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Sample records for tar decoy serves

  1. Decoys for Docking

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Alan P.; Brenk, Ruth; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular docking is widely used to predict novel lead compounds for drug discovery. Success depends on the quality of the docking scoring function, among other factors. An imperfect scoring function can mislead by predicting incorrect ligand geometries or by selecting nonbinding molecules over true ligands. These false-positive hits may be considered “decoys”. Although these decoys are frustrating, they potentially provide important tests for a docking algorithm; the more subtle the decoy, the more rigorous the test. Indeed, decoy databases have been used to improve protein structure prediction algorithms and protein–protein docking algorithms. Here, we describe 20 geometric decoys in five enzymes and 166 “hit list” decoys–i.e., molecules predicted to bind by our docking program that were tested and found not to do so–for ?-lactamase and two cavity sites in lysozyme. Especially in the cavity sites, which are very simple, these decoys highlight particular weaknesses in our scoring function. We also consider the performance of five other widely used docking scoring functions against our geometric and hit list decoys. Intriguingly, whereas many of these other scoring functions performed better on the geometric decoys, they typically performed worse on the hit list decoys, often highly ranking molecules that seemed to poorly complement the model sites. Several of these “hits” from the other scoring functions were tested experimentally and found, in fact, to be decoys. Collectively, these decoys provide a tool for the development and improvement of molecular docking scoring functions. Such improvements may, in turn, be rapidly tested experimentally against these and related experimental systems, which are well-behaved in assays and for structure determination. PMID:15916423

  2. TAR SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tar spot of grasses, also known as black leaf spot, is found on most members of the Poaceae. Tar spot appears principally on perennial grasses in moist, shaded areas and is rare on wheat and other annuals. It is found primarily in temperate regions. The disease is readily recognized by its glossy...

  3. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  4. Tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Wennekers, J.H.N.

    1981-10-01

    The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  5. Salt-Sensitive Hypertension Induced by Decoy of Transcription Factor HIF-1? in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ningjun; Li, Chen; Yi, Fan; Xia, Min; Li, Pin-Lan

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), a transcription factor, is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and regulates many oxygen-sensitive genes such as nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Given the important roles of these genes in the control of arterial pressure, the present study was to test the hypothesis that HIF-1?-mediated gene activation serves as an antihypertensive pathway by regulating renal medullary function and sodium excretion. HIF-1? decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) or scrambled ODN were transfected into the renal medulla in uninephretomized Sprague Dawley rats. Two weeks after ODN transfection, the HIF-1? binding activities were significantly inhibited by 45%, and high salt-induced increases of NOS2 and HO-1 transcriptions were also inhibited by 70% and 61% in the renal medulla from decoy rats. The natriuretic responses and increases of renal medullary blood flow (MBF) responding to the elevations of renal perfusion pressure were significantly blunted by 50% and 37% in decoy rats. Intravenously acute sodium loading increased MBF and urinary sodium excretion, which was remarkably attenuated in decoy rats. In decoy rats, high salt intake caused a greater positive sodium balance. Consequently, arterial pressure was remarkably increased (from 118 ± 1.9 to 154 ± 6.3 mmHg) in decoy rats, but not in control rats, when the rats were challenged with a high salt diet. There was no blood pressure change in decoy rats that were maintained in normal salt diet. In conclusion, HIF-1?-mediated gene activation importantly participates in the regulation of renal medullary function and long-term arterial blood pressure. PMID:18356541

  6. Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States

    E-print Network

    Yi Zhao; Bing Qi; Xiongfeng Ma; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Li Qian

    2005-11-03

    To increase dramatically the distance and the secure key generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), the idea of quantum decoys--signals of different intensities--has recently been proposed. Here, we present the first experimental implementation of decoy state QKD. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we show that a secure key generation rate of 165bit/s, which is 1/4 of the theoretical limit, can be obtained over 15km of a Telecom fiber. We also show that with the same experimental parameters, not even a single bit of secure key can be extracted with a non-decoy-state protocol. Compared to building single photon sources, decoy state QKD is a much simpler method for increasing the distance and key generation rate of unconditionally secure QKD.

  7. Construction and test of ligand decoy sets using MDock: community structure-activity resource benchmarks for binding mode prediction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2011-09-26

    Two sets of ligand binding decoys have been constructed for the community structure-activity resource (CSAR) benchmark by using the MDock and DOCK programs for rigid- and flexible-ligand docking, respectively. The decoys generated for each complex in the benchmark thoroughly cover the binding site and also contain a certain number of near-native binding modes. A few scoring functions have been evaluated using the ligand binding decoy sets for their abilities of predicting near-native binding modes. Among them, ITScore achieved a success rate of 86.7% for the rigid-ligand decoys and 79.7% for the flexible-ligand decoys, under the common definition of a successful prediction as root-mean-square deviation <2.0 Å from the native structure if the top-scored binding mode was considered. The decoy sets may serve as benchmarks for binding mode prediction of a scoring function, which are available at the CSAR Web site ( http://www.csardock.org/). PMID:21755952

  8. Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brian M.; Hershkop, Shlomo; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

    The insider threat remains one of the most vexing problems in computer security. A number of approaches have been proposed to detect nefarious insider actions including user modeling and profiling techniques, policy and access enforcement techniques, and misuse detection. In this work we propose trap-based defense mechanisms and a deployment platform for addressing the problem of insiders attempting to exfiltrate and use sensitive information. The goal is to confuse and confound an adversary requiring more effort to identify real information from bogus information and provide a means of detecting when an attempt to exploit sensitive information has occurred. “Decoy Documents” are automatically generated and stored on a file system by the D3 System with the aim of enticing a malicious user. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. The decoy documents contain several different types of bogus credentials that when used, trigger an alert. We also embed “stealthy beacons” inside the documents that cause a signal to be emitted to a server indicating when and where the particular decoy was opened. We evaluate decoy documents on honeypots penetrated by attackers demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

  9. Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

  10. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  11. Experimental Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Qi-Chao Sun; Wei-Long Wang; Yang Liu; Fei Zhou; Jason S. Pelc; M. M. Fejer; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Xian-Feng Chen; Xiongfeng Ma; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan

    2014-06-20

    The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources by varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we have experimentally demonstrated the passive decoy-state method over a 50-km-long optical fiber and have obtained a key rate of about 100 bit/s. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

  12. Fake state attack on practically decoy state quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Yong-gang Tan

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, security of practically decoy state quantum key distribution under fake state attack is considered. If quantum key distribution is insecure under this type of attack, decoy sources can not also provide it with enough security. Strictly analysis shows that Eve should eavesdrop with the aid of photon-number-resolving instruments. In practical implementation of decoy state quantum key distribution where statistical fluctuation is considered, however, Eve can attack it successfully with threshold detectors.

  13. Treatment of hot tar burns

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Tredget, T.

    1982-01-01

    Hot tar burns, although rare, usually occur in workers in the paving and roofing industries. When tar is heated to high temperatures it can cause deep burns, and its removal often causes further damage. However, the use of one of the polysorbates (surface-active agents) makes removal easy and painless. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:7083105

  14. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  15. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences. PMID:26521171

  16. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Fain, Boris; Levitt, Michael; Samudrala, Ram

    2004-01-01

    Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys). This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all C? RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation) calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta). The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the C? RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF), which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with C? RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent scoring functions for improved protein structure selection. Their success indicates that information from the ensemble of decoy conformations can be used to derive statistical probabilities and facilitate the identification of near-native structures. PMID:15207004

  17. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  18. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A.

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  19. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of visbreaking tars

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, R.; Clericuzio, M.; Pirovano, C.

    1995-12-31

    The stability of visbreaking tars (VB-tar) constitutes a limit for converting petroleum residues into distillates. Depending on the severity of the process (temperature and/or residence time), a progressive thermal dealkylation of asphaltene molecules occurs, resulting in an increase of aromaticity. As a consequence asphaltenes are hardly maintained in stable suspensions and tend to separate. In the present work VB-tars (350{degrees}C+ and 500{degrees}C+) with different degrees of stability were produced in a continuous bench-scale plant under isothermal conditions (442{degrees}C) with different residence times. The VB-tars were investigated by: (1) NIR and FT-IR to detect the functional groups, (2) UV-VIS and Fluorescence spectroscopies to follow the evolution of aromatic components of the ters, (3) {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR to quantify the aromatic content, the degree of substitution of aromatic carbons and the main length of the aliphatic side chains, (4) EPR to study the nature and the amount of radicals. The results of structural investigation and their relations to VB-tar stability will be critically discussed.

  1. Research Article Effectiveness of Spinning-Wing Decoys Varies Among

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n ¼ 8) for cinnamon teal they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca ). Effectiveness of spinning

  2. Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan

    2007-07-15

    To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

  3. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of visbreaking tars

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, R.; Clericuzio, M.; Pirovano, C.

    1995-12-31

    Visbreaking (VB) is a thermal cracking process, widely used in the refineries of Western Europe to obtain distillates (gasoil, naphtha) from a petroleum residue (feedstock). The visbroken residue (tar) is used to produce fuel oil, after addition of the appropriate amounts of cutter-stock. Even if the highest conversion of feedstock would be desirable, the severity of the VB process is limited by the stability of the resulting VB tars. The stability index (SI) here employed is: SI = I + V{sub cet}, where V{sub cet} is the maximum amount of n-cetane, expressed as ml of cetane for g of sample, that can be added before the flocculation of asphaltenes starts. VB tars having SI<1.1 are considered to be unstable and cannot be used in the preparation of fuel oils with the appropriate specifications. Several papers can be found in the literature dealing with the molecular changes occuring during the VB process. The present paper is aimed at verifying the amount of information that can be extracted from optical spectroscopies and, in particular, the possibility of directly monitoring the physico-chemical modifications caused by VB process. To this purpose a series of VB tars, produced from a single feedstock at different severities, were investigated by a number of spectroscopic techniques, viz.: NIR; UV-Vis; Fluorescence; {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NUR, EPR.

  5. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  6. Blind Quantum Computing with Decoy States

    E-print Network

    Ke Xu; Hoi-kwong Lo

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we study the Universal Blind Quantum Computing (UBQC) protocol, which allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote quantum server and the Remote Blind qubit tate Preparation (RBSP) protocol which allows the client to prepare single qubits on the server's location with week coherent pulses. This RBSP protocol is inefficient for small $ T $, because the required number of pulses for generating one single qubit scales as $ \\mbox{O}(1/T^4) $, where $ T $ is the transmittance of the quantum channe between the client and the server. Our contribution in this paper is a modified RBSP protocol with decoy states. This new protocol allows us to generate $ S $ single qubits simultaneously in a single instance. With our new rotocol, we are able to reduce the number of weak coherent pulses required for generating one single qubit from $ \\mbox{O}(1/T^4) $ to nearly $ \\mbox{O}(1/T) $, significantly increasing the efficiency. For a 100 km standard telecom fiber of loss 0.2 dB/km, our method gives a six orders of magnitude improvement in the speed, which is very significant.

  7. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

  8. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with nonclassical light generated in a one-dimensional waveguide

    E-print Network

    Baranger, Harold U.

    Decoy-state quantum key distribution with nonclassical light generated in a one (Doc. ID 177456); published February 21, 2013 We investigate a decoy-state quantum key distribution state decoy-state QKD, there is a two-fold increase of the key generation rate. Furthermore

  9. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

  10. Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shams Mousavi, S. H.; Gallion, P.

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

  11. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution for the weak coherent photon source with intensity fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Yuan Li; Wan-su Bao; Hong-wei Li; Chun Zhou; Yang Wang

    2014-01-18

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, proven to be more desirable than active ones in some scenarios, also have the problem of device imperfections like intensity fluctuations. In this paper the formular of key generation rate of the passive decoy-state protocol using transformed weak coherent pulse (WCP) source with intensity fluctuation is given, and then the influence of intensity fluctuations on the performance of passive decoy-state protocol is rigorously characterized. From numerical simulations, it can be easily seen that intensity fluctuations have unignorable influence on performance of the passive decoy-state QKD protocol with WCP source. Most importantly, our simulations show that, under the same deviation of intensity fluctuations, the passive decoy-state method performs better than the active two-intensity decoy-state method and close to active three-intensity decoy-state method.

  12. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

  13. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  14. Partial Seam CRIP test tar results

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1985-08-01

    One hundred forty-three tar samples were taken during the Partial Seam CRIP test using a refluxing methylene chloride system. Over 50 samples were analyzed for tar/water ratio (and therefore tar/dry gas and tar/coal ratios); C, H, N, S, and O (by difference); density; simulated distillation; and selected compounds by capillary column gas chromatography. We found the boiling point curves for the CRIP test tars to be, in general, lower than for other coal tars, including those from pyrolysis and fixed bed gasifiers. Boiling point curves were similar to other UCG-derived tars. The 50% distillation temperature was about 250/sup 0/C and the end point was near 500/sup 0/C. The amount of CRIP test tar (0.04 kg/kg MAF coal) was less than that produced by pyrolysis (0.165 kg/kg) and was near the low range of tars produced from fixed bed gasifiers (0.04-0.13 kg/kg). 22 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

  16. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  17. Attenuating HIV Tat/TAR-mediated protein expression by exploring the side chain length of positively charged residues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ping; Liu, Shing-Lung; Chien, Fan-Ching; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    RNA is a drug target involved in diverse cellular functions and viral processes. Molecules that inhibit the HIV TAR RNA-Tat protein interaction may attenuate Tat/TAR-dependent protein expression and potentially serve as anti-HIV therapeutics. By incorporating positively charged residues with mixed side chain lengths, we designed peptides that bind TAR RNA with enhanced intracellular activity. Tat-derived peptides that were individually substituted with positively charged residues with varying side chain lengths were evaluated for TAR RNA binding. Positively charged residues with different side chain lengths were incorporated at each Arg and Lys position in the Tat-derived peptide to enhance TAR RNA binding. The resulting peptides showed enhanced TAR RNA binding affinity, cellular uptake, nuclear localization, proteolytic resistance, and inhibition of intracellular Tat/TAR-dependent protein expression compared to the parent Tat-derived peptide with no cytotoxicity. Apparently, the enhanced inhibition of protein expression by these peptides was not determined by RNA binding affinity, but by proteolytic resistance. Despite the high TAR binding affinity, a higher binding specificity would be necessary for practical purposes. Importantly, altering the positively charged residue side chain length should be a viable strategy to generate potentially useful RNA-targeting bioactive molecules. PMID:26399751

  18. Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks

    E-print Network

    Chun Zhou; Wan-su Bao; Hong-wei Li; Yang Wang; Yuan Li; Zhen-qiang Yin; Wei Chen; Zheng-fu Han

    2014-06-02

    For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is $10^{10}$. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

  19. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  20. Influence of decoys on the noise and dynamics of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Anat; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2012-10-01

    Many transcription factors bind to DNA with a remarkable lack of specificity, so that regulatory binding sites compete with an enormous number of nonregulatory “decoy” sites. For an autoregulated gene, we show decoy sites decrease noise in the number of unbound proteins to a Poisson limit that results from binding and unbinding. This noise buffering is optimized for a given protein concentration when decoys have a 1/2 probability of being occupied. Decoys linearly increase the time to approach steady state and exponentially increase the time to switch epigenetically between bistable states.

  1. Secure and efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution with inexact pulse intensities

    E-print Network

    X. B. Wang

    2006-11-22

    We present a general theorem for the efficient verification of the lower bound of single-photon transmittance. We show how to do decoy-state quantum key distribution efficiently with large random errors in the intensity control. In our protocol, the linear terms of fluctuation disappear and only the quadratic terms take effect. We then show the unconditional security of decoy-state method with whatever error pattern in intensities of decoy pulses and signal pulses provided that the intensity of each decoy pulse is less than $\\mu$ and the intensity of each signal pulse is larger than $\\mu'$.

  2. Approaching the ideal quantum key distribution with two-intensity decoy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun-Hui; Luo, Sun-Long; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-08-01

    We present a scheme for the practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon source. In this scheme, only two-intensity decoy states are employed. However, its performance can approach the asymptotic case of using infinite decoy states. We compare it with the standard three-intensity decoy-state method, and through numerical simulations, we demonstrate its significant improvement over the three-intensity method in both the final key rate and the secure transmission distance. Furthermore, when taking statistical fluctuations into account, a very high key generation rate can still be obtained even at a long transmission distance.

  3. [The mutagenic activity of coal tar].

    PubMed

    Lycheva, T A; Khitrovo, I A; Koso?, G Kh; Khesina, A Ia; Belitski?, G A

    1990-01-01

    Genotoxicity of tar samples collected at the Kemerovo and Altai by-product coke plants has been studied, the contribution of benz(a)pyrene (BP) into the total mutagenic activity of extracts being estimated. Both direct and indirect mutagenicity of the samples is determined in the Ames test. A direct mutagenic effect of coal tar may be attributed neither to the BP action nor to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The onset of the His revertant induction in Salmonella typhimurium strains Ta 100 and TA 97 treated with the coal tar activated by the S-9 mixture is observed in doses containing BP an order lower than threshold of its activity found in sole experiment. The highest mutagenic effect of the activated coal tar is observed at a dose containing the minimal active sole dose of BP (0.72-1.12 micrograms per plate). PMID:2180675

  4. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. Lost in Translation: Improving Decoy Documents via Automated Translation Jonathan Voris, Nathaniel Boggs, and Salvatore J. Stolfo

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    bogus, confounding their goal of exfiltrating important sensitive information. Keywords-Insider Threat, Decoys, Automated Translation. I. INTRODUCTION The insider threat continues to plague both private com of decoys to combat insider threats is the way in which they alter adversarial behavior. When decoys

  6. Detecting Traffic Snooping in Tor Using Decoys Sambuddho Chakravarty, Georgios Portokalidis, Michalis Polychronakis, and

    E-print Network

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Detecting Traffic Snooping in Tor Using Decoys Sambuddho Chakravarty, Georgios Portokalidis,mikepo,angelos}@cs.columbia.edu Abstract. Anonymous communication networks like Tor partially pro- tect the confidentiality of their users implementation in the Tor network using decoy IMAP and SMTP servers. During the course of ten months, our system

  7. An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate. PMID:26463580

  8. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2006-09-15

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest.

  9. An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate. PMID:26463580

  10. An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-10-01

    Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate.

  11. Long distance decoy state quantum key distribution in optical fiber

    E-print Network

    Danna Rosenberg; Jim W. Harrington; Patrick R. Rice; Philip A. Hiskett; Charles G. Peterson; Richard J. Hughes; Adriana E. Lita; Sae Woo Nam; Jane E. Nordholt

    2007-05-02

    The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultra-low-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite statistics without the use of Gaussian approximations in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to photon-number-splitting attacks and highly resistant to Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

  12. Long distance decoy state quantum key distribution in optical fiber

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, D; Hiskett, P A; Hughes, R J; Lita, A E; Nam, S W; Nordholt, J E; Peterson, C G; Rice, P R; Harrington, Jim W.; Hiskett, Philip A.; Hughes, Richard J.; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles G.; Rice, Patrick R.; Rosenberg, Danna

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultra-low-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photo-detectors, we have implemented the first finite statistics version of a decoy state protocol in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to both photon-number-splitting attacks and Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

  13. Higher temperature coal tar enamel fights corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B.

    1996-10-01

    High temperatures create new challenges for pipeline coatings. Cracking, adhesion breakdown and electrochemical corrosion are accelerated by higher service temperatures. A new epoxy primer/coal tar pipeline coating system utilizes the latent heat of the coal tar application to fully cure the newly developed primer to achieve outstanding bonding integrity and high temperature cathodic disbondment resistance. A key reason for this overall high performance is the marriage of a newly developed epoxy primer that provides outstanding adhesion with coal tar enamel, which provides excellent long-term water resistance. The paper describes experimental studies, pilot plant application, cathodic disbondment testing, and results from hot water soak tests and the low temperature cracking test.

  14. Two-dimensional target decoy strategy for shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall W; Kil, Yong J

    2011-12-01

    The target-decoy approach to estimating and controlling false discovery rate (FDR) has become a de facto standard in shotgun proteomics, and it has been applied at both the peptide-to-spectrum match (PSM) and protein levels. Current bioinformatics methods control either the PSM- or the protein-level FDR, but not both. In order to obtain the most reliable information from their data, users must employ one method when the number of tandem mass spectra exceeds the number of proteins in the database and another method when the reverse is true. Here we propose a simple variation of the standard target-decoy strategy that estimates and controls PSM and protein FDRs simultaneously, regardless of the relative numbers of spectra and proteins. We demonstrate that even if the final goal is a list of PSMs with a fixed low FDR and not a list of protein identifications, the proposed two-dimensional strategy offers advantages over a pure PSM-level strategy. PMID:22010998

  15. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  16. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  17. STRANDED TAR ON FLORIDA BEACHES: SEPTEMBER 1979 -OCTOBER 1980

    E-print Network

    ). Results show that tar fouling of southeast Florida beaches is an order of magnitude greater than the rest calculation of the tar weight. There are inherent problems with this method which result from the dynamic

  18. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  19. Molecular decoys: ligand-binding recombinant proteins protect mice from curarimimetic neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, J M; Aronheim, A

    1988-01-01

    Mimic ligand-binding sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor bind d-tubocurarine and alpha-bungarotoxin in vitro. Injection of such binding sites into mice could act as molecular decoys in vivo, providing protection against toxic ligands. This hypothesis of molecular "decoyance" has been tested in greater than 250 mice. Bacterially produced cholinergic binding sites provided a 2-fold increase in the survival rate of animals challenged with curarimimetic neurotoxins. Possible considerations for decoy designs and their applications are discussed. Images PMID:3375254

  20. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  4. Biological detoxification of tar-water.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J la C; Jönsson, K; Hagman, M

    2002-01-01

    Gasification is an important option for the swift implementation of biomass combined heat and power processes in the Danish energy supply system. Tar-water produced by the gas-cleaning system of gasifiers may contain substances toxic to nitrifying bacteria. As the gasification plants are small and often located in the catchment area of small wastewater treatment plants, discharge of the tar-water may be critical for wastewater treatment plants operated with nitrogen removal. Tar-water from a full-scale updraft gasifier has been thoroughly examined with respect to inhibition of nitrification and the toxicity for nitrifying bacteria has been evaluated for the dominating constituents in the tar-water. Simple organic substances make up the dominating part of the organic matter but phenol and phenolic compounds are also present in significant concentrations. The identified substances are biologically degradable and it has been demonstrated that most of the organic matter together with the toxicity can be eliminated in an aerobic activated sludge process. PMID:12361049

  5. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  6. Neutral particle beams show potential for decoy discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, P.J.

    1986-12-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is receiving increased attention as part of the SDI due to the possibility of automated discrimination between decoys and warheads during intermediate ICBM flight phases. The NPBs would scan targets with high velocity hydrogen or deuterium particles, eliciting gamma ray and neutron emissions that would be proportional to the mass of the object. A 100 milliamp beam current with an energy of 5 MeV delivering 10 MW/sq cm has been produced at Los Alamos. Key developments needed for orbital tests are efficient stripping of electrons from the excited atoms to prevent their interaction with the terrestrial magnetic field, a proven beam focusing device, elimination of ion acoustic instabilities, weight reduction, a high-quality ion source, magnetooptical expansion of the beam from 1 cm diam to 1 m diam, and accurate aiming techniques.

  7. SVR_CAF: an integrated score function for detecting native protein structures among decoys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Yan, Wenying; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2014-04-01

    An accurate score function for detecting the most native-like models among a huge number of decoy sets is essential to the protein structure prediction. In this work, we developed a novel integrated score function (SVR_CAF) to discriminate native structures from decoys, as well as to rank near-native structures and select best decoys when native structures are absent. SVR_CAF is a machine learning score, which incorporates the contact energy based score (CE_score), amino acid network based score (AAN_score), and the fast Fourier transform based score (FFT_score). The score function was evaluated with four decoy sets for its discriminative ability and it shows higher overall performance than the state-of-the-art score functions. PMID:24115148

  8. Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful

    E-print Network

    Y-H Zhou; Z. -W. Yu; X. -B. Wang

    2015-08-02

    The relatively low key rate seems to be the major barrier to its practical use for the decoy state measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD). We present a method for the decoy-state MDIQKD that hugely raises the key rate. Calculation shows that our method can be immediately applied for practical secure private communication with {\\em fresh} secure keys generated from MDI-QKD.

  9. Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities

    E-print Network

    Toyohiro Tsurumaru; Alexandre Soujaeff; Shigeki Takeuchi

    2007-10-28

    In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present an improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y_n for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to one, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

  10. Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Soujaeff, Alexandre; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y{sub n} for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to 1, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

  11. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  12. NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide enhanced osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells exposed to polyethylene particle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Sato, Taishi; Barcay, Katherine R; Waters, Heather; Loi, Florence; Zhang, Ruth; Pajarinen, Jukka; Egashira, Kensuke; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2015-03-01

    Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-?B in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-?B signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN upregulated OPG expression through a TGF-?1-dependent pathway. By measuring the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regard to cell phenotype, cell viability, and osteogenic ability was confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle-induced inflammation by NF-?B decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs and may potentially further mitigate periprosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability. PMID:25518013

  13. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with modulator attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution is more desirable than the active one in some scenarios. It is also affected by the imperfections of the devices. In this paper, the influence of modulator attenuation on the passive decoy-state method is considered. We introduce and analyze the unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer, briefly, and combining with the virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation, we characterize the passive decoy-state method using a weak coherent photon source with modulator attenuation. According to the attenuation parameter ?, the pass efficiencies are given. Then, the key generation rate can be acquired. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that modulator attenuation has a nonnegligible influence on the performance of passive-state QKD protocol. Based on the research, the analysis method of virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation are preferred in analyzing passive decoy state protocol, and the passive decoy-state method is better than the active one and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy state under the condition of having the same modulator attenuation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304397).

  14. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  15. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  16. Stabilization/solidification of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A

    2010-01-01

    This work involve a systematic treatability study of the treatment of acid tars (AT), a waste generated during the processing of petroleum and petrochemical, by stabilization/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects of organic content, HCFA:AT ratio, percentage CEM I addition, and curing time on response variables including unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and leachability-related properties of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) products, and to assess management options for the s/s products based on performance criteria adapted from regulatory and other guidance. Results show that all studied factors had significant effects on the tested properties of the s/s products. Acid tar reduced UCS, but strength increase was observed with increased curing time. Increased HCFA addition led to an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Assessment of management options indicates that the treated acid tars could find application as controlled low-strength materials, landfill liner, and landfill daily cover. The work demonstrates how a systematic treatability study can be used to develop a S/S operating window for management of a particular waste type. PMID:20473807

  17. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  18. Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback–Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors. PMID:22855685

  19. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  20. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  1. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  2. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  3. Biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhang, Hai-long; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all the side-channel attacks from imperfections in the detection side. However, finite-size resources undoubtedly influence its performance and the achievable finite secret key rates of MDI-QKD are typically lower than that of standard decoy-state QKD. In this paper, we introduce the efficient decoy-state method with biased basis choice into the finite-key analysis and propose a decoy-state protocol for MDI-QKD. By applying vacuum + weak decoy-state method, we analytically derive concise formulas for estimating the lower bound of single-photon yield and the upper bound of phase error rate in the case of finite resources. The simulations show that proper basis choice combined with deliberate intensity choice can substantially enhance the performance of decoy-state MDI-QKD and, without a full optimization program, our protocol can bring a long-distance implementation (168 km on standard optical fiber) of MDI-QKD with a reasonable data size of total transmitting signals (N =1015 ).

  4. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

  6. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):265270, Fall 2007 Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries

    E-print Network

    Human­Wildlife Conflicts 1(2):265­270, Fall 2007 Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries from of strawberries, grapes, apples, cherries, blueberries, and other small fruit. This study examined if numbers of juvenile European starlings foraging in blueberry orchards could be reduced by catching them in decoy traps

  9. Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States Yi Zhao, Bing Qi, Xiongfeng Ma, Hoi-Kwong Lo, and Li Qian

    E-print Network

    Qian, Li

    Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States Yi Zhao, Bing Qi, Xiongfeng Ma, Hoi generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), the idea of quantum decoys--signals of different QKD. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we show

  10. When target-decoy false discovery rate estimations are inaccurate and how to spot instances.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    To address problems with estimating the reliability of proteomic search engine results from mass spectrometry fragmentation data, the use of target-decoy database searching has become the de facto approach for estimating a false discovery rate. Several articles have been written about the effects of different ways of creating the decoy database, effects of the search engine scoring, or effects of search parameters on whether this approach provides an accurate estimate, not all agreeing with each other's conclusions. Hence, there may be some confusion about how effective this approach is and how broadly it can be applied. Although it is generally very effective, in this article I will try to emphasize some of the pitfalls and dangers of using the target-decoy approach and will indicate tell-tale signs that something may be amiss. This information will hopefully help researchers become more astute in their assessment of search results. PMID:23298186

  11. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  12. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  13. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  14. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  15. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  16. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  17. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  18. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  19. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  20. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  1. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  2. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  3. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  5. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  6. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  7. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D.

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  8. Improved practical decoy state method in quantum key distribution with parametric down conversion source

    E-print Network

    Qin Wang; Xiang-Bin Wang; Gunnar Bjork; Anders Karlsson

    2007-03-27

    In this paper, a new decoy-state scheme for quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion source is proposed. We use both three-intensity decoy states and their triggered and nontriggered components to estimate the fraction of single-photon counts and quantum bit-error rate of single-photon, and then deduce a more accurate value of key generation rate. The final key rate over transmission distance is simulated, which shows that we can obtain a higher key rate than that of the existing methods, including our own earlier work.

  9. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles From Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posfai, M.; Gelencser, A.; Simonics, R.; Arato, K.; Li, J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    'Tar balls,' amorphous carbonaceous spherules that are locally abundant in the tropospheric aerosol through biomass and biofuel burning, form a distinct group of particles, readily identifiable with electron microscopy. They differ from soot in lacking a turbostratic microstructure, and their morphology and composition (~90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. Although the material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic, the particles become largely insoluble through free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When they coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may slightly absorb sunlight. They are a widespread and previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  10. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  11. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of southern California: Implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironm...

  13. Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations

    E-print Network

    Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Decoys using Fast Free Energy Calculations Christopher James, Generalized Belief Propagation, Free Energy, Protein- Protein Interactions #12;Abstract We present a physics for a given complex, and Generalized Belief Propa- gation to perform the free energy calculation. Our method

  14. Refining similarity scoring to enable decoy-free validation in spectral library searching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhu, Kan; Lam, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Spectral library searching is a maturing approach for peptide identification from MS/MS, offering an alternative to traditional sequence database searching. Spectral library searching relies on direct spectrum-to-spectrum matching between the query data and the spectral library, which affords better discrimination of true and false matches, leading to improved sensitivity. However, due to the inherent diversity of the peak location and intensity profiles of real spectra, the resulting similarity score distributions often take on unpredictable shapes. This makes it difficult to model the scores of the false matches accurately, necessitating the use of decoy searching to sample the score distribution of the false matches. Here, we refined the similarity scoring in spectral library searching to enable the validation of spectral search results without the use of decoys. We rank-transformed the peak intensities to standardize all spectra, making it possible to fit a parametric distribution to the scores of the nontop-scoring spectral matches. The statistical significance of the top-scoring match can then be estimated in a rigorous manner according to Extreme Value Theory. The overall result is a more robust and interpretable measure of the quality of the spectral match, which can be obtained without decoys. We tested this refined similarity scoring function on real datasets and demonstrated its effectiveness. This approach reduces search time, increases sensitivity, and extends spectral library searching to situations where decoy spectra cannot be readily generated, such as in searching unidentified and nonpeptide spectral libraries. PMID:24115759

  15. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    E-print Network

    Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like An eruptive outbreak of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in North America over the past

  16. Four-intensity Decoy-state Quantum Key Distribution with Enhanced Resistance against Statistical Fluctuation

    E-print Network

    Haodong Jiang; Ming Gao; Hong Wang; Hongxin Li; Zhi Ma

    2015-02-08

    Practical BB84 quantum key distribution has been proposed by utilizing attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. However, there is a big gap in performance between asymptotic and finite-data settings due to statistical fluctuation. Here, we propose a four-intensity decoy-state protocol with three nonzero intensities in only one basis. Compared to conventional three-intensity decoy-state protocols, our protocol has an additional intensity as a free variable to optimize the deviations caused by statistical fluctuation. We perform numerical simulations with full optimization to make a comparison with the existing three-intensity decoy-state protocols with biased basis choice. According to the simulation result, larger maximum transmission distance and higher secure key rates can be achieved with our protocol. The performance of quantum key distribution is highly improved especially when the number of detected pulses is small. Our protocol might play a key role in the coming ground-satellite quantum key distribution.

  17. The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

  18. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Curty, Marcos; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Moroder, Tobias

    2010-02-15

    Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty et al., Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

  19. Fighting Peer-to-Peer SPAM and Decoys with Object Kevin Walsh

    E-print Network

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    in peer-to-peer filesharing networks. Credence allows honest peers to assess the authenticity of onlineFighting Peer-to-Peer SPAM and Decoys with Object Reputation Kevin Walsh Department of Computer Science Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 egs@cs.cornell.edu ABSTRACT Peer-to-peer filesharing is now

  20. Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangbin

    2005-07-15

    We propose an efficient decoy-state protocol for practical quantum key distribution using coherent states. The protocol uses four intensities of different coherent light. A good final key rate is achieved by our protocol with typical parameters of existing practical setups, even with a very low channel transmittance.

  1. Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2009-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple filters were used. By analyzing a standard protein mixture, we demonstrated that the higher estimation of FDR and FPs in the separate search likely reflected an overestimation, which could be corrected with a simple merging procedure. Our study illustrates the relative merits of different implementations of the target-decoy strategy, which should be worth contemplating when large-scale proteomic biomarker discovery is to be attempted. PMID:19061407

  2. A Helpful Serving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  3. E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on neointimal hyperplasia in canine vein graft.

    PubMed

    Cho, W H; Lee, S O; Kim, H T; Ahn, J D; Lee, I K

    2005-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA with high affinity to E2F as a decoy cis-element blocks the activation of genes mediating the cell cycle, resulting in effective suppression of the smooth muscle cell proliferation that causes intimal hyperplasia. To evaluate the effect of the E2F decoy to suppress neointimal hyperplasia autogenous venous bypass grafts were performed in dogs after incubation with heparin (group 1), with E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (groups 2 and 3), or with a random ODN (group 4) using a Japan-liposomeal method based on a hemagglutinating virus. The intimal and medial cross-sectional surface area of the anastomotic site was measured at 4 months after bypass surgery in groups 1, 3, and 4 by computerized planimetry and at 4 weeks in group 2 to compare the intimal/medial (I/M) area ratios. Autogenous vein grafts treated with E2F decoy showed a significant reduction in I/M area ratio (0.26 +/- 0.11) compared with the heparin-treated control group (1.49 +/- 0.29) or the mismatched ODN-treated group (1.61 +/- 0.28; P = .000). There was no difference in the I/M area ratio according to experimental periods (groups 2 vs 3: 0.26 +/- 0.11 vs 0.37 +/- 0.32; P = .446) or the anastomotic sites (proximal vs distal; P = .934). In conclusion, an E2F decoy can suppress neointimal hyperplasia in autogenous vein grafts, which may prolong patency by reducing graft stenosis. PMID:15808553

  4. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  5. Preparation of meso-carbon microbeads from coal tars

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, L.C.; Liu, L.; Zhang, B.J.; Wu, D.

    1997-12-31

    Coal tar (CT0) with 3.7wt% primary pyridine insoluble fraction (PI) was chosen as the raw material to prepare mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). The tar was filtered to remove PI, obtaining PI-free coal tar (CT1). CT0, CT1 and their mixtures with different proportions were carbonized under pressure for 2 hours respectively. The polymerizates were filtered, and the residues were extracted with pyridine, and thus MCMB was obtained as a pyridine insoluble fraction. Both the yield and the size of resultant MCMB increased with the decreasing of primary PI content in raw coal tars. No clear evidence was observed that the primary PI particles exhibited active sites during the formation of MCMB, while it`s certain that they restricted coalescence between mesophase spheres.

  6. Fixed-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) Improves Gait Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Area of Interest Adult Reconstruction Foot and Ankle Hand and Wrist Musculoskeletal Oncology Shoulder and Elbow ... of gait mechanics in patients who underwent total ankle replacement (TAR) with fixed-bearing implants found improvements ...

  7. Parking Lot With Coal-Tar-Based Sealcoat

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sealcoat particles abraded from a parking lot with coal-tar-based sealcoat collect by the curbside.  Also shown is a storm drain, half coated with sealcoat, down which the loose particles will be washed by runoff....

  8. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  9. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  10. Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    "Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  11. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  12. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Delivery of a Transcription Factor Decoy Inhibits STAT3 Signaling and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Carson, Andrew R.; McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Hasjim, Bima; Lavery, Linda; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it acts to promote tumor progression. A STAT3-specific transcription factor decoy has been developed to suppress STAT3 downstream signaling, but a delivery strategy is needed to improve clinical translation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to enhance image-guided local delivery of molecular therapeutics to a target site. The objective of this study was to deliver STAT3 decoy to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors using UTMD to disrupt STAT3 signaling and inhibit tumor growth. Studies performed demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles inhibited STAT3 signaling in SCC cells in vitro. Studies performed in vivo demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles induced significant tumor growth inhibition (31-51% reduced tumor volume vs. controls, p < 0.05) in mice bearing SCC tumors. Furthermore, expression of STAT3 downstream target genes (Bcl-xL and cyclin D1) was significantly reduced (34-39%, p < 0.05) in tumors receiving UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles compared to controls. In addition, the quantity of radiolabeled STAT3 decoy detected in tumors eight hours after treatment was significantly higher with UTMD treatment compared to controls (70-150%, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that UTMD can increase delivery of a transcription factor decoy to tumors in vivo and that the decoy can inhibit STAT3 signaling and tumor growth. These results suggest that UTMD treatment holds potential for clinical use to increase the concentration of a transcription factor signaling inhibitor in the tumor. PMID:26681983

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Nuclear Factor-?B Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide on Liver Fibrosis Through Regulation of the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kang, Yu-Na; Chang, Young-Chae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized to occur during embryonic development, fibrosis, and tumor metastasis. Nuclear factor (NF)-?B plays a central role in mediating the inflammation and wound-healing responses during liver fibrogenesis. However, the involvement of NF-?B during EMT in liver cells remains unidentified. To develop a therapeutic approach to EMT during liver fibrosis, we examined the inhibition of transcription factor NF-?B, using a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) strategy in liver fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. NF-?B decoy ODN contains consensus binding sequences of the NF-?B-binding site. NF-?B decoy ODN effectively suppresses transforming growth factor-?1-induced EMT in AML12 murine hepatocytes. Liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 administration was suppressed by NF-?B decoy ODN. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy ODN was shown to inhibit the EMT process in fibrotic liver in vivo. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NF-?B decoy ODN treatment for preventing liver fibrosis via EMT processes. PMID:24959740

  14. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  15. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  16. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  17. Protection against inflammation- and autoantibody-caused fetal loss by the chemokine decoy receptor D6

    PubMed Central

    Martinez de la Torre, Yeny; Buracchi, Chiara; Borroni, Elena M.; Dupor, Jana; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Nebuloni, Manuela; Pasqualini, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Lauri, Eleonora; Agostinis, Chiara; Bulla, Roberta; Cook, Donald N.; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Meroni, Pierluigi; Rukavina, Daniel; Vago, Luca; Tedesco, Francesco; Vecchi, Annunciata; Lira, Sergio A.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Fetal loss in animals and humans is frequently associated with inflammatory conditions. D6 is a promiscuous chemokine receptor with decoy function, expressed in lymphatic endothelium, that recognizes and targets to degradation most inflammatory CC chemokines. Here, we report that D6 is expressed in placenta on invading extravillous trophoblasts and on the apical side of syncytiotrophoblast cells, at the very interface between maternal blood and fetus. Exposure of D6?/? pregnant mice to LPS or antiphospholipid autoantibodies results in higher levels of inflammatory CC chemokines and increased leukocyte infiltrate in placenta, causing an increased rate of fetal loss, which is prevented by blocking inflammatory chemokines. Thus, the promiscuous decoy receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines D6 plays a nonredundant role in the protection against fetal loss caused by systemic inflammation and antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:17283337

  18. Protection against inflammation- and autoantibody-caused fetal loss by the chemokine decoy receptor D6.

    PubMed

    Martinez de la Torre, Yeny; Buracchi, Chiara; Borroni, Elena M; Dupor, Jana; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Nebuloni, Manuela; Pasqualini, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Lauri, Eleonora; Agostinis, Chiara; Bulla, Roberta; Cook, Donald N; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Meroni, Pierluigi; Rukavina, Daniel; Vago, Luca; Tedesco, Francesco; Vecchi, Annunciata; Lira, Sergio A; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2007-02-13

    Fetal loss in animals and humans is frequently associated with inflammatory conditions. D6 is a promiscuous chemokine receptor with decoy function, expressed in lymphatic endothelium, that recognizes and targets to degradation most inflammatory CC chemokines. Here, we report that D6 is expressed in placenta on invading extravillous trophoblasts and on the apical side of syncytiotrophoblast cells, at the very interface between maternal blood and fetus. Exposure of D6-/- pregnant mice to LPS or antiphospholipid autoantibodies results in higher levels of inflammatory CC chemokines and increased leukocyte infiltrate in placenta, causing an increased rate of fetal loss, which is prevented by blocking inflammatory chemokines. Thus, the promiscuous decoy receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines D6 plays a nonredundant role in the protection against fetal loss caused by systemic inflammation and antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:17283337

  19. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  20. Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2012-04-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

  1. Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics

    E-print Network

    Hasegawa, Jun; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tanaka, Akihiro; Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    We propose the improved decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics due to the finite code length and report on its demonstration. In our experiment, four different intensities including the vacuum state for optimal pulses are used and the key generation rate of 200 bps is achieved in the 20 km telecom optical fiber transmission keeping the eavesdropper's mutual information with the final key less than 2^{-9}.

  2. Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics

    E-print Network

    Jun Hasegawa; Masahito Hayashi; Tohya Hiroshima; Akihiro Tanaka; Akihisa Tomita

    2007-05-22

    We propose the improved decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics due to the finite code length and report on its demonstration. In our experiment, four different intensities including the vacuum state for optimal pulses are used and the key generation rate of 200 bps is achieved in the 20 km telecom optical fiber transmission keeping the eavesdropper's mutual information with the final key less than 2^{-9}.

  3. Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

  4. Making Argumentation Serve Design

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Gerhard

    company, \\,·orking on multimedia and mobile communication. Ray McCall is a design theorist interested9 Making Argumentation Serve Design Gerhard Fischer University ofColorado Andreas C. Lemke ALCATEL scientist interesled in design and design suppon S\\"Stems, particularly in domain-oriented design

  5. Intracellular distribution of NFkappaB decoy and its inhibitory effect on TNFalpha production by LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yuriko; Kawakami, Shigeru; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2005-10-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) is a transcriptional factor for the expression of many cytokines that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Unstimulated NFkappaB sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to inhibitory proteins is called IkappaBs. Many activators of NFkappaB cause degradation of IkappaB proteins and free NFkappaB can enter the nucleus and induce gene expression. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the intracellular distribution and pharmacological effect of NFkappaB decoy in RAW 264.7 cells. Most of the fluorescent labeled NFkappaB decoy was observed in the cytoplasm both with or without cationic transfection without LPS stimulation. Furthermore, under LPS stimulation, most of NFkappaB decoy was also observed in the cytoplasm. However, NFkappaB decoy effectively inhibited the production of TNFalpha in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of TNFalpha production by NFkappaB decoy transfected by cationic liposomes was much stronger than that by naked NFkappaB decoy, because the amount of cellular association of NFkappaB transfected by cationic liposome decoy was 7 times higher than that of naked NFkappaB decoy. This information is of great value for the design of NFkappaB decoy carrier systems. PMID:16125268

  6. Practical Attacks on Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution Systems with Detector Efficiency Mismatch

    E-print Network

    Fei Yangyang; Gao Ming; Wang Weilong; Li Chaobo; Ma Zhi

    2015-07-23

    To the active basis choice decoy state quantum key distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability dose not exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy state quantum key distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information ab out the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum key distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy state quantum key distribution systems.

  7. Decoy Receptor CXCR7 Modulates Adrenomedullin-Mediated Cardiac and Lymphatic Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Klara R.; Karpinich, Natalie O.; Espenschied, Scott T.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Dunworth, William P.; Hoopes, Samantha L.; Kushner, Erich J.; Bautch, Victoria L.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Atypical 7-transmembrane receptors, often called decoy receptors, act promiscuously as molecular sinks to regulate ligand bioavailability and consequently temper the signaling of canonical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways. Loss of mammalian CXCR7, the most recently described decoy receptor, results in postnatal lethality due to aberrant cardiac development and myocyte hyperplasia. Here, we provide the molecular underpinning for this proliferative phenotype by demonstrating that the dosage and signaling of adrenomedullin (Adm = gene, AM = protein)—a mitogenic peptide-hormone required for normal cardiovascular development—is tightly controlled by CXCR7. To this end, Cxcr7?/? mice exhibit gain-of-function cardiac and lymphatic vascular phenotypes which can be reversed upon genetic depletion of adrenomedullin ligand. In addition to identifying a biological ligand accountable for the phenotypes of Cxcr7?/? mice, these results reveal a previously underappreciated role for decoy receptors as molecular rheostats in controlling the timing and extent of GPCR-mediated cardiac and vascular development. PMID:25203207

  8. Manipulating lek size and composition using decoys: an experimental investigation of lek evolution models.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Four theoretical models have been proposed to account for the origin and maintenance of leks: hotspot, female preference, hotshot, and black hole models. Each has been validated in particular cases, and most are not mutually exclusive; therefore, it has been difficult to contrast and separate them, empirically and experimentally. By using decoys to mimic natural leks in the little bustard, artificial leks attracted wild birds. Then, by manipulating artificial lek size and structure (sex ratio, male phenotype), the study of responses of wild males and females allowed us to test specific predictions derived from the four classical models of lek evolution. The hotspot model was not supported because female decoys did not attract wild males. Conversely, hotshot males do exist in this species (attracting both wild females and males), as does a female preference for a particular lek size (four males). Finally, males aggressive toward decoys attracted fewer females, consistent with one of the mechanisms by which the black hole model may work. Therefore, three models of lek evolution were partly or fully supported by our experimental results: hotshot, female preference, and black hole models. We suggest that these models actually fit within each other, ensuring the evolution, functioning, and long-term maintenance of leks. PMID:17109318

  9. Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.

  10. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. PMID:19913343

  11. Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. )

    1993-01-01

    In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Whom do we serve?

    PubMed

    Silver, George

    1986-02-01

    Silver refutes the "comforting belief" that physicians, bound by professional oaths transcending nation, class, and race, are a world-wide confraternity of individuals with similar value systems. He cites examples from many countries of physician involvement with state sponsored or sanctioned torture, forcible commitment of dissidents to mental institutions, and questionable--even murderous--experimentation. The author concludes that the medical profession should watch out for physicians who are willing to serve anyone who purchases their services. PMID:11644452

  13. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    PubMed

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. PMID:24215941

  14. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  15. Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  16. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to ?g/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  17. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...., Washington, DC 20590: (1) Problem: Succinctly state the problems created by current (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR... Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12. (a) Changes to the regulation may be the result of...

  19. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...., Washington, DC 20590: (1) Problem: Succinctly state the problems created by current (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR... Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12. (a) Changes to the regulation may be the result of...

  20. NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels

    E-print Network

    NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels NREL has patented a catalyst that reforms tar into syngas, a breakthrough that can accelerate the process of getting be used in gasification reactors. NREL developed, patented, and licensed this catalyst, which removes tars

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

  2. Improving the quality of prepared tar for production of refractory materials

    SciTech Connect

    Musychuk, V.D.; Zharkova, N.A.; Vasyuchkov, E.I.; Taskaev, V.K.; Kurkin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The production of refractory materials from calcined dolomite and using tar as a binder material is discussed. The characteristics of the tar required for the refractory materials is of particular interest. Various methods of improving the tar are outlined. Equipment used in the production of the refractory material is also discussed.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  8. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

  9. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  10. SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

  11. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  12. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-?B Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porciani, David; Tedeschi, Lorena; Marchetti, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Piazza, Vincenzo; Beltram, Fabio; Signore, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i) target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii) perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin) and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor ?B decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment). Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor ?B decoy does inhibit nuclear factor ?B activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells. PMID:25919089

  13. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  14. Accurate Assignment of Significance to Neuropeptide Identifications Using Monte Carlo K-Permuted Decoy Databases

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Per E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of accurate neuropeptide identification in mass spectrometry experiments, novel Monte Carlo permutation testing was used to compute significance values. Testing was based on k-permuted decoy databases, where k denotes the number of permutations. These databases were integrated with a range of peptide identification indicators from three popular open-source database search software (OMSSA, Crux, and X! Tandem) to assess the statistical significance of neuropeptide spectra matches. Significance p-values were computed as the fraction of the sequences in the database with match indicator value better than or equal to the true target spectra. When applied to a test-bed of all known manually annotated mouse neuropeptides, permutation tests with k-permuted decoy databases identified up to 100% of the neuropeptides at p-value < 10?5. The permutation test p-values using hyperscore (X! Tandem), E-value (OMSSA) and Sp score (Crux) match indicators outperformed all other match indicators. The robust performance to detect peptides of the intuitive indicator “number of matched ions between the experimental and theoretical spectra” highlights the importance of considering this indicator when the p-value was borderline significant. Our findings suggest permutation decoy databases of size 1×105 are adequate to accurately detect neuropeptides and this can be exploited to increase the speed of the search. The straightforward Monte Carlo permutation testing (comparable to a zero order Markov model) can be easily combined with existing peptide identification software to enable accurate and effective neuropeptide detection. The source code is available at http://stagbeetle.animal.uiuc.edu/pepshop/MSMSpermutationtesting. PMID:25329667

  15. Differentiation of the water content of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1988-08-01

    Three primary techniques have been used to accomplish separating the bitumen from the sand: (a) flotation, (b) solvent and solvent-assisted extraction and (c) direct coking. Of these hot water flotation followed by some solvent treatment became commercial in Canada in 1973. In this process the operating mechanism of separation is: (a) mixing the hot water with the tar sand to heat the bitumen so as to make it less viscous and more mobile; (b) separating the sand from the tar as a result of the decrease in viscosity and increase in mobility; (c) formation of globules from the separated tar which eventually form a froth and float to the top of the water. The overall operating mechanism of the solvent-assisted process is the same as that of the hot water process. However, viscosity reduction which brings about mobility increase is effected by the solvent. Also, for a tar sand with bitumen that is denser than water, the solvent also reduces the density of the separated bitumen and allows it to float. It has been suggested that the success of such recovery processes is contingent upon the presence of a thin film of water around the sand particles. Although the presence of this film of water is important, its existence has only been inferred and its quantity has not been determined. In this study the water content of a tar sand is differentiated by a procedure that removes extraneous water selectively and leaves the intrinsic water intact. Fines in the bitumen-free sand contain a significant amount of clay which contains a third type of water, water of hydration.

  16. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  17. Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate

    E-print Network

    A. R. Dixon; Z. L. Yuan; J. F. Dynes; A. W. Sharpe; A. J. Shields

    2008-10-06

    We report the first gigahertz clocked decoy-protocol quantum key distribution (QKD). Record key rates have been achieved thanks to the use of self-differencing InGaAs avalanche photodiodes designed specifically for high speed single photon detection. The system is characterized with a secure key rate of 1.02 Mbit/s for a fiber distance of 20 km and 10.1 kbit/s for 100 km. As the present advance relies upon compact non-cryogenic detectors, it opens the door towards practical and low cost QKD systems to secure broadband communication in future.

  18. Decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with mismatched-basis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ChunMei; Li, Mo; Yin, ZhenQiang; Li, HongWei; Chen, Wei; Han, ZhengFu

    2015-09-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is aimed at removing all detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the assumption that the encoding systems including sources are fully characterized by the two legitimate parties. By exploiting the mismatched-basis statistics in the security analysis, MDI-QKD even with uncharacterized qubits can generate secret keys. In this paper, considering the finite size effect, we study the decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with mismatched-basis events statistics by performing full parameter optimization, and the simulation result shows that this scheme is very practical.

  19. Approach jamming effectiveness evaluation for surface-type infrared decoy in network centric warship formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Mingshan

    2015-10-01

    The passive and photoelectrical jamming to anti-ship missile in the condition of network centric warship formation is an important research issue of fleet EW operation. An approach jamming method of shipborne surface-type infrared decoy countering the infrared image guided anti-ship missile is put forward. By analyzing the countering process the jamming effectiveness evaluation model is constructed. By simulation the method is proved t reasonable and effective. This method breaks through the traditional restrict that the passive and photoelectricity jamming measure can only be used in the end self-defence and provides a new method for network centric worship formation to support each other.

  20. Management of hot tar burn using vitamin e ointment containing petroleum and polyoxyethylene sorbitan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Karen; Dalen, Dawn; Rhine, David

    2013-09-01

    Tar burns are primarily an occupational hazard associated with the road paving or roofing industry. Management of tar burns requires safe and effective removal of solidified tar from the skin using a dissolution or emulsifying agent to prevent inflicting further injury and pain. We report a case of a patient with tar burns on 10% of his body surface area involving the lower arms bilaterally and splashes to the facial area. The tar was efficiently removed with Webber Vitamin E Ointment without toxicity, irritation, or other complications. PMID:23972137

  1. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  2. A novel decoy receptor fusion protein for FGF-2 potently inhibits tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, D; Wei, X; Xie, K; Chen, K; Li, J; Fang, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antiangiogenic therapies have been proven effective in cancer treatment. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been functionally implicated in tumour angiogenesis and is an important target of antiangiogenic therapies. The aim of this work was to develop a novel FGF-2 inhibitor for cancer therapy. Methods: Eleven fusion proteins were developed by fusing various truncated extracellular regions of FGFR1 with the Fc region of IgG1. The optimal decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding affinity for FGF-2 was identified by an FGF-2-binding assay and its potential antitumour effects were investigated. Results: We obtained a soluble decoy receptor fusion protein with the highest binding activity for FGF-2, named FGF-Trap. Fibroblast growth factor-Trap significantly abolished FGF-2-stimulated activation of FGF signalling as demonstrated by its suppression of FGF-2-mediated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, upregulation of cyclins D1 and E and the increase in mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor R1 and R2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). Furthermore, FGF-Trap effectively suppressed FGF-2-induced proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Most importantly, FGF-Trap potently inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis in Caki-1 and A549 xenograft models in vivo. Conclusions: Fibroblast growth factor-Trap potently inhibits tumour growth by blocking FGF-2 signalling pathways and could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer patients. PMID:24874473

  3. Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6.

    PubMed

    Martinez de la Torre, Yeny; Locati, Massimo; Buracchi, Chiara; Dupor, Jana; Cook, Donald N; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Nebuloni, Manuela; Rukavina, Daniel; Vago, Luca; Vecchi, Annunciata; Lira, Sergio A; Mantovani, Alberto

    2005-05-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines with a key role in the control of cell trafficking and positioning under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. D6 is a promiscuous 7-transmembrane-domain receptor expressed on lymphatic vessels which recognizes most inflammatory, but not homeostatic, CC chemokines. In vitro experiments demonstrated that D6 is unable to signal after ligand engagement, and it is structurally adapted to sustain rapid and efficient ligand internalization and degradation. These unique functional properties lead to the hypothesis that D6 may be involved in the control of inflammation by acting as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we report that D6(-/-) mice showed an anticipated and exacerbated inflammatory response in a model of skin inflammation. Moreover, the absence of D6 resulted in increase cellularity and inflammatory-chemokine levels in draining lymph nodes. Thus, D6 is a decoy receptor structurally adapted and strategically located to tune tissue inflammation and control transfer of inflammatory chemokines to draining lymph nodes. PMID:15789340

  4. NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits wear particle-induced inflammation in a murine calvarial model.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taishi; Pajarinen, Jukka; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Loi, Florence; Egashira, Kensuke; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2015-12-01

    Wear particles induce periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis through activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), which up-regulates the downstream target gene expression for proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. It was hypothesized that direct suppression of NF-?B activity in the early phases of this disorder could be a therapeutic strategy for preventing the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially mitigating osteolysis. NF-?B activity can be suppressed via competitive binding with double stranded NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that blocks this transcription factor from binding to the promoter regions of targeted genes. In this murine calvarial study, clinically relevant polyethylene particles (PEs) with/without ODN were subcutaneously injected over the calvarial bone. In the presence of PE particles, macrophages migrated to the inflammatory site and induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression, resulting in an increase in the number of osteoclasts. Local injections of ODN mitigated the expression of TNF-?, RANKL, and induced the expression of two anti-inflammatory, antiresorptive cytokines: interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and osteoprotegerin. Local intervention with NF-?B decoy ODN in early cases of particle-induced inflammation in which the prosthesis is still salvageable may potentially preserve periprosthetic bone stock. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3872-3878, 2015. PMID:26123702

  5. Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.C.

    1982-11-30

    A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

  6. A new higher temperature coal tar enamel pipeline coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B.

    1996-08-01

    The integrity of a primer is well known to influence the overall performance of pipeline coatings. Conventional primer systems including chlorinated rubber based primers have long been used with coal tar enamel based pipeline coatings. While these offer high performance at ambient temperatures in field application, high temperature performance above 71 C is limited. There is a need for high temperature performance in oil and gas pipelines, especially near compressor stations for natural gas transmission and in the transport of higher viscosity crude oils. The performance of a newly developed epoxy primer that enhances a coal tar based pipeline coating system is described. Laboratory test results are reported which demonstrate improved high temperature resistance as measured by adhesion, cathodic disbondment, and water resistance. A pilot plant application of the system is described along with the test results of plant applied epoxy/CTE coated steel pipe compared to plant applied FBE coatings.

  7. Potential use of fucose-appended dendrimer/?-cyclodextrin conjugates as NF-?B decoy carriers for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Akao, Chiho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Onodera, Risako; Ohyama, Ayumu; Sato, Nana; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of the present study is to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatitis by NF-?B decoy complex with fucose-appended dendrimer (generation 2; G2) conjugate with ?-cyclodextrin (Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2)). Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, average degree of substitution of fucose (DSF2))/NF-?B decoy complex significantly suppressed nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production from LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells, a rat alveolar macrophage cell line, by adequate physicochemical properties and fucose receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Intravenous injection of Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-?B decoy complex extended the survival of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice. In addition, Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-?B decoy complex administered intravenously highly accumulated in the liver, compared to naked NF-?B decoy alone. Furthermore, the liver accumulation of Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-?B decoy complex was inhibited by the pretreatment with GdCl3, a specific inhibitor of Kupffer cell uptake. Also, the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-? levels in LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice were significantly attenuated by the treatment with Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-?B decoy complex, compared with naked NF-?B decoy alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Fuc-S-?-CDE (G2, DSF2) has the potential for a novel Kupffer cell-selective NF-?B decoy carrier for the treatment of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. PMID:25020038

  8. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    PubMed

    Sulc, Jind?ich; Stojdl, Ji?í; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Ji?í; Vacek, Ji?í; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

  9. Inhibition of HIV-LTR gene expression by oligonucleotides targeted to the TAR element.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T; Baker, B F; Cook, P D; Zounes, M; Buckheit, R W; Germany, J; Ecker, D J

    1991-01-01

    All human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs contain a sequence known as TAR (trans-activating responsive sequence). The TAR element forms a stable RNA stem-loop structure which binds the HIV tat (trans-activator) protein and mediates increased viral gene expression. In principle, molecules which bind to the TAR RNA structure would inhibit trans-activation by perturbing the native RNA secondary structure. We have constructed a series of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides which specifically bind to the HIV TAR element. Specific binding to the TAR element was demonstrated in vitro with enzymatically synthesized TAR RNA. The TAR-directed phosphorothioates inhibited trans-activation in a sequence-dependent fashion in a cell culture model using an HIV LTR/human placental alkaline phosphatase gene fusion and tat protein supplied in trans. The molecules also inhibited HIV replication in both acute and chronically infected viral assays, but without sequence specificity. We have constructed a series of vectors consisting of the MMTV promoter and 5'-untranslated region of four different mRNAs, including the TAR region, to study the effect of TAR on gene expression in heterologous systems. The results suggest that, in the absence of the HIV LTR, the TAR element has a repressive effect on gene expression, which is relieved by tat. Images PMID:2062653

  10. Phenol-formaldehyde resin substitutes from biomass tars

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelblau, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Approximately 320,000 tonnes of phenol and formaldehyde are currently used annually in North America to make adhesive resins that are used to make exterior-grade structural panels. The demand for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins is growing faster than the demand for panels, because more adhesive is required to join/coat the surface of wood flakes (for oriented strand board - OSB) than is required to join veneer; OSB is replacing plywood as logs large enough for veneer become scarcer. Also, competitive uses for phenol and methanol (for making formaldehyde) have increased raw materials cost and threatened availability. Production of adhesive resins from biomass to reduce reliance on raw materials derived from commodity petrochemicals and to lower resin cost looks attractive. A simple fluidized-bed reactor system can be used to produce tars that can substitute for a major portion of the phenol and formaldehyde in PF resin adhesives. This can be done in an air-fluidized, single-bed reactor; no inert gas or dual-bed system is required. The key is recognizing that optimum phenolic character in the tar is not produced at the maximum tar yield, but at reactor temperatures around 600{degrees}C and short gas-phase residence times that produce a yield of about 25 to 30 weight percent. A wide range of phenols, aldehydes and other compounds capable of polymerization are produced. Feedstock can be any wood waste larger than sander dust; low cost agricultural wastes such as bagasse are also suitable. Adhesive resin is produced from the entire tar product by shifting the pH from acidic to basic with NaOH, and combining and heating the resulting resole with phenol and formaldehyde, similarly to conventional resins. Approximately half of the phenol and formaldehyde by weight can be replaced with tar. A plant producing 13,865,000 kg (30,566,000 lb) annually from 308 tonnes (340 tons) per day of green wood chips would cost approximately $8,400,000.

  11. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

  12. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that currently do not meet the…

  13. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    E-print Network

    Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Xiang-Chun Ma; Chun-Yan Li; Lin-Mei Liang

    2014-07-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum+weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  14. Reexamination of the decoy-state quantum key distribution with an unstable source

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Jiazhong; Wang Xiangbin

    2010-07-15

    We present an improved formula for the lower bound of the fraction of single-photon counts in a decoy-state protocol with an unstable source. Based on the formula, we study two-intensity protocol and three-intensity protocol. The major formula in the passive two-intensity protocol proposed by Adachi, Yamamoto, Koashi, and Imoto (AYKI) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180503 (2007)] actually always holds with whatever intensity fluctuation of pump light. Therefore, the protocol can always work securely without monitoring the source state or switching the source intensity. We also show that our result can greatly improve the key rate of the three-intensity protocol with a fluctuating coherent-state source.

  15. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  16. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  17. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  18. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Analysis of Viral and Human Secreted Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Decoy Receptors.

    PubMed

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-06-26

    The blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by etanercept, a soluble version of the human TNF receptor 2 (hTNFR2), is a well established strategy to inhibit adverse TNF-mediated inflammatory responses in the clinic. A similar strategy is employed by poxviruses, encoding four viral TNF decoy receptor homologues (vTNFRs) named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD, and CrmE. These vTNFRs are differentially expressed by poxviral species, suggesting distinct immunomodulatory properties. Whereas the human variola virus and mouse ectromelia virus encode one vTNFR, the broad host range cowpox virus encodes all vTNFRs. We report the first comprehensive study of the functional and binding properties of these four vTNFRs, providing an explanation for their expression profile among different poxviruses. In addition, the vTNFRs activities were compared with the hTNFR2 used in the clinic. Interestingly, CrmB from variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most potent TNFR of those tested here including hTNFR2. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new immunomodulatory activity of vTNFRs, showing that CrmB and CrmD also inhibit the activity of lymphotoxin ?. Similarly, we report for the first time that the hTNFR2 blocks the biological activity of lymphotoxin ?. The characterization of vTNFRs optimized during virus-host evolution to modulate the host immune response provides relevant information about their potential role in pathogenesis and may be used to improve anti-inflammatory therapies based on soluble decoy TNFRs. PMID:25940088

  19. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  20. HMGA1 directly interacts with TAR to modulate basal and Tat-dependent HIV transcription

    PubMed Central

    Eilebrecht, Sebastian; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Benecke, Bernd-Joachim; Bell, Brendan; Benecke, Arndt G.

    2013-01-01

    The transactivating response element (TAR) of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is essential for promoter transactivation by the viral transactivator of transcription (Tat). The Tat-TAR interaction thereby recruits active positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) from its inactive, 7SK/HEXIM1-bound form, leading to efficient viral transcription. Here, we show that the 7SK RNA-associating chromatin regulator HMGA1 can specifically bind to the HIV-1 TAR element and that 7SK RNA can thereby compete with TAR. The HMGA1-binding interface of TAR is located within the binding site for Tat and other cellular activators, and we further provide evidence for competition between HMGA1 and Tat for TAR-binding. HMGA1 negatively influences the expression of a HIV-1 promoter-driven reporter in a TAR-dependent manner, both in the presence and in the absence of Tat. The overexpression of the HMGA1-binding substructure of 7SK RNA results in a TAR-dependent gain of HIV-1 promoter activity similar to the effect of the shRNA-mediated knockdown of HMGA1. Our results support a model in which the HMGA1/TAR interaction prevents the binding of transcription-activating cellular co-factors and Tat, subsequently leading to reduced HIV-1 transcription. PMID:23392246

  1. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  2. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  3. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

  4. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  5. A global estimation of the lower bound of the privacy amplification term for decoy-state quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Haodong Jiang; Ming Gao; Hong Wang; Hongxin Li; Zhi Ma

    2015-02-16

    The privacy amplification term, of which the lower bound needs to be estimated with the decoy-state method, plays a positive role in the secure key rate formula for decoy-state quantum key distribution. In previous work, the yield and the bit error rate of single-photon state are estimated separately to gain this lower bound. In this work, we for the first time take the privacy amplification term as a whole to consider this lower bound. The mathematical description for the correlation between the yield and the bit error rate of single-photon state is given with just two unknown variables. Based on this, we obtain the global estimation of this lower bound for both BB84 protocol and measurement-device-independent protocol. The results of numerical simulation show that the global estimation can significantly improve the performance of quantum key distribution.

  6. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. 78 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; Pamlico River and Tar River; Washington, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pamlico River and Tar River; Washington, NC... zone on the navigable waters of the Pamlico and Tar Rivers in Washington, NC in support of a...

  8. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  9. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  10. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  11. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  13. Numerical Simulation of Vortex Pyrolysis Reactors for Condensable Tar Production from Biomass

    E-print Network

    Miller, Richard S.

    Numerical Simulation of Vortex Pyrolysis Reactors for Condensable Tar Production from Biomass R. S used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  3. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  8. THE EFFECT OF WATER-GAS TAR ON OYSTERS By Philip H. Mitchell

    E-print Network

    THE EFFECT OF WATER-GAS TAR ON OYSTERS .:I- By Philip H. Mitchell 199 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE EFFECT OF WATER..cAS TAR ON OYSTERS. .;f. By PHILIP H. MITCHELL. .:/- For a number importance. Damages have been claimed for pollution of oyster beds by wastes from the manufacture of gas

  9. Task 3.9 -- Catalytic tar cracking. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure swing adsorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means to remove these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generate useful products, e.g., methane gas, which is crucial to the operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. The objectives of this project are to investigate whether gasification tars can be cracked by synthetic nickel-substituted micamontmorillonite, zeolite, or dolomite material; and whether the tars can be cracked selectively by these catalysts to produce a desired liquid and/or gas stream. Results to date are presented in the cited papers.

  10. Systemic Administration of a Cyclic Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Decoy Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Growth without Inducing Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Paul, Kathleen; Freilino, Maria L; Li, Hua; Li, Changyou; Johnson, Daniel E; Wang, Lin; Eiseman, Julie; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to tumorigenesis in most malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Intravenous delivery of a chemically modified cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide with improved serum and thermal stability demonstrated antitumor efficacy in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression such as cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL in a mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy of the cyclic STAT3 decoy after multiple intravenous doses in Foxn1 nu mice in anticipation of clinical translation. The two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of cyclic STAT3 decoy demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume compared with the control groups (mutant cyclic STAT3 decoy or saline) in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression. There was no dose-dependent effect of cyclic STAT3 decoy on tumor volume or STAT3 target gene expression. There were no significant changes in body weights between the groups during the dosing period, after the dosing interval or on the day of euthanasia. No hematology or clinical chemistry parameters suggested toxicity of the cyclic STAT3 decoy compared with saline control. No gross or histological pathological abnormalities were noted at necropsy in any of the animals. These findings suggest a lack of toxicity of intravenous administration of a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. In addition, comparable antitumor effects indicate a lack of dose response at the two dose levels investigated. PMID:24395569

  11. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  12. Origin of beach-stranded tars from source rocks indigeneous to Seychelles

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, P.S.

    1996-03-01

    Tarballs have been found stranded as traction deposits on a beach on northwest Mahe Island, Seychelles, with every ebbing tide. Weekly collections from mid-1993 to mid-1994 gathered nearly 4750 samples of two types of tar: a dominant black malleable tar and a less common brownish-black hard tar. Both tars represent moderately degraded extracts of crude oils seemingly derived from mature source rocks dominated by a combination of oil-prone phytoplanktonic and algal organic matter over gas-prone land-plant organic matter. Source rock deposition occurred principally in paralic to open-marine environments. The presence of minor oleanane and bicadinane, and a general preponderance of diasteranes and tricyclic terpanes in the hard tar suggest derivation from a Late Cretaceous clastic source rock with possible carbonate interbeds. By contrast, no samples of the malleable tar contain oleanane or bicadinane, but all contain significant norhopane and tetracyclic terpanes, which, along with significant sulfur and low diasterane contents, indicate derivation from a carbonate source rock of perhaps pre-Late Cretaceous age. Additionally, maturity and limited geochemical data from proven and potential source rocks present in the offshore wells enable the malleable and hard tars to be equated with specific units in the Seychelles stratigraphy; the malleable tar is seemingly derived from a Middle Jurassic carbonate of Tethyan affinity and the hard tar possibly originated from either Campanian or Maastrichtian-Paleocene shales. These tars are thus concluded to be natural seepage products derived from source rocks indigenous to Seychelles, and their persistent beach stranding significantly reduces the risk of hydrocarbon exploration in this frontier province.

  13. A novel conserved mechanism for plant NLR protein pairs: the “integrated decoy” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Stella; Bernoux, Maud; Moncuquet, Philippe; Kroj, Thomas; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant immunity is often triggered by the specific recognition of pathogen effectors by intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLR). Plant NLRs contain an N-terminal signaling domain that is mostly represented by either a Toll-interleukin1 receptor (TIR) domain or a coiled coil (CC) domain. In many cases, single NLR proteins are sufficient for both effector recognition and signaling activation. However, many paired NLRs have now been identified where both proteins are required to confer resistance to pathogens. Recent detailed studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana TIR-NLR pair RRS1 and RPS4 and on the rice CC-NLR pair RGA4 and RGA5 have revealed for the first time how such protein pairs function together. In both cases, the paired partners interact physically to form a hetero-complex receptor in which each partner plays distinct roles in effector recognition or signaling activation, highlighting a conserved mode of action of NLR pairs across both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We also describe an “integrated decoy” model for the function of these receptor complexes. In this model, a plant protein targeted by an effector has been duplicated and fused to one member of the NLR pair, where it acts as a bait to trigger defense signaling by the second NLR upon effector binding. This mechanism may be common to many other plant NLR pairs. PMID:25506347

  14. Poxvirus-encoded TNF decoy receptors inhibit the biological activity of transmembrane TNF.

    PubMed

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Poxviruses encode up to four different soluble TNF receptors, named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD and CrmE. These proteins mimic the extracellular domain of the cellular TNF receptors to bind and inhibit the activity of TNF and, in some cases, other TNF superfamily ligands. Most of these ligands are released after the enzymic cleavage of a membrane precursor. However, transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) is not only a precursor of soluble TNF but also exerts specific pro-inflammatory and immunological activities. Here, we report that viral TNF receptors bound and inhibited tmTNF and describe some interesting differences in their activity against the soluble cytokine. Thus, CrmE, which does not inhibit mouse soluble TNF, could block murine tmTNF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that this anti-tmTNF effect should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of viral TNF decoy receptors in the pathogenesis of poxvirus. PMID:26242179

  15. Allosteric competitive inactivation of hematopoietic CSF-1 signaling by the viral decoy receptor BARF1.

    PubMed

    Elegheert, Jonathan; Bracke, Nathalie; Pouliot, Philippe; Gutsche, Irina; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Verstraete, Kenneth; Bekaert, Anaïs; Burmeister, Wim P; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lambrecht, Bart N; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-09-01

    Hematopoietic human colony-stimulating factor 1 (hCSF-1) is essential for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and microbial infections and cancer. The human pathogen Epstein-Barr virus secretes the lytic-cycle protein BARF1 that neutralizes hCSF-1 to achieve immunomodulation. Here we show that BARF1 binds the dimer interface of hCSF-1 with picomolar affinity, away from the cognate receptor-binding site, to establish a long-lived complex featuring three hCSF-1 at the periphery of the BARF1 toroid. BARF1 locks dimeric hCSF-1 into an inactive conformation, rendering it unable to signal via its cognate receptor on human monocytes. This reveals a new functional role for hCSF-1 cooperativity in signaling. We propose a new viral strategy paradigm featuring an allosteric decoy receptor of the competitive type, which couples efficient sequestration and inactivation of the host growth factor to abrogate cooperative assembly of the cognate signaling complex. PMID:22902366

  16. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P?=?0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation. PMID:26335204

  17. Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-07-01

    The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available.

  18. Reconstructing Protein Structures by Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields and Iterative Decoy Set Construction

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Claudio; Adelfio, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the fold of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the grand problems in computational biology. While there has been progress towards a solution, especially when a protein can be modelled based on one or more known structures (templates), in the absence of templates, even the best predictions are generally much less reliable. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the sequence alone, when templates of known structure are not available. This approach relies on a simple reconstruction procedure guided by a novel knowledge-based evaluation function implemented as a class of artificial neural networks that we have designed: Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields (NNPIF). This evaluation function takes into account the contextual information for each residue and is trained to identify native-like conformations from non-native-like ones by using large sets of decoys as a training set. The training set is generated and then iteratively expanded during successive folding simulations. As NNPIF are fast at evaluating conformations, thousands of models can be processed in a short amount of time, and clustering techniques can be adopted for model selection. Although the results we present here are very preliminary, we consider them to be promising, with predictions being generated at state-of-the-art levels in some of the cases. PMID:24970210

  19. A strategy to discover decoy chemokine ligands with an anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Dayana; Daubeuf, François; Do, Quoc Tuan; Utard, Valérie; Villa, Pascal; Haiech, Jacques; Bonnet, Dominique; Hibert, Marcel; Bernard, Philippe; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Frossard, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Excessive signaling by chemokines has been associated with chronic inflammation or cancer, thus attracting substantial attention as promising therapeutic targets. Inspired by chemokine-clearing molecules shaped by pathogens to escape the immune system, we designed a generic screening assay to discover chemokine neutralizing molecules (neutraligands) and unambiguously distinguish them from molecules that block the receptor (receptor antagonists). This assay, called TRIC-r, combines time-resolved intracellular calcium recordings with pre-incubation of bioactive compounds either with the chemokine or the receptor-expressing cells. We describe here the identification of high affinity neutraligands of CCL17 and CCL22, two chemokines involved in the Th2-type of lung inflammation. The decoy molecules inhibit in vitro CCL17- or CCL22-induced intracellular calcium responses, CCR4 endocytosis and human T cell migration. In vivo, they inhibit inflammation in a murine model of asthma, in particular the recruitment of eosinophils, dendritic cells and CD4+T cells. Altogether, we developed a successful strategy to discover as new class of pharmacological tools to potently control cell chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26442456

  20. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  1. Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid ?-glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Worrall, Liam James; Gruninger, Robert J; Wasney, Gregory A; Blaukopf, Markus; Baumann, Lars; Lameignere, Emilie; Solomonson, Matthew; Brown, Eric D; Withers, Stephen G; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2015-02-10

    Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, resistance, and virulence. The search for the enzymes responsible for GlcNAcylation in Staphylococcus aureus has recently identified TarM and TarS with respective ?- and ?-(1-4) glycosyltransferase activities. The stereochemistry of the GlcNAc attachment is important in balancing biological processes, such that the interplay of TarM and TarS is likely important for bacterial pathogenicity and survival. Here we present the crystal structure of TarM in an unusual ternary-like complex consisting of a polymeric acceptor substrate analog, UDP from a hydrolyzed donor, and an ?-glyceryl-GlcNAc product formed in situ. These structures support an internal nucleophilic substitution-like mechanism, lend new mechanistic insight into the glycosylation of glycopolymers, and reveal a trimerization domain with a likely role in acceptor substrate scaffolding. PMID:25624472

  2. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  3. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  4. Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid ?-glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Worrall, Liam James; Gruninger, Robert J.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Blaukopf, Markus; Baumann, Lars; Lameignere, Emilie; Solomonson, Matthew; Brown, Eric D.; Withers, Stephen G.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, resistance, and virulence. The search for the enzymes responsible for GlcNAcylation in Staphylococcus aureus has recently identified TarM and TarS with respective ?- and ?-(1–4) glycosyltransferase activities. The stereochemistry of the GlcNAc attachment is important in balancing biological processes, such that the interplay of TarM and TarS is likely important for bacterial pathogenicity and survival. Here we present the crystal structure of TarM in an unusual ternary-like complex consisting of a polymeric acceptor substrate analog, UDP from a hydrolyzed donor, and an ?-glyceryl-GlcNAc product formed in situ. These structures support an internal nucleophilic substitution-like mechanism, lend new mechanistic insight into the glycosylation of glycopolymers, and reveal a trimerization domain with a likely role in acceptor substrate scaffolding. PMID:25624472

  5. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  6. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  7. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  8. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  9. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  11. The expression of death decoy receptor 3 was increased in the patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhao, Zhao; Zou, Yuqiong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Yonglie; Li, Yasong; Pang, Zhenzhen; Jin, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies suggested a pathological role for the death decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatic arthritis (RA). Herein, the expression of DcR3 in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and the relationship with clinical characteristics were investigated. The serum DcR3 levels of pSS patients and healthy controls were measured by ELISA. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the DcR3 levels with the clinical characterstics of pSS patients. Additionally, the DcR3 expression in salivary glands of pSS patients was investigated by the immunohistochemistry method. The serum DcR3 expression in pSS patients was significantly higher than healthy controls (p?

  12. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  13. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84-0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have substantial influence on the understanding of global radiative energy fluxes.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic...

  17. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature 

    E-print Network

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    This study examines the ritual of tarring and feathering within specific American cultural contexts and literary works of the nineteenth-century to show how the discourse surrounding the actual and figurative practice ...

  18. Attenuation of murine antigen-induced arthritis by treatment with a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)

    PubMed Central

    Hückel, Marion; Schurigt, Uta; Wagner, Andreas H; Stöckigt, Renate; Petrow, Peter K; Thoss, Klaus; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Henzgen, Steffen; Hecker, Markus; Bräuer, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT-1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1) plays a pivotal role in the expression of inflammatory gene products involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis such as various cytokines and the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40/CD40L) receptor-ligand dyad. The therapeutic efficacy of a synthetic decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) binding and neutralizing STAT-1 was tested in murine antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) as a model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The STAT-1 decoy ODN was injected intra-articularly in methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA)-immunized mice 4 h before arthritis induction. Arthritis was evaluated by joint swelling measurement and histological evaluation and compared to treatment with mutant control ODN. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mBSA-specific antibodies and auto-antibodies against matrix constituents were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The transcription factor neutralizing efficacy of the STAT-1 decoy ODN was verified in vitro in cultured synoviocytes and macrophages. Single administration of STAT-1 decoy ODN dose-dependently suppressed joint swelling and histological signs of acute and chronic arthritis. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-proteoglycan IgG titres were significantly reduced in STAT-1 decoy ODN-treated mice, whereas mBSA, collagen type I and type II specific immunoglobulins were not significantly affected. Intra-articular administration of an anti-CD40L (anti-CD154) antibody was similarly effective. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA) of nuclear extracts from synoviocytes incubated with the STAT-1 decoy ODN in vitro revealed an inhibitory effect on STAT-1. Furthermore, the STAT-1 decoy ODN inhibited the expression of CD40 mRNA in stimulated macrophages. The beneficial effects of the STAT-1 decoy ODN in experimental arthritis presumably mediated in part by affecting CD40 signalling in macrophages may provide the basis for a novel treatment of human RA. PMID:16507120

  19. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ?PAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ?PAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  20. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  1. Improvements in the processing of coal tar and its fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    As soon as UKhIN was founded it took on the urgent problems of raising the technical standards of coal tar, fraction and pitch processing and extending the range of products to meet the demand from the expanding allied sectors of industry (chemical, organic synthesis, electrodes, etc.). One important research topic at UKhIN was the production of individual substances and technical products from various feedstocks. The results included the first production in the USSR, on an adequate scale, of products such as acenaphthene, anthracene, carbazole, phenanthrene, diphenylene oxide, fluorene, ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-methylnaphthalenes, indole, acridine, pyridine, ..cap alpha..-picoline, quinoline and its derivatives, phenol, cresol isomers, etc. For many years, the UKhIN program included work relating to the production of technical and refined naphthalene and the equipment needs. The results provided the basis for UKrNIIkhimmash designs of improved continuous apparatus for naphthalene fraction processing. Its adoption has increased labor productivity, automated process control, improved the degree of naphthalene recovery and improved working conditions. UKhIN participated on a large scale in the investigations, with NIOPIK and the chemical plants, to establish the possibility of making phtahlic anhydride from various naphthalene-containing feedstocks and organize phthalic anhydride production. Other important topics have been the catalytic refining of naphthalene fractions and refined anthracene production.

  2. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  3. Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum.

    PubMed

    Bommarito, Thomas; Sparling, Donald W; Halbrook, Richard S

    2010-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can affect amphibians in lethal and many sublethal ways. There are many natural and anthropogenic sources of PAHs in aquatic environments. One potentially significant source is run off from surfaces of parking lots and roads that are protected with coal tar sealants. Coal tar is 50% or more PAH by wet weight and is used in emulsions to treat these surfaces. Break down of sealants can result in contamination of nearby waters. The toxicity of PAHs can be greatly altered by simultaneous exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This study exposes larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to determine if coal tar sealant can have negative effects on aquatic amphibians and if coal tar toxicity is influenced by ultraviolet radiation. Spotted salamanders were exposed to 0, 60, 280 and 1500 mg coal tar sealant/kg sediment for 28 days. Half of the animals were exposed to conventional fluorescent lighting only and half were exposed to fluorescent lighting plus ultraviolet radiation. No significant mortality occurred during the experiment. Exposure to sealants resulted in slower rates of growth, and diminished ability to swim in a dose-dependent fashion. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation affected the frequencies of leukocytes and increased the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes. There was an interactive effect of sealant and radiation on swimming behavior. We conclude that coal-tar sealant and ultraviolet radiation increased sublethal effects in salamanders, and may be a risk to salamanders under field conditions. PMID:20440554

  4. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    SciTech Connect

    Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F.

    1996-11-01

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.

  5. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste. PMID:26110209

  6. Targeted binding of nucleocapsid protein transforms the folding landscape of HIV-1 TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Micah J; Rouzina, Ioulia; Manthei, Kelly A; Gorelick, Robert J; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C

    2015-11-01

    Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins are nucleic acid chaperones that play a key role in the viral life cycle. During reverse transcription, HIV-1 NC facilitates the rearrangement of nucleic acid secondary structure, allowing the transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin to be transiently destabilized and annealed to a cDNA hairpin. It is not clear how NC specifically destabilizes TAR RNA but does not strongly destabilize the resulting annealed RNA-DNA hybrid structure, which must be formed for reverse transcription to continue. By combining single-molecule optical tweezers measurements with a quantitative mfold-based model, we characterize the equilibrium TAR stability and unfolding barrier for TAR RNA. Experiments show that adding NC lowers the transition state barrier height while also dramatically shifting the barrier location. Incorporating TAR destabilization by NC into the mfold-based model reveals that a subset of preferential protein binding sites is responsible for the observed changes in the unfolding landscape, including the unusual shift in the transition state. We measure the destabilization induced at these NC binding sites and find that NC preferentially targets TAR RNA by binding to specific sequence contexts that are not present on the final annealed RNA-DNA hybrid structure. Thus, specific binding alters the entire RNA unfolding landscape, resulting in the dramatic destabilization of this specific structure that is required for reverse transcription. PMID:26483503

  7. THE ACTIVATING, TRANSFORMING, AND CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF THE RABBIT PAPILLOMA VIRUS (SHOPE) UPON IMPLANTED TAR TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; Kidd, John G.

    1940-01-01

    The effects of the rabbit papilloma virus upon tar tumor tissue are widely various, as the present paper and previous ones attest. It enables some of the benign tar tumors of domestic rabbits (papillomas, carcinomatoids) to establish themselves after implantation,—which they are unable to do under ordinary circumstances, being dependent upon favoring factors; and it may drive them to active proliferation without altering their morphology. Some growths it fails to influence and some it converts into virus papillomas. Often, however, it brings about cytological changes which are indicative of a combination of its influence with that of the undetermined factor motivating the original tumor. The resulting neoplasm exhibits a blend of characteristics. The virus makes some benign tar tumors become cancerous forthwith, the malignancy developing without intermediate virus papillomatosis. It can be readily imposed upon some of the squamous cell carcinomas which tar elicits in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit, and it may drive such tumors to proliferate faster, or alter them morphologically, or do both. Its stimulating effect is especially pronounced in the case of those tar cancers that are slow-growing. Since the virus can influence tar cancers markedly, one can scarcely suppose it to be devoid of effect upon the cancers of the same type which derive from the papillomas it has itself engendered. Other implications of the work are discussed. PMID:19870999

  8. Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander; Day, D. E.; Lee, Tae-bum; Wang, Chong M.; Carrico, C. E.; Carrillo, John R.; Cowin, James P.; Collett, J. G.; Iedema, Martin J.

    2005-11-09

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (? = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.

  9. Mg2+-induced Variations in the Conformation and Dynamics of HIV-1 TAR RNA Probed Using NMR Residual Dipolar Couplings

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Pitt, Stephen W.; Majumdar, Ananya; Xu, Weijun; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of divalent Mg2+ on the conformation and dynamics of the stem-loop transactivation response element (TAR) RNA from HIV-1 have been characterized using NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs). Order matrix analysis of one bond 13C–1H RDCs measured in TAR at [Mg2+]:[TAR] stoichiometric ratios of ~3:1 (TAR(3.0 Mg)) and ~4.5:1 (TAR(4.5 Mg)) revealed that Mg2+ reduces the average inter-helical angle from 47(±5)° in TAR(free) to 5(±7)° in TAR(4.5 Mg). In contrast to the TAR(free) state, the generalized degree of order for the two stems in TAR(4.5 Mg) is found to be identical within experimental uncertainty, indicating that binding of Mg2+ leads to an arrest of inter-helical motions in TAR(free). Results demonstrate that RDC-NMR methodology can provide new insight into the effects of Mg2+ on both the conformation and dynamics of RNA. PMID:12798678

  10. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  11. A PCR-Based Method to Construct Lentiviral Vector Expressing Double Tough Decoy for miRNA Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Liu, Nian; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Peng, Wenda; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    DNA vector-encoded Tough Decoy (TuD) miRNA inhibitor is attracting increased attention due to its high efficiency in miRNA suppression. The current methods used to construct TuD vectors are based on synthesizing long oligonucleotides (~90 mer), which have been costly and problematic because of mutations during synthesis. In this study, we report a PCR-based method for the generation of double Tough Decoy (dTuD) vector in which only two sets of shorter oligonucleotides (< 60 mer) were used. Different approaches were employed to test the inhibitory potency of dTuDs. We demonstrated that dTuD is the most efficient method in miRNA inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Using this method, a mini dTuD library against 88 human miRNAs was constructed and used for a high-throughput screening (HTS) of AP-1 pathway-related miRNAs. Seven miRNAs (miR-18b-5p, -101-3p, -148b-3p, -130b-3p, -186-3p, -187-3p and -1324) were identified as candidates involved in AP-1 pathway regulation. This novel method allows for an accurate and cost-effective generation of dTuD miRNA inhibitor, providing a powerful tool for efficient miRNA suppression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26624995

  12. Role of the chemokine decoy receptor D6 in balancing inflammation, immune activation, and antimicrobial resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Di Liberto, Diana; Locati, Massimo; Caccamo, Nadia; Vecchi, Annunciata; Meraviglia, Serena; Salerno, Alfredo; Sireci, Guido; Nebuloni, Manuela; Caceres, Neus; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Dieli, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    D6 is a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines. D6-deficient mice were rapidly killed by intranasal administration of low doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The death of D6?/? mice was associated with a dramatic local and systemic inflammatory response with levels of M. tuberculosis colony-forming units similar to control D6-proficient mice. D6-deficient mice showed an increased numbers of mononuclear cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes) infiltrating inflamed tissues and lymph nodes, as well as abnormal increased concentrations of CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, and interferon ?) in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. High levels of inflammatory cytokines in D6?/? infected mice were associated with liver and kidney damage, resulting in both liver and renal failure. Blocking inflammatory CC chemokines with a cocktail of antibodies reversed the inflammatory phenotype of D6?/? mice but led to less controlled growth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, the D6 decoy receptor plays a key role in setting the balance between antimicrobial resistance, immune activation, and inflammation in M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:18695004

  13. Role of the chemokine decoy receptor D6 in balancing inflammation, immune activation, and antimicrobial resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Di Liberto, Diana; Locati, Massimo; Caccamo, Nadia; Vecchi, Annunciata; Meraviglia, Serena; Salerno, Alfredo; Sireci, Guido; Nebuloni, Manuela; Caceres, Neus; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Dieli, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto

    2008-09-01

    D6 is a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines. D6-deficient mice were rapidly killed by intranasal administration of low doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The death of D6(-/-) mice was associated with a dramatic local and systemic inflammatory response with levels of M. tuberculosis colony-forming units similar to control D6-proficient mice. D6-deficient mice showed an increased numbers of mononuclear cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes) infiltrating inflamed tissues and lymph nodes, as well as abnormal increased concentrations of CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interferon gamma) in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. High levels of inflammatory cytokines in D6(-/-) infected mice were associated with liver and kidney damage, resulting in both liver and renal failure. Blocking inflammatory CC chemokines with a cocktail of antibodies reversed the inflammatory phenotype of D6(-/-) mice but led to less controlled growth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, the D6 decoy receptor plays a key role in setting the balance between antimicrobial resistance, immune activation, and inflammation in M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:18695004

  14. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-01

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-6 production, as well as NF-?B and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. PMID:26101068

  15. Covalent binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of coal tar to DNA in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N C; Pfau, W; Hewer, A; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of mouse skin with coal tar is known to initiate tumour formation, with the carcinogenic activity associated mainly with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A sample of pharmaceutical coal tar was analysed by gas chromatography and 19 major PAHs were identified. 32P-postlabelling analysis was used to characterize those PAHs that are responsible for the DNA binding of coal tar and, by inference, its biological activity. PAHs were grouped according to their reported carcinogenic activities and applied as mixtures to mouse skin. Group A contained all of the 19 PAHs, group B seven PAHs for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity and group C 12 PAHs with only limited or inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. 32P-Labelled DNA adducts formed by coal tar were resolved on TLC into a pattern of three discrete spots (2, 4 and 6) and four areas of diffuse radioactivity (1, 3, 5 and 7). By comparison of the pattern of adducts formed by coal tar with those formed by the synthetic mixtures it appeared that PAHs in group B formed coal tar-DNA adduct spots 4 and 6, and that adduct spot 2 was formed by PAHs in group C. Attempts to identify those PAHs responsible for the formation of coal tar-DNA adducts 4 and 6 were made by comparing the chromatographic mobilities of 32P-labelled coal tar-derived DNA adducts formed in mouse skin, using TLC and HPLC, with those formed by PAHs in group B. As benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), a component of group C, has been demonstrated to exhibit significant DNA binding ability previously, the chromatographic mobility of coal tar-DNA adduct spot 2 was compared to that of the major DNA adducts formed by B[ghi]P in vivo and in vitro. It appeared that coal tar adduct spot 2 was the major adduct formed by B[ghi]P in vitro and that benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo [j]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene contributed to the formation of adduct spot 6. None of the PAHs examined appeared to be responsible for the formation of adduct spot 4. PMID:8425262

  16. Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    . The global stampede to find every possible fossil fuel is not being opposed by governments, no matter how do not include the emissions from conventional fossil fuels used to mine and process the tar sands development. Given the stranglehold that the fossil fuel industry has on governments worldwide

  17. Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szymanski, M.L.; Afton, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest distribution and annual harvest rates of mallards due to increasing use of SWDs by hunters in North America.

  18. Notch Decoys that Selectively Block Dll/Notch or Jagged/Notch Disrupt Angiogenesis by Unique Mechanisms to Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Murtomaki, Aino; Kofler, Natalie M.; Cuervo, Henar; Chaudhri, Reyhaan A.; Tattersall, Ian W.; Rosenstiel, Paul E.; Shawber, Carrie J.; Kitajewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A pro-angiogenic role for Jagged-dependent activation of Notch signaling in the endothelium has yet to be described. Using proteins that encoded different NOTCH1 EGF-like repeats, we identified unique regions of DLL-class and JAG-class ligand/receptor interactions, and developed Notch decoys that function as ligand-specific Notch inhibitors. N110-24 decoy blocked JAG1/JAG2-mediated NOTCH1 signaling, angiogenic sprouting in vitro and retinal angiogenesis, demonstrating JAG-dependent Notch signal activation promotes angiogenesis. In tumors, N110-24 decoy reduced angiogenic sprouting, vessel perfusion, pericyte coverage, and tumor growth. JAG/NOTCH signaling uniquely inhibited expression of anti-angiogenic sVEFGFR-1/sFlt-1. N11-13 decoy interfered with DLL1/DLL4-mediated NOTCH1 signaling and caused endothelial hypersprouting in vitro, in retinal angiogenesis and in tumors. Thus, blockade of JAG- or DLL-mediated Notch signaling inhibits angiogenesis by distinct mechanisms. JAG/Notch signaling positively regulates angiogenesis by suppressing sVEGFR-1/sFlt-1 and promoting mural/endothelial cell interactions. Blockade of JAG-class ligands represents a novel, viable therapeutic approach to block tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:25387766

  19. Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km Tobias Schmitt-Manderbach,1,2,* Henning Weier,2

    E-print Network

    Weinfurter, Harald

    Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km Tobias-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent numbers: 03.67.Dd, 03.67.Hk, 42.50.ÿp Quantum cryptography [or quantum key distribution (QKD)] [1

  20. Linear high-boost fusion of Stokes vector imagery for effective discrimination and recognition of real targets in the presence of multiple identical decoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saba, Aed; Sakla, Wesam A.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, the use of imaging polarimetry has received considerable attention for use in automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. In military remote sensing applications, there is a great demand for sensors that are capable of discriminating between real targets and decoys. Accurate discrimination of decoys from real targets is a challenging task and often requires the fusion of various sensor modalities that operate simultaneously. In this paper, we use a simple linear fusion technique known as the high-boost fusion method for effective discrimination of real targets in the presence of multiple decoys. The HBF assigns more weight to the polarization-based imagery in forming the final fused image that is used for detection. We have captured both intensity and polarization-based imagery from an experimental laboratory arrangement containing a mixture of sand/dirt, rocks, vegetation, and other objects for the purpose of simulating scenery that would be acquired in a remote sensing military application. A target object and three decoys that are identical in physical appearance (shape, surface structure and color) and different in material composition have also been placed in the scene. We use the wavelet-filter joint transform correlation (WFJTC) technique to perform detection between input scenery and the target object. Our results show that use of the HBF method increases the correlation performance metrics associated with the WFJTC-based detection process when compared to using either the traditional intensity or polarization-based images.

  1. Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

    2001-12-15

    The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers. PMID:11820470

  2. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-02-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

  3. Comparison of DNA adduct formation in mice fed coal tar or benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Culp, S J; Beland, F A

    1994-02-01

    Coal tar is a complex mixture containing hundreds of compounds, including the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene. In order to compare the metabolic activation of a single carcinogen versus a complex mixture containing the carcinogen, we determined the DNA adduct profiles in B6C3F1 mice fed doses of coal tar or benzo[a]pyrene at concentrations corresponding to the amount of benzo[a]pyrene found in the respective coal tar treatments. DNA adduct formation was quantified in liver, lungs and forestomach by 32P-postlabeling and was found to increase as a function of dose in each tissue with both coal tar and benzo[a]pyrene. In mice fed benzo[a]pyrene, a major adduct was detected with the same elution characteristics by TLC and HPLC as the major adduct, 10 beta-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7 beta, 8 alpha, 9 alpha-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo[a]-pyrene (dG-N2-BPDE), obtained from reacting (+/-)-antibenzo[a]pyrene-7,8- dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) with DNA. DNA binding was in the order forestomach > or = liver > lung, except at the highest dose group where the order was liver > forestomach > lung. In mice fed coal tar, a diagonal zone of radioactivity with a number of discrete adducts was observed. One area of radioactivity contained the major BPDE adduct, dG-N2-BPDE, based on co-elution by TLC and HPLC with the synthesized adduct. Total DNA binding was greater in the coal tar-fed mice than in the mice fed benzo[a]pyrene, and the adduct levels were in the order lung > liver > forestomach. These results indicate that there are tissue-specific differences in the activation of coal tar components when compared to a representative carcinogen contained within the mixture. PMID:8313515

  4. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2014-10-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate

    SciTech Connect

    Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-08-27

    The periplasmic domain of the E. coli aspartate receptor Tar was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized with and without bound ligand. The crystals obtained diffracted to resolutions of 1.58 and 1.95 Å, respectively. The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni{sup 2+}. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40 Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C2, respectively.

  6. Mexican doctors serve rural areas.

    PubMed

    Grossi, J

    1991-02-01

    The Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) worked to solve the unemployment problems of physicians and to increase health services to underserved rural areas. In Mexico, 75% of practicing physicians were located in 16 urban areas. Mexico had a large population of 83 million, of whom many in rural areas have been deprived of family planning and medical services. MEXFAM initiated the Community Doctors Project in 1986. The aim was to help Mexican doctors set up a medical practice in marginal urban towns and small towns with low income residents. Funding to physicians was provided for conducting a market survey of the proposed region and for advertising the new medical services. Loans of furniture and medical supplies were provided, and options were provided for purchase of equipment at a later date. During the promotion, services for maternal and child health care were provided for a small fee, while family planning was provided for free. Doctors usually become self-sufficient after about two years. The MEXFAM project established 170 community doctor's offices in 30 out of 32 states. Services were provided for at least 2500 families per office. In 1990, 13 offices were opened to serve an estimated 182,000 clients. A new effort is being directed to owners of Mexican factories. MEXFAM will set up a medical and family planning clinic very close to factories for a company contribution of only $12,000. The clinic promotion is being marketed through videos. MEXFAM found two companies that agreed to support a clinic. PMID:12288711

  7. Effects of the reforming reagents and fuel species on tar reforming reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2009-12-01

    In this study, using wood chips and polyethylene (PE) as fuels, the effects of air and/or steam as reagents on the tar reforming were clarified quantitatively with a simulated gasifier/reformer apparatus of a two-staged gasification process. The results show that when only steam or air was supplied into the reformer, the tar residual rate (defined as the ratio of the tar amount in the reformed gas to the tar amount in the pyrolysis gas) and the carbon particulate concentration in both reformed gases produced from pyrolysis gases of wood chips and PE decreased with the increase of the steam ratio (H(2)O/C, 0-1.0) or the air ratio (ER, 0-0.30). Supplying steam into the reformer to suppress carbon particulate formation for PE pyrolysis gas is more effective than for wood chips pyrolysis gas. Comparing with the results of steam only reforming, the effect of air supply on reduction of the tar residual rate was more significant, while that on suppression of carbon particulate formation was smaller. PMID:19665371

  8. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  9. The linear relationship between cigarette tar and nicotine yields: regulatory implications for smoke constituent ratios.

    PubMed

    St Charles, F K; Cook, C J; Clayton, P M

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoke analyte yields are often expressed as ratios relative to tar or nicotine yields, usually to compare different products or to estimate human uptake of smoke in relation to nicotine uptake measurements. The method, however, can lead to distorted interpretations, especially in the case of ratios from ultra-low tar yield cigarettes. In brief, as tar yields decrease below the 5–6 mg per cigarette range, the tar-to-nicotine ratio (TNR) decreases rapidly in a non-linear fashion. If, however, the nicotine yield, rather than the ratio, is plotted versus the tar yield, the non-linearity disappears and a straight line is obtained, with a slight positive intercept for nicotine on the ordinate. Unlike the ratio, the slope appears to depend only on the concentration of the nicotine in the blend and does not appear to vary with smoking parameters such as puff volume, puff interval or length smoked or with cigarette design parameters such as length, circumference or the amount of filtration or filter ventilation. Therefore, such a slope is analogous to the TNR although, unlike that ratio, it is invariant. Even more simply, the concentration of the nicotine in the blend, at least for American blend-style cigarettes, provides a similar index. PMID:21216263

  10. The "low-tar" strategy and the changing construction of Australian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    King, Bill; Borland, Ron

    2004-02-01

    This article documents design changes in Australian cigarettes since the adoption of a "low-tar" harm reduction strategy in 1966. It also determines the relative contributions of specific technologies to machine-tested tar and nicotine yields in 1980 and 1994, using data from tobacco industry documents. Our findings are consistent with a first generation of low-tar cigarettes, which relied primarily on filtration efficiency, being displaced by a second generation, which relied heavily on filter ventilation and were more attractive to consumers. In 1980, both tar and nicotine yields correlated most strongly with filter density (r=-.66, p<.01, and r=-.70, p<.01), whereas in 1994 both tar and nicotine yields correlated most strongly with percentage filter ventilation (r=-.97, p<.01, and r=-.95, p<.01). We also found that median percentage alkaloid content of tobacco rods rose from 2.16% in 1980 to 2.4% in 1994, despite median nicotine yield declining from 1.0 mg to.58 mg. These changes can be expected to reduce the utility of the FTC/ISO yield testing system. PMID:14982692

  11. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  13. Thrombocytopenia with Unilateral Dysplastic Radius- Is it Thrombocytopenia - Absent Radius (TAR) Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Indradeo Prasad; Ranjan, Ram Bilas; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia - absent radii (TAR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic rare disorder with hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral absent radius that may have additional anomalies. This disorder is characterized by thrombocytopenia resulting in potentially severe bleeding episodes primarily during infancy. We report the case of a 7-day-old term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) male baby, product of non consanguineous marriage presented with bloody loose stool, right sided upper limb deformity and paleness of the body, was diagnosed as TAR syndrome with some atypical presentation. Such type of atypical presentation has not been previously reported in a case with TAR Syndrome.Patient was managed in our hospital with packed cell transfusion and two units platelets concentrates transfusion, Intra-venous antimicrobials, and other supportive treatment. He gradually improved and was discharged after seven days of hospital stay with advice to consult orthopedic surgeon for opinion regarding limb reconstruction. PMID:25954675

  14. Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4.

    PubMed

    Colotta, F; Re, F; Muzio, M; Bertini, R; Polentarutti, N; Sironi, M; Giri, J G; Dower, S K; Sims, J E; Mantovani, A

    1993-07-23

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) interacts with cells through two types of binding molecules, IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1R I) and IL-1R II. The function of IL-1R II is unknown. In studies using monoclonal antibodies, IL-1 prolonged the in vitro survival of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) through IL-1R I, and IL-4 antagonized the action of IL-1 by inducing expression and release of IL-1R II. Dexamethasone also induced expression and release of the IL-1R II in PMN. These results, together with the effect of antibodies to IL-1R on IL-1-induced production of cytokines in monocytes, indicate that IL-1 acts on myelomonocytic cells through IL-1R I and that IL-1R II inhibits IL-1 activity by acting as a decoy target for IL-1. The existence of multiple pathways of regulation emphasizes the need for tight control of IL-1 action. PMID:8332913

  15. Healthy Foods under $1 Per Serving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods under $1 into your weekly menu planning. Apples (raw with skin) Great for: Snacks, green salads, ... and fruit salads What's a serving? 1 large apple Nutrition Info per serving: About 116 calories, 5. ...

  16. 77 FR 13173 - Best Equipped Best Served

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Best Equipped Best Served AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal...proposals for discussion have been designed to deliver on the best equipped, best performing, best served concept...

  17. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  19. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  20. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation...

  1. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation...

  2. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation...

  3. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation...

  4. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation...

  5. COMPARATIVE CARCINOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF COAL TAR AND PETROLEUM ASPHALT PAINTS USED IN POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints used as coatings for water pipes and storage tanks were tested in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays. One coal tar product was positive when tested as a complete carcinogen in the mouse, whereas the asphalt paint...

  6. The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity 

    E-print Network

    Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

    2012-11-20

    Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins MCPs can bind one or more receptor- specific ligands. In the case of the Tar MCP of Escherichia coli (TarEc), a primary attractant ligand is aspartate. Its binding to the periplasmic ...

  7. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  8. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  9. Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands James Hansen

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    all the oil burned in human history. If infrastructure, such as the Keystone XL pipeline, is built of the grotesque regional tar sands destruction. There is a basis for optimism that the Keystone pipeline can by the Keystone pipeline. The funds distributed to the public, 60 percent of the people getting more than they pay

  10. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  11. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 8 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1926.1102 ? Section 1926.1102 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 8 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1926.1102 ? Section 1926.1102 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 8 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2013-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1926.1102 ? Section 1926.1102 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1915.1002 ? Section 1915.1002 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2013-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1915.1002 ? Section 1915.1002 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ? 1915.1002 ? Section 1915.1002 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  18. The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    a neighbor addict. Fortunately, Congress adopted and Bush approved the Energy Independence and Security Act not only exceeds conventional petroleum, the energy used in mining, processing, and transporting tar sands a citizen's arrest on Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama for violating the Security Act? If they were put

  19. On the Periphery of the Tar Sands. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the diary of Karl Clark that focuses on his experiences in the Athabasca tar sands. The diary helps decipher the nature of 1920s town life and the pioneering spirit involved in exploring the oil sands. Includes background information on Clark. (CMK)

  20. THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    -Khamsin Department of Petroleum Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia ascribed to a layer of very viscous tar or bitumen that exists around the periphery of some oil reservoirs, usually at the #12;oil/water contact (Tripathy, 1988). Reservoirs displaying various extents

  1. PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

  2. Late Quaternary geoarchaeology and geochronology of stratified aeolian deposits, Tar River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher R.

    Recent geoarchaeological work on relict aeolian deposits in the North Carolina Coastal Plain has shown the potential for understanding prehistoric hunter-gatherer adaptations to changing environmental conditions likely related to Holocene climate change. Archaeological surveys and testing along the Tar River has revealed numerous sites with stratified Early Archaic through Woodland occupations. Geophysical, archeostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis along with chronometric dating (OSL and 14C) of source-bordering aeolian sediments along the Tar River in North Carolina indicate dune drapes (˜1 meter thick) accreted throughout much of the Holocene. Aeolian burial events along the Tar River appear to reflect Holocene millennial-scale climatic cyclicity (e.g., Bond Events) and its related effects on the fluvial system. These events likely influenced both hunter-gatherer adaptation and site preservation along the Tar River. Combined radiocarbon and OSL ages from lower paleo-braidplain sites, indicate incision of the lower paleo-braidplain and initiation of dune deposition just before or during the Younger Dryas stadial. The presence of stratified archaeological remains in these sediments preserves a record of both prehistoric human adaptations to local conditions and changes in depositional processes marking large-scale climatic change in the southeastern United States.

  3. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Single-Molecule FRET Studies of HIV TAR-DNA Hairpin Unfolding Jixin Chen,

    E-print Network

    conserved among HIV isolates, indicating a strong selection pressure to maintain its structure.5 ThusSingle-Molecule FRET Studies of HIV TAR-DNA Hairpin Unfolding Dynamics Jixin Chen, Nitesh K. Poddar *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We directly measure the dynamics of the HIV trans

  5. MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

  6. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  7. BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

  8. Investigation of sand consolidation using steam for the Tar Zone, Wilmington field, California 

    E-print Network

    Nilsen, Knut Arild

    1999-01-01

    with an ID of 1.5 in. into which loose sand of the Wilmington Tar Zone was tamped. The top half of the cell was thermally insulated while the bottom half was cooled by means of a cooling jacket. Steam was injected at the top of the cell and fluids produced...

  9. Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

    2008-12-01

    Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments can overestimate BC contents due to the chemical and thermal resistance of these materials. We recommend that interference from coal tar pitch and asphalt be considered when chemical or thermal oxidation methods are applied to quantify BC in urban environments, where urban runoff from parking lots and paved streets plays an important source role.

  10. Glycosylation of Wall Teichoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus by TarM*

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Guoqing; Maier, Lisa; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Li, Min; Otto, Michael; Holst, Otto; Peschel, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Wall teichoic acid (WTA) glycopolymers are major constituents of cell envelopes in Staphylococcus aureus and related Gram-positive bacteria with important roles in cell wall maintenance, susceptibility to antimicrobial molecules, biofilm formation, and host interaction. Most S. aureus strains express polyribitol phosphate WTA substituted with d-alanine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). WTA sugar modifications are highly variable and have been implicated in bacteriophage susceptibility and immunogenicity, but the pathway and enzymes of staphylococcal WTA glycosylation have remained unknown. Revisiting the structure of S. aureus RN4220 WTA by NMR analysis revealed the presence of canonical polyribitol phosphate WTA bearing only ?-linked GlcNAc substituents. A RN4220 transposon mutant resistant to WTA-dependent phages was identified and shown to produce altered WTA, which exhibited faster electrophoretic migration and lacked completely the WTA ?-GlcNAc residues. Disruption of a gene of unknown function, renamed tarM, was responsible for this phenotype. Recombinant TarM was capable of glycosylating WTA in vitro in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent manner, thereby confirming its WTA GlcNAc-transferase activity. Deletion of the last seven amino acids from the C terminus abolished the activity of TarM. tarM-related genes were found in the genomes of several WTA-producing bacteria, suggesting that TarM-mediated WTA glycosylation is a general pathway in Gram-positive bacteria. Our study represents a basis for dissecting the biosynthesis and function of glycosylated WTA in S. aureus and other bacteria. PMID:20185825

  11. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  12. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preparing Librarians to Serve Handicapped Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Merrillyn C.

    1977-01-01

    Librarians will need to have the skills to serve physically disabled persons as mainstreaming of handicapped students and employment of disabled workers increase their use of libraries. Results of a 1976 survey of library schools to determine which offer programs preparing librarians to serve disabled persons and the handicapped are reported.…

  14. Risk of cancer from the use of tar bitumen in road works.

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, U; Woitowitz, H J

    1989-01-01

    Tar bitumens are increasingly being used as a binder in road works. They consist of a standard product of about 70% bitumen and 25-30% tar. Tar bitumens are classifiable as the pyrolysis products of organic materials and are applied hot. Depending on the temperature used there are emissions of various intensities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are carcinogenic. A total of 250 one hour air samples was taken at breathing height on 20 days at 11 road works sites. The region of road paving operations in the immediate neighbourhood of the finishing machine operator and the screedmen were the chosen sampling points. A total of 19 unsubstituted chromatography/mass spectrometry. These included benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, all of which are carcinogenic. The median concentrations of chrysene and of benzo[b,j + k] fluoranthenes (determined en masse) were 9.3 and 2.8 micrograms/m3 respectively. The median concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were 0.7 and 0.2 micrograms/m3 respectively. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene had the lowest median concentration with about 0.03 micrograms/m3. Of the resulting shift means, the BaP concentration was over 1 microgram/m3 in about 50% of the cases, over 2 micrograms/m3 in 35%, and over 5 micrograms/m3 in about 15%. Even when the temperature of the paving mix was only between 120 degrees and 135 degrees C. 4.8% of the concentrations (identical to 3 samples) were greater than 2 micrograms BaP/m3, this value was exceeded in 34.9% of the determinations (identical to 30 samples) when the temperature of the tar bitumen was between 135 degrees and 150 degrees C. The highest concentration measured here was 17.8 micrograms BaP/m3. The recommended maximum paving temperature of the paving mix of 150 degrees C was exceeded in about 23% of all cases. The maximum concentration determined under any condition was 22 microgram/m(3). Thus the employment of tar bitumen as a binding material during road paving operations must be regarded as causing a considerable risk to health. The primary task is to ascertain whether tar bitumen can be replaced as a binder in paving for roads and what safety measures are practicable. PMID:2920140

  15. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Similarity Mapplet: Interactive Visualization of the Directory of Useful Decoys and ChEMBL in High Dimensional Chemical Spaces.

    PubMed

    Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-24

    An Internet portal accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch has been set up to automatically generate color-coded similarity maps of the ChEMBL database in relation to up to two sets of active compounds taken from the enhanced Directory of Useful Decoys (eDUD), a random set of molecules, or up to two sets of user-defined reference molecules. These maps visualize the relationships between the selected compounds and ChEMBL in six different high dimensional chemical spaces, namely MQN (42-D molecular quantum numbers), SMIfp (34-D SMILES fingerprint), APfp (20-D shape fingerprint), Xfp (55-D pharmacophore fingerprint), Sfp (1024-bit substructure fingerprint), and ECfp4 (1024-bit extended connectivity fingerprint). The maps are supplied in form of Java based desktop applications called "similarity mapplets" allowing interactive content browsing and linked to a "Multifingerprint Browser for ChEMBL" (also accessible directly at www.gdb.unibe.ch ) to perform nearest neighbor searches. One can obtain six similarity mapplets of ChEMBL relative to random reference compounds, 606 similarity mapplets relative to single eDUD active sets, 30,300 similarity mapplets relative to pairs of eDUD active sets, and any number of similarity mapplets relative to user-defined reference sets to help visualize the structural diversity of compound series in drug optimization projects and their relationship to other known bioactive compounds. PMID:26207526

  17. How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

  18. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  19. Mineralization of PAH's in a Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments and Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated with FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization and with laboratory-scale incubations. Microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were thr...

  20. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Richard W; Huynh, Kelvin V; Hoang, Timothy V; Crowley, David E

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to identify culturable surfactant-producing bacterial species that inhabit the 40,000-year-old natural asphalt seep at the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Using phenanthrene, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tryptic soy broth as growth substrates, culturable bacteria from the tar pits yielded ten isolates, of which three species of gamma-proteobacteria produced biosurfactants that accumulated in spent culture medium. Partially purified biosurfactants produced by these strains lowered the surface tension of water from 70 to 35-55 mN/m and two of the biosurfactants produced 'dark halos' with the atomized oil assay, a phenomenon previously observed only with synthetic surfactants. Key findings include the isolation of culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria that comprise a relatively small fraction of the petroleum-degrading community in the asphalt. PMID:22851192

  1. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  2. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  3. Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Etuan; Beer, Gary Lee

    2015-11-10

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the tar sands formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A pressure in the portion of the formation is controlled such that the pressure remains below a fracture pressure of the formation overburden while allowing the portion of the formation to heat to a selected average temperature of at least about 280.degree. C. and at most about 300.degree. C. The pressure in the portion of the formation is reduced to a selected pressure after the portion of the formation reaches the selected average temperature.

  4. The Test Analysis Retrieval System (TARS): Meeting the challenges of the network's test processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelmaszek, Robert L.; Lumsden, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    The Networks Systems Test Section (GSFC 531.4) is responsible for managing a variety of engineering and operational tests used to assess the status of the Network elements relative to readiness certification for new and ongoing mission support and for performance trending. To conduct analysis of data collected during these tests, to disseminate and share the information, and to catalog and create reports based on the analysis is currently a cumbersome and inefficient task due primarily to the manual handling of paper products and the inability to easily exchange information between the various Networks elements. The Test Analysis and Retrieval System (TARS) is being implemented to promote concise data analysis, intelligible reporting of test results, to minimize test duplication by fostering a broad sharing of test data, and perhaps most importantly, to provide significantly improved response to the Network's internal and external customers. This paper outlines the intended application, architecture, and benefits of the TARS.

  5. Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G.

    2010-04-15

    A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

  6. Third international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Part II. Highlights on cooperations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-28

    Oversupplies of conventional light petroleum worldwide have all but eclipsed the importance of heavy crude and tar sands where near-term market prospects are concerned. However, ongoing investments in productivity of heavy oil projects, from high-tech California to underdeveloped Guatemala, will hopefully continue at a pace that will assure uninterrupted advances. This issue continues ED's coverage of the Third International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. A graph shows the results of Guatemala's efforts to attract foreign investment in its crude oil production. This issue also contains: (1) the refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coast, Singapore, and Rotterdam as of Aug. 27, 1985; and (2) the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of July 1985 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  7. APPLICATION TO SERVE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Pursuant to CSU's Requirements and Guidelines for Serving Alcoholic Beverages

    E-print Network

    Bau, Domenico A.

    APPLICATION TO SERVE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Pursuant to CSU's Requirements and Guidelines for Serving Alcoholic Beverages **Before completing this form, please read CSU's Requirements and Guidelines for Serving Alcoholic Beverages. This form must be completed no later than ten (10) calendar days prior

  8. Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.

    PubMed

    Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

  9. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-05-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2-3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (˜1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  10. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  11. II international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands clearly demonstrated that the world has abundant heavy and extra heavy crudes that will sustain the petroleum age for decades. Perhaps even more important for many developed and developing countries is that these resources are widely distributed throughout the world, for deposits are known to exist in at least forty-nine countries. Moreover, the rapid expansion over the last two and a half years of knowledge of the magnitude of these resources suggests there is much more to be added to the world's list of useful energy assets. The current ample supply of crude oil does not appear to have lessened the resolve to develop heavy crude and tar sands. Major industrial countries are eager to develop their heavy oil resources to free themselves from dependence on OPEC and the developing nations hope to reduce their cash outflows for imported oil which they can ill afford. Venezuela and Canada, which both have massive heavy crude reserves, are intent on developing their resources to supplement declining supplies of light oil. Despite the weakening international price of oil, the economics for many heavy crude ventures seem favorable. Statistics quoted at the conference suggest considerable heavy crude production can be brought on stream at costs approaching the finding costs of light conventional crude. At the same time, it has to be acknowledged that those large tar sands projects, like Alberta's multi-billion dollar ventures, are sufficiently marginal that they may be held back by current soft oil demand. This summary report covers the following areas: resources; international cooperation; production; environment; technological developments; upgrading and refining; marketing; and future of heavy crude oil and tar sands.

  12. Correlating Bladder Cancer Risk Genes with Their Targeting MicroRNAs Using MMiRNA-Tar

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Baker, Steve; Jiang, Hui; Stuart, Gary; Bai, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (http://cancergenome.nih.gov) is a valuable data resource focused on an increasing number of well-characterized cancer genomes. In part, TCGA provides detailed information about cancer-dependent gene expression changes, including changes in the expression of transcription-regulating microRNAs. We developed a web interface tool MMiRNA-Tar (http://bioinf1.indstate.edu/MMiRNA-Tar) that can calculate and plot the correlation of expression for mRNA?microRNA pairs across samples or over a time course for a list of pairs under different prediction confidence cutoff criteria. Prediction confidence was established by requiring that the proposed mRNA?microRNA pair appears in at least one of three target prediction databases: TargetProfiler, TargetScan, or miRanda. We have tested our MMiRNA-Tar tool through analyzing 53 tumor and 11 normal samples of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) datasets obtained from TCGA and identified 204 microRNAs. These microRNAs were correlated with the mRNAs of five previously-reported bladder cancer risk genes and these selected pairs exhibited correlations in opposite direction between the tumor and normal samples based on the customized cutoff criterion of prediction. Furthermore, we have identified additional 496 genes (830 pairs) potentially targeted by 79 significant microRNAs out of 204 using three cutoff criteria, i.e., false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1, opposite correlation coefficient between the tumor and normal samples, and predicted by at least one of three target prediction databases. Therefore, MMiRNA-Tar provides researchers a convenient tool to visualize the co-relationship between microRNAs and mRNAs and to predict their targeting relationship. We believe that correlating expression profiles for microRNAs and mRNAs offers a complementary approach for elucidating their interactions. PMID:26169799

  13. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-Suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2). In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules. PMID:23667539

  14. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haydary, J.; Susa, D.; Dudáš, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ? Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ? Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ? Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ? Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  15. One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers

    E-print Network

    Woo, Grace

    2008-10-18

    The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

  16. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  17. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  18. Identification of Biologically Active, HIV TAR RNA-Binding Small Molecules Using Small Molecule Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identifying small molecules that selectively bind to structured RNA motifs remains an important challenge in developing potent and specific therapeutics. Most strategies to find RNA-binding molecules have identified highly charged compounds or aminoglycosides that commonly have modest selectivity. Here we demonstrate a strategy to screen a large unbiased library of druglike small molecules in a microarray format against an RNA target. This approach has enabled the identification of a novel chemotype that selectively targets the HIV transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin in a manner not dependent on cationic charge. Thienopyridine 4 binds to and stabilizes the TAR hairpin with a Kd of 2.4 ?M. Structure–activity relationships demonstrate that this compound achieves activity through hydrophobic and aromatic substituents on a heterocyclic core, rather than cationic groups typically required. Selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis was performed on a 365-nucleotide sequence derived from the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of the HIV-1 genome to determine global structural changes in the presence of the molecule. Importantly, the interaction of compound 4 can be mapped to the TAR hairpin without broadly disrupting any other structured elements of the 5? UTR. Cell-based anti-HIV assays indicated that 4 inhibits HIV-induced cytopathicity in T lymphocytes with an EC50 of 28 ?M, while cytotoxicity was not observed at concentrations approaching 1 mM. PMID:24820959

  19. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  20. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. PMID:25867082

  1. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

  2. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  3. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  4. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  5. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in Deepwater Horizon oil spill tar balls.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow-up studies. PMID:25647548

  6. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  7. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Do?lat, Kürtyurdu and Çata??l in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

  8. Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M; Rigby, Stephen E J; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C J; Feavers, Ian M; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2013-01-01

    FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a 'molecular decoy' to distract immune surveillance. PMID:23457610

  9. Alleviation of off-target effects from vector-encoded shRNAs via codelivered RNA decoys.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, Stefan; Grosse, Stefanie; Rupp, Daniel; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Grimm, Dirk

    2015-07-28

    Exogenous RNAi triggers such as shRNAs ideally exert their activities exclusively via the antisense strand that binds and silences designated target mRNAs. However, in principle, the sense strand also possesses silencing capacity that may contribute to adverse RNAi side effects including off-target gene regulation. Here, we address this concern with a novel strategy that reduces sense strand activity of vector-encoded shRNAs via codelivery of inhibitory tough decoy (TuD) RNAs. Using various shRNAs for proof of concept, we validate that coexpression of TuDs can sequester and inactivate shRNA sense strands in human cells selectively without affecting desired antisense activities from the same shRNAs. Moreover, we show how coexpressed TuDs can alleviate shRNA-mediated perturbation of global gene expression by specifically de-repressing off-target transcripts carrying seed matches to the shRNA sense strand. Our combination of shRNA and TuD in a single bicistronic gene transfer vector derived from Adeno-associated virus (AAV) enables a wide range of applications, including gene therapies. To this end, we engineered our constructs in a modular fashion and identified simple hairpin design rules permitting adaptation to preexisting or new shRNAs. Finally, we demonstrate the power of our vectors for combinatorial RNAi strategies by showing robust suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with an AAV expressing a bifunctional TuD against an anti-HCV shRNA sense strand and an HCV-related cellular miRNA. The data and tools reported here represent an important step toward the next generation of RNAi triggers with increased specificity and thus ultimately safety in humans. PMID:26170322

  10. Are Toll-like receptors and decoy receptors involved in the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus-like syndromes?

    PubMed

    Guggino, Giuliana; Giardina, Anna Rita; Ciccia, Francesco; Triolo, Giovanni; Dieli, Francesco; Sireci, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on the role of two families of receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLR) and decoy receptors (DcR) involved in the generation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus-like syndromes in human and mouse models. To date, these molecules were described in several autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, antiphospholipids syndrome, bowel inflammation, and SLE. Here, we summarize the findings of recent investigations on TLR and DcR and their role in the immunopathogenesis of the SLE. PMID:21860649

  11. Are Toll-Like Receptors and Decoy Receptors Involved in the Immunopathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus-Like Syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Guggino, Giuliana; Giardina, Anna Rita; Ciccia, Francesco; Triolo, Giovanni; Dieli, Francesco; Sireci, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on the role of two families of receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLR) and decoy receptors (DcR) involved in the generation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus-like syndromes in human and mouse models. To date, these molecules were described in several autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, antiphospholipids syndrome, bowel inflammation, and SLE. Here, we summarize the findings of recent investigations on TLR and DcR and their role in the immunopathogenesis of the SLE. PMID:21860649

  12. Argininamide Binding Arrests Global Motions in HIV-1 TAR RNA: Comparison with Mg2+-induced Conformational Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Stephen W.; Majumdar, Ananya; Serganov, Alexander; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of the stem-loop transactivation response element (TAR) RNA from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) bound to the ligand argininamide (ARG) has been characterized using a combination of a large number of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and trans-hydrogen bond NMR methodology. Binding of ARG to TAR changes the average inter-helical angle between the two stems from ~47° in the free state to ~11° in the bound state, and leads to the arrest of large amplitude (±46°) inter-helical motions observed previously in the free state. While the global structural dynamics of TAR–ARG is similar to that previously reported for TAR bound to Mg2+, there are substantial differences in the hydrogen bond alignment of bulge and neighboring residues. Based on a novel H5(C5)NN experiment for probing hydrogen-mediated 2hJ(N,N) scalar couplings as well as measured RDCs, the TAR–ARG complex is stabilized by a U38-A27·U23 base-triple involving an A27·U23 reverse Hoogsteen hydrogen bond alignment as well as by a A22-U40 Watson–Crick base-pair at the junction of stem I. These hydrogen bond alignments are not observed in either the free or Mg2+ bound forms of TAR. The combined conformational analysis of TAR under three states reveals that ligands and divalent ions can stabilize similar RNA global conformations through distinct interactions involving different hydrogen bond alignments in the RNA. PMID:15050819

  13. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

  14. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  15. Making a Difference by Serving All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, Rivka I.

    2009-01-01

    Randi Brown came to school psychology almost as a family business. Her grandmother was a school psychologist and the first licensed psychologist in the state of New York. Randi graduated with a doctoral degree from Yeshiva University and has served students in Westchester County, New York, for 18 years. She exemplifies the dedication typical of so…

  16. BULLETIN Serving the International Materials Research Community

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    BULLETIN Serving the International Materials Research Community A Publication of the Materials biomechanical properties. We begin with a brief overview of the healthy RBC structure that produces-dimensional network of spectrin molecules. The composite prop- erties of the phospholipid bilayer and spectrin network

  17. We Proudly Serve Locally Grown Foods

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    We Proudly Serve Locally Grown Foods Our recipes feature local bounty from Connecticut & the region SUBSTITUTIONS: Tofu, breaded soy let or Beyond MeatTM chicken strips. Local food item SALADS Mediterranean tortillas lled with arugula, pickled salsa & bruléed avocado. 13.25 Chuck & Augie's 8oz. Grilled Burger* 8oz

  18. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to Business" (B. S.…

  19. Technology Transfer Center | Institutes Served By TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Technology Transfer Center (TTC) provides technology transfer services to NCI. In addition, TTC is a designated Competitive Service Center (CSC) for technology transfer, offering to other NIH institutes a range of services from consultations to full technology transfer services. TTC serves the twelve institutes listed below.

  20. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) play a key but largely unrecognized role in the higher educational attainment of Hispanic Americans. This paper presents a historical perspective of HSIs, examining access to college for Hispanic students, exploring and dispelling myths about Hispanic students and HSIs, and discussing the future prospects of…

  1. "Gateway" Districts Struggle to Serve Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…

  2. SFU LIBRARY The SFU Library serves

    E-print Network

    SFU LIBRARY HIGHLIGHTS 2013-2014 #12;The SFU Library serves the University through the W.A.C. Bennett Library (Burnaby), the Fraser Valley Real Estate Board Library (Surrey) and the Samuel and Frances Belzberg Library (Vancouver), as well as through extensive online resources and services. Guided

  3. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  4. Ratio model serves suprathreshold color luminance discrimination

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Kathy T.

    Ratio model serves suprathreshold color­ luminance discrimination Marcel J. Sankeralli and Kathy T Trevor J. Hine School of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Health Science, Griffith University, Brisbane quadrants of the red­ green/luminance and blue­yellow/luminance planes of cardinal color space. We showed

  5. Serving Distant Learners through Instructional Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, John T.; Armistead, L. Pendleton

    John Wood Community College (JWCC) serves a district population of approximately 90,000 in a predominantly rural section of west-central Illinois. In an effort to address the needs of the rural long-distance learner, JWCC has implemented a variety of instructional delivery techniques. Since its inception, JWCC has contracted with other area…

  6. Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

  7. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  8. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (?)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  9. Distribution and transport of coal tar-derived PAHs in fine-grained residuum.

    PubMed

    Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry D; Driese, Steven G; Menn, Fu-Min; Sayler, Gary S

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the distribution and transport of coal tar-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine-grained residuum and alluvial floodplain deposits that underlie a former manufactured gas plant. All 16 USEPA priority pollutant PAHs are present at this site and have penetrated the entire 4-5m thickness of clayey sediments, which unconformably overly limestone bedrock. Concentrations of less hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., naphthalene, 0.011-384mg kg(-1)) were about 10 times higher than those of highly hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., benzo[g,h,i]perylene -0.002 to 56.03mgkg(-1)). Microscopic examination of thin-sections of the clay-rich sediments showed that fractures and rootholes, which can act as pathways for flow, occur throughout the profiles. Tarry residue was found coating some fractures and rootholes, indicating that coal tar was, in some cases, able to penetrate as an immiscible phase. However, in the vast majority of samples in which PAHs were detected, there was no detectable tar residue, suggesting that much of the transport occurred in the dissolved phase. Examination of thin-sections with an epifluorescent microscope indicated that PAHs, which fluoresce brightly when exposed to UV light, are distributed throughout the soil matrix, rather than being confined to fractures and rootholes. The widespread distribution of PAHs is most likely due to diffusion-controlled exchange between the fast-flow pathways in the fractures and rootholes and the relatively immobile water in the fine-grained matrix. This implies that fractures and rootholes can play a major role in controlling transport of highly hydrophobic compounds in fine-grained sediments, which would otherwise act as barriers to contaminant migration. PMID:17303216

  10. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  11. A small molecule probe induces a conformation in HIV TAR RNA capable of binding drug-like fragments

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Amy; Begley, Darren W.; Lau, Carmen; Varani, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 TAR/Tat interaction is a potentially valuable target for treating HIV infection, but efforts to develop TAR-binding antiviral drugs have not yet yielded a successful candidate for clinical development. In this work, we describe a novel approach towards screening fragments against RNA that uses a chemical probe to target the Tat binding region of TAR. This probe fulfills two critical roles in the screen: by locking the RNA into a conformation capable of binding other fragments, it simultaneously allows the identification of proximal binding fragments by ligand-based NMR. Using this approach, we have discovered six novel TAR-binding fragments, three of which were docked relative to the probe/RNA structure using experimental NMR restraints. The consistent orientations of functional groups in our data-driven docked structures and common electrostatic properties across all fragment leads reveal a surprising level of selectivity by our fragment-sized screening hits. These models further suggest linking strategies for the development of higher affinity lead compounds for the inhibition of the TAR/Tat interaction. PMID:21763501

  12. Case study of worker exposure to coal tar containing paving materials on a routine paving project in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, G.; Glidden, S.

    2007-01-15

    The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the three 230 mm of existing pavement and then pave the pulverized layer with a new HMA layer. Discovery of the presence of mix containing coal tar in the bottom 75 mm of the existing pavement led to a redesign of the project. A decision was made to mill only the upper most 75 to 87 mm of pavement to isolate the coal tar mix from the workers. Initial analysis of bitumen extracted from cores of the top 88 mm of pavement did not show the presence of coal tar chemicals. However, samplers mounted on the equipment for 6 hrs during the redesigned milling process shoed the presence of coal tar type chemicals extracted form the bitumen coated dust particles capture don the samplers using infrared and GC/MS analysis.

  13. AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat-AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001. PMID:24843025

  14. Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against Exotoxin A Using a Novel Decoy-SELEX Method and Sensitive Detection of Exotoxin A in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka Lok; Yancey, Kailey; Battistella, Luisa; Williams, Ryan M.; Hickey, Katherine M.; Bostick, Chris D.; Gannett, Peter M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Exotoxin A is one of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that can cause infections resulting in adverse health outcomes and increased burden to health care systems. Current methods of diagnosing P. aeruginosa infections are time consuming and can require significant preparation of patient samples. This study utilized a novel variation of the Systematic Evolution of Ligand by Exponential Enrichment, Decoy-SELEX, to identify an Exotoxin A specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition element (MRE). Its emphasis is on increasing stringency in directing binding toward free target of interest and at the same time decreasing binding toward negative targets. A ssDNA MRE with specificity and affinity was identified after fourteen rounds of Decoy-SELEX. Utilizing surface plasmon resonance measurements, the determined equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the MRE is between 4.2?µM and 4.5?µM, and is highly selective for Exotoxin A over negative targets. A ssDNA MRE modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and achieved sensitive detection of Exotoxin A at nanomolar concentrations in human serum. This study has demonstrated the proof-of-principle of using a ssDNA MRE as a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:26636098

  15. The Decoy Substrate of a Pathogen Effector and a Pseudokinase Specify Pathogen-Induced Modified-Self Recognition and Immunity in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxun; Roux, Brice; Feng, Feng; Guy, Endrick; Li, Lin; Li, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Lautier, Martine; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Chabannes, Matthieu; Arlat, Matthieu; Chen, She; He, Chaozu; Noël, Laurent D; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-09-01

    In plants, host response to pathogenic microbes is driven both by microbial perception and detection of modified-self. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein AvrAC/XopAC uridylylates the Arabidopsis BIK1 kinase to dampen basal resistance and thereby promotes bacterial virulence. Here we show that PBL2, a paralog of BIK1, is similarly uridylylated by AvrAC. However, in contrast to BIK1, PBL2 uridylylation is specifically required for host recognition of AvrAC to trigger immunity, but not AvrAC virulence. PBL2 thus acts as a decoy and enables AvrAC detection. AvrAC recognition also requires the RKS1 pseudokinase of the ZRK family and the NOD-like receptor ZAR1, which is known to recognize the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ1a. ZAR1 forms a stable complex with RKS1, which specifically recruits PBL2 when the latter is uridylylated by AvrAC, triggering ZAR1-mediated immunity. The results illustrate how decoy substrates and pseudokinases can specify and expand the capacity of the plant immune system. PMID:26355215

  16. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

  17. Call Admission Control and Class Assignment in Hybrid IntServ/DiffServ Networks

    E-print Network

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    , in gen- eral, is a stochastic function that moves with the fluctu- ation of input traffics. We define map- ping of the resources in the two domains are fulfilled. We assume that the QoS parameters insideServ network into an appropriate class in the DiffServ standard. The map- ping should perform under

  18. Minority-Serving Institutions of Higher Education: Serving Communities, Revitalizing the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education (IHEs) that serve minority populations are unique both in their missions and in their day-to-day operations. Some of these colleges and universities are located in remote regions of the country, while others serve congested urban neighborhoods. Their constituents range from Native Americans, the country's oldest…

  19. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-30

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  20. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Wood-Beaver modification improves fatty acid process for tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The original Herter process uses fatty acids as a solvent to recover bitumen from a tar sand. An improvement to the original process, known as the Beaver-Herter process, utilizes short-chain alcohols as a cosolvent to enhance the phase separation steps and to improve the saponification and desaponification reactions. The latest modification, known as the Wood-Beaver process, judiciously utilizes phase behavior to further improve the recovery of the fatty acids from the solvated mixture at greatly reduced chemical costs. This paper describes the latest modified process, discusses a conceptual design for a demonstration plant, and summarizes the equipment costs. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Microbial detoxification of sewage of the coal-tar chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, L.A.; Finkelshtein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Alieva, R.M.; Shustova, L.G.

    1995-03-01

    A collection of microorganisms actively degrading the components of wastes of the coal-tar chemical industry-phenols, cresols, xenols, naphthalenes, phenathren-has been created. The active strains were represented mainly by pseduomonads-Pseudomonas aureofaciens, P. fluorescens, and Pseudomonas sp. These strains reduced the content of the cresol-xylenol and polyaromatic fractions by 70% during 7 days of fermentation. The isolated strains could also grow on individual aromatic compounds-isomeric cresols, naphalene, phenanthrene. The structure of five intermediate products of phenanthrene oxidation was revealed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. PMID:24860081

  4. Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III

    Cancer.gov

    NCI developed a database to facilitate the examination of dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) in terms of servings from each of The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups. This database builds on a similar one, previously developed by the USDA Food Surveys Research Group for their 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

  5. Equipment for Hot-to-serve Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Patented surface heating devices with a much faster air-to-solid heat transfer rate than previous air ovens were developed. The accelerated surface heating can brown, sear or crisp much more rapidly than in conventional ovens so that partially prepared food can be finished quickly and tastefully immediately before serving. The crisp, freshly browned surfaces result from the faster heat transfer which does not dry out the food. The devices are then compared to convection ovens and microwave heating processes.

  6. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  7. Crude Coal Tar and Ultraviolet (UV) A radiation (Modified Goeckerman Technique) in Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    El-Darouti, Mohamed A; Gawdat, Heba I; Hegazy, Rehab A; Tawdy, Amira M; Fawzy, Marwa M; Abdel Halim, Dalia M

    2015-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that has a substantial impact on the quality of life. Goeckerman's technique (GT) has been implemented for the treatment of psoriasis with high clearance rates and long periods of remission. The objective of this article was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of modified GT (crude coal tar 2.5% plus UVA) as an alternative therapeutic modality for psoriatic patients with skin types III-V. Twenty two patients with moderate, severe, and erythrodermic psoriasis were included in this study. All patients received modified GT (crude coal tar 2.5% plus UVA) six days per week for a period of 3 months. Assessment of the rate of reduction of psoriasis area severity index (PASI) was performed, as well as photographic documentation of each patient at baseline and after completion of therapy. There was a significant reduction in PASI scores after therapy in all patients (P=0.001). The rate of PASI reduction after therapy was >50% in 63.6% of patients; 27.3% of patients achieved >75% reduction and 9.1% of patients achieved 26-50% reduction. No serious side effects were reported in any of the patients. Modified GT is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with moderate and severe psoriasis. PMID:26476899

  8. Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.

    2007-10-10

    A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as Cu, Co, and Fe in limited testing. Nickel catalysts promoted with Rh, Zr, Mn, Mo, Ti, Ag, or Sn were also examined, as were Ni catalysts on Ce2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, and La2O3. In general, Rh stood out as a consistently superior metal catalyst for methane reforming, tar cracking, and minimizing carbon buildup on the catalyst. Ru and Ir also showed significant improvement over Ni for methane reforming. Ceria stood out as good support material and particularly good promoter material when added in small quantities to another support material such as alumina, zirconia, or olivine. Other promising supports were lanthana, zirconia, and titania.

  9. Smoldering Remediation of Coal-Tar-Contaminated Soil: Pilot Field Tests of STAR.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Grant C; Gerhard, Jason I; Grant, Gavin P; Major, David W; Vidumsky, John E; Switzer, Christine; Torero, Jose L

    2015-12-15

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an emerging, smoldering-based technology for nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) remediation. This work presents the first in situ field evaluation of STAR. Pilot field tests were performed at 3.0 m (shallow test) and 7.9 m (deep test) below ground surface within distinct lithological units contaminated with coal tar at a former industrial facility. Self-sustained smoldering (i.e., after the in-well ignition heater was terminated) was demonstrated below the water table for the first time. The outward propagation of a NAPL smoldering front was mapped, and the NAPL destruction rate was quantified in real time. A total of 3700 kg of coal tar over 12 days in the shallow test and 860 kg over 11 days in the deep test was destroyed; less than 2% of total mass removed was volatilized. Self-sustaining propagation was relatively uniform radially outward in the deep test, achieving a radius of influence of 3.7 m; strong permeability contrasts and installed barriers influenced the front propagation geometry in the shallow test. Reductions in soil hydrocarbon concentrations of 99.3% and 97.3% were achieved in the shallow and deep tests, respectively. Overall, this provides the first field evaluation of STAR and demonstrates that it is effective in situ and under a variety of conditions and provides the information necessary for designing the full-scale site treatment. PMID:26523324

  10. Isolation of indole from coal-tar fractions by liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretskii, M.I.; Chartov, E.M.; Golub, V.B.; Taits, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Indole is a valuable intermediate in fine organic synthesis; it is used in the perfumery industry, in the production of plant growth stimulants, notably heteroauxin and in the production of amino acids such as triptophan and its derivatives. In recent years, indole derivatives have also found use in the manufacture of medicinal preparations. The main source of indole in the USSR at present is the coking industry. Coal tars from southern and eastern plants contain 0.22 and 0.50% indole respectively, while the wash-oil fractions contain 1.7 to 2.0 and 3.5 to 4.5%, respectively. Coal tar could yield over 6000 tons/yr. A method has been developed for concentrating and isolating indole from commercial coking-plant fractions by continuous liquid extraction. Conditioned extract fractions have been made under test-rig conditions and have yielded 99% pure indole by rectification in an enlarged laboratory unit. The experimental results form the basis of a proposed processing flowsheet.

  11. Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J; Mills, Michael G L; Grether, Gregory F; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2009-02-23

    Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are lured by dying herbivores. Consequently, in both records predatory mammals and birds far outnumber herbivores. In playbacks, two large social species, lions, Panthera leo, and spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, actively moved towards the sounds of distressed prey and made up 84 per cent of individuals attending. Small social species (jackals) were next most common and solitary species of all sizes were rare. In the La Brea record, two species dominated, the presumably social dire wolf Canis dirus (51%), and the sabretooth cat Smilodon fatalis (33%). As in the playbacks, a smaller social canid, the coyote Canis latrans, was third most common (8%), and known solitary species were rare (<4%). The predominance of Smilodon and other striking similarities between playbacks and the fossil record support the conclusion that Smilodon was social. PMID:18957359

  12. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

    2008-11-14

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates <10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated >35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume. PMID:18757111

  13. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    1984-03-01

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  14. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  15. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. Sophisticated general correlative approaches are slowly being developed, based upon group contribution methods, or based upon some key functional features of the molecules. These are as yet difficult to apply to coal tars. The detailed group contribution methods, in which fairly precise structural information is needed, do not lend themselves well for application to very complex, poorly characterized coal tars. The methods based upon more global types of characterizations have not yet dealt much with the question of oxygenated functional groups. In short, only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion.

  16. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. 522.14 Section 522.14 Judicial...INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil...

  17. Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  18. The Decoy Duck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anna

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development processes of an instructional video for use in a course offered through the Extended Learning Institute of Northern Virginia Community College entitled Women Writers II. Characterizes the process of transforming this English course from a print-based to a distance-learning course as time-consuming, creative, and…

  19. Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study, examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study, of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

  20. Registration of TARS-MST1 and SB-DT1 multiple-stress tolerant black bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-ambient-temperature stress, drought stress, root rot disease, and common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] cause widespread yield reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. TARS-MST1 (Reg. No. GP-284, PI 661512) and SB-DT1 (Reg. ...

  1. TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

  2. Effect of addition of coal-tar pitches on adhesive properties of copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Chernikov, O.I.; Mironov, V.A.; Mitrokhina, L.L.; Kuznetsova, L.S.; Nepomnyashchaya, A.S.; Kachan, A.A.

    1984-08-01

    Results of studies of the effect of the addition of coal-tar pitches on the water resistance and adhesive properties of the copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate (CEVA) used as an adhesive layer in polymer films for protection of oil and gas pipelines against corrosion are presented. The dependence of the adhesive strength of CEVA with 12% vinyl acetate (VA) on the concentration of coal-tar pitch additives with softening temperatures of 70, 85, and 107/sup 0/C was found to be extreme with maximum adhesive strength in the concentration range of 0.8-1.4%. This increase in adhesive strength at low concentrations is thought to be due to improvement in the wetability of the melt. After long exposure (30h) to boiling water, the water resistance of the adhesive joints was improved by the addition of coal-tar pitches; but in the initial period of boiling, a decrease in water resistance was produced by the addition of coal-tar pitches. Films with pitch additives with a softening temperature of 70/sup 0/C were noted to have the highest hydrophobicity at low concentrations of the pitch additive.

  3. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20?35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

  4. Use of advanced chemical fingerprinting in PAH source identification and allocation at a coal tar processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced chemical fingerprinting analyses were used to determine source allocation at a former coal tar processing facility which had been converted to a petroleum recycling site. Soil samples from the site had high petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and elevated levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Comparisons of PAH distributions were used to differentiate the coal tar hydrocarbons from the petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. A more specific technique was needed to accurately allocate the contribution of the two sources to the observed PAH contamination in the soil. Petroleum biomarkers (steranes and triterpanes) which are present in crude oils and many refined petroleum products but are absent in coal tar were used to quantitatively allocate the source of the PAH contamination based on the relative ratio of the PAH to the biomarkers in soil samples. Using the resulting coal tar/petroleum source ratio the contribution of petroleum to the overall PAH contamination at the site was calculated. A multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis or PCA) was used to provide an independent validation of the source allocation. The results of the source allocation provided a foundation for the site clean-up and remediation costs.

  5. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  6. Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Corella, J.

    1998-07-01

    Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg of biomass/h). The gasifying agent used is steam-oxygen mixtures. A guard bed containing a calcined dolomite is used to decrease the tar content in the gas at the inlet of the catalytic bed. Main variables studied are catalyst type, bed temperature, H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} to biomass feed ratio, and time-on-stream. All catalysts for reforming of naphthas show to be very active and useful for tar removal and gas conditioning (in biomass gasification). 98% tar removal is easily obtained with space velocities of 14,000 h{sup {minus}1} (n.c.). No catalysts deactivation is found in 48 h-on-stream tests when the catalyst temperature is relatively high (780--830 C). Using a simple first-order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, apparent energies of activation (of around 58 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors are obtained for the most active catalysts.

  7. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  8. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  9. MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

  10. An efficient implementation of the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    E-print Network

    Qin Wang; Xiang-Bin Wang

    2013-10-15

    We study the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using heralded single-photon sources. This has the advantage that the observed error rate in X basis is in higher order and not so large. We calculate the key rate and transmission distance for two cases: one using only triggered events, and the other using both triggered and non-triggered events. We compare the key rates of various protocols and find that our new scheme using triggered and non-triggered events can give higher key rate and longer secure distance. Moreover, we also show the different behavior of our scheme when using different heralded single-photon sources, i.e., in poisson or thermal distribution. We demonstrate that the former can generate a relatively higher secure key rate than the latter, and can thus work more efficiently in practical quantum key distributions.

  11. HuMiTar: A sequence-based method for prediction of human microRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jishou; Chen, Hanzhe; Kurgan, Lukasz; Chen, Ke; Kang, Chunsheng; Pu, Peiyu

    2008-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary/partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes to regulate protein production of the target transcript and to induce mRNA degradation or mRNA cleavage. The ability to perform accurate, high-throughput identification of physiologically active miR targets would enable functional characterization of individual miRs. Current target prediction methods include traditional approaches that are based on specific base-pairing rules in the miR's seed region and implementation of cross-species conservation of the target site, and machine learning (ML) methods that explore patterns that contrast true and false miR-mRNA duplexes. However, in the case of the traditional methods research shows that some seed region matches that are conserved are false positives and that some of the experimentally validated target sites are not conserved. Results We present HuMiTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of miRs, which is based on a scoring function that considers base-pairing for both seed and non-seed positions for human miR-mRNA duplexes. Our design shows that certain non-seed miR nucleotides, such as 14, 18, 13, 11, and 17, are characterized by a strong bias towards formation of Watson-Crick pairing. We contrasted HuMiTar with several representative competing methods on two sets of human miR targets and a set of ten glioblastoma oncogenes. Comparison with the two best performing traditional methods, PicTar and TargetScanS, and a representative ML method that considers the non-seed positions, NBmiRTar, shows that HuMiTar predictions include majority of the predictions of the other three methods. At the same time, the proposed method is also capable of finding more true positive targets as a trade-off for an increased number of predictions. Genome-wide predictions show that the proposed method is characterized by 1.99 signal-to-noise ratio and linear, with respect to the length of the mRNA sequence, computational complexity. The ROC analysis shows that HuMiTar obtains results comparable with PicTar, which are characterized by high true positive rates that are coupled with moderate values of false positive rates. Conclusion The proposed HuMiTar method constitutes a step towards providing an efficient model for studying translational gene regulation by miRs. PMID:19102780

  12. Platform serves as pipeline hub, production facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The Enchilada production platform, in Garden Banks Block 128, will serve both as a production platform for the Enchilada field and as a pipeline throughput hub for production from Gulf of Mexico fields. The Enchilada platform, installed in early 1997, is scheduled to start producing oil and gas in the third quarter 1997. The facilities can handle 60,000 bo/d and 400 MMcfd of gas. The deck structure and production facilities were designed by Alliance Engineering Inc., Houston, Alliance says the 4,400-ton lift weight of the Enchilada deck and facilities set a Shell record for a single life in the Gulf of Mexico. The platform represents the next generation of lightweight, space-efficient offshore facilities. The platform and its facilities are described.

  13. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  14. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  15. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    SciTech Connect

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  16. The nature and molecular basis of cutaneous photosensitivity reactions to psoralens and coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, M.A.; Joshi, P.C.

    1983-06-01

    The basic aspects of cutaneous photosensitization reactions and the mode of therapeutic effectiveness of psoralens and coal tar, the two groups of photosensitizing agents used extensively in the photochemotherapy of psoriasis, have been reviewed. Psoralen-induced skin photosensitization and the therapeutic action of psoralens involve two distinct types of reactions, and these two reactions occur independently of each other and concurrently when the psoralen-treated skin (oral or topical) is exposed to 320 to 400 nm of radiation. The first, type I, is an oxygen-independent reaction and primarily involves photoreaction with DNA; the second, type II, is a sensitized reaction dependent on oxygen and involves the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2). The photoreactive form of psoralen is its triplet state, and the sites of reaction are (1) the cell membrane of the epidermal, dermal, and endothelial cells; (2) the cytoplasmic constituents, such as enzymes, RNA, lysosomes, etc.; (3) the cell nuclei (DNA and chromatin); and (4) the sensitized production of 1O2, which is responsible for cell-membrane damage and vasodilation. The major damage would be initiated by a type I reaction and would be seen in the form of nuclear damage to DNA resulting from the interaction of psoralen with DNA and to a lesser extent with RNA. The skin photosensitization response (erythema, edema, membrane damage, etc.) would result from a type II reaction involving the generation of 1O2. Crude coal tar (CCT), widely used in the Goeckerman therapy for psoriasis, also produces type I and type II reactions. The therapeutic and photosensitizing actions of CCT are due to (1) the photoconjugation of the photoreactive ingredients of CCT with DNA, causing interstrand cross-links; and (2) the production of 1O2. CCT is an efficient producer of 1O2, more so than 8-methoxypsoralen, and is responsible for cell-membrane damage and cellular edema.

  17. Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  19. Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Fayerweather, W.E.

    2007-07-01

    The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

  20. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    PubMed

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. PMID:26344813

  1. How Online Schools Serve and Fail to Serve At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo-Brown, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Online schools were initially designed to provide access to diverse courses to advanced and homeschooled students, however, many online schools now market their programs specifically to students whose needs place them at-risk in traditional schools. The capacity of technology to address any of the needs of under-served students is largely…

  2. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  3. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

  4. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-07-12

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

  5. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Analytics and Synthesis

    2013-01-01

    Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

  6. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  7. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Thomas E.; Science Support Center, GLAST

    2007-12-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single "observation" in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

  8. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-07-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single ``observation'' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

  9. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Eric L.

    2008-03-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single "observation" in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

  10. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment were calculated based on instantaneous streamflow and metals concentrations. Total metals loading to Tar Creek from chat leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, <0.001 to 0.814 pound per day of iron, 0.003 to 0.036 pound per day of lead, and 10.6 to 47.9 pounds per day of zinc. Metals loading to Tar Creek Study Segment from chat leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc loading came from chat leachate, about 29 percent of total zinc loading came from mine outflow, and about 52 percent of total zinc loading came from Lytle Creek.

  11. The Secreted Form of Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Glycoprotein Helps the Virus Evade Antibody-Mediated Restriction of Replication by Acting as an Antigen Decoy and through Effects on Fc Receptor-Bearing Leukocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Yang, Lijuan; Fricke, Jens; Cheng, Lily; Ward, Jerrold M.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) readily infects and reinfects during infancy and throughout life, despite maternal antibodies and immunity from prior infection and without the need for significant antigenic change. RSV has two neutralization antigens, the F and G virion glycoproteins. G is expressed in both membrane-bound (mG) and secreted (sG) forms. We investigated whether sG might act as a decoy for neutralizing antibodies by comparing the in vitro neutralization of wild-type (wt) RSV versus recombinant mG RSV expressing only mG. wt RSV indeed was less susceptible than mG RSV to monovalent G-specific and polyvalent RSV-specific antibodies, whereas susceptibility to F-specific antibodies was equivalent. This difference disappeared when the virus preparations were purified to remove sG. Thus, sG appears to function as a neutralization decoy. We evaluated this effect in vivo in mice by comparing the effects of passively transferred antibodies on the pulmonary replication of wt RSV versus mG RSV. Again, wt RSV was less sensitive than mG RSV to G-specific and RSV-specific antibodies; however, a similar difference was also observed with F-specific antibodies. This confirmed that sG helps wt RSV evade the antibody-dependent restriction of replication but indicated that in mice, it is not acting primarily as a decoy for G-specific antibodies, perhaps because sG is produced in insufficient quantities in this poorly permissive animal. Rather, we found that the greater sensitivity of mG versus wt RSV to the antiviral effect of passively transferred RSV antibodies required the presence of inflammatory cells in the lung and was Fc? receptor dependent. Thus, sG helps RSV escape the antibody-dependent restriction of replication via effects as an antigen decoy and as a modulator of leukocytes bearing Fc? receptors. PMID:18842713

  12. Task 1.15 - Enhanced Bioremediation of Coal Tar-Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    1998-02-01

    The remediation of sites where soils have been contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds is a major problem. This is especially true for manufactured gas plants (MGP) and similar industries. Gasification of fossil fuels has resulted in the production of tars that contain polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are of concern because they are persistent in the environment and because many of them are carcinogenic. When soils contain very high concentrations of PAHs and other tar components, it is generally most feasible to use a chemical-physical remediation technique such as incineration. However, when the contaminant concentrations are medium to low, the most inexpensive technology is generally biological treatment. Biological treatment is an environmentally acceptable method of remediation that is relatively low-cost for many organic contaminants. PAHs and similar hydrophobic compounds, however, present major challenges to the microbial methods. These problems can be broken down into two related areas: mass transfer and bioavailability. The water volubility of most PAW is very small, and they have very low vapor pressures. As a result the diffkion of the sorbed PAHs to a location where a biodegrading microorganism can encounter it is often limiting. Complicating this is that especially in aged samples, the PAHs are bound so strongly to soil components, they are not available for the microorganisms. These two phenomena can be better understood by examination of a typical biodegradation curve, such as might be observed for mixed PAHs. In Figure 1, there are three phases of the biodegradation process plotted with respect to time. In the first phase, concentrations are changing only slowly as the microbes adapt to the conditions, grow to a larger population, and begin to biodegrade the PAHs. The second phase is the phase of rapid, often logarithmic, biodegradation. The third and last phase is that period when available concentrations of PAHs are dropping so that the microorganisms cannot degrade them. The rate observed during the second phase is dependent on the size of the microbial population that can degrade the contaminants, the availability of the contaminants, and suitable nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and electron acceptors (e.g., oxygen). When readily biodegradable contaminants are present this phase is often very rapid. However, when any one of the above factors is limiting, a reduced rate is observed.

  13. Teen's passion for learning serves April 3, 2012

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Teen's passion for learning serves others April 3, 2012 Homeschooler, Jacob Marks: museum and their parents. This summer he's serving as a Teen Explainer at a Friday Night @ the Museum, and in the fall he

  14. Efficient extraction and detection of aromatic toxicants from crude oil and tar balls using multiple cyclodextrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Serio, Nicole; Levine, Mindy

    2015-06-15

    Herein we report the efficient extraction of aromatic analytes from crude oil and tar balls using multiple cyclodextrin derivatives. The known propensity of the cyclodextrins to bind hydrophobic guests in their hydrophobic interiors enhanced the extraction of aromatic analytes from the oil layer to the aqueous layer, with methyl-?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin providing the most significant enhancement in extraction efficiencies of aromatic toxicants (69% aromatic toxicants in aqueous layer in the presence of methyl-?-cyclodextrin compared to 47% in cyclodextrin-free solution for tar ball oil extraction), and provide optimal tunability for developing efficient extraction systems. The cyclodextrin derivatives also promoted efficient energy transfer in the aqueous solutions, with up to 86% efficient energy transfer observed in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin compared to 50% in the absence of cyclodextrin for oil spill oil extraction. Together, this dual function extraction followed by detection system has potential in the development of environmental remediation systems. PMID:25956442

  15. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  16. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William P; Frederick, Logan E; Millington, Mallory R; Vala, David; Reese, Barbara K; Freedman, Dina R; Stenten, Christina J; Trauscht, Jacob S; Tingey, Christopher E; Kip Solomon, D; Fernandez, Diego P; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen-solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. PMID:26057623

  17. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas. PMID:26323861

  18. Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1982-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  19. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  20. Analysis of pure tar substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the gas stream using ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR).

    PubMed

    Weide, Tobias; Guschin, Viktor; Becker, Wolfgang; Koelle, Sabine; Maier, Simon; Seidelt, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of tar, mostly characterized as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), describes a topic that has been researched for years. An online analysis of tar in the gas stream in particular is needed to characterize the tar conversion or formation in the biomass gasification process. The online analysis in the gas is carried out with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (190-720 nm). This online analysis is performed with a measuring cell developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT). To this day, online tar measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy have not been carried out in detail. Therefore, PAHs are analyzed as follows. The measurements are split into different steps. The first step to prove the online method is to vaporize single tar substances. These experiments show that a qualitative analysis of PAHs in the gas stream with the used measurement setup is possible. Furthermore, it is shown that the method provides very exact results, so that a differentiation of various PAHs is possible. The next step is to vaporize a PAH mixture. This step consists of vaporizing five pure substances almost simultaneously. The interpretation of the resulting data is made using a chemometric interpretation method, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The verification of the calculated results is the main aim of this experiment. It has been shown that the tar mixture can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (in arbitrary units) in detail using the MCR. Finally it is the main goal of this paper to show the first steps in the applicability of the UV-Vis spectroscopy and the measurement setup on online tar analysis in view of characterizing the biomass gasification process. Due to that, the gasification plant (at the laboratory scale), developed and constructed by the Fraunhofer ICT, has been used to vaporize these substances. Using this gasification plant for the experiments enables the usage of the measurement setup also for the spectroscopic analysis of the tar formation during the biomass gasification. PMID:25588231

  1. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg–1). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

  2. Simultaneous recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge and loop sequences by cyclic peptide mimics of Tat protein

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Amy; Leeper, Thomas C.; Athanassiou, Zafiria; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Karn, Jonathan; Robinson, John A.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-07-21

    The interaction of the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its transactivation response (TAR) RNA is an essential step in viral replication and therefore an attractive target for developing antivirals with new mechanisms of action. Numerous compounds that bind to the 3-nt bulge responsible for binding Tat have been identified in the past, but none of these molecules had sufficient potency to warrant pharmaceutical development. We have discovered conformationally-constrained cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat that are specific nM inhibitors of the Tat-TAR interaction by using a structure-based approach. The lead peptides are nearly as active as the antiviral drug nevirapine against a variety of clinical isolates in human lymphocytes. The NMR structure of a peptide–RNA complex reveals that these molecules interfere with the recruitment to TAR of both Tat and the essential cellular cofactor transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) by binding simultaneously at the RNA bulge and apical loop, forming an unusually deep pocket. This structure illustrates additional principles in RNA recognition: RNA-binding molecules can achieve specificity by interacting simultaneously with multiple secondary structure elements and by inducing the formation of deep binding pockets in their targets. It also provides insight into the P-TEFb binding site and a rational basis for optimizing the promising antiviral activity observed for these cyclic peptides.

  3. TarBase 6.0: capturing the exponential growth of miRNA targets with experimental support

    PubMed Central

    Vergoulis, Thanasis; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Georgakilas, George; Maragkakis, Manolis; Reczko, Martin; Gerangelos, Stefanos; Koziris, Nectarios; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.

    2012-01-01

    As the relevant literature and the number of experiments increase at a super linear rate, databases that curate and collect experimentally verified microRNA (miRNA) targets have gradually emerged. These databases attempt to provide efficient access to this wealth of experimental data, which is scattered in thousands of manuscripts. Aim of TarBase 6.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) is to face this challenge by providing a significant increase of available miRNA targets derived from all contemporary experimental techniques (gene specific and high-throughput), while incorporating a powerful set of tools in a user-friendly interface. TarBase 6.0 hosts detailed information for each miRNA–gene interaction, ranging from miRNA- and gene-related facts to information specific to their interaction, the experimental validation methodologies and their outcomes. All database entries are enriched with function-related data, as well as general information derived from external databases such as UniProt, Ensembl and RefSeq. DIANA microT miRNA target prediction scores and the relevant prediction details are available for each interaction. TarBase 6.0 hosts the largest collection of manually curated experimentally validated miRNA–gene interactions (more than 65?000 targets), presenting a 16.5–175-fold increase over other available manually curated databases. PMID:22135297

  4. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin's ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998-2005 to 2006-2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 ?g kg(-1), respectively), and by 2012-2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 ?g kg(-1)). Concentrations of ?PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959-1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted. PMID:24930435

  5. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad F. Khalil; Upal Ghosh; Joseph P. Kreitinger

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Local Administration of NF-{kappa} B Decoy Oligonucleotides to Prevent Restenosis after Balloon Angioplasty: An Experimental Study in New Zealand White Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowski, Marc Viehofer, Kerstin; Hamann, Christine; Barry, James J.; Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus Jochen; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Alfke, Heiko

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of NF-{kappa} B oligonucleotides (ODN) administered by local administration with the channeled balloon catheter to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty in restenotic iliac arteries of New Zealand white rabbits. Materials and Methods. In vitro, 8000 rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMC) where transfected with a liposomal carrier (TfX50) with 100 ng of decoy and scrambled ODN. Inhibition of proliferation was measured using a MTT assay after 24 hours in comparison to control. In vivo, 22 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and received denudation of both common iliac arteries with a 3 mm balloon catheter to induce an arterial stenosis. Four weeks after stenosis induction, local application of NF-{kappa} B in two different concentrations (1 {mu}g: n = 14; 10 {mu}g: n = 8) was performed randomly on one common iliac artery. Scrambled oligonucleotides without specific binding capacities were injected into the contralateral side. The channeled balloon catheter allows simultaneous balloon dilation (8 atm) of the stenosis and local application of a drug solution (2 atm). Four weeks after local drug delivery the animals were killed and the vessels were excised and computerized morphometric measurements were performed. Results. NF-{kappa} B decoy ODN but not scrambled ODN inhibited proliferation of rVSMC in vitro. Following local ODN application in the animals, no acute vascular complications were seen. NF-{kappa} B ODN resulted in a statistically non significant reduction of neointimal area compared to the control group. The neointimal area was 0.97 mm{sup 2} using 1 {mu}g NF-{kappa} B ODN compared to 0.98 mm{sup 2} in the control group. The higher dose resulted in a neointimal area of 0.97 mm{sup 2} compared to 1.07mm{sup 2} at the control side. Conclusions. Local drug delivery of NF-{kappa} B ODN using the 'channeled balloon' catheter could not reduce neointimal hyperplasia in stenostic rabbit iliac arteries. Application modalities have to be improved to enhance the effect of the local application to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

  7. Tar Production from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: A Novel Turbulent Multiphase Flow Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2000-01-01

    A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.

  8. Taxa-area Relationship (TAR) of Microbial Functional Genes with Long-TGerm Fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian; Xue, Kai; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Hirsch, Penny; Mcgrath, Steve; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Diversity and spatial patterns in plant and animal communities are well documented as a positive-power law of a taxa-area relationship (TAR). At present little is known whether this also applies to soil microbial communities and whether long-term fertilization has an influence on the underlying microbial diversity. To test the effects of long-term fertilization on above-ground botanical diversity and below-ground microbial diversity, a nested sampling approach on Park Grass plots (12d& 11/2c) of Rothamsted Reseach in United Kingdom, both at ~;; pH 5 but with plant diversities of between 42 and 13 respectively were used. GeoChip 3.0, covering approximately 57, 000 gene sequences of 292 gene families involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, was used to determine the gene area relationships for both functional and phylogenetic groups and the relationship to plant diversity. Our analysis indicated that the microbial communities were separated by different plant diversity based on DCA. The soil microbial diversity was in accord with plant diversity. Soil microbial community exhibited different z value with different plant diversity, z = 0.0449 with higher plant diversity and z = 0.0583 with lower plant diversity (P< 0.0001). These results suggest that the turnover in space of microorganisms may be higher with long-term fertilization.

  9. Use of metal hydrous titanium oxide catalysts to enhance coal tar yield via hydropyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Dosch, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Catalytic hydropyrolysis experiments performed in this project on several US and UK coals have established that tar yields in excess of 70% (daf basis) and conversions (100%-char) in excess of 80% can be achieved from bituminous coals containing 80--84% dmmf carbon using hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) catalysts with low concentrations of active metals. Total conversion approaches the reactive maceral contents for these coals. Previously performed two-stage catalytic hydropyrolysis experiments have demonstrated that high yields of liquid products with high H/C ratios, low heteroatom contents, and a significant concentration of light naphtha can be achieved. The objectives of this research are to determine suitable methods for catalyzing the hydropyrolysis process and to investigate the reactions and mechanisms responsible for the high conversion of coal materials to distillable liquids via direct catalytic hydropyrolysis. Recently developed hydrous titanium oxide (HTO)-supported catalysts have received encouraging results in direct coal liquefaction applications. Results of hydropyrolysis experiment using Mo and Pd HTO catalysts coated directly onto the coal are presented here and compared with results from experiments using uncatalyzed coal samples and using a dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst. The effect of coal rank, active metals concentration, dispersion method, and metal type are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing tar sand deposits containing conductive layers

    SciTech Connect

    Glandt, C.A.; Vinegar, H.J.; Gardner, J.W.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbon from tar sand deposits containing high conductivity layers and a hydrocarbon rich zone. It comprises selecting a thin high conductivity target layer near the hydrocarbon rich zone; installing at least one pair of horizontal production wells that are horizontal electrodes during an electrical heating stage, and are production wells during a production stage, wherein the horizontal electrodes, when electrically excited, span the high conductivity target layer and divide the target layer into electrically heated zones and non-electrically heated zones; providing at least one injection well for hot fluid injection into the hydrocarbon rich zone; electrically exciting the horizontal electrodes during the electrical heating stage to electrically heat the high conductivity target layer to form a thin preheated hydrocarbon rich zone immediately adjacent to the target layer; injecting a hot fluid into the deposit adjacent to the high conductivity target layer and within the thin preheated hydrocarbon rich zone to displace the hydrocarbons to the production wells; and recovering hydrocarbons from the production wells.

  12. Cost analysis of water pollution control during in situ production of bitumen from tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Humenick, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Wastewater recovered by in situ production of tar sand bitumen using steam drive or combustion processes must be treated prior to recycling in the process, reuse within the production facility, or discharge. Recent laboratory studies have shown biological treatment with activated sludge and reverse osmosis treatment to be potentially effective on combustion wastewater. The hot line softening process has been used and strong acid iron exchange treatment has been proposed to treat wastewaters from commercial oil sand in situ steam drive facilities in Canada. The estimated costs associated with the construction and operation of wastewater treatment systems for projected 20,000 barrel-per-day in situ combustion and steam drive production facilities are presented. The treatment of the steam drive wastewater focuses on recycling the production wastewater to once-through steam generators. The treatment of the combustion wastewater focuses on discharging the effluent. The costs for wastewater treatment range from $0.249 to $2.765 (U.S.) per barrel of bitumen produced in mid-1984 dollars. The cost analysis methodology used may be applicable to other systems.

  13. Characterization of graphitization in coal-tar and petroleum pitches. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Karika, J.C.

    1985-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of heat-treatment temperature and residence time on graphitization of coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch used in carbon/carbon composites. Samples were heat-treated at various temperatures (550 C to 2550 C) and two different residence times of 15 minutes and 30 minutes. They were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), laser Raman microprobe analysis (LRMA), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). In addition, a unidirectional carbon/carbon composite was examined using LRMA. A graphitization index was established using XRD, and degree of graphitization was determined using LRMA. All four techniques showed changes in the pitch materials as a result of processing parameters. With increasing heat-treatment temperature (HTT) XRD showed a decrease in d-spacing indicative of tighter planar packing, a narrowing of peak breadth indicative of an increase in crystalline size, and an increase in peak intensity. This corresponds to an increase in degree of graphitization with increasing HTT. SEM showed establishment of morphologies representative of two- and then three-dimensional ordering in the pitch samples with increasing HRR indicating the progression of graphitization. LRMA showed an increase in the 1575/cm peak intensity and a narrowing of the peak while the 1355/cm peak decreased with increasing temperature and residence time, indicating increasing degree of graphitization. EELS showed a change in spectra from one characteristic of graphitized carbon as heat-treatment increased.

  14. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ? 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045

  15. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens. PMID:22109669

  16. Comparative quantitative prevalence of mycobacteria and functionally abundant nidA, nahAc, and nagAc Dioxygenase genes in coal tar contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Christopher S. Chewning; Gary S. Sayler

    2007-08-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site is heavily contaminated with metals, pesticides, and coal tar with sediments exhibiting high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). High molecular weight PAHs are of concern because of their toxicity and recalcitrance in the environment; as such, there is great interest in microbes, such as fast-growing Mycobacterium spp., capable of degradation of these compounds. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed targeting multiple dioxygenase genes to assess the ecology and functional diversity of PAH-degrading communities. These assays target the Mycobacterium nidA, {beta}-proteobacteria nagAc, and {gamma}-proteobacteria nahAc with the specific goal of testing the hypothesis that Mycobacteria catabolic genes are enriched and may be functionally associated with high molecular weight PAH biodegradation in Chattanooga Creek. Dioxygenase gene abundances were quantitatively compared to naphthalene and pyrene mineralization, and temporal and spatial PAH concentrations. nidA abundances ranged from 5.69 x 10{sup 4} to 4.92 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment; nagAc from 2.42 x 10{sup 3} to 1.21 x 10{sup 7}, and nahAc from below detection to 4.01 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment. There was a significantly greater abundance of nidA and nagAc at sites with the greatest concentrations of PAHs. In addition, nidA and nagAc were significantly positively correlated, indicating a coexistence of organisms carrying these genes. A positive relationship was also observed between nidA and nagAc and pyrene mineralization indicating that these genes serve as biomarkers for pyrene degradation. A 16S rDNA clone library of fast-growing Mycobacteria indicated that the population is very diverse and likely plays an important role in attenuation of high molecular weight PAHs from Chattanooga Creek. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Aberrant assembly of RNA recognition motif 1 links to pathogenic conversion of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43).

    PubMed

    Shodai, Akemi; Morimura, Toshifumi; Ido, Akemi; Uchida, Tsukasa; Ayaki, Takashi; Takahashi, Rina; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Suzuki, Sakura; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kigawa, Takanori; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kitahara, Ryo; Ito, Hidefumi; Fujiwara, Noriko; Urushitani, Makoto

    2013-05-24

    Aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a pathological signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in TDP-43 proteinopathy, it remains unclear how native TDP-43 is converted to pathogenic forms. To elucidate the role of homeostasis of RRM1 structure in ALS pathogenesis, conformations of RRM1 under high pressure were monitored by NMR. We first found that RRM1 was prone to aggregation and had three regions showing stable chemical shifts during misfolding. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of aggregated RRM1 revealed that one of the regions was located on protease-resistant ?-strands containing two cysteines (Cys-173 and Cys-175), indicating that this region served as a core assembly interface in RRM1 aggregation. Although a fraction of RRM1 aggregates comprised disulfide-bonded oligomers, the substitution of cysteine(s) to serine(s) (C/S) resulted in unexpected acceleration of amyloid fibrils of RRM1 and disulfide-independent aggregate formation of full-length TDP-43. Notably, TDP-43 aggregates with RRM1-C/S required the C terminus, and replicated cytopathologies of ALS, including mislocalization, impaired RNA splicing, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and motor neuron toxicity. Furthermore, RRM1-C/S accentuated inclusions of familial ALS-linked TDP-43 mutants in the C terminus. The relevance of RRM1-C/S-induced TDP-43 aggregates in ALS pathogenesis was verified by immunolabeling of inclusions of ALS patients and cultured cells overexpressing the RRM1-C/S TDP-43 with antibody targeting misfolding-relevant regions. Our results indicate that cysteines in RRM1 crucially govern the conformation of TDP-43, and aberrant self-assembly of RRM1 at amyloidogenic regions contributes to pathogenic conversion of TDP-43 in ALS. PMID:23558684

  18. Requirements and Guidelines for Serving Alcoholic Beverages To accommodate the requests of organizations wishing to serve alcoholic beverages at functions

    E-print Network

    Bau, Domenico A.

    Requirements and Guidelines for Serving Alcoholic Beverages To accommodate the requests of organizations wishing to serve alcoholic beverages at functions and events taking place on property owned and/or other mandates issued by CSU with respect to serving alcoholic beverages. The Guidelines do

  19. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  20. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  1. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (p<0.05) with the bacteria count (0.9×107-14.2×107 CFU/mL), catalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF ?g/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  2. Tar DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) regulates axon growth in vitro and in vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vineeta Bhasker; Baskaran, Pranetha; Shaw, Christopher E.; Guthrie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular inclusions of the TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD-TDP). Rare mutations in TARDBP have been linked to both ALS and FTD-TDP suggesting that TDP-43 dysfunction is mechanistic in causing disease. TDP-43 is a predominantly nuclear protein with roles in regulating RNA transcription, splicing, stability and transport. In ALS, TDP-43 aberrantly accumulates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons where it forms aggregates. However it has until recently been unclear whether the toxic effects of TDP-43 involve recruitment to motor axons, and what effects this might have on axonal growth and integrity. Here we use chick embryonic motor neurons, in vivo and in vitro, to model the acute effects of TDP-43. We show that wild-type and two TDP-43 mutant proteins cause toxicity in chick embryonic motor neurons in vivo. Moreover, TDP-43 is increasingly mislocalised to axons over time in vivo, axon growth to peripheral targets is truncated, and expression of neurofilament-associated antigen is reduced relative to control motor neurons. In primary spinal motor neurons in vitro, a progressive translocation of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm occurs over time, similar to that observed in vivo. This coincides with the appearance of cytoplasmic aggregates, a reduction in the axonal length, and cellular toxicity, which was most striking for neurons expressing TDP-43 mutant forms. These observations suggest that the capacity of spinal motor neurons to produce and maintain an axon is compromised by dysregulation of TDP-43 and that the disruption of cytoskeletal integrity may play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP. PMID:24423647

  3. Motor Imagery and Tennis Serve Performance: The External Focus Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Aymeric; Desliens, Simon; Rouyer, Christelle; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is now ample evidence that motor imagery (MI) contributes to enhance motor performance. Previous research also demonstrated that directing athletes’ attention to the effects of their movements on the environment is more effective than focusing on the action per se. The present study aimed therefore at evaluating whether adopting an external focus during MI contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Twelve high-level young tennis players were included in a test-retest procedure. The effects of regular training were first evaluated. Then, players were subjected to a MI intervention during which they mentally focused on ball trajectory and specifically visualized the space above the net where the serve can be successfully hit. Serve performance was evaluated during both a validated serve test and a real match. The main results showed a significant increase in accuracy and velocity during the ecological serve test after MI practice, as well as a significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during the match. Present data therefore confirmed the efficacy of MI in combination of physical practice to improve tennis serve performance, and further provided evidence that it is feasible to adopt external attentional focus during MI. Practical applications are discussed. Key Points Motor imagery contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Data provided evidence of the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention during imagery. Results showed significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during a real match. PMID:24149813

  4. Party Platter $38.00 (serves 5-9) Three-Foot Sub $48.00 (serves 10-12)

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    . Please see order form for selections. Chick-fil-A® Nuggets Trays Ranch, Barbecue, or Honey Mustard Sauce, Barbecue, or Honey Mustard Sauce Small $26.00 (serves 8) Medium $46.50 (serves 15) Large $75.50 (serves 25 Mustard $1.75 Polynesian $1.75 Caramel $2.19 Gallon Beverages Chick-fil-A® Lemonade $10.50 Ice Tea

  5. A Tat-grafted anti-nucleic acid antibody acquires nuclear-localization property and a preference for TAR RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jong-Geun; Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sung; Kwon, Myung-Hee

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} We generate '{sub H3}Tat-3D8' by grafting Tat{sub 48-60} peptide to VH CDR of 3D8 scFv antibody. {yields} {sub H3}Tat-3D8 antibody retains nucleic acid binding and hydrolyzing activities. {yields} {sub H3}Tat-3D8 acquires a preference for TAR RNA structure. {yields} Properties of Tat{sub 48-60} is transferred to an antibody via Tat-grafting into a CDR. -- Abstract: The 3D8 single chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) is an anti-nucleic acid antibody that can hydrolyze nucleic acids and enter the cytosol of cells without reaching the nucleus. The Tat peptide, derived from the basic region of the HIV-1 Tat protein, translocates to cell nuclei and has TAR RNA binding activity. In this study, we generated a Tat-grafted antibody ({sub H3}Tat-3D8) by replacing complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) within the VH domain of the 3D8 scFv with a Tat{sub 48-60} peptide (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ). {sub H3}Tat-3D8 retained the DNA-binding and DNA-hydrolyzing activity of the scFv, and translocated to the nuclei of HeLa cells and preferentially recognized TAR RNA. Thus, the properties associated with the Tat peptide were transferred to the antibody via Tat-grafting without loss of the intrinsic DNA-binding and hydrolyzing activities of the 3D8 scFv antibody.

  6. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D.

    1993-12-31

    There is significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly with respect to comprehensive models of this complicated phenomenon. This interest derives from the central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes -- gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal benefication. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for more reliable correlation for prediction of vapor pressure of heavy, primary coal tars. Such information is important in design of all coal conversion processes, in which the volatility of tarry products is of major concern. Only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. Results of the literature survey are compiled. The experimental tasks have been concerned with setup and calibration.

  7. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  8. Serving Adult Learners. Collaborative Approaches in Five Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Stephanie Lang

    This volume contains descriptions of five community work education councils that have broadened their agendas from a focus on youth issues to include serving adult learners by improving adults' access to education and training and by improving the articulation between work and learning institutions that serve adults in the community. Included in…

  9. Minority-Serving Institutions: Building the Human Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Alex; Davis, Thomas; Harris, Ramon; Staudt, David

    2001-01-01

    Explains the AN-MSI (Advanced Networking with Minority Serving Institutions), an alliance of minority-serving institutions that are working together to reach information technology (IT) parity. Describes partnerships that have been formed to support four main activities: assisting campus leadership in IT planning, network technologies, Internet…

  10. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...

  11. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...

  12. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...

  13. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...

  14. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...

  15. External influences on children's self-served portions at meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large portions promote intake among children, but little is known about external influences of the eating environment on children;s self-selected portion sizes. This research experimentally tested effects of the amount of entree available and serving spoon size on children's self-served entree porti...

  16. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  17. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: What Are They? Where Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic-serving educational institutions are receiving greater public attention as they continue to expand in number. Increasingly, more and more Latinos and other racial and ethnic students are enrolling in these institutions. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are public and private two- and four-year colleges and universities with Latino…

  18. Applying Buddhist Practices to Advocacy: The Advocacy-Serving Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Klepper, Konja K.; Lambert, Serena; Nunez, Johnna; Williams, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model…

  19. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20 Section 142.20...Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint...142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made as prescribed by §...

  20. School Administrator Quality in Minority-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Mullen, Carol A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary brings together the topics of geographically-oriented diversity, minority-serving institutions, and educational leadership programs. The geospatial context for this discussion about school administrator quality focuses on Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United…