units. Oil in place is estimated at 27 MMbbl of stock tank oil. The study area is 9.2 acres in areal extent with an average net oil sand thickness of 81.7 ft. The pilot steam drive was originally installed as an isolated 5.6 acre inverted 5-spot pattern.

Jung, K.D.

1984-04-01

338

Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.  

PubMed

In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

2014-03-01

339

Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Do?lat, Kürtyurdu and Çata??l in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

2014-01-01

340

49 CFR 105.35 - Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105...HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35 Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings....

2010-10-01

341

The Decoy Duck.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development processes of an instructional video for use in a course offered through the Extended Learning Institute of Northern Virginia Community College entitled Women Writers II. Characterizes the process of transforming this English course from a print-based to a distance-learning course as time-consuming, creative, and…

Ryan, Anna

1997-01-01

342

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

343

Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

Stephens, Thomas E. [Code 660, GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2007-07-12

344

Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Analytics and Synthesis

2013-01-01

345

Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty  

PubMed Central

To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group’s outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker’s focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

2014-01-01

346

Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge  

SciTech Connect

Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1982-01-08

347

AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter  

PubMed Central

Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat–AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat–TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001 PMID:24843025

Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

2014-01-01

348

Case study of worker exposure to coal tar containing paving materials on a routine paving project in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the three 230 mm of existing pavement and then pave the pulverized layer with a new HMA layer. Discovery of the presence of mix containing coal tar in the bottom 75 mm of the existing pavement led to a redesign of the project. A decision was made to mill only the upper most 75 to 87 mm of pavement to isolate the coal tar mix from the workers. Initial analysis of bitumen extracted from cores of the top 88 mm of pavement did not show the presence of coal tar chemicals. However, samplers mounted on the equipment for 6 hrs during the redesigned milling process shoed the presence of coal tar type chemicals extracted form the bitumen coated dust particles capture don the samplers using infrared and GC/MS analysis.

Reinke, G.; Glidden, S. [Mathy Technology and Engineering Services, Onalaska, WI (United States)

2007-01-15

349

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ injection was undertaken in support of the Wilmington Tar Zone CO/sub 2/ Injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Company. The work included: - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and CO/sub 2/. - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and the refinery gas (82% CO/sub 2/ - 18% N/sub 2/) used for the field project. - Viscosity measurements of oil-gas mixtures. - Reservoir condition displacements of oil by CO/sub 2/ and by refinery gas. - Equation of state characterization of phase behavior. - Computer simulation of gas-oil displacements. Saturation pressures and swelling factors were measured for oil-gas mixtures for up to 60 mol % CO/sub 2/ and for up to 50 mol % refinery gas. These measurements show that N/sub 2/ is substantially less soluble in oil than CO/sub 2/. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity reduction is a function of pressure and the total gas dissolved in the oil. Four reservoir condition corefloods were completed: - Refinery gas injection at 0.22:1 WAG ratio, followed by waterflood. - Continuous CO/sub 2/ injection followed by waterflood. - Continuous refinery gas injection followed by waterflood. - Refinery gas injection at 1:1 WAG ratio, followed by waterflood. These floods showed that 1) the recovery efficiency of CO/sub 2/ is higher than that of the refinery gas for continuous or low WAG injection and 2) the recovery efficiency of the refinery gas at 1:1 WAG is about twice that of continuous injection. The corefloods were modeled with a finite difference compositional simulator. Predictions agree with the experimental results.

Sankur, V.; Creek, J.L.; DiJulio, S.S.; Emanuel, A.S.

1984-04-01

350

Sedimentology, diagenesis, and trapping style, Chesterian Tar Springs sandstone at Inman Field, Gallatin County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Springs Sandstone in southern Illinois is often over-looked as a pay, yet it can be a prolific producer. The Inman Field, discovered in 1940, produces from several cyclic Chesterian sandstones from structural-stratigraphic traps in the Wabash Valley Fault System of southeastern Illinois. The oil was sourced from the Devonian New Albany Shale and apparently migrated vertically along the Wabash Valley faults to its present location, thus charging many of the Chesterian and lower Pennsylvanian sands in the field. The Tar Springs Sandstone produces from stacked distributary channel sand reservoirs up to 125 feet thick which have cut up to 40 feet into laterally equivalent non-reservoir, delta-fringe facies and the underlying Glen Dean Limestone. The reservoir sands are well-sorted, fine- to medium-grained quartz arenites with less than 5% feldspar and chert. Quartz grains have quartz overgrowths. Feldspar grains are clouded in thin-section and show pronounced etching and dissolution in SEM. Diagenetic kaolinite and small amounts of illite and magnesium-rich chlorite occur in intergranular pores. Sparry, iron-rich dolomite or ankerite that fills pores in irregular millimeter-size patches, occupies up to 10% of the reservoir rock. Typical reservoir porosity ranges from 16 to 19 percent and permeability ranges from 60 to 700 md. By contrast non-reservoir delta-fringe sands typically have porosities of 6 to 12 percent and permeabilities of 1 to 20 md. Delta-fringe Tar Springs shales act as impermeable lateral and vertical seals, aiding in stratigraphic trapping.

Morse, D.G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

351

Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application  

PubMed Central

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day of hospitalisation in intensive care unit. PMID:22675090

Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

2011-01-01

352

Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day of hospitalisation in intensive care unit. PMID:22675090

Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

2011-01-01

353

Review of an immiscible CO sub 2 project, tar zone, fault block V, Wilmington field, California  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a tertiary immiscible CO{sub 2} project which began in March 1982 with the injection of a mixture of about 85% CO{sub 2}/15% N{sub 2} into the tar zone of fault block V in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles County, CA. The 330-acre (134-ha) project had been waterflooded since 1961, and the water cut was more than 95%. Gas was injected alternately with water for a period of about 5 years. This paper reviews project performance from inception to the end of 1987.

Spivak, A. (Allan Spivak Inc. (US)); Garrison, W.H.; Nguyen, J.P. (Long Beach Oil Development Co., CA (US))

1990-05-01

354

Preparations of carbon fibers from precursor pitches synthesized with coal tar or petroleum residue oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch precursors were synthesized from coal tar(CT) and pyrolysis fuel oil(PFO, petroleum residue oil) at relatively low temperature\\u000a of 250°C, in the presence of borontrifluoride\\/diethyletherate complex(BFDE) as a catalyst and nitrobenzene(NB) as a co-catalyst.\\u000a The softening point, nitrogen content and carbon yield increased with an increase of concentration of NB. The pitch precursors\\u000a with good spinnability were prepared by removing

Kap Seung Yang; Young Ok Choi; Yong Min Kim; Sang Hee Park; Cheol Min Yang; Yong Joong Kim; Soon Young Soh

2000-01-01

355

A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

2013-06-01

356

In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2010-11-30

357

Rheological and Microstructural Features of Phase Transitions in Composite Polymer Materials Based on Tar and Polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in the structure of tar- and polyethylene-based petroleum and polymer systems has been investigated by the methods of viscosity measurement and atomic force scanning microscopy. It has been established that the structural change of a composite petroleum and polymer thermoplastic material in the region of phase transitions of the 2nd kind results from the collapse of polymer coils and the formation of globules that subsequently aggregate. It has been shown using atomic-force-microscopy that a volume superlattice is formed from polymer globules in thermoplastic petroleum polymers in the region of phase transition of the 2nd kind.

Dolomatov, M. Yu.; Dezortsev, S. V.; Bakhtizin, R. Z.; Kharisov, B. R.; Nigmatullina, I. R.

2014-03-01

358

Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

2010-03-16

359

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01

360

Hematite reaction with tar to produce carbon/iron composites for the reduction of Cr(VI) contaminant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, highly reactive carbon-iron composites were prepared using a waste, i.e. tar, as carbon precursor and a simple iron oxide, i.e. hematite. Tar was impregnated on Fe2O3 with different tar/hematite weight ratios of 1:1; 2:1 and 4:1, and thermally treated under N2 atmosphere (400°C, 600°C and 800°C). Mössbauer, XRD and magnetization measurements suggested that treatment at 400°C and 600°C produces Fe3O4 but treatment at 800°C produced mainly Fe°. Raman and TG analyses of the different composites suggested the formation of carbon contents of 18, 24 and 32 wt.% as amorphous and graphitic highly dispersed on the Fe surface. The composites obtained at 800°C showed high efficiency to reduce Cr(VI) as CrO4^{2-} in aqueous medium with much better results compared to finely ground commercial Fe°.

Magalhães, Fabiano; Pereira, Márcio César; Fabris, José Domingos; Costa Bottrel, Sue Ellen; Amaya, Alejandro; Mogliazza, Nestor; Lago, Rochel Montero

2010-01-01

361

Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.  

PubMed

Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. PMID:22326311

Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

2012-03-15

362

Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as Cu, Co, and Fe in limited testing. Nickel catalysts promoted with Rh, Zr, Mn, Mo, Ti, Ag, or Sn were also examined, as were Ni catalysts on Ce2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, and La2O3. In general, Rh stood out as a consistently superior metal catalyst for methane reforming, tar cracking, and minimizing carbon buildup on the catalyst. Ru and Ir also showed significant improvement over Ni for methane reforming. Ceria stood out as good support material and particularly good promoter material when added in small quantities to another support material such as alumina, zirconia, or olivine. Other promising supports were lanthana, zirconia, and titania.

Gerber, Mark A.

2007-10-10

363

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a laboratory study of heavy-oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ injection to support the Wilmington, CA tar zone CO/sub 2/ injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Co. The study comprised (1) phase behavior of Wilmington tar zone reservoir oil and CO/sub 2/, and (2) phase behavior of the oil and the refinery gas used for the field project, (3) viscosity measurements of oil/gas mixtures, (4) reservoir-condition displacements of oil by CO/sub 2/ and by refinery gas, (5) equation-of-state characterization of phase behavior, and (6) computer simulation of gas/oil displacements. Saturation pressures and swelling factors were measured for oil/gas mixtures, which showed that N/sub 2/ is substantially less soluble in oil than is CO/sub 2/. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity reduction is a function of pressure and of the total gas dissolved in the oil. Four reservoir-condition corefloods showed that the recovery efficiency of CO/sub 2/ is higher than that of the refinery gas for continuous or low WAG injection, and the recovery efficiency of the refinery gas at 1:1 WAG is about twice that of continuous injection. The corefloods were modeled with a finite-difference compositional simulator. Predictions agree with the experimental results.

Sankur, V.; Creek, J.L.; DiJulio, S.S.; Emanuel, A.S.

1986-01-01

364

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01

365

Coal-Tar-Based Parking Lot Sealcoat: An Unrecognized Source of PAH to Settled House Dust  

PubMed Central

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ?g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ?g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ?g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ?g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. PMID:20063893

2010-01-01

366

Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon.  

PubMed

Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are lured by dying herbivores. Consequently, in both records predatory mammals and birds far outnumber herbivores. In playbacks, two large social species, lions, Panthera leo, and spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, actively moved towards the sounds of distressed prey and made up 84 per cent of individuals attending. Small social species (jackals) were next most common and solitary species of all sizes were rare. In the La Brea record, two species dominated, the presumably social dire wolf Canis dirus (51%), and the sabretooth cat Smilodon fatalis (33%). As in the playbacks, a smaller social canid, the coyote Canis latrans, was third most common (8%), and known solitary species were rare (<4%). The predominance of Smilodon and other striking similarities between playbacks and the fossil record support the conclusion that Smilodon was social. PMID:18957359

Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J; Mills, Michael G L; Grether, Gregory F; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

2009-02-23

367

A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments.  

PubMed

Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments. Total PAH (?(28)PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ("binder"), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200,000 mgkg(-1) (10,000 mgkg(-1) in binder+aggregate). Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower ?(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene); benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene); and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. Moreover, pavement data for one isomer ratio (e.g. benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene) were highly correlated with those of another isomer ratio (e.g. benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene) and were bounded at their lower and higher extremes by the characteristics of pure bitumen and coal tar, respectively, suggesting that PAH composition of a given pavement sample could be accounted for by conservative mixing between coal tar and bitumen as source materials. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered. PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments (> 15 mgkg(-1) dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments. PMID:20843538

Ahrens, Michael J; Depree, Craig V

2010-12-01

368

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOEpatents

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

369

76 FR 59499 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...secondary schools. During National...Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) Week...opportunities in higher education...reduce high school drop-out...teachers and school leaders...and other higher education institutions serving...

2011-09-26

370

16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representations of servings, uses, applications...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.26 Representations of servings, uses, applications...packaged consumer commodity which bears a representation as to the number of...

2010-01-01

371

16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representations of servings, uses, applications...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.26 Representations of servings, uses, applications...packaged consumer commodity which bears a representation as to the number of...

2012-01-01

372

16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representations of servings, uses, applications...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.26 Representations of servings, uses, applications...packaged consumer commodity which bears a representation as to the number of...

2014-01-01

373

16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representations of servings, uses, applications...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.26 Representations of servings, uses, applications...packaged consumer commodity which bears a representation as to the number of...

2011-01-01

374

16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representations of servings, uses, applications...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.26 Representations of servings, uses, applications...packaged consumer commodity which bears a representation as to the number of...

2013-01-01

375

Teen's passion for learning serves April 3, 2012  

E-print Network

- 1 - Teen's passion for learning serves others April 3, 2012 Homeschooler, Jacob Marks: museum and kindergarten students and their parents. This summer he's serving as a Teen Explainer at a Friday Night

376

49 CFR 365.305 - Serving copies of pleadings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Serving copies of pleadings. 365.305 Section 365.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... General Rules Governing the Application Process § 365.305 Serving copies of pleadings. (a)...

2010-10-01

377

Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.  

PubMed

The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates <10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated >35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume. PMID:18757111

Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

2008-11-14

378

Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars.  

PubMed

The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations of cyclohexane-soluble airborne particulate matter were found (GM = 0.2 mg/m3, n = 28). Skin contamination was determined using two different methods: with exposure pads and by hand washing. Pads were mounted on several parts of the body: wrist, elbow, neck, shoulder, and ankle. The pads located on the wrist appeared to be the most contaminated (pyrene: GM = 22 ng/1.77 cm2, n = 40). The end-of-shift hand washing showed that the hands of the workers were contaminated with PAH (pyrene: GM = 70 micrograms, n = 35). Preshift hand washing showed far lower, but detectable, quantities of PAH on workers' hands (pyrene: GM = 5 micrograms, n = 35). Enhanced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among the workers were found. The highest levels were found in the end-of-shift urine samples. Correlations between the pyrene exposure variables were studied. Significant positive correlations were found between pyrene on the wrist pad versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; between pyrene on the hands versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; and between the two different skin contamination variables. PMID:3213813

Jongeneelen, F J; Scheepers, P T; Groenendijk, A; Van Aerts, L A; Anzion, R B; Bos, R P; Veenstra, S J

1988-12-01

379

Over-expression of the decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from silicosis patients  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of apoptosis, particularly in the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway, is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, a soluble decoy receptor, termed decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), that binds FasL and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis, has been identified. Silicosis is clinically characterized not only by respiratory disorders but by immunological abnormalities. We have found that serum soluble Fas (sFas) levels are elevated in silicosis patients and that sFas message is dominantly expressed in PBMC derived from these patients. This study examined DcR3 gene expression in PBMC derived from patients with silicosis, SLE, or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and compared it with that in healthy volunteers (HV). The relative expression level of the DcR3 gene was examined in PBMC derived from 37 patients with silicosis without clinical symptoms of autoimmune disease, nine patients with SLE, 12 patients with PSS, and 28 HV using the semiquantitative multiplex-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (MP-RT-PCR). The correlation between the relative expression level of the DcR3 gene and multiple clinical parameters for respiratory disorders and immunological abnormalities in individuals with silicosis was analysed. The DcR3 gene was significantly over-expressed in cases of silicosis or SLE when compared with HV. In addition, the DcR3 relative expression level was positively correlated with the serum sFas level in silicosis patients. It is unclear, however, whether over-expression of the DcR3 gene in silicosis is caused by chronic silica exposure, merely accompanies the alteration in Fas-related molecules, or precedes the clinical onset of autoimmune abnormalities. It will be necessary to study these patients further, establish an in vitro model of human T cells exposed recurrently to silica compounds, and resolve whether the increase in DcR3 mRNA expression is a cause or consequence of disease. PMID:10632670

Otsuki, T; Tomokuni, A; Sakaguchi, H; Aikoh, T; Matsuki, T; Isozaki, Y; Hyodoh, F; Ueki, H; Kusaka, M; Kita, S; Ueki, A

2000-01-01

380

Local Administration of NF-{kappa} B Decoy Oligonucleotides to Prevent Restenosis after Balloon Angioplasty: An Experimental Study in New Zealand White Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of NF-{kappa} B oligonucleotides (ODN) administered by local administration with the channeled balloon catheter to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty in restenotic iliac arteries of New Zealand white rabbits. Materials and Methods. In vitro, 8000 rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMC) where transfected with a liposomal carrier (TfX50) with 100 ng of decoy and scrambled ODN. Inhibition of proliferation was measured using a MTT assay after 24 hours in comparison to control. In vivo, 22 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and received denudation of both common iliac arteries with a 3 mm balloon catheter to induce an arterial stenosis. Four weeks after stenosis induction, local application of NF-{kappa} B in two different concentrations (1 {mu}g: n = 14; 10 {mu}g: n = 8) was performed randomly on one common iliac artery. Scrambled oligonucleotides without specific binding capacities were injected into the contralateral side. The channeled balloon catheter allows simultaneous balloon dilation (8 atm) of the stenosis and local application of a drug solution (2 atm). Four weeks after local drug delivery the animals were killed and the vessels were excised and computerized morphometric measurements were performed. Results. NF-{kappa} B decoy ODN but not scrambled ODN inhibited proliferation of rVSMC in vitro. Following local ODN application in the animals, no acute vascular complications were seen. NF-{kappa} B ODN resulted in a statistically non significant reduction of neointimal area compared to the control group. The neointimal area was 0.97 mm{sup 2} using 1 {mu}g NF-{kappa} B ODN compared to 0.98 mm{sup 2} in the control group. The higher dose resulted in a neointimal area of 0.97 mm{sup 2} compared to 1.07mm{sup 2} at the control side. Conclusions. Local drug delivery of NF-{kappa} B ODN using the 'channeled balloon' catheter could not reduce neointimal hyperplasia in stenostic rabbit iliac arteries. Application modalities have to be improved to enhance the effect of the local application to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

Kalinowski, Marc, E-mail: kalinows@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Viehofer, Kerstin; Hamann, Christine [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Barry, James J. [Boston Scientific Corporation (United States); Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus Jochen; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-04-15

381

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

2012-03-20

382

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

2012-01-01

383

TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

384

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

385

Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

1994-09-01

386

Effects of Varying Marijuana Potency on Deposition of Tar and ? 9THC in the Lung During Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether smoking more, compared to less, potent marijuana (MJ) cigarettes to a desired level of intoxication (“high”) reduces pulmonary exposure to noxious smoke components, in 10 habitual smokers of MJ, we measured respiratory delivery and deposition of tar and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) boost, smoking topography, including cumulative puff volume (CPV) and breathholding time, change in heart rate

Peter Matthias; Donald P Tashkin; Jose A Marques-Magallanes; Jeffrey N Wilkins; Michael S Simmons

1997-01-01

387

Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management  

PubMed Central

Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20?35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

2012-01-01

388

MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

389

Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?  

EPA Science Inventory

Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

390

Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound.  

PubMed

Kinetic model parameters for toluene conversion under microwave thermocatalytic treatment were evaluated. The kinetic rate constants were determined using integral method based on experimental data and coupled with Arrhenius equation for obtaining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The model provides a good agreement with the experimental data. The kinetic model was also validated with standard error of 3% on average. The extrapolation of the model showed a reasonable trend to predict toluene conversion and product yield both in thermal and catalytic treatments. Under microwave irradiation, activation energy of toluene conversion was lower in the range of 3-27 kJ mol(-1) compared to those of conventional heating reported in the literatures. The overall reaction rate was six times higher compared to conventional heating. As a whole, the kinetic model works better for tar model removal in the absence of gas reforming within a level of reliability demonstrated in this study. PMID:24231266

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2014-01-01

391

Numerical simulation of combined reverse combustion and steamflooding for oil recovery in a Utah tar sand  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design of the U.S. DOE Laramie Energy Technology Center's (LETC) Project TS-4, which involves numerical simulation of both in-situ reverse combustion and steamflooding. The simulator showed that the combustion could be limited and contained in a middle 10-ft (3-m) interval with a correlatable high-permeability streak within the 65-ft (20-m) pay zone of the upper Rimrock tar sand formation in Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Uintah County, UT. A high-transmissibility path was necessary to obtain adequate injectivity and sustain a stable reverse combustion. Combustion ''echoes'' developed and the front changed into a forward mode as the formation pressure increased and at very low air-injection rates. Oil recovery by steam injection was accelerated in a formation preheated by a reverse combustion.

Lasaki, G.O.; Fahy, L.J.; Martel, R.

1985-04-01

392

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15

393

Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2014-03-04

394

Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

Fayerweather, W.E. [Owens Corning, Toledo, OH (United States). Epidemiology & Data Management

2007-07-01

395

Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits  

SciTech Connect

The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1981-10-13

396

Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar-comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation.  

PubMed

In former coal transformation plants (coking and gas ones), the major organic contamination of soils is coal tar, mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Air oxidation of a fresh coal tar was chosen to simulate the abiotic natural attenuation impact on PAC-contaminated soils. Water-leaching experiments were subsequently performed on fresh and oxidized coal tars to study the influence of oxidation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and quantity. The characterization of the DOM was performed using a combination of molecular and spectroscopic techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography-size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), 3D fluorescence, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and compared with the DOM from contaminated soils sampled on the field exposed to natural attenuation for several decades. An increase in the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compound concentrations was observed with abiotic oxidation both in the coal tar and the associated DOM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the leachates exceeded pure water solubility limits, suggesting that co-solvation with other soluble organic compounds occurred. Furthermore, emission excitation matrix analysis combined with synchronous fluorescence spectra interpretation and size-exclusion chromatography suggests that oxidation induced condensation reactions which were responsible for the formation of higher-molecular weight compounds and potentially mobilized by water. Thus, the current composition of the DOM in aged soils may at least partly result from (1) a depletion in lower-molecular weight compounds of the initial contamination stock and (2) an oxidative condensation leading to the formation of a higher-molecular weight fraction. Abiotic oxidation and water leaching may therefore be a significant combination contributing to the evolution of coal tar-contaminated soils under natural attenuation. PMID:25146121

Hanser, Ogier; Biache, Coralie; Boulangé, Marine; Parant, Stéphane; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Billet, David; Michels, Raymond; Faure, Pierre

2015-01-01

397

The nature and molecular basis of cutaneous photosensitivity reactions to psoralens and coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The basic aspects of cutaneous photosensitization reactions and the mode of therapeutic effectiveness of psoralens and coal tar, the two groups of photosensitizing agents used extensively in the photochemotherapy of psoriasis, have been reviewed. Psoralen-induced skin photosensitization and the therapeutic action of psoralens involve two distinct types of reactions, and these two reactions occur independently of each other and concurrently when the psoralen-treated skin (oral or topical) is exposed to 320 to 400 nm of radiation. The first, type I, is an oxygen-independent reaction and primarily involves photoreaction with DNA; the second, type II, is a sensitized reaction dependent on oxygen and involves the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2). The photoreactive form of psoralen is its triplet state, and the sites of reaction are (1) the cell membrane of the epidermal, dermal, and endothelial cells; (2) the cytoplasmic constituents, such as enzymes, RNA, lysosomes, etc.; (3) the cell nuclei (DNA and chromatin); and (4) the sensitized production of 1O2, which is responsible for cell-membrane damage and vasodilation. The major damage would be initiated by a type I reaction and would be seen in the form of nuclear damage to DNA resulting from the interaction of psoralen with DNA and to a lesser extent with RNA. The skin photosensitization response (erythema, edema, membrane damage, etc.) would result from a type II reaction involving the generation of 1O2. Crude coal tar (CCT), widely used in the Goeckerman therapy for psoriasis, also produces type I and type II reactions. The therapeutic and photosensitizing actions of CCT are due to (1) the photoconjugation of the photoreactive ingredients of CCT with DNA, causing interstrand cross-links; and (2) the production of 1O2. CCT is an efficient producer of 1O2, more so than 8-methoxypsoralen, and is responsible for cell-membrane damage and cellular edema.

Pathak, M.A.; Joshi, P.C.

1983-06-01

398

Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Genetically Engineered to Secrete an IGF-I Receptor Decoy Prevent the Growth of Liver Metastases  

PubMed Central

Liver metastases respond poorly to current therapy and remain a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality. We reported previously that tumor cells expressing a soluble form of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (sIGFIR) lost the ability to metastasize to the liver. Here, we sought to develop a novel therapeutic approach for prevention of hepatic metastasis based on sustained in vivo delivery of the soluble receptor by genetically engineered autologous bone marrow stromal cells. We found that when implanted into mice, these cells secreted high plasma levels of sIGFIR and inhibited experimental hepatic metastases of colon and lung carcinoma cells. In hepatic micrometastases, a reduction in intralesional angiogenesis and increased tumor cell apoptosis were observed. The results show that the soluble receptor acted as a decoy to abort insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) functions during the early stages of metastasis and identify sustained sIGFIR delivery by cell-based vehicles as a potential approach for prevention of hepatic metastasis. PMID:19367255

Wang, Ni; Fallavollita, Lucia; Nguyen, Long; Burnier, Julia; Rafei, Moutih; Galipeau, Jacques; Yakar, Shoshana; Brodt, Pnina

2009-01-01

399

Differential effects of decoy chemokine (7ND) gene therapy on acute, biphasic and chronic autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implication for pathomechanisms of lesion formation.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits several clinical subtypes such as the relapsing-remitting (RR) and secondary progressive (SP) forms. In accordance with this, formation of demyelinating plaques in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs by different mechanisms. In the present study, we induced acute, biphasic and chronic (RR or SP) EAE in rats and examined the effects of decoy chemokine (7ND) gene therapy, which inhibits the migration of macrophages, to address the above issue. Interestingly, it was demonstrated that the clinical signs of acute EAE and the first attack of biphasic EAE were minimally affected, whereas chronic EAE and the relapse of biphasic EAE were completely suppressed with 7ND treatment. In the CNS, the number of infiltrating macrophages was reduced in all the stages of the three types of EAE. These findings suggest that in acute EAE and in the first attack of biphasic EAE, where anti-macrophage migration therapy was almost ineffective, pathogenic T cells are mainly involved in lesion formation. In contrast, the relapse of biphasic EAE and chronic EAE macrophages play a major role in the disease process. Thus, the mechanisms of lesion formation are not uniform and immunotherapy should be performed on the basis of information about the pathomechanisms of autoimmune diseases. PMID:18155779

Park, Il-Kwon; Hiraki, Keiko; Kohyama, Kuniko; Matsumoto, Yoh

2008-02-01

400

CHO cell culture longevity and recombinant protein yield are enhanced by depletion of miR-7 activity via sponge decoy vectors.  

PubMed

Improving the efficiency of recombinant protein production by CHO cells is highly desirable as more complex proteins (MAbs, fusion proteins, blood/clotting factors, etc.) go into development and come onto the market. Previous reports have shown that microRNA (miRNA)-7 overexpression arrests the growth of CHO cells and that its depletion increases the proliferation of various cell types. In this study we generated stable CHO clones that overexpressed a miR-7-specific decoy transcript (sponge) downstream of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. The miR-7 sponge efficiently diverted miR-7 away from its endogenous targets as exemplified by the increased expression of CDC7. Although the sponge effectively sequestered miR-7, it also appeared to protect the bound miRNA sequence from degradation in the cell, as exemplified by the apparent increase in mature miR-7 levels without any change in primary transcription. Phenotypically, CHO clones with sequestered miR-7 displayed improved maximum cell density (40%), significantly improved viability and an almost two-fold increase in yield of secreted protein in a fed-batch culture. These findings demonstrate that miRNA sponge transcripts could potentially be used in cell line development projects to generate producer clones that grow to higher densities and last longer in the bioreactor - thereby improving product yield. PMID:24166820

Sanchez, Noelia; Kelly, Paul; Gallagher, Clair; Lao, Nga T; Clarke, Colin; Clynes, Martin; Barron, Niall

2014-03-01

401

Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury.  

PubMed

The persistence of pain after surgery increases the recovery interval from surgery to a normal quality of life. AYX1 is a DNA-decoy drug candidate designed to prevent post-surgical pain following a single intrathecal injection. Tissue injury causes a transient activation of the transcription factor EGR1 in the dorsal root ganglia-dorsal horn network, which then triggers changes in gene expression that induce neuronal hypersensitivity. AYX1 is a potent, specific inhibitor of EGR1 activity that mimics the genomic EGR1-binding sequence. Administered in the peri-operative period, AYX1 dose dependently prevents mechanical hypersensitivity in models of acute incisional (plantar), inflammatory (CFA), and chronic neuropathic pain (SNI) in rats. Furthermore, in a knee surgery model evaluating functional measures of postoperative pain, AYX1 improved weight-bearing incapacitance and spontaneous rearing compared to control. These data illustrate the potential clinical therapeutic benefits of AYX1 for preventing the transition of acute to chronic post-surgical pain. PMID:24145208

Mamet, Julien; Klukinov, Michael; Yaksh, Tony L; Malkmus, Shelle A; Williams, Samantha; Harris, Scott; Manning, Donald C; Taylor, Bradley K; Donahue, Renee R; Porreca, Frank; Xie, Jennifer Y; Oyarzo, Janice; Brennan, Timothy J; Subieta, Alberto; Schmidt, William K; Yeomans, David C

2014-02-01

402

Motor Imagery and Tennis Serve Performance: The External Focus Efficacy  

PubMed Central

There is now ample evidence that motor imagery (MI) contributes to enhance motor performance. Previous research also demonstrated that directing athletes’ attention to the effects of their movements on the environment is more effective than focusing on the action per se. The present study aimed therefore at evaluating whether adopting an external focus during MI contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Twelve high-level young tennis players were included in a test-retest procedure. The effects of regular training were first evaluated. Then, players were subjected to a MI intervention during which they mentally focused on ball trajectory and specifically visualized the space above the net where the serve can be successfully hit. Serve performance was evaluated during both a validated serve test and a real match. The main results showed a significant increase in accuracy and velocity during the ecological serve test after MI practice, as well as a significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during the match. Present data therefore confirmed the efficacy of MI in combination of physical practice to improve tennis serve performance, and further provided evidence that it is feasible to adopt external attentional focus during MI. Practical applications are discussed. Key Points Motor imagery contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Data provided evidence of the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention during imagery. Results showed significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during a real match. PMID:24149813

Guillot, Aymeric; Desliens, Simon; Rouyer, Christelle; Rogowski, Isabelle

2013-01-01

403

The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

Sane, Bhagyashree

2011-01-01

404

Lower trunk muscle activity during the tennis serve.  

PubMed

Prior electromyographic (EMG) analyses of the tennis serve have focused on the muscles in the hitting arm and shoulder region. This preliminary study aimed to examine the muscle activation patterns of selected lower trunk muscles during three different types of tennis serve--flat, topspin, and slice. Five male highly skilled tennis players completed 10 trials for each type of serve. Surface EMG electrodes were used to monitor the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscles. For each subject, the two trials with the highest self-reported ratings were analysed. Average EMG levels during each phase of a tennis serve for each muscle were analysed using a non-parametric ANOVA design. No major differences in muscle activation pattern were found across different serve types, and bilateral differences in muscle activation were more pronounced in RA and EO than in IO and ES muscles. The abdominal muscles were more active in the topspin than in the other two types of serves during the upward swing of the racket. An appreciable amount of abdominal/low back and bilateral co-activation was observed during certain phases of the serve. The co-activation of lower trunk muscles may help to stabilise the lumbar spine during the arch back and forward swing phases of the serve. The results reinforce the importance of abdominal and low back exercises in the strength and rehabilitation programs designed for tennis players. PMID:14723400

Chow, J W; Shim, J H; Lim, Y T

2003-12-01

405

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation  

E-print Network

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation Simon Duquennoy dedicated terminals. A new trend consists in embedding Web servers in small devices, making both access of embedded Web servers, and we introduce a taxonomy of the contents possi- bly served by Web applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

14 CFR 406.115 - Serving documents on other parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties. (a...time of filing a copy of any document filed with the Federal Docket Management System. Service on a party's...service. A person must serve documents by personal delivery or...

2010-01-01

407

Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.  

PubMed

Abstract Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance. PMID:25358037

Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

2015-01-01

408

From selective full-length genes isolation by TAR cloning in yeast to their expression from HAC vectors in human cells.  

PubMed

Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning allows selective isolation of full-length genes and genomic loci as large circular Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) in yeast. The method has a broad application for structural and functional genomics, long-range haplotyping, characterization of chromosomal rearrangements, and evolutionary studies. In this paper, we describe a basic protocol for gene isolation by TAR as well as a method to convert TAR isolates into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) using a retrofitting vector. The retrofitting vector contains a 3' HPRT-loxP cassette to allow subsequent gene loading into a unique loxP site of the HAC-based (Human Artificial Chromosome) gene delivery vector. The benefit of combining the TAR gene cloning technology with the HAC gene delivery system for gene expression studies is discussed. PMID:25239739

Kouprina, Natalay; Lee, Nicholas C O; Kononenko, Artem V; Samoshkin, Alexander; Larionov, Vladimir

2015-01-01

409

Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury.  

PubMed

The tennis serve has the potential for musculoskeletal injury as it is an overhead motion and is performed repetitively during play. Early studies evaluating the biomechanics and injury potential of the tennis serve utilized skin-based marker technologies; however, markerless motion measurement systems have recently become available and have obviated some of the problems associated with the marker-based technology. The late cocking and early acceleration phases of the kinetic chain of the service motion produce the highest internal forces and pose the greatest risk of injury during the service motion. Previous biomechanical data on the tennis serve have primarily focused on the flat serve, with some data on the kick serve, and very little published data elucidating the biomechanics of the slice serve. This review discusses the injury potential of the tennis serve with respect to the four phases of the service motion, the history, and early findings of service motion evaluation, as well as biomechanical data detailing the differences between the three types of serves and how this may relate to injury prevention, rehabilitation, and return to play. PMID:22303788

Abrams, Geoffrey D; Sheets, Alison L; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Safran, Marc R

2011-11-01

410

Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tennis serve has the potential for musculoskeletal injury as it is an overhead motion and is performed repetitively during play. Early studies evaluating the biomechanics and injury potential of the tennis serve utilized skin-based marker technologies; however, markerless motion measurement systems have recently become available and have obviated some of the problems associated with the marker-based technology. The late

Geoffrey D. Abrams; Alison L. Sheets; Thomas P. Andriacchi; Marc R. Safran

2011-01-01

411

Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 2. Mass balance and biodegradation indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A source of coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. A mass balance indicated that ongoing transformation occurred for seven study compounds. Phenol migrated as a discrete slug plume and almost completely disappeared after 2 years, after being completely leached from the source early in the study. The m-xylene plume migrated outward to a maximum distance at approximately 2 years, and then receded back towards the source as the rate of mass flux out of the source decreased to below the overall rate of plume transformation. Carbazole showed similar behaviour, although the reversal in plume development occurred more slowly. The dibenzofuran plume remained relatively constant in extent and mass over the last 2 years of monitoring, despite constant source input over this period, providing evidence that the dibenzofuran plume was at steady state. Meanwhile, the naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene plumes continued to advance and increase in mass over the observation period, although at a decreasing rate. The phenanthrene plume was also subject to transformation, although measurement of the rate was less conclusive due to the higher proportion of sorbed mass for this compound. Three lines of evidence are presented to evaluate whether the observed plume mass loss was due to microbial biodegradation. Measurement of redox-sensitive parameters in the vicinity of the plume showed the types of changes that would be expected to occur due to plume biodegradation: dissolved oxygen and SO 42- decreased in groundwater within the plume while significant increases were noted for Fe 2+, Mn 2+ and methane. Further evidence that plume mass loss was microbially-mediated was provided by the accumulation of aromatic acids within the plume. Measurements of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in aquifer material indicated that microbial biomass and turnover rate were greater within the plume than outside: also consistent with biodegradation. Study results highlight the potential for utilizing natural attenuation as a site cleanup approach for dissolved phase plumes from complex organic mixture like coal tar creosote.

King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.; Devlin, John F.; Butler, Barbara J.

1999-10-01

412

TAR-independent transactivation of the murine cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter by the Tat protein.  

PubMed Central

Tat is a transactivator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that stimulates gene expression via an RNA target sequence (TAR) by augmenting transcriptional initiation and/or elongation from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter. Here we show that Tat is able to transactivate the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) major immediate-early promoter (MIEP), which lacks sequence similarity with the HIV-1 long terminal repeat TAR element. Surprisingly, deletion of the upstream enhancer region (-610 to -146) of the MCMV MIEP abrogated Tat responsiveness. This result suggests that Tat requires a DNA target for function. Quantitation of RNA and protein indicates that Tat stimulates expression from the MCMV MIEP at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Deletion analysis of the MIEP indicates that there is likely to be interplay between the enhancer region, a sequence upstream of the known enhancer which negatively affects expression, and the Tat protein. Images PMID:8380074

Kim, Y S; Risser, R

1993-01-01

413

Analysis of Pure Tar Substances (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in the Gas Stream Using Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR).  

PubMed

The analysis of tar, mostly characterized as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), describes a topic that has been researched for years. An online analysis of tar in the gas stream in particular is needed to characterize the tar conversion or formation in the biomass gasification process. The online analysis in the gas is carried out with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (190-720 nm). This online analysis is performed with a measuring cell developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT). To this day, online tar measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy have not been carried out in detail. Therefore, PAHs are analyzed as follows. The measurements are split into different steps. The first step to prove the online method is to vaporize single tar substances. These experiments show that a qualitative analysis of PAHs in the gas stream with the used measurement setup is possible. Furthermore, it is shown that the method provides very exact results, so that a differentiation of various PAHs is possible. The next step is to vaporize a PAH mixture. This step consists of vaporizing five pure substances almost simultaneously. The interpretation of the resulting data is made using a chemometric interpretation method, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The verification of the calculated results is the main aim of this experiment. It has been shown that the tar mixture can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (in arbitrary units) in detail using the MCR. Finally it is the main goal of this paper to show the first steps in the applicability of the UV-Vis spectroscopy and the measurement setup on online tar analysis in view of characterizing the biomass gasification process. Due to that, the gasification plant (at the laboratory scale), developed and constructed by the Fraunhofer ICT, has been used to vaporize these substances. Using this gasification plant for the experiments enables the usage of the measurement setup also for the spectroscopic analysis of the tar formation during the biomass gasification. PMID:25588231

Weide, Tobias; Guschin, Viktor; Becker, Wolfgang; Koelle, Sabine; Maier, Simon; Seidelt, Stephan

2015-01-01

414

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

Penner, S.S.

1982-03-01

415

Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

2002-09-19

416

Early specific free radical-related cytotoxicity of gas phase cigarette smoke and its paradoxical temporary inhibition by tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies demonstrated aqueous tar particulate matter (TPM) and gas phase cigarette smoke (GPCS) to behave as different sources of free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) but their cytotoxic implications have been only assessed in CS due to its relevance to the natural smoking process. Using a sensitive spin trapping detection with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), this

Marcel Culcasi; Agnès Muller; Anne Mercier; Jean-Louis Clément; Olivier Payet; Antal Rockenbauer; Véronique Marchand; Sylvia Pietri

2006-01-01

417

Steam reforming model compounds of biomass gasification tars: conversion at different operating conditions and tendency towards coke formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of biomass-derived syngas via tar abatement by catalytic steam reforming has been investigated using benzene, toluene, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene as surrogated molecules. The effects of temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio on conversion, and the tendency towards coke formation were explored for each model compound. Two commercial nickel-based catalysts, the UCI G90-C and the ICI 46-1, were evaluated. The

Roberto Coll; Joan Salvadó; Xavier Farriol; Daniel Montané

2001-01-01

418

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the

Penner

1982-01-01

419

Factors influencing the mobilisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the coal-tar lining of water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-tar was commonly used as an internal lining for corrosion protection of water pipes from the 19th century. In this project the principal mechanisms leading to the occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in those water mains were investigated.The results showed that the occurrence of PAHs in a distribution system was linked to the presence of the disinfectants chlorine and

M Maier; D Maier; B. J Lloyd

2000-01-01

420

Novel Approach to Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Means of a Nickel-Based Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nickel-based catalyst was exposed to the raw gas from gasification of woody biomass with air in a fluidized-bed. After dust removal on a barrier filter and sulphur compounds capture, namely H2S, on an active sorbent made of CuO and ZnO, higher hydrocarbons as tar components were decomposed/reformed on aNi-catalyst. Steam reforming reactions led to decomposition of tar and all hydrocarbons higher than CH4 into mainly H2 and CO which further underwent reaction with steam via the water gas shift reaction to CO2. The reforming reactions caused approximately 10-20 % decrease in the lower heating values of the producer gas from the inlet values 5.0-6.5 MJ m-3. The gas yield increased fromvalues 2.4-2.6 m3 kg-1 to values 2.8-3.0 m3 kg-1 on dry biomass basis. The chosen tar removal concept based on combination of dolomite in the fluidized-bed with the secondary catalytic reactor was proved by 20 hours long experiment in which the finaltar content below 30 mg m-3 was attained corresponding to more than 97 % tar conversion. H2S content in producer gas was expected to be below 100 vol. ppm, bulk of which was captured on the sorbent. Only limited deactivation of thecatalyst by sulphur compounds was found in the front of the catalyst bed where sulphur content was determined as high as 173 wt. ppm compared to 22 wt. ppm in the fresh sample.

Vosecký, M.; Kameníková, P.; Poho?elý, M.; Skoblja, S.; Pun?ochá?, M.

421

Simultaneous recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge and loop sequences by cyclic peptide mimics of Tat protein.  

PubMed

The interaction of the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its transactivation response (TAR) RNA is an essential step in viral replication and therefore an attractive target for developing antivirals with new mechanisms of action. Numerous compounds that bind to the 3-nt bulge responsible for binding Tat have been identified in the past, but none of these molecules had sufficient potency to warrant pharmaceutical development. We have discovered conformationally-constrained cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat that are specific nM inhibitors of the Tat-TAR interaction by using a structure-based approach. The lead peptides are nearly as active as the antiviral drug nevirapine against a variety of clinical isolates in human lymphocytes. The NMR structure of a peptide-RNA complex reveals that these molecules interfere with the recruitment to TAR of both Tat and the essential cellular cofactor transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) by binding simultaneously at the RNA bulge and apical loop, forming an unusually deep pocket. This structure illustrates additional principles in RNA recognition: RNA-binding molecules can achieve specificity by interacting simultaneously with multiple secondary structure elements and by inducing the formation of deep binding pockets in their targets. It also provides insight into the P-TEFb binding site and a rational basis for optimizing the promising antiviral activity observed for these cyclic peptides. PMID:19584251

Davidson, Amy; Leeper, Thomas C; Athanassiou, Zafiria; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Karn, Jonathan; Robinson, John A; Varani, Gabriele

2009-07-21

422

PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg–1). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

423

PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas.  

PubMed

Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin's ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998-2005 to 2006-2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg(-1), respectively), and by 2012-2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg(-1)). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959-1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted. PMID:24930435

Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J

2014-07-01

424

"Serving Those Who Serve Us" Checklist: The purpose of this checklist is to fully recognize 4-H'ers who are serving their  

E-print Network

for the Military Bring cards and desserts to a fire station Volunteer at a State Park to help the rangers Volunteer for your local 4-H Agent Help a librarian Donate cards to a local police station Serve at a local food bank

Jawitz, James W.

425

Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

2010-01-01

426

Nuclear TAR DNA-binding protein 43: A new target for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatment  

PubMed Central

Abnormal TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusion bodies can be detected in the degenerative neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, we induced chronic oxidative stress injury by applying malonate to cultured mouse cortical motor neurons. In the later stages of the malonate insult, TDP-43 expression reduced in the nuclei and transferred to the cytoplasm. This was accompanied by neuronal death, mimicking the pathological changes in TDP-43 that are seen in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, in the early stages of the response to malonate treatment, nuclear TDP-43 expression increased, and neurons remained relatively intact, without inclusion bodies or fragmentation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the increase of nuclear TDP-43 expression might be a pro-survival factor against oxidative stress injury. This hypothesis was confirmed by an in vitro transgenic experiment, in which overexpression of wild type mouse TDP-43 in cultured cortical motor neurons significantly reduced malonate-induced neuronal death. Our findings suggest that the loss of function of TDP-43 is an important cause of neuronal degeneration, and upregulation of nuclear TDP-43 expression might be neuroprotective in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:25206650

Zheng, Mei; Shi, Yujie; Fan, Dongsheng

2013-01-01

427

Taxa-area Relationship (TAR) of Microbial Functional Genes with Long-TGerm Fertilization  

SciTech Connect

Diversity and spatial patterns in plant and animal communities are well documented as a positive-power law of a taxa-area relationship (TAR). At present little is known whether this also applies to soil microbial communities and whether long-term fertilization has an influence on the underlying microbial diversity. To test the effects of long-term fertilization on above-ground botanical diversity and below-ground microbial diversity, a nested sampling approach on Park Grass plots (12d& 11/2c) of Rothamsted Reseach in United Kingdom, both at ~;; pH 5 but with plant diversities of between 42 and 13 respectively were used. GeoChip 3.0, covering approximately 57, 000 gene sequences of 292 gene families involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, was used to determine the gene area relationships for both functional and phylogenetic groups and the relationship to plant diversity. Our analysis indicated that the microbial communities were separated by different plant diversity based on DCA. The soil microbial diversity was in accord with plant diversity. Soil microbial community exhibited different z value with different plant diversity, z = 0.0449 with higher plant diversity and z = 0.0583 with lower plant diversity (P< 0.0001). These results suggest that the turnover in space of microorganisms may be higher with long-term fertilization.

Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian; Xue, Kai; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Hirsch, Penny; Mcgrath, Steve; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17

428

Carbon starvation in glacial trees recovered from the La Brea tar pits, southern California  

PubMed Central

The Rancho La Brea tar pit fossil collection includes Juniperus (C3) wood specimens that 14C date between 7.7 and 55 thousand years (kyr) B.P., providing a constrained record of plant response for southern California during the last glacial period. Atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) ranged between 180 and 220 ppm during glacial periods, rose to ?280 ppm before the industrial period, and is currently approaching 380 ppm in the modern atmosphere. Here we report on ?13C of Juniperus wood cellulose, and show that glacial and modern trees were operating at similar leaf-intercellular [CO2](ci)/atmospheric [CO2](ca) values. As a result, glacial trees were operating at ci values much closer to the CO2-compensation point for C3 photosynthesis than modern trees, indicating that glacial trees were undergoing carbon starvation. In addition, we modeled relative humidity by using ?18O of cellulose from the same Juniperus specimens and found that glacial humidity was ?10% higher than that in modern times, indicating that differences in vapor-pressure deficits did not impose additional constrictions on ci/ca in the past. By scaling ancient ci values to plant growth by using modern relationships, we found evidence that C3 primary productivity was greatly diminished in southern California during the last glacial period. PMID:15642948

Ward, Joy K.; Harris, John M.; Cerling, Thure E.; Wiedenhoeft, Alex; Lott, Michael J.; Dearing, Maria-Denise; Coltrain, Joan B.; Ehleringer, James R.

2005-01-01

429

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01

430

Determination of the Forms of Nitrogen Released in Coal Tar During Rapid Devolatilization  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work is to determine the forms of nitrogen in coal that lead to nitrogen release during devolatilization. Experiments are to be performed in two existing laminar flow reactors available at Brigham Young University, which are both capable of temperatures (up to 2000 K), particle heating rates (10 4 to 10 5 K/s), and residence times (up to 500 ms) relevant to conditions commonly encountered in industrial pulverized coal combustors. The forms of nitrogen in coal, char, and tar samples are analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution nitrogen-specific chromatography. These sophisticated analysis techniques are being performed in collaboration with other researchers at BYU, the University of Utah, and industrial organizations. Coals have been obtained as a function of rank, including eight coals from the University of Utah that are to be used in pilot scale tests in support of the DOE Coal-2000 HiPPS (High Performance Power Systems) and LEBS (Low-Emission Boiler Systems) programs. Anticipated results from the proposed research are (a) nitrogen release parameters during devolatilization for specific coals pertinent to the HiPPS and LEBS projects, (b) better fundamental understanding of the chemistry of nitrogen release, and (c) a nitrogen release submodel based on fundamental chemistry that may be more widely applicable than existing empirical relationships.

Thomas H. Fletcher

1998-05-30

431

DETERMINATION OF THE FORMS OF NITROGEN RELEASED IN COAL TAR DURING RAPID DEVOLATILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work is to determine the forms of nitrogen in coal that lead to nitrogen release during devolatilization. Experiments are to be performed in two existing laminar flow reactors available at Brigham Young University, which are both capable of temperatures (up to 2000 K), particle heating rates (10 4 to 10 5 K/s), and residence times (up to 500 ms) relevant to conditions commonly encountered in industrial pulverized coal combustors. The forms of nitrogen in coal, char, and tar samples are analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution nitrogen-specific chromatography. These sophisticated analysis techniques are being performed in collaboration with other researchers at BYU, the University of Utah, and industrial organizations. Coals have been obtained as a function of rank, including eight coals from the University of Utah that are to be used in pilot scale tests in support of the DOE Coal-2000 HiPPS (High Performance Power Systems) and LEBS (Low-Emission Boiler Systems) programs. Results from the proposed research are (a) nitrogen release parameters during devolatilization for specific coals pertinent to the HiPPS and LEBS projects, (b) better fundamental understanding of the chemistry of nitrogen release, and (c) a nitrogen release submodel based on fundamental chemistry that may be more widely applicable than existing empirical relationships.

NONE

1998-10-30

432

Tar Production from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: A Novel Turbulent Multiphase Flow Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.

Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.

2000-01-01

433

Mutationally Altered Signal Output in the Nart (NarX-Tar) Hybrid Chemoreceptor  

PubMed Central

Signal-transducing proteins that span the cytoplasmic membrane transmit information about the environment to the interior of the cell. In bacteria, these signal transducers include sensor kinases, which typically control gene expression via response regulators, and methyl-accepting chemoreceptor proteins, which control flagellar rotation via the CheA kinase and CheY response regulator. We previously reported that a chimeric protein (Nart) that joins the ligand-binding, transmembrane, and linker regions of the NarX sensor kinase to the signaling and adaptation domains of the Tar chemoreceptor elicits a repellent response to nitrate and nitrite. As with NarX, nitrate evokes a stronger response than nitrite. Here we show that mutations targeting a highly conserved sequence (the P box) in the periplasmic domain alter chemoreception by Nart and signaling by NarX similarly. In particular, the G51R substitution converts Nart from a repellent receptor into an attractant receptor for nitrate. Our results underscore the conclusion that the fundamental mechanism of transmembrane signaling is conserved between homodimeric sensor kinases and chemoreceptors. They also highlight the plasticity of the coupling between ligand binding and signal output in these systems. PMID:16707686

Ward, Scott M.; Bormans, Arjan F.; Manson, Michael D.

2006-01-01

434

7 CFR 63.102 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Board of Directors § 63.102 Nominee's agreement to serve....

2012-01-01

435

7 CFR 63.102 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Board of Directors § 63.102 Nominee's agreement to serve....

2011-01-01

436

7 CFR 63.102 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Board of Directors § 63.102 Nominee's agreement to serve....

2013-01-01

437

7 CFR 63.102 - Nominee's agreement to serve.  

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Board of Directors § 63.102 Nominee's agreement to serve....

2014-01-01

438

Fresh and Frozen Seafood: Selecting and Serving It Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... Seafood: Selecting and Serving it Safely Available in ( PDF - 724KB) .También disponible en Español (Spanish) . WATCH a VIDEO on Seafood Safety Fish and shellfish contain high quality protein and other essential nutrients and are an important ...

439

21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS Specific Nutritional Quality...dinner prepared from conventional food ingredients listed in...product includes servings of food which are not prescribed by...bread or rolls, beverage, or dessert), their contribution...

2013-04-01

440

21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS Specific Nutritional Quality...dinner prepared from conventional food ingredients listed in...product includes servings of food which are not prescribed by...bread or rolls, beverage, or dessert), their contribution...

2012-04-01

441

21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS Specific Nutritional Quality...dinner prepared from conventional food ingredients listed in...product includes servings of food which are not prescribed by...bread or rolls, beverage, or dessert), their contribution...

2010-04-01

442

21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.  

...NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS Specific Nutritional Quality...dinner prepared from conventional food ingredients listed in...product includes servings of food which are not prescribed by...bread or rolls, beverage, or dessert), their contribution...

2014-04-01

443

21 CFR 104.47 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS Specific Nutritional Quality...dinner prepared from conventional food ingredients listed in...product includes servings of food which are not prescribed by...bread or rolls, beverage, or dessert), their contribution...

2011-04-01

444

13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

445

Serving the poor: drivers of business model innovation in mobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities and challenges of serving low-income consumers in developing markets with mobile telecommunications. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Field visits were made to Africa, India, Mexico and the Philippines, and in-depth interviews took place with companies that had succeeded in serving low-income consumers. Findings – The paper provides insights about the importance

Jamie Anderson; Martin Kupp

2008-01-01

446

DiffServ resource allocation scheme for IP micromobility networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a scalable DiffServ resource allocation scheme with per-hop and handoff probability featured resource reservation for IP micromobility networks. IP micromobility protocols support fast, seamless, local mobility but they lack a suitable QoS management mechanism. Our proposed scheme extends the DiffServ model for admission control and on-demand resource reservation under IP micromobility. Resource reservation for handoff uses a

Xie Zhi; Zhang Ping

2004-01-01

447

Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix composition and thermodynamic conditions could facilitate a transformation to more crystalline iron phases and increase metal bioavailability. While preliminary data from in-creek aggregates show no clear trend in mineralogical composition with downstream transport, only the furthest downstream samples have 2-line ferrihydrite in amounts detectable by XRD.

Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

2010-12-01

448

An Exploratory Study of Inhalers and Injectors Who Used Black Tar Heroin  

PubMed Central

Aims To undertake an exploratory study to examine the characteristics of patients in narcotic treatment programs who started their use of black tar heroin either as inhalers or as injectors and to compare them with those who started as inhalers but shifted to injecting. Other studies in this area have used subjects using other forms of heroin more amenable to inhaling. Participants, Design, and Measurement A purposive sample of 199 patients in 6 methadone programs in Texas were interviewed in 2002-2003 using a structured instrument. Findings At admission to treatment, those who were heroin inhalers were more likely to be African American, to live with their families, to have income from wages, and to report fewer days of problems on most of the ASI measures. Those who shifted from inhaling to injecting were more likely to be Hispanic and to have had mental health problems that interfered with their lives and to have had less nurturing while growing up. Injectors were older at this treatment admission, had more treatment episodes and more times in jail, and were more likely to have hepatitis C, AIDS, or gonorrhea. There were high levels of physical and mental problems and histories of traumatization as children and adults for almost all the respondents. Males were as likely as females to have been sexually abused as children or as adults. Conclusions The high rates of mental and physical problems among all the clients interviewed showed the need for comprehensive services to be delivered within the substance abuse treatment programs. Histories of trauma and sexual abuse should be addressed for both male and female clients. PMID:21552428

Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T.

2011-01-01

449

The soluble Decoy Receptor 3 is regulated by a PI3K-dependent mechanism and promotes migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Overexpression of Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a common event in several types of cancer. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), DcR3 overexpression is associated with lymph node and distant metastasis as well as a poor prognosis. However, the functional role and regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC is so far unknown. Methods Modulation of DcR3 expression by siRNA and ectopic gene expression, respectively, was performed in ACHN and 769-P RCC cell lines. Functional effects of a modulated DcR3 expression were analyzed with regard to migration, invasion, adhesion, clonogenicity, and proliferation. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of downstream mediators of DcR3. In further experiments, luciferase assays, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were applied to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC. Additionally, an ex vivo tissue slice culture technique combined with immunohistochemistry was used to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in human RCC specimens. Results Here, we show that DcR3 promotes adhesion, migration and invasiveness of RCC cells. The DcR3-dependent increase in cellular invasiveness is accompanied with an up-regulation of integrin alpha 4, matrixmetalloproteinase 7 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Further, we identified a signaling pathway regulating DcR3 expression in RCC. Using in vitro experiments as well as an ex vivo RCC tissue slice culture model, we demonstrate that expression of DcR3 is regulated in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner involving the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Conclusions Taken together, our results identify DcR3 as a key driver of tumor cell dissemination and suggest DcR3 as a promising target for rational therapy of RCC. PMID:24107265

2013-01-01