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1

A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.  

PubMed Central

Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies.

Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

1996-01-01

2

TAR RNA decoys inhibit tat-activated HIV-1 transcription after preinitiation complex formation.  

PubMed Central

The ability of the HIV-1 Tat protein to trans -activate HIV-1 transcription in vitro is specifically inhibited by a circular TAR RNA decoy. This inhibition is not overcome by adding an excess of Tat to the reaction but is partially overcome by adding Tat in combination with nuclear extract, suggesting that TAR RNA might function by interacting with a complex containing Tat and cellular factor(s). A cell-free transcription system involving immobilized DNA templates was used to further define the factor(s) that interact with TAR RNA. Preinitiation complexes formed in the presence or absence of Tat were purified on immobilized templates containing the HIV-1 promoter. After washing, nucleotides and radiolabelled UTP were added and transcription was measured. The presence of Tat during preinitiation complex formation resulted in an increase in the level of full-length HIV-1 transcripts. This Tat-activated increase in HIV-1 transcription was not inhibited by circular TAR decoys added during preinitiation complex formation but was inhibited by circular TAR decoys subsequently added during the transcription reaction. These results suggest that TAR decoys inhibit Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription after preinitiation complex formation, perhaps by interacting with components of transcription complexes.

Bohjanen, P R; Liu, Y; Garcia-Blanco, M A

1997-01-01

3

Cleavage of the Junin virus nucleoprotein serves a decoy function to inhibit the induction of apoptosis during infection.  

PubMed

The regulation of apoptosis during infection is an important factor for host survival and, in some cases, also for the virus life cycle. At the same time, mechanisms to prevent the induction of apoptosis have been observed in numerous viral pathogens, but until now the role of apoptosis during arenavirus infection has not been investigated. Junin virus (JUNV) belongs to the New World arenavirus serogroup of the Arenaviridae and is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. We have demonstrated that infection with JUNV in cell culture does not induce apoptosis but leads to cleavage of the nucleoprotein (NP) into discrete products resembling caspase cleavage events. Similar specific NP degradation patterns were also observed in NP-transfected cell lines, and a closer examination of the sequence of NP showed several putative caspase cleavage motifs. Point mutations that abolished these cleavage motifs were consistent with the loss of certain cleavage products. Consistent with these data, further studies showed that treatment with a caspase inhibitor also reduced NP cleavage, indicating that the observed cleavage events were occurring as a result of caspase activity with NP as a substrate. Finally, we showed that expression of NP suppresses the cleavage of caspase 3 in cells treated with an apoptosis activator. Based on these findings, we propose that NP functions as a decoy substrate for caspase cleavage in order to inhibit the induction of apoptosis in JUNV-infected cells. PMID:23077297

Wolff, Svenja; Becker, Stephan; Groseth, Allison

2012-10-17

4

RNA decoys  

PubMed Central

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants.

Banks, Isaac R.; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B. Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R.; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-01-01

5

Analysis of trans-acting response decoy RNA-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transactivation.  

PubMed

Overexpression of trans-acting response element (TAR)-containing sequences (TAR decoys) in CEM SS cells renders cells resistant to human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Mutagenesis of TAR was used to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the observed inhibition. A nucleotide change which disrupts the stem structure of TAR or sequence alterations in the loop abolish the ability of the corresponding TAR decoy RNAs to inhibit HIV replication. A compensatory mutation which restores the stem structure also restores TAR decoy RNA function. Synthesis of viral RNA is drastically reduced in cells expressing a functional TAR decoy RNA, but it is unaffected in cells expressing a mutant form of TAR decoy RNA. It is therefore concluded that overexpression of TAR-containing sequences in CEM SS cells interferes with the process of Tat-mediated transactivation of viral gene expression. However, the phenotype of several mutations suggests that TAR decoy RNA does not inhibit HIV-1 gene expression by simply sequestering Tat but rather does so by sequestering a transactivation protein complex, implying that transactivation requires the cooperative binding of both Tat and a loop-binding cellular factor(s) to TAR. Expression of wild-type or mutant forms of TAR had no discernible effects on cell viability, thus reducing concerns about using TAR decoy RNAs as part of an intracellular immunization protocol for the treatment of AIDS. PMID:1942253

Sullenger, B A; Gallardo, H F; Ungers, G E; Gilboa, E

1991-12-01

6

Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Regulated Expression of a Polymeric Tat Activation Response RNA Decoy as a Strategy for Gene Therapy in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by intracellular expression of an RNA decoy and a ribozyme. The RNA decoy, consisting of polymeric Tat activation response elements (TARs), is designed to compete for Tat binding in an equilibrium with viral TAR RNA, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The expression of

Julianna Lisziewicz; Daisy Sun; Jason Smythe; Paolo Lusso; Franco Lori; Andrey Louie; Phillip Markham; John Rossi; Marvin Reitz; Robert C. Gallo

1993-01-01

7

Overexpression of TAR sequences renders cells resistant to human immunodeficiency virus replication.  

PubMed

Overexpression of TAR-containing sequences (TAR decoys) was used to render cells resistant to HIV replication. A chimeric tRNA(meti)-TAR transcription unit contained in a double copy murine retroviral vector was used to express high levels of HIV-1 TAR-containing transcripts in CEM SS cells. Replication of HIV-1 was inhibited over 99% in cells expressing chimeric tRNA-TAR transcripts, but an amphotropic murine retrovirus replicated normally in these cells. Expression of TAR sequences in CEM SS cells had no adverse effects on cell viability, indicating that essential cellular factors are not being sequestered in these cells. TAR decoy RNA-mediated HIV inhibition may also be effective against natural HIV isolates in spite of their hypervariable nature, as suggested by the fact that replication of SIVmac was also inhibited in cells expressing HIV-1 TAR decoys. PMID:2225067

Sullenger, B A; Gallardo, H F; Ungers, G E; Gilboa, E

1990-11-01

8

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human T cells by a potent Rev response element decoy consisting of the 13-nucleotide minimal Rev-binding domain.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular immunization is an anti-viral gene therapy strategy based on the introduction of DNA templates into cells to stably express genetic elements which inhibit viral gene expression and replication. We have recently developed an intracellular immunization strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that uses RNA decoys. RNA decoys are short RNA oligonucleotides corresponding to the HIV trans activation response element (TAR) or Rev response element (RRE) sequences, which function by inhibiting the binding of the HIV regulatory proteins Tat and Rev to the authentic HIV RNA TAR and RRE regions, respectively. In this report we describe the characterization of potent RRE decoys containing the minimal 13-nucleotide primary Rev binding domain of the RRE. Using an improved tRNA cassette to express high levels of RRE transcripts in CEM cells, we found that this new generation of minimal RRE decoys were more potent inhibitors of HIV in isolated cell lines than previously described TAR or RRE decoys. CEM cells expressing RRE decoys exhibited diminished Rev function in cotransfection assays, confirming the specificity of inhibition of HIV by RRE decoys and indicating that the 13-nucleotide minimal Rev binding domain defined by using in vitro binding studies also binds Rev in vivo. Significant differences in the degree of HIV inhibition between individual CEM cell lines transduced with RRE decoy vectors which were not due to sequence alterations in the tRNA-RRE DNA template, differences in RRE decoy expression level, or endogenous variations in the resistance of CEM clonal cell lines to HIV were observed. In order to evaluate the efficacy of RRE decoys in a more realistic fashion than by comparison of individual clonal cell lines, polyclonal populations of transduced CEM cells were infected with HIV. By using a novel flow cytometric method for quantitating intracellular p24 expression, one version of the RRE decoys tested in this study was found to be capable of durably protecting polyclonal populations of CEM cells from HIV. Images

Lee, S W; Gallardo, H F; Gilboa, E; Smith, C

1994-01-01

9

'Decoy' and 'non-decoy' functions of DcR3 promote malignant potential in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells  

PubMed Central

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a ‘decoy’ for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has ‘non-decoy’ functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH.

TODA, MITSUNORI; KAWAMOTO, TERUYA; UEHA, TAKESHI; KISHIMOTO, KENTA; HARA, HITOMI; FUKASE, NAOMASA; ONISHI, YASUO; HARADA, RISA; MINODA, MASAYA; KUROSAKA, MASAHIRO; AKISUE, TOSHIHIRO

2013-01-01

10

Inhibition of transcription by the TAR RNA of HIV-1 in a nuclear extract of HeLa cells.  

PubMed Central

Regulation of transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires specific interaction of Tat protein with the trans-activation response region (TAR). Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 has previously been achieved with a TAR decoy, namely a short RNA oligonucleotide that corresponded to the sequence of the authentic TAR RNA. Since TAR RNA has the potential to interact with cellular factors, we examined the effect of TAR RNA on efficiency of transcription in nuclear of HeLa cell extracts. We performed an in vitro transcription assay in the presence of authentic TAR RNA using a template that was driven by the CMV (cytomegalovirus) early promoter in a HeLa nuclear extract and found, for the first time, that TAR RNA inhibited transcription by approximately 60-70% independently of the Tat-TAR interaction. Furthermore, we evaluated inhibition of transcription by variants of TAR RNA and found that the TAR RNA loop, bases surrounding the loop, the triple base bulge and the 'lower' stem region of TAR RNA were responsible for the inhibition of transcription. Taken together, earlier reports on proteins that bind to TAR RNA and the present results suggest that integrity of TAR RNA is important for efficient binding to cellular transcription factors. As judged from the significant inhibition observed in this study, the TAR decoy might sequester transcription factors and thus it might potentially be able to inhibit transcription of housekeeping genes that are unrelated to Tat function.

Yamamoto, R; Koseki, S; Ohkawa, J; Murakami, K; Nishikawa, S; Taira, K; Kumar, P K

1997-01-01

11

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts

Greco

1984-01-01

12

Semi- Two-Dimensional Decoys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel decoy providing the deceptive appearance of a genuine three-dimensional object, such as vehicle, is described which comprises a plurality of modular table units each of predetermined shape and assembled in an abutting relationship to form an outli...

H. L. Task M. B. Tutin G. R. Bothe

1983-01-01

13

In search of decoy/guardee to R genes  

PubMed Central

Plant responses are coordinately controlled by both external and internal signals. Apt perception of pathogen attack and its appropriate conversion to internal signals ultimately determine the outcome of innate immunity. The present review predicts the involvement of unconventional ‘guard/decoy model’ in chickpea-Fusarium encounter. Rapid alkalinization factor is predicted to act as initial ‘Gatekeeper decoy’ counteracting fungal entry. Phospholipases and cystatins probably function as ‘Guardees’ being shielded by R gene(s). Serine Threonine Kinases decodes external pathogenic signals to in planta defense alarms. 14.3.3 provides clues to the wilt mechanism. The versatile sugars serve as signal generators and transmitters maintaining intra and inter cellular connectivity during stress.

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Basu, Debabrata

2010-01-01

14

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by regulated expression of a polymeric Tat activation response RNA decoy as a strategy for gene therapy in AIDS.  

PubMed Central

We are investigating a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by intracellular expression of an RNA decoy and a ribozyme. The RNA decoy, consisting of polymeric Tat activation response elements (TARs), is designed to compete for Tat binding in an equilibrium with viral TAR RNA, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The expression of polymeric TAR is regulated by the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) and transcriptional activation is dependent on the presence of HIV Tat. Our initial studies indicated that plasmids expressing up to 50 tandem copies of TAR RNA (50TAR) inhibited tat-mediated gene expression by > 90% in a transient transfection assay. A HIV LTR-driven 50TAR construct was subcloned into a replication-defective retroviral vector to ensure high-efficiency gene transfer into T lymphocytes. In addition, a gag RNA-specific ribozyme gene was introduced into the 50TAR containing retroviral vector to enhance the inhibitory effect of the construct (designated TAR-Rib). A human T-cell line (Molt3) was infected (transduced) with the TAR-Rib recombinant retrovirus and challenged with either HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). HIV-1 replication was inhibited by 99% in the TAR-Rib-transduced T cells and was maintained over a 14-month period, suggesting that this antiviral strategy represses the formation of escape mutants. Interestingly, the TAR-Rib also inhibited SIV replication in transduced T cells, which suggests that polymeric TAR is a general inhibitor of primate lentiviruses; therefore, the macaque model could be used for further in vivo testing of this antiviral gene therapy strategy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Lisziewicz, J; Sun, D; Smythe, J; Lusso, P; Lori, F; Louie, A; Markham, P; Rossi, J; Reitz, M; Gallo, R C

1993-01-01

15

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

16

Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insider threat remains one of the most vexing problems in computer security. A number of approaches have been proposed to detect nefarious insider actions including user modeling and profiling techniques, policy and access enforcement techniques, and misuse detection. In this work we propose trap-based defense mechanisms and a deployment platform for addressing the problem of insiders attempting to exfiltrate and use sensitive information. The goal is to confuse and confound an adversary requiring more effort to identify real information from bogus information and provide a means of detecting when an attempt to exploit sensitive information has occurred. “Decoy Documents” are automatically generated and stored on a file system by the D3 System with the aim of enticing a malicious user. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. The decoy documents contain several different types of bogus credentials that when used, trigger an alert. We also embed “stealthy beacons” inside the documents that cause a signal to be emitted to a server indicating when and where the particular decoy was opened. We evaluate decoy documents on honeypots penetrated by attackers demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

Bowen, Brian M.; Hershkop, Shlomo; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

17

Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E): Better Ligands and Decoys for Better Benchmarking  

PubMed Central

A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target’s ligands by their Bemis–Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org.

2012-01-01

18

NFkB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides reduce monocyte infiltration in renal allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte influx secondary to isch- emia-reperfusion conditions the renal allograft to rejection by presentation of antigens and produc- tion of cytokines. Monocyte influx depends on NFkB-dependent transcription of genes encoding adhesion molecules and chemokines. Here we demonstrate that cationic liposomes containing phosphorothioated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with the kB binding site serving as competitive binding decoy, can prevent TNF-a-induced NFkB activity in

INGRID H. C. VOS; ROLAND GOVERS; HERMANN-JOSEF GRONE; LIVIO KLEIJ; MEREL SCHURINK; ROEL A. DE WEGER; ROEL GOLDSCHMEDING; TON J. RABELINK

19

Quantum Key Distribution Using Decoy State Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Quantum key distribution provides unconditional se curity guaranteed by the fundamental laws of quantum physics. Unfortunately, for real-life experimental set-ups, which mainly based on faint laser pulses, the occasional production of multi-photons and channel loss make i t possible for sophisticated eavesdroppers to launch various subtle eavesdropping attacks including the Photon Number Splitting (PNS) attack. The decoy state

Sellami Ali; Shuhairi Saharudin; M. R. B. Wahiddin

2009-01-01

20

Infrared decoys recognition method based on geometrical features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a decoy is released, it can fly around the target aircraft in a short period of time. And it can radiate infrared spectral radiation similarly to the target do. So it is difficult to recognize the target aircraft. But in infrared images, decoys and targets have different geometrical features. So an infrared decoys recognition method based on the geometrical features is proposed in this paper. The geometrical features of the candidates in each image are extracted, such as the major axis, the minor axis, the aspect ratio, area etc. Then the differences on these geometrical features can be used to recognize targets and decoys. A simulation was done on a set of images that contain decoys and targets by using this method. The results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can better distinguish infrared decoys and targets.

Yang, Songqi; Wang, Bingjian; Liu, Shangqian; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Yu, Haitao; Liu, Zhiting

2013-09-01

21

Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images

Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

1994-01-01

22

Design and characterization of decoy oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfection of cis-element double-stranded oligo- nucleotides, referred to as decoy ODNs, has been reported to be a powerful tool that provides a new class of antigene strategies for gene therapy. However, one of the major limitations of the decoy approach is the rapid degradation of phosphodiester oligonucleotides by intracellular nucleases. To date, several DNA analogs have been employed to over-

Rita Crinelli; Marzia Bianchi; Lucia Gentilini; Mauro Magnani

2002-01-01

23

Faux hos: woman police attitudes about decoy sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the practice of using female police officers as decoy sex workers. A snowball sample yielded 14 female police officers who are assigned to work decoy operations. Semi?structured interview questions were related to perception of their roles in the department, job satisfaction, motivation for accepting a vice position, perceptions of opportunities for advancement, perceived risks in working the

Mary Maguire; Thomas Nolan

2011-01-01

24

Targeting a KH-domain protein with RNA decoys.  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins are involved in the regulation of many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression. Targeted interference with RNA-protein interactions could offer novel approaches to modulation of expression profiles, alteration of developmental pathways, and reversal of certain disease processes. Here we investigate a decoy strategy for the study of the alphaCP subgroup of KH-domain RNA-binding proteins. These poly(C)-binding proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of posttranscriptional controls. Three categories of RNA decoys to alphaCPs were studied: poly(C) homopolymers, native mRNA-binding sites, and a high-affinity structure selected from a combinatorial library. Native chemistry was found to be essential for alphaCP decoy action. Because alphaCP proteins are found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, decoy cassettes were incorporated within both nuclear (U1 snRNA) and cytoplasmic (VA1 RNA) RNA frameworks. Several sequences demonstrated optimal decoy properties when assayed for protein-binding and decoy bioactivity in vitro. A subset of these transcripts was shown to mediate targeted inhibition of alphaCP-dependent translation when expressed in either the nucleus or cytoplasm of transfected cells. Significantly, these studies establish the feasibility of developing RNA decoys that can selectively target biologic functions of abundant and widely expressed RNA binding proteins.

Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Eastmond, Dawn L; Liebhaber, Stephen A

2002-01-01

25

Ultrasensitive synthetic protein regulatory networks using mixed decoys  

PubMed Central

Cellular protein interaction networks exhibit sigmoidal input-output relationships with thresholds and steep responses (i.e. ultrasensitivity). Although cooperativity can be a source of ultrasensitivity, we examined whether the presence of “decoy” binding sites that are not coupled to activation could also lead to this effect. To systematically vary key parameters of the system, we designed a synthetic regulatory system consisting of an autoinhibited PDZ domain coupled to an activating SH3 domain binding site. In the absence of a decoy binding site, this system is non-ultrasensitive, as predicted by modeling of this system. Addition of a high-affinity decoy site adds a threshold, but the response is not ultrasensitive. We found that sigmoidal activation profiles can be generated utilizing multiple decoys with mixtures of high and low affinities, where high affinity decoys act to set the threshold and low affinity decoys ensure a sigmoidal response. Placing the synthetic decoy system in a mitotic spindle orientation cell culture system thresholds this physiological activity. Thus, simple combinations of non-activating binding sites can lead to complex regulatory responses in protein interaction networks.

Lu, Michelle S.; Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

26

The Deceptive Effect of Blinking Decoys on ARMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The idea of blinking operation of decoyed radar system is presented and its deceptive mechanism to ARM PRS (passive radar\\u000a seeker) is analyzed. Several kinds of blinking modes are put forward. The simulation shows that blinking mode is one of the\\u000a important operation modes of decoyed radar system, which can provide much more possibilities for the safety of radar confronting

Dong Wen-feng; Liu Quan; Cheng Zhong-kuan; Pan Zi-kai

27

Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state  

SciTech Connect

To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan [Key Lab of Quantum Information, CAS, USTC (China)

2007-07-15

28

Inference in TAR Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distribution theory is developed for least-squares estimates of the threshold in Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models. We find that if we let the threshold effect (the difference in slopes between the two regimes) become small as the sample size increases, then the asymptotic distribution of the threshold estimator is free of nuisance parameters (up to scale). Similarly, the likelihood ratio

Bruce E. Hansen

1997-01-01

29

Cultivation of yeast on light-oil fractions of hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect

The results are given of experiments on the cultivation of the yeast Candida tropicalis on light-oil fractions of coal-tar. It has been shown that a light fraction can serve as the sole source of carbon and energy. Surface active agents stimulate the growth of the yeast on the light-oil fractions of hard-coal tar.

Kucher, R.V.; Dzumeozei, N.V.; Pavlyuk, M.I.; Tyrovskii, A.A.

1982-01-01

30

RNA decoys: an emerging component of plant regulatory networks?  

PubMed

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants. PMID:22899065

Banks, Isaac R; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-08-17

31

Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

Ackerman, J. T.; Eadie, J. M.; Szymanski, M. L.; Caswell, J. H.; Vrtiska, M. P.; Raedeke, A. H.; Checkett, J. M.; Afton, A. D.; Moore, T. G.; Caswell, F. D.; Walters, R. A.; Humburg, D. D.; Yee, J. L.

2006-01-01

32

Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice.  

PubMed

We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

2013-08-16

33

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

34

Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

Shams Mousavi, S. H. [Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Photonic and Communication Systems, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Gallion, P. [TELECOM ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, 46 rue Barrault, 75013 Paris (France)

2009-07-15

35

Decoy approach using RNA-DNA chimera oligonucleotides to inhibit the regulatory function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes two regulatory proteins, Tat and Rev, that bind to target RNA sequences. These are the trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA and the Rev-responsive element (RRE), respectively. The Rev protein shifts RNA synthesis to viral transcripts by binding to the RRE within the env gene. In the present study we prepared a RNA-DNA chimera consisting of 29 or 31 nucleotides to inhibit the Rev regulatory function by means of the decoy approach. The chimera oligonucleotides (anti-Rev oligonucleotides [AROs]) contained an RNA "bubble" structure (13 oligonucleotides; the Rev-binding element in RRE) that bound Rev with a high affinity in an in vitro assay. The controls were RNA-DNA chimera oligonucleotides (negative control oligonucleotides [NCOs]) similar to ARO, but without the bubble structure, that bound with considerably less affinity to Rev. When the inhibitory effects of these decoys on HIV-1 replication were examined, we found that AROs, but no NCOs, reduced more than 90% of the HIV-1 production generated by productively infected human T-cell lines. The production of primary HIV-1 isolates in healthy donor-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also similarly inhibited by AROs. In addition, the induction of viral mRNAs and antigens in latently HIV-1-infected ACH-2 cells by tumor necrosis factor alpha was specifically inhibited by AROs, but not by NCOs. No apparent cytotoxicity was caused by either decoy. Thus, the use of a Rev-binding element-based decoy, the RNA-DNA chimera oligonucleotide, may represent a safer approach to gene therapy for reducing the virus load in HIV-1-infected individuals.

Nakaya, T; Iwai, S; Fujinaga, K; Sato, Y; Otsuka, E; Ikuta, K

1997-01-01

36

Decoy Strategies: The Structure of TL1A:DcR3 Complex  

SciTech Connect

Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side-chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as antideterminants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands.

C Zhan; Y Patskovsky; Q Yan; Z Li; U Ramagopal; H Cheng; M Brenowitz; X Hui; S Nathenson; S Almo

2011-12-31

37

Decoy Strategies: The Structure of TL1A:DcR3 complex  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a secreted member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, neutralizes three different TNF ligands: FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. Each of these ligands engages unique signaling receptors which direct distinct and critical immune responses. We report the crystal structures of the unliganded DcR3 ectodomain and its complex with TL1A, as well as complementary mutagenesis and biochemical studies. These analyses demonstrate that DcR3 interacts with invariant backbone and side chain atoms in the membrane-proximal half of TL1A which supports recognition of its three distinct TNF ligands. Additional features serve as anti-determinants that preclude interaction with other members of the TNF superfamily. This mode of interaction is unique among characterized TNF:TNFR family members and provides a mechanistic basis for the broadened specificity required to support the decoy function of DcR3, as well as for the rational manipulation of specificity and affinity of DcR3 and its ligands.

Zhan, Chenyang; Patskovsky, Yury; Yan, Qingrong; Li, Zhenhong; Ramagopal, Udupi; Cheng, Huiyong; Brenowitz, Michael; Hui, Xiao; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2011-01-01

38

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

39

Treatment of coal tar emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a process for the treatment of stable emulsions of water and quinoline insolubles in coal tar comprising thoroughly mixing the coal tar with at least one of a specific class of surface-active compositions, followed by a separation of water and quinoline insoluble components from the mixture. The invention also relates to a method of eliminating

Cukier

1983-01-01

40

Correlation Parameters Simulation for Towed Radar Active Decoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Towed Radar Active Decoy (TRAD) is an essential way to counter the mono-pulse radar seeker, both ground to air and air to air. It has some successful battle documentation, but the actual effect is usually limited by multiple factor. This thesis briefly introduced the mechanism of TRAD, some key parameters related to its effectiveness are analyzed, such as the

Yunsheng Zhou

2012-01-01

41

Inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation by E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotide in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor E2F coordinately activates several cell cycle-regulatory genes. We attempted to inhibit the proliferation of mesangial cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting E2F activity using a 25-bp decoy oligodeoxynucleotide that contained consensus E2F binding site sequence (E2F-decoy) as a competitive inhibitor. The decoy's effect on human mesangial cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The E2F decoy inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas a mismatch control oligodeoxynucleotide had little effect. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the decoy's inhibitory effect was due to the binding of the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide to E2F. The effect of the E2F decoy was then tested in a rat anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis model. The E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotide was introduced into the left kidney 36 h after the induction of glomerulonephritis. The administration of E2F decoy suppressed the proliferation of mesangial cells by 71%. Furthermore, treatment with the E2F decoy inhibited the glomerular expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at the protein level as well as the mRNA level. These findings indicate that decoy oligonucleotides can suppress the activity of the transcription factor E2F, and may thus have a potential in treating glomerulonephritis.

Maeshima, Y; Kashihara, N; Yasuda, T; Sugiyama, H; Sekikawa, T; Okamoto, K; Kanao, K; Watanabe, Y; Kanwar, Y S; Makino, H

1998-01-01

42

Tar formation in corncob gasification  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of corncobs was studied to determine the amounts of tar and condensates produced. Variables studied included corncob particle size, moisture content, airflow rate, and reactor's operational mode (updraft and downdraft). The effect of temperature was also studied by running first with the unit noninsulated, and second adding insulation in the regions where pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification occurs. Results indicate that, over the range studied, tar and condensate yield increases with increasing fuel moisture, and that it does vary with air flow rate through the reactor. Updraft gasification of corncobs was found to produce about 3 to 4 times more tar than the downdraft gasification. Insulation of the reactor's pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones increased their operating temperature and significantly reduced the yield of tar and condensate in the gas stream. Production of tar and condensate were also found to fall off with respect to time. Ultimate analysis of the corncobs, corncob charcoal, condensate and tar was performed and constituent formulas were developed. Gas from the producer was also studied and its composition, heating value, molecular weight, density and specific heat were found. Reactor's mass and energy balance were also performed and gasifier efficiency was found to average 64%. Addition of oxygen in the reduction zone to the gasifier was found to have potential in reducing tar yield in the gas stream. Further studies, however, are needed and should be done before this result can be considered final.

da Silva, J.N.

1984-01-01

43

IOCC monograph series: tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of important papers published on tar sand resources and technologies. It includes nineteen previously published significant technical reports which describe tar sand resources and related technologies. The reports are primarily descriptions of the United States resource and efforts to develop that resource; however, several reports describing Canadian tar sand activities are included because they are the only available publications dealing with the respective technology areas. The republished reports represent the following categories: World Resource Overview; US Resource Overview (Utah, California, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma); Extraction Technologies (including in-situ and mining-and-plant-extraction); Field Trials and Commercialization; and Environmental Assessment. (DP)

Ball, D.; Marchant, L.C.; Goldburg, A. (eds.)

1982-01-01

44

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characterization, calorific value measurement, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Potential tar yields are determined by long hold time heated grid investigations of each coal at a final temperature and heating rate observed to maximize tar yields for the reference coal. Relative tar evolution kinetic behavior is determined by zero hold time heated grid investigations of each coal. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

45

Aqueous rubberized coal tar emulsion  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous rubberized coal tar emulsion composition especially suitable for coating and sealing bituminous substrates containing asphalt such as asphalt pavement and the like, the coal tar emulsion composition comprising a major portion of commercial coal tar emulsion and water admixed with a small amount of a carboxylated butadiene/styrene/acid copolymer latex having a particular particle size. The emulsion composition may additionally include a fine aggregate filler material such as sand. The coal tar emulsion composition according to the invention is of a thixotropic nature and has the ability to maintain the fine aggregate when added and mixed therein in a homogeneous-like suspension. The emulsion composition when spread on an asphalt surface exhibits a high degree of spreadability and provides a sealing coating that has a long life.

Ladish, D.J.

1985-10-01

46

Modified coal-tar pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-tar pitch material is described which is obtained by the process which consists in mixing an undistilled coaltar material with a solvent which consists of at least one of the following n-methyl-2-pyrollidone and the fraction of a coal-tar distillate which boils between 100° and 350°C. The mixing is carried out at a temperature such as to form a solvent-dissolved

S. Cukier; H. A. F. L. Kremer

1986-01-01

47

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

48

Influence of decoys on the noise and dynamics of gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many transcription factors bind to DNA with a remarkable lack of specificity, so that regulatory binding sites compete with an enormous number of nonregulatory “decoy” sites. For an autoregulated gene, we show decoy sites decrease noise in the number of unbound proteins to a Poisson limit that results from binding and unbinding. This noise buffering is optimized for a given protein concentration when decoys have a 1/2 probability of being occupied. Decoys linearly increase the time to approach steady state and exponentially increase the time to switch epigenetically between bistable states.

Burger, Anat; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Wolynes, Peter G.

2012-10-01

49

Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

1983-06-01

50

Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar containing the tar free radical cause DNA nicks in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

The ability of aqueous extracts of cigarette tar to nick DNA was investigated using viable mammalian cells. Tar extracts contain a radical with a stable electron spin resonance (ESR) signal at g = 2.0036 characteristic of a semiquinone. The association of the tar component that carries the ESR signal with DNA was demonstrated using viable rat alveolar macrophages. The formation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by cigarette tar extracts in viable rat thymocytes follows saturation kinetics, indicating a tar component associates with DNA and then nicks it. These studies support our hypothesis that tar components that contain the cigarette tar radical can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA.

Stone, K K; Bermudez, E; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

51

Subfractionation of Coal Tar Neutral Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to develop a fractionation scheme for a neutral coal-tar fraction which had been isolated from coal-tar pitch. Silica gel (7631869) chromatography was used to fractionate the neutral fraction of a 2kg sample of coal-tar. Class separa...

D. R. Jones H. G. Reilich H. J. O'Neill

1975-01-01

52

Process for removing solids from coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for removing solids from coal tar for the preparation of a coal tar pitch containing liquid comprising (1) centrifuging the coal tar at a suitable viscosity to separate a large particle size solids fraction from a first liquid fraction containing pitch and small particle size solids, and (2) filtering the large particle size fraction while maintaining the solids

N. S. Boodman; E. L. Farr; N. B. Green; R. J. Osterholm

1984-01-01

53

Ultrasound-Microbubble-Mediated NF-?B Decoy Transfection Attenuates Neointimal Formation after Arterial Injury in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Decoy transfection is a significant methodology for suppressing gene activation. The decoy can be synthesized easily; however, the major obstacle is the difficulty involved in effective in vivo delivery. Methods and Results: We used a fluorescein-labeled decoy to investigate the ultrasound-microbubble-mediated in vivo delivery in normal and injured mouse arteries. We showed that this approach could deliver the decoy

Hiroshi Inagaki; Jun-ichi Suzuki; Masahito Ogawa; Yoshiaki Taniyama; Ryuichi Morishita; Mitsuaki Isobe

2006-01-01

54

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF A GREAT HORNED OWL DECOY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE AND ADULT GRAY JAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) decoy on the feeding behavior of adult and juvenile Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were tested by comparing the feeding activity of the jays in the presence of the decoy with that in the presence of a Ring-necked Duck mount and in the absence of other species' models. The owl decoy had

W. A. MONTEVECCHI; A. D. MACCARONE

55

Kentucky Tar Sand Resources processing alternatives and operating experience with a 200 ton per day pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand deposits in the U.S. have acquired new stature since a Lewin and Associates, Inc., report, prepared for the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, estimates in place reserves to be 53.7 billion barrels. For comparison, total petroleum usage in 1982 was approximately 5.5 billion barrels. Oil production from U.S. tar sands is a high cost operation, but the magnitude of the resource argues that the national interest is served by developing technology, both in situ and surface processing plants, that can be called upon to produce tar sand oil in a future emergency. Kentucky, with an estimated resource of 3.4 billion barrels, has been the scene of tar sand development activity since the late 1950's. The oil supply crisis of 1979 accelerated tar sand leasing and development in Kentucky. Its tar sand resources are located in the counties of Edmonson, Warren, Butler, and Logan, in the southcentral portion of Kentucky. The tar sand formations outcrop in Logan County and dip to the northeast where they are found 400 to 800 feet below the surface in Edmonson County. Many companies are experimenting with oil recovery from Kentucky tar sand, but only two are being considered by the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation for funding support. These are Kensyntar, an in situ recovery project in Edmonson County, and the Kentucky Tar Sand Project in Logan County. The Kentucky Tar Sand Project, sponsored by Texas Gas Development Corporation of Owensboro, Kentucky, proposes to build a 5,000 barrel per day extraction plant in Logan County, Kentucky. Development and another company hold leases on 20,000 acres of tar sand land that contain over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil or bitumen. These reserves are within 100 feet of the surface and are easily strip mined and reclaimed. The tar sand formation varies from eight to forty feet in thickness and contains three percent to eight percent bitumen by weight.

Fedde, P.A.; Kelley, M.N.

1983-11-01

56

Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on an intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It c...

W. R. K. Wu H. H. Storch

1968-01-01

57

Two-Dimensional Target Decoy Strategy for Shotgun Proteomics  

PubMed Central

The target-decoy approach to estimating and controlling false discovery rate (FDR) has become a de facto standard in shotgun proteomics, and it has been applied at both the peptide-to-spectrum match (PSM) and protein levels. Current bioinformatics methods control either the PSM- or the protein-level FDR, but not both. In order to obtain the most reliable information from their data, users must employ one method when the number of tandem mass spectra exceeds the number of proteins in the database and another method when the reverse is true. Here we propose a simple variation of the standard target-decoy strategy that estimates and controls PSM and protein FDRs simultaneously, regardless of the relative numbers of spectra and proteins. We demonstrate that even if the final goal is a list of PSMs with a fixed low FDR and not a list of protein identifications, the proposed two-dimensional strategy offers advantages over a pure PSM-level strategy.

Bern, Marshall W.; Kil, Yong J.

2011-01-01

58

Two-dimensional target decoy strategy for shotgun proteomics.  

PubMed

The target-decoy approach to estimating and controlling false discovery rate (FDR) has become a de facto standard in shotgun proteomics, and it has been applied at both the peptide-to-spectrum match (PSM) and protein levels. Current bioinformatics methods control either the PSM- or the protein-level FDR, but not both. In order to obtain the most reliable information from their data, users must employ one method when the number of tandem mass spectra exceeds the number of proteins in the database and another method when the reverse is true. Here we propose a simple variation of the standard target-decoy strategy that estimates and controls PSM and protein FDRs simultaneously, regardless of the relative numbers of spectra and proteins. We demonstrate that even if the final goal is a list of PSMs with a fixed low FDR and not a list of protein identifications, the proposed two-dimensional strategy offers advantages over a pure PSM-level strategy. PMID:22010998

Bern, Marshall W; Kil, Yong J

2011-11-07

59

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01

60

Serving Sizes for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Serving Sizes for Toddlers Article Body A toddler’s energy requirements are not ... to the following: Average Daily Intake for a Toddler Food Group Servings Per Day Number of Calories ...

61

Pyramid Servings Database  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III: Pyramid Servings Database Home Accessing the Databases Search the Database Documentation Related

62

Serving Up Safe Buffets  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Eggs and egg dishes, such as quiches or soufflés, may be refrigerated for serving later but should be thoroughly reheated to 165 °F before serving. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

63

Photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme is presented based on recent experimental advancements. A new upper bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses is given, which seems inherent as long as weak coherent sources and high lossy channel are used. This implies that our scheme is optimal in long-distance QKD with weak coherent sources. We show that Eve's coherent multiphoton pulse (CMP) attack is more efficient than a symmetric individual attack when the quantum bit error rate is small, so that the CMP attack should be considered to ensure the security of the final key. Our results show that a not-so-weak pulse can be used to transmit the key. Optimal intensity of the laser source is presented which provides a 23.9 km increase in the transmission distance.

Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan Yonggang [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Graduation University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China)

2006-03-15

64

Pyrolysis of Arroyo Grande tar sand and tar sand/oil mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrolysis experiments have been performed on Arroyo Grande tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and SAE 50 oil. Isothermal and nonisothermal tests were performed on a Du Pont model 950 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and larger scale isothermal experime...

T. F. Turner B. E. Thomas L. G. Nickerson

1989-01-01

65

Inhibition of TLR4 signaling by TRAM-derived decoy peptides in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-? (TRIF)-related adapter molecule (TRAM) serves as a bridging adapter that enables recruitment of TRIF to activated TLR4 and thereby mediates the induction of TRIF-dependent cytokines. A library of cell-permeating decoy peptides derived from TRAM TIR domain has been screened for the ability of individual peptides to inhibit TLR4 signaling in primary murine macrophages. Peptides derived from TRAM TIR BB loop (TM4) and C helix (TM6) inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent cytokines, as well as MAPK activation. TM4 and TM6 did not block macrophage activation induced by TLR2, TLR9, or retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptor agonists. Both TM4 and TM6 blocked coimmunoprecipitation of TRAM and TLR4 ectopically expressed in HEK293T cells. Both peptides also blocked the LPS-induced recruitment of MyD88 to TLR4 in primary murine macrophages. In vivo examination of TRAM-derived peptides demonstrated that all peptides that were inhibitory in vitro profoundly suppressed systemic inflammatory response elicited in mice by a sublethal LPS dose, and protected mice against a lethal LPS challenge. This research identifies novel TLR inhibitors effective in vitro and in vivo and validates the approach taken in this study as a rational way for development of signaling inhibitors and lead therapeutics. PMID:23345333

Piao, Wenji; Vogel, Stefanie N; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y

2013-01-23

66

TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

67

Process for modifying coal-tar materials  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for decreasing and modifying the quinoline-insoluble content (Q.I.) of coal-tar materials; and comprises extracting the coal-tar material with a solvent, where the solvent contains at least one of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and the wash oil fraction of coal-tar distillate. Pitches with a diminished Q.I. content, lower viscosity and lower average Q.I. particle size, may be prepared from coal-tar materials which have been so treated.

Cukier, S.; Kremer, H.A.F.L.

1985-05-14

68

7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 ...Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition...Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads,...

2013-01-01

69

Decoy-state theory for the heralded single-photon source with intensity fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secure key rates of decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) using the heralded single-photon source (HSPS) are recalculated in the case of intensity fluctuations. By numerical simulations, we show that the HSPS is a good source for decoy-state QKD experiments not only because it has larger upper bound of transmission distance than the usual weak-coherent source (WCS) but also because it is more robust against intensity fluctuations than the WCS.

Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can

2009-06-01

70

2-dimentional DOA estimation using ESPRIT algorithm in ARM confronting coherent decoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the intrinsic defect of passive radar seeker (PRS) of ARM, it can't distinguish coherent decoys from far distance. Using extended-aperture confronting coherent decoys for ARM is proposed in this paper, and a new 2-dimentional DOA estimation ESPRIT algorithm is presented. This algorithm uses the characteristic of a new special array to construct a special covariance matrix. With this

Jianbin Zou; Kai Gao; Eryang Zhang

2010-01-01

71

NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates osteoporosis through inhibition of activation and differentiation of osteoclasts.  

PubMed

The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), is believed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast formation. In this study, we focused on NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate osteoporosis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts formed in mononuclear cells including osteoclast precursors from neonatal rabbit bone marrow were increased in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, whereas transfection of NFkappaB decoy ODN decreased the number of TRAP-positive cells and attenuated RANKL and M-CSF-induced osteoclast formation. NFkappaB decoy ODN also inhibited the activity of osteoclasts, as assessed by pit formation. In rat ovariectomized model of estrogen deficiency, continuous administration of NFkappaB decoy ODN attenuated the increase of TRAP activity, accompanied by a significant increase in calcium concentration in tibia and femur and decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In additional osteoporosis model using vitamin C-deficient rat, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy ODN dramatically improved the bone length, weight, density as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Overall, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy strategy prevented osteoporosis through the inhibition of bone resorption. Targeting of NFkappaB might be potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases. PMID:16511526

Shimizu, H; Nakagami, H; Tsukamoto, I; Morita, S; Kunugiza, Y; Tomita, T; Yoshikawa, H; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Morishita, R

2006-03-02

72

Probabilistic Search and Energy Guidance for Biased Decoy Sampling in Ab-Initio Protein Structure Prediction.  

PubMed

Adequate sampling of the conformational space is a central challenge in ab-initio protein structure prediction. In the absence of a template structure, a conformational search procedure guided by an energy function explores the conformational space, gathering an ensemble of low-energy decoy conformations. If the sampling is inadequate, the native structure may be missed altogether. Even if reproduced, a subsequent stage that selects a subset of decoys for further structural detail and energetic refinement may discard near-native decoys if they are high-energy or insufficiently represented in the ensemble. Sampling should produce a decoy ensemble that facilitates the subsequent selection of near-native decoys. In this paper, we investigate a robotics-inspired framework that allows directly measuring the role of energy in guiding sampling. Testing demonstrates that a soft energy bias steers sampling towards a diverse decoy ensemble less prone to exploiting energetic artifacts and thus more likely to facilitate retainment of near-native conformations by selection techniques. We employ two different energy functions, the Associative Memory Hamiltonian with Water (AMW) and Rosetta. Results show that enhanced sampling provides a rigorous testing of energy functions and exposes different deficiencies in them, thus promising to guide development of more accurate representations and energy functions. PMID:23547004

Molloy, Kevin; Saleh, Sameh; Shehu, Amarda

2013-03-27

73

Tar sands and supergiant oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen very large ''tar'' deposits are estimated to contain about 2,100 billion bbl of oil in place. This is nearly as much heavy oil as the world's total discovered recoverable oil reserves. The seven largest ''tar'' deposits of the world contain 98% of the world's heavy oil; that is, these seven heavy-oil deposits contain about as much oil in place

Demaison

1977-01-01

74

Experimental Production of Carcinoma with Cigarette Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier communication we reported the production of skin cancers in CAP1 mice painted with condensed cigarette tar obtained by the smoking of cigarettes in a machine in a manner similar to human smoking (7). Forty-four per cent of 81 mice painted S times a week with this tar developed histologically proved epidermoid can cers. This represented a higher

ERNEST L. WYNDER; EVARTS A. GRAHAM; ADELE B. CRONINGER

75

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

76

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

77

Fluidized bed retorting of tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw tar sand is treated in a fluidized bed reactor means wherein the raw tar sands are fed into an area below the top of the bed. The bitumen is converted in the process in a reducing atmosphere including steam to produce hot coked sand and hot off-gases. Off-gases from the reactor means pass through a heat exchanger means to

P. H. II

1978-01-01

78

Simple Volatility Test for Tar Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple reliable test to assess the volatility of tar products, especially those of low volatility, has been developed. The mass losses produced by heating small samples of tar products in shallow, open dishes on a thermostatic hot-plate are measured aft...

1978-01-01

79

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

80

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into

Thomas

1982-01-01

81

A Helpful Serving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

Rockower, David

2006-01-01

82

Energy Functions that Discriminate X-ray and Near-native Folds from Well-constructed Decoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study generates ensembles of decoy or test structures for eight small proteins with a variety of different folds. Between 35,000 and 200,000 decoys were generated for each protein using our four-state off-lattice model together with a novel relaxation method. These give compact self-avoiding conformations each constrained to have native secondary structure. Ensembles of these decoy conformations were used to

Britt Park; Michael Levitt

1996-01-01

83

A proteomic study of TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP)-associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The human TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was first identified and cloned based on its high affinity binding to the small hairpin\\u000a trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA of HIV-1. TRBP has more recently been found to be a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing\\u000a complex (RISC) serving as a Dicer co-factor in the processing of the ~70 nucleotide pre-microRNAs(miRNAs) to 21-25 nucleotide\\u000a mature

Ya-Hui Chi; Oliver John Semmes; Kuan-Teh Jeang

2011-01-01

84

Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors  

PubMed Central

Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback–Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors.

Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

85

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

SciTech Connect

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

Thomas, D.D.

1982-08-31

86

Potent microRNA suppression by RNA Pol II-transcribed 'Tough Decoy' inhibitors.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and modulators of diverse biological pathways. Analyses of miRNA function as well as therapeutic managing of miRNAs rely on cellular administration of miRNA inhibitors which may be achieved by the use of viral vehicles. This study explores the miRNA-suppressive capacity of inhibitors expressed intracellularly from lentivirus-derived gene vectors. Superior activity of two decoy-type inhibitors, a "Bulged Sponge" with eight miRNA recognition sites and a hairpin-shaped "Tough Decoy" containing two miRNA recognition sites, is demonstrated in a side-by-side comparison of seven types of miRNA inhibitors transcribed as short RNAs from an RNA Pol III promoter. We find that lentiviral vectors expressing Tough Decoy inhibitors are less vulnerable than Bulged Sponge-encoding vectors to targeting by the cognate miRNA and less prone, therefore, to reductions in transfer efficiency. Importantly, it is demonstrated that Tough Decoy inhibitors retain their miRNA suppression capacity in the context of longer RNA transcripts expressed from an RNA Pol II promoter. Such RNA Pol II-transcribed Tough Decoy inhibitors are new tools in managing of miRNAs and may have potential for temporal and spatial regulation of miRNA activity as well as for therapeutic targeting of miRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in human disease. PMID:23249752

Bak, Rasmus O; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Sørensen, Camilla Darum; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

2012-12-18

87

Targeting cytokine expression in glial cells by cellular delivery of an NF-kappaB decoy.  

PubMed

Inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has emerged as an important strategy for design of anti-inflammatory therapies. In neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory reactions mediated by glial cells are believed to promote disease progression. Here, we report that uptake of a double-stranded oligonucleotide NF-kappaB decoy in rat primary glial cells is clearly facilitated by noncovalent binding to a cell-penetrating peptide, transportan 10, via a complementary peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide decoy was detected in the cells within 1 h only when cells were incubated with the decoy in the presence of cell-penetrating peptide. Cellular delivery of the decoy also inhibited effects induced by a neurotoxic fragment of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide in the presence of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta. Pretreatment of the cells with the complex formed by the decoy and the cell-penetrating peptide-PNA resulted in 80% and 50% inhibition of the NF-kappaB binding activity and IL-6 mRNA expression, respectively. PMID:17726227

Fisher, Linda; Samuelsson, Malin; Jiang, Yang; Ramberg, Veronica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Hallberg, Einar; Langel, Ulo; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

2007-01-01

88

Artefacts and biases affecting the evaluation of scoring functions on decoy sets for protein structure prediction  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Decoy datasets, consisting of a solved protein structure and numerous alternative native-like structures, are in common use for the evaluation of scoring functions in protein structure prediction. Several pitfalls with the use of these datasets have been identified in the literature, as well as useful guidelines for generating more effective decoy datasets. We contribute to this ongoing discussion an empirical assessment of several decoy datasets commonly used in experimental studies. Results: We find that artefacts and sampling issues in the large majority of these data make it trivial to discriminate the native structure. This underlines that evaluation based on the rank/z-score of the native is a weak test of scoring function performance. Moreover, sampling biases present in the way decoy sets are generated or used can strongly affect other types of evaluation measures such as the correlation between score and root mean squared deviation (RMSD) to the native. We demonstrate how, depending on type of bias and evaluation context, sampling biases may lead to both over- or under-estimation of the quality of scoring terms, functions or methods. Availability: Links to the software and data used in this study are available at http://dbkgroup.org/handl/decoy_sets. Contact: simon.lovell@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Lovell, Simon C.

2009-01-01

89

Ethoxylation as Aid to Separate Brown Coal Low-Temperature Carbonization Tars and High-Temperature Tars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work describes the significance of brown coal tar as raw material source for chemical industry. 6% tar is yielded in low-temperature carbonization of brown coal as side product. This tar as opposed to bituminous coal tar does not occur as raw materia...

A. Vogts

1979-01-01

90

Removal of tar base from coal tar aromatics employing solid acid adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compounds from coal tar generally contain a small amount of tar bases, such as quinoline and isoquinoline. These nitrogen-containing compounds can poison the acid-type catalysts and downgrade the aromatic products because of stinking odor. Four solid acid catalysts, silica-alumina, HY, NH4-mordenite, and ?-alumina are used to remove tar bases by adsorption. Wash oil (WO), refined naphthalene (RN), and an

Jeffrey Chi-Sheng Wu; Hsueh-Chang Sung; Yu-Fu Lin; Shi-Long Lin

2000-01-01

91

Practical decoy-state quantum key distribution method considering dark count rate fluctuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering fluctuant dark count rate in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, a new decoy-state method with one vacuum state and one weak decoy state is presented based on a heralded single photon source (HSPS). The method assumes that the dark count rate of each pulse is random and independent. The lower bound of the count rate and the upper bound of the error rate of a single photon state are estimated. The method is applied to the decoy-state QKD system with and without the fluctuation of dark count rate. Because the estimation of the upper bound of a single photon state's error rate is stricter, the method can obtain better performance than the existing methods under the same condition of implementation.

Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Ying-jian

2012-09-01

92

Serving the Undocumented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

Pluviose, David

2007-01-01

93

Preparation of mesocarbon microbeads from coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) was prepared from coal tars with various primary pyridine insoluble fraction (PI) contents from 0 to 3.7 wt?%, through heat treatment at 430–480°C for different time under autoginious pressure. The heat treated coal tars were filtered under 150°C and the residue was rinsed with pyridine. MCMB was obtained as the pyridine insoluble fraction. Both yield and diameter

Yonggen Lü; Licheng Ling; Dong Wu; Lang Liu; Bijiang Zhang; Isao Mochida

1999-01-01

94

Separation of phenols from Eucalyptus wood tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of phenols from Eucalyptus wood pyrolysis tar was carried out with the objective of recovering valuable pure phenols, such as phenol, cresols, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, catechol and syringol. The approach included a primary conversion of the raw wood tar into a lighter oil. Phenolic compounds were further separated from the oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and organic solvents. GC\\/MS

Carlos Amen-Chen; Hooshang Pakdel; Christian Roy

1997-01-01

95

Decoy state quantum key distribution with a photon number resolved heralded single photon source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a long distance and high key rate quantum key distribution (QKD) has become possible by the idea of the decoy state method. We show that a longer distance QKD is possible by utilizing a heralded single photon source (utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion) as a source instead of a weak coherent pulse (WCP) as proposed in the original decoy state method. Moreover, the key rate is improved by utilizing a presently available photon number resolving detector as a trigger detector of the heralded single photon source and it is shown to approach the key rate of the WCP.

Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

2006-03-01

96

Discrete Molecular Dynamics Distinguishes Nativelike Binding Poses from Decoys in Difficult Targets  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening is one of the major tools used in computer-aided drug discovery. In structure-based virtual screening, the scoring function is critical to identifying the correct docking pose and accurately predicting the binding affinities of compounds. However, the performance of existing scoring functions has been shown to be uneven for different targets, and some important drug targets have proven especially challenging. In these targets, scoring functions cannot accurately identify the native or near-native binding pose of the ligand from among decoy poses, which affects both the accuracy of the binding affinity prediction and the ability of virtual screening to identify true binders in chemical libraries. Here, we present an approach to discriminating native poses from decoys in difficult targets for which several scoring functions failed to correctly identify the native pose. Our approach employs Discrete Molecular Dynamics simulations to incorporate protein-ligand dynamics and the entropic effects of binding. We analyze a collection of poses generated by docking and find that the residence time of the ligand in the native and nativelike binding poses is distinctly longer than that in decoy poses. This finding suggests that molecular simulations offer a unique approach to distinguishing the native (or nativelike) binding pose from decoy poses that cannot be distinguished using scoring functions that evaluate static structures. The success of our method emphasizes the importance of protein-ligand dynamics in the accurate determination of the binding pose, an aspect that is not addressed in typical docking and scoring protocols.

Proctor, Elizabeth A.; Yin, Shuangye; Tropsha, Alexander; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

2012-01-01

97

Virus Encoded MHC-Like Decoys Diversify the Inhibitory KIR Repertoire.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in the control of viral infections and tumors. Their functions are regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. A subset of these receptors in human NK cells are the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with the highly polymorphic MHC class I molecules. One important function of NK cells is to detect cells that have down-regulated MHC expression (missing-self). Because MHC molecules have non polymorphic regions, their expression could have been monitored with a limited set of monomorphic receptors. Surprisingly, the KIR family has a remarkable genetic diversity, the function of which remains poorly understood. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is able to evade NK cell responses by coding "decoy" molecules that mimic MHC class I. This interaction was suggested to have driven the evolution of novel NK cell receptors. Inspired by the MCMV system, we develop an agent-based model of a host population infected with viruses that are able to evolve MHC down-regulation and decoy molecules. Our simulations show that specific recognition of MHC class I molecules by inhibitory KIRs provides excellent protection against viruses evolving decoys, and that the diversity of inhibitory KIRs will subsequently evolve as a result of the required discrimination between host MHC molecules and decoy molecules. PMID:24130473

Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Ke?mir, Can; de Boer, Rob J

2013-10-10

98

Application of decoy oligonucleotides as novel therapeutic strategy: a contemporary overview.  

PubMed

Molecular therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of many diseases. Correct regulation of gene expression is essential for both, to normal development and proper functioning of the all the organisms. Even after four decades of intensive research, it is still a major problem from regulatory and technical point of view, to replace defective genes. The technology of decoy oligonucleotides has received considerable attention to treat and cure a variety of diseases and abnormal physiological conditions, because they provide a rational way to design and selective regulation of a specific gene expression. Decoy oligonucleotides are widely used as inhibitors of specific gene expression because they can offer exciting possibility of expression and blocking of a particular gene without any changes in the functions of other genes. Advances in the decoy oligonucleotides are rapidly paving the way to new insights into the origin and treatment of inflammatory, cancer and/or other immune disorders. The review covers the progress achieved towards the development of decoy oligonucleotides as a potential strategy in a new class of molecular therapy. PMID:22780867

Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Akhter, Sohail; Mallik, Neha; Anwar, Mohammad; Tabassum, Wajda; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

2013-03-01

99

Research on Penetration Effectiveness of UAV by Means of Towed-decoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is attempted to be equipped with off-board towed-decoy. This type of countermeasure can be used to survive air defense effectively during the cruise phase of UAV. The index of killed probability (or relative penetration probability) is used to verify the effectiveness of the countermeasure. The penetration effectiveness is given by Monte Carlo simulation. Some conclusions of

Sifu Wang; Yongcai Liu; Shiyi Guan; Wenyi Qiang

2006-01-01

100

Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty , Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

Curty, Marcos; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Moroder, Tobias

2010-02-01

101

Discrete molecular dynamics distinguishes nativelike binding poses from decoys in difficult targets.  

PubMed

Virtual screening is one of the major tools used in computer-aided drug discovery. In structure-based virtual screening, the scoring function is critical to identifying the correct docking pose and accurately predicting the binding affinities of compounds. However, the performance of existing scoring functions has been shown to be uneven for different targets, and some important drug targets have proven especially challenging. In these targets, scoring functions cannot accurately identify the native or near-native binding pose of the ligand from among decoy poses, which affects both the accuracy of the binding affinity prediction and the ability of virtual screening to identify true binders in chemical libraries. Here, we present an approach to discriminating native poses from decoys in difficult targets for which several scoring functions failed to correctly identify the native pose. Our approach employs Discrete Molecular Dynamics simulations to incorporate protein-ligand dynamics and the entropic effects of binding. We analyze a collection of poses generated by docking and find that the residence time of the ligand in the native and nativelike binding poses is distinctly longer than that in decoy poses. This finding suggests that molecular simulations offer a unique approach to distinguishing the native (or nativelike) binding pose from decoy poses that cannot be distinguished using scoring functions that evaluate static structures. The success of our method emphasizes the importance of protein-ligand dynamics in the accurate determination of the binding pose, an aspect that is not addressed in typical docking and scoring protocols. PMID:22225808

Proctor, Elizabeth A; Yin, Shuangye; Tropsha, Alexander; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

2012-01-03

102

Virus Encoded MHC-Like Decoys Diversify the Inhibitory KIR Repertoire  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in the control of viral infections and tumors. Their functions are regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. A subset of these receptors in human NK cells are the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with the highly polymorphic MHC class I molecules. One important function of NK cells is to detect cells that have down-regulated MHC expression (missing-self). Because MHC molecules have non polymorphic regions, their expression could have been monitored with a limited set of monomorphic receptors. Surprisingly, the KIR family has a remarkable genetic diversity, the function of which remains poorly understood. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is able to evade NK cell responses by coding “decoy” molecules that mimic MHC class I. This interaction was suggested to have driven the evolution of novel NK cell receptors. Inspired by the MCMV system, we develop an agent-based model of a host population infected with viruses that are able to evolve MHC down-regulation and decoy molecules. Our simulations show that specific recognition of MHC class I molecules by inhibitory KIRs provides excellent protection against viruses evolving decoys, and that the diversity of inhibitory KIRs will subsequently evolve as a result of the required discrimination between host MHC molecules and decoy molecules.

Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Kesmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.

2013-01-01

103

A Precise Recognition Method of Missile Warhead and Decoy in Multi-Target Scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precise recognition method of missile warhead and decoy in multi-target scene is presented in this paper. In multi-target scene, the echoes received by radar are the mixture of backscattered signals from all targets within radar beam. In order to separate backscattered signal of each target by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) method, a radar system of multiple antennas with different

K. Y. Guo; Q. Li; X. Q. Sheng

2010-01-01

104

Six honest serving men.  

PubMed

The practice of medical-surgical nursing is "a dynamic, evolutionary process" and the proliferation of health care technology has been instrumental in its evolution. This proliferation and the goal of quality patient care in medical-surgical nursing practice are unlikely to change. However, the provision of quality care depends on the use of appropriate technology. Nurses and materiel managers working collaboratively can identify and promote the use of appropriate health care technology by applying the framework of technology assessment. This framework is analogous to Kipling's six honest serving men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. The Elephant's Child What, Why, and When advise selective and judicious use of appropriate health care technology. How, Where, and Who reaffirm knowledgeable and proficient use with registered nurses, the patients' "link with the personal, human world within an impersonal, electronic world." Together, the six honest serving men emphasize that the primary purpose of health care technology is the improvement of human health "from the individual level through and including national health policy." PMID:10127554

McConnell, E A

1993-08-01

105

Treatment of murine Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammatory bowel disease with NF-?B decoy oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

The Th1 and Th2 T cell responses that underlie inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are likely to depend on NF-?B transcriptional activity. We explored this possibility in studies in which we determined the capacity of NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODNs) to treat various murine models of IBD. In initial studies, we showed that i.r. (intrarectal) or i.p. administration of decoy ODNs encapsulated in a viral envelope prevented and treated a model of acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid–induced (TNBS-induced) colitis, as assessed by clinical course and effect on Th1 cytokine production. In further studies, we showed that NF-?B decoy ODNs were also an effective treatment of a model of chronic TNBS-colitis, inhibiting both the production of IL-23/IL-17 and the development of fibrosis that characterizes this model. Treatment of TNBS-induced inflammation by i.r. administration of NF-?B decoy ODNs did not inhibit NF-?B in extraintestinal organs and resulted in CD4+ T cell apoptosis, suggesting that such treatment is highly focused and durable. Finally, we showed that NF-?B decoy ODNs also prevented and treated oxazolone-colitis and thus affect a Th2-mediated inflammatory process. In each case, decoy administration led to inflammation-clearing effects, suggesting a therapeutic potency applicable to human IBD.

Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Fuss, Ivan J.; Preiss, Jan C.; Strober, Warren; Kitani, Atsushi

2005-01-01

106

Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.  

PubMed

The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple filters were used. By analyzing a standard protein mixture, we demonstrated that the higher estimation of FDR and FPs in the separate search likely reflected an overestimation, which could be corrected with a simple merging procedure. Our study illustrates the relative merits of different implementations of the target-decoy strategy, which should be worth contemplating when large-scale proteomic biomarker discovery is to be attempted. PMID:19061407

Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

2009-01-01

107

Structure refinement of protein model decoys requires accurate side-chain placement.  

PubMed

In this study, the application of temperature-based replica-exchange (T-ReX) simulations for structure refinement of decoys taken from the I-TASSER dataset was examined. A set of eight nonredundant proteins was investigated using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) with a generalized Born implicit solvent model to sample conformational space. For two of the protein test cases, a comparison of the SGLD/T-ReX method with that of a hybrid explicit/implicit solvent molecular dynamics T-ReX simulation model is provided. Additionally, the effect of side-chain placement among the starting decoy structures, using alternative rotamer conformations taken from the SCWRL4 modeling program, was investigated. The simulation results showed that, despite having near-native backbone conformations among the starting decoys, the determinant of their refinement is side-chain packing to a level that satisfies a minimum threshold of native contacts to allow efficient excursions toward the downhill refinement regime on the energy landscape. By repacking using SCWRL4 and by applying the RWplus statistical potential for structure identification, the SGLD/T-ReX simulations achieved refinement to an average of 38% increase in the number of native contacts relative to the original I-TASSER decoy sets and a 25% reduction in values of C(?) root-mean-square deviation. The hybrid model succeeded in obtaining a sharper funnel to low-energy states for a modeled target than the implicit solvent SGLD model; yet, structure identification remained roughly the same. Without meeting a threshold of near-native packing of side chains, the T-ReX simulations degrade the accuracy of the decoys, and subsequently, refinement becomes tantamount to the protein folding problem. PMID:23070940

Olson, Mark A; Lee, Michael S

2012-11-12

108

Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

Skinner, Q.

1980-03-01

109

Laboratory Screening of Thermal Recovery Processes for Tar Sand Triangle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four thermal processes (steam displacement, not-gas pyrolysis, reverse and forward combustion) were evaluated to select the most effective oil recovery process for the in situ development of the tar sand resource at Tar Sand Triangle, Utah. Reverse combus...

L. J. Romanowski K. P. Thomas

1985-01-01

110

The characterisation of tar from the pyrolysis of animal bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines results of an investigation of the composition of bone pyrolysis tar produced in Mongolia. The liquid product (tar) yield was low: ?4.9%. The elemental composition of the tar was C: 73.3%, H:10.1%, N: 11.3%, O: 5.3%. Size-exclusion chromatograms signalled the presence of generally smaller mass material than coal tars and pitches, with a range from about 2000

B Purevsuren; B Avid; T Gerelmaa; Ya Davaajav; T. J Morgan; A. A Herod; R Kandiyoti

2004-01-01

111

Fume emissions from coal-tar pitch. Technical manuscript  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar and to determine a first estimate of the emission factor for coal-tar fumes under conditions similar to those found in the field. Three separate experiments were performed. The first resulted in the determination of a coal-tar fume particle size

D. C. Hittle; J. J. Stukel

1976-01-01

112

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone COâ injection project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery by COâ injection was undertaken in support of the Wilmington Tar Zone COâ Injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Company. The work included: - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and COâ. - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and the refinery gas (82% COâ - 18% Nâ) used

V. Sankur; J. L. Creek; S. S. DiJulio; A. S. Emanuel

1984-01-01

113

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and

James D. Westhoff; Arnold E. Harak

1989-01-01

114

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000°F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1989-01-01

115

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000\\/degree\\/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1988-01-01

116

Pyrolysis of Utah tar sands: products and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of successful in-situ thermal recovery techniques for the Utah tar sands requires a knowledge and consideration of the pyrolytic behavior of these bituminous materials. Tar sands from four major Utah deposits, Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Tar Sand Triangle, P.R. Spring, Sunnyside, and from one Canadian deposit, Athabasca, were subjected to pyrolysis, in an inert atmosphere, at temperatures ranging from

R. V. Barbour; S. M. Dorrence; T. L. Vollmer; J. D. Harris

1976-01-01

117

Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

118

The tar reduction study: randomised trial of the effect of cigarette tar yield reduction on compensatory smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Observational and short term intervention studies have reported that smokers of low tar cigarettes inhale more deeply (that is, compensate) than those who smoke high tar cigarettes. To quantify this effect a long term randomised trial was conducted on the effects of switching to low tar cigarettes. METHODS--The trial was carried out between April 1985 and March 1988 among cigarette

C Frost; F M Fullerton; A M Stephen; R Stone; A Nicolaides-Bouman; J Densem; N J Wald; A Semmence

1995-01-01

119

Comparative Anti-Dandruff Efficacy between a Tar and a Non-Tar Shampoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase.

Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Gérald E. Piérard; Valérie Vroome; Gloria C. Lin; Yohini Appa

2000-01-01

120

Systems for producing bitumen from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for producing bitumen from unconsolidated tar sands in an open well includes a screen positioned in the well large enough to pass a majority of the formation sand and small enough to retain a gravel packing material, a pair of high pressure fluid lateral nozzles fracturably fastened in the bottom of the screen, a wash pipe extending down

Payton

1978-01-01

121

Conveyor belts for transporting tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for transporting tar sands in an open pit mine utilizing flexible belt conveyors between a receiving area and a discharge area consists of providing a conveyor belt having an upper surface layer of an elastomeric material which is flexible at low temperatures. It is substantially resistant to excess swelling when exposed to petroleum liquids containing up to 30

1976-01-01

122

Stabilization\\/solidification of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work involve a systematic treatability study of the treatment of acid tars (AT), a waste generated during the processing of petroleum and petrochemical, by stabilization\\/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann

2010-01-01

123

Clarification of tar sands middlings water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for treating tar sands to cause flocculation or coagulation of the clays and other small solids particles present in middlings and tailings streams produced from the hot water process. The process involves the addition of an acid to the water to accelerate clarification of the water and reduce required sludge settling pond area. (1 claim)

Schutte

1974-01-01

124

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial

Wennekers; J. H. N

1982-01-01

125

Pyrolysis of asphalt ridge tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal and nonisothermal pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on Asphalt Ridge tar sand. Oil produced from the isothermal experiments has a molecular weight of approximately 250 and has a hydrogen to carbon ratio between 1.7 and 1.9. Product oil composition varies slightly with reaction time. Results of thin layer chromatographic separation of the residual bitumen show that the concentrations of

T. F. Turner; L. G. Nickerson

1986-01-01

126

TAR-RNA recognition by a novel cyclic aminoglycoside analogue  

PubMed Central

The formation of the Tat-protein/TAR-RNA complex is a crucial step in the regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-gene expression. To obtain full-length viral transcripts the Tat/TAR complex has to recruit the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-EFTb), which interacts with TAR through its cyclin T1 (CycT1) component. Mutational studies identified the TAR hexanucleotide loop as a crucial region for contacting CycT1. Interfering with the interaction between the Tat/CycT1 complex and the TAR-RNA is an attractive strategy for the design of anti-HIV drugs. Positively charged molecules, like aminoglycosides or peptidomimetics, bind the TAR-RNA, disrupting the Tat/TAR complex. Here, we investigate the complex between the HIV-2 TAR-RNA and a neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to other aminoglycosides, this novel aminoglycoside analogue contacts simultaneously the bulge residues required for Tat binding and the A35 residue of the hexanucleotide loop. Upon complex formation, the loop region undergoes profound conformational changes. The novel binding mode, together with the easy accessibility of derivatives for the neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide, could open the way to the design of a new class of TAR-RNA binders, which simultaneously inhibit the formation of both the Tat/TAR binary complex and the Tat/TAR/CycT1 ternary complex by obstructing both the bulge and loop regions of the RNA.

Raghunathan, Devanathan; Sanchez-Pedregal, Victor M.; Junker, Jochen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Kalesse, Markus; Kirschning, Andreas; Carlomagno, Teresa

2006-01-01

127

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15

128

Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor  

SciTech Connect

Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.

Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H. (WU-MED)

2008-09-23

129

Heralded Single Photon Source-Based Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Dual Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, the heralded single photon source (HSPS) based on parametric down-conversion (PDC) has attracted significant attentions from many researchers because its various advantages compared to the weak coherent source. We propose a heralded single photon source-based decoy-state QKD with dual detectors and demonstrate in a theoretical simulation that this method improves the performance of QKD system. The secure key generation rate is increased significantly with our proposal both in thermal and Poisson distributions of photons. The secure key rate produced by our scheme is higher than the state of the art key rate of current high-speed QKD system. The decoy-state QKD system using the heralded single photon source with dual detectors can be an important alternative for the present practical QKD systems.

Yu Feng,; Seounghun Lee,; Semin Kim,; Seunghwan Kim,; Kyonghon Kim,

2010-05-01

130

Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 102 km. Further, we simplify the experimental setup and use only one detector to implement the one-way decoy-state QKD over 75 km, with the advantage to overcome the security loopholes due to the efficiency mismatch of detectors. Our experimental implementation can really offer the unconditionally secure final keys. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2, and 0.6 for the light sources in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation. PMID:17358464

Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dong; Gao, Wei-Bo; Ma, Huai-Xin; Yin, Hao; Zeng, He-Ping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

2007-01-05

131

Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

2012-03-01

132

Protection against inflammation- and autoantibody-caused fetal loss by the chemokine decoy receptor D6  

PubMed Central

Fetal loss in animals and humans is frequently associated with inflammatory conditions. D6 is a promiscuous chemokine receptor with decoy function, expressed in lymphatic endothelium, that recognizes and targets to degradation most inflammatory CC chemokines. Here, we report that D6 is expressed in placenta on invading extravillous trophoblasts and on the apical side of syncytiotrophoblast cells, at the very interface between maternal blood and fetus. Exposure of D6?/? pregnant mice to LPS or antiphospholipid autoantibodies results in higher levels of inflammatory CC chemokines and increased leukocyte infiltrate in placenta, causing an increased rate of fetal loss, which is prevented by blocking inflammatory chemokines. Thus, the promiscuous decoy receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines D6 plays a nonredundant role in the protection against fetal loss caused by systemic inflammation and antiphospholipid antibodies.

Martinez de la Torre, Yeny; Buracchi, Chiara; Borroni, Elena M.; Dupor, Jana; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Nebuloni, Manuela; Pasqualini, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Lauri, Eleonora; Agostinis, Chiara; Bulla, Roberta; Cook, Donald N.; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Meroni, Pierluigi; Rukavina, Daniel; Vago, Luca; Tedesco, Francesco; Vecchi, Annunciata; Lira, Sergio A.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto

2007-01-01

133

Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

2012-01-01

134

Network properties of decoys and CASP predicted models: a comparison with native protein structures.  

PubMed

Protein structure space is believed to consist of a finite set of discrete folds, unlike the protein sequence space which is astronomically large, indicating that proteins from the available sequence space are likely to adopt one of the many folds already observed. In spite of extensive sequence-structure correlation data, protein structure prediction still remains an open question with researchers having tried different approaches (experimental as well as computational). One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify the native protein structures from a milieu of decoys/models. In this work, a rigorous investigation of Protein Structure Networks (PSNs) has been performed to detect native structures from decoys/models. Ninety four parameters obtained from network studies have been optimally combined with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive a general metric to distinguish decoys/models from the native protein structures with an accuracy of 94.11%. Recently, for the first time in the literature we had shown that PSN has the capability to distinguish native proteins from decoys. A major difference between the present work and the previous study is to explore the transition profiles at different strengths of non-covalent interactions and SVM has indeed identified this as an important parameter. Additionally, the SVM trained algorithm is also applied to the recent CASP10 predicted models. The novelty of the network approach is that it is based on general network properties of native protein structures and that a given model can be assessed independent of any reference structure. Thus, the approach presented in this paper can be valuable in validating the predicted structures. A web-server has been developed for this purpose and is freely available at . PMID:23694935

Chatterjee, S; Ghosh, S; Vishveshwara, S

2013-05-22

135

Circular dumbbell AP1 and E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotide based antiproliferative gene therapy Review Article  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Excessive proliferation of cells is a characteristic finding in a wide variety of diseases including post-angioplasty restenosis, diabetic nephropathy, and malignant disease. It is well known that the transcription factors AP-1 and E2F play a critical role in cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Therefore, sequence-specific inhibition of AP-1 and E2F by decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) is an attractive method

Keun-Gyu Park; Seong-Yeol Ryu; In-Kyu Lee

136

Effects of Decoy Gender and Wing Clipping on Capture Success of Brown-Headed Cowbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the risks that nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) pose to breeding Kirtland’s Warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) and other songbirds, refinement of existing cowbird trapping techniques and development of new techniques are needed to improve the efficiency of cowbird removal. We conducted experiments during 1999-2002 to determine if the use of male and female decoys affected capture rates

Scott C. Barras; THOMAS W. SEAMANS; JONATHAN D. CEPEK

2005-01-01

137

Distinguish the target and the towed decoy based on time-domain waveform design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range difference between the target and the towed radar active decoy (TRAD) supplies the opportunity to distinguish them in distance for the radar seeker. Based on detailed analysis about this range difference, the Step Frequency-Pulse Doppler (SF-PD) waveform was adopted to replace the conditional quasi-continuous waveform, and appropriate parameters were designed to supply a relative strong Doppler resolution as

Zhi-yong Song; Yi-long Zhu; Huai-tie Xiao; Zai-qi Lu

2011-01-01

138

Upper bounds of eavesdropper's performances in finite-length code with the decoy method  

SciTech Connect

Security formulas of quantum key distribution (QKD) with imperfect resources are obtained for finite-length code when the decoy method is applied. This analysis is useful for guaranteeing the security of implemented QKD systems. Our formulas take into account the effect of the vacuum state and dark counts in the detector. We compare the asymptotic key generation rate in the presence of dark counts to that without the presence of dark counts.

Hayashi, Masahito [ERATO-SORST Quantum Computation and Information Project, JST, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2007-07-15

139

Yeast genetic selections to optimize RNA decoys for transcription factor NF-?B  

PubMed Central

In vitro-selected RNA aptamers are potential inhibitors of disease-related proteins. Our laboratory previously isolated an RNA aptamer that binds with high affinity to human transcription factor NF-?B. This RNA aptamer competitively inhibits DNA binding by NF-?B in vitro and is recognized by its target protein in vivo in a yeast three-hybrid system. In the present study, yeast genetic selections were used to optimize the RNA aptamer for binding to NF-?B in the eukaryotic nucleus. Selection for improved binding to NF-?B from RNA libraries encoding (i) degenerate aptamer variants and (ii) sequences present at round 8 of 14 total rounds of in vitro selection yielded RNA aptamers with dramatically improved in vivo activity. Furthermore, we show that an in vivo-optimized RNA aptamer exhibits specific “decoy” activity, inhibiting transcriptional activation by its NF-?B target protein in a yeast one-hybrid assay. This decoy activity is enhanced by the expression of a bivalent aptamer. The combination of in vitro and in vivo genetic selections was crucial for obtaining RNA aptamers with in vivo decoy activity.

Cassiday, Laura A.; Maher, L. James

2003-01-01

140

Managing microRNAs with vector-encoded decoy-type inhibitors.  

PubMed

A rapidly growing understanding of the complex circuitry of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation is attracting attention to miRNAs as new drug targets. Targeted miRNA suppression is achieved in a sequence-specific manner by antisense RNA "decoy" molecules. Such synthetic miRNA inhibitors have reached the clinic with remarkable pace and may soon appear as new therapeutic modalities in several diseases. Shortcomings, however, include high production costs, the requirement for repeated administration, and difficulty achieving tissue-specific delivery. With the many recent landmark achievements in clinical gene therapy, new and refined vector-encoded miRNA suppression technologies are attractive for many applications, not least as tools in innumerable daily studies of miRNA biology in laboratories worldwide. Here, we provide an overview of the strategies that have been used to adapt vector-encoded inhibitors for miRNA suppression and discuss advantages related to spatiotemporal and long-term miRNA attenuation. With the remarkable new discovery of miRNA management by naturally occurring circular RNAs, RNA circles generated by trans-splicing mechanisms may prove to be well-suited carriers of decoy-type miRNA inhibitors. The community will aspire to combine circles with high-affinity miRNA decoy methodologies, and such "vectorized" RNA circles may represent new solid ways to deliver miRNA inhibitors, perhaps even with therapeutic applications. PMID:23752312

Bak, Rasmus O; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

2013-06-11

141

Use of decoys to optimize an all-atom force field including hydration.  

PubMed

A novel method of parameter optimization is proposed. It makes use of large sets of decoys generated for six nonhomologous proteins with different architecture. Parameter optimization is achieved by creating a free energy gap between sets of nativelike and nonnative conformations. The method is applied to optimize the parameters of a physics-based scoring function consisting of the all-atom ECEPP05 force field coupled with an implicit solvent model (a solvent-accessible surface area model). The optimized force field is able to discriminate near-native from nonnative conformations of the six training proteins when used either for local energy minimization or for short Monte Carlo simulated annealing runs after local energy minimization. The resulting force field is validated with an independent set of six nonhomologous proteins, and appears to be transferable to proteins not included in the optimization; i.e., for five out of the six test proteins, decoys with 1.7- to 4.0-A all-heavy-atom root mean-square deviations emerge as those with the lowest energy. In addition, we examined the set of misfolded structures created by Park and Levitt using a four-state reduced model. The results from these additional calculations confirm the good discriminative ability of the optimized force field obtained with our decoy sets. PMID:18502794

Arnautova, Yelena A; Scheraga, Harold A

2008-05-23

142

Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines student tuition, ad valorem property taxes, and state appropriations utilizing a revenue-per-contact-hour model to identify disparities in the Texas' community college funding mechanism. Methodology is presented to identify differences between and among Caucasian-serving, African-American-serving, Hispanic-serving, and other…

Waller, Lee; Glasscock, Herlinda M.; Glasscock, Ronnie L.; Fulton-Calkins, Patsy J.

2006-01-01

143

Filamentous carbon catalytic deposition of coal-tar pitch fraction on corundum  

SciTech Connect

Our work was focused on deposition of volatile hydrocarbons of carbonaceous precursor on corundum wafer, taking advantage of a metallic catalyst incorporated in precursor. Coal tar-pitch, namely a fraction soluble in toluene, served as precursor material for deposition of filamentous material. The toluene-soluble fraction of tar-pitch originally contained metallic particles of iron and nickel. During heat treatment up to 1000{sup o}C, metallic particles accompanied the volatile hydrocarbons conducive to forming a filamentous deposit. The deposit obtained demonstrates a semicrystalline material that has an irregular filamentous structure with an average filament diameter of 30 {mu}m. The presence of catalysts after the deposition process was proved in the deposit but catalysts were not found in the residuum.

Martynkova, G.S.; Supova, M. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

2007-01-15

144

A proteomic study of TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP)-associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background The human TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was first identified and cloned based on its high affinity binding to the small hairpin trans-activation responsive (TAR) RNA of HIV-1. TRBP has more recently been found to be a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) serving as a Dicer co-factor in the processing of the ~70 nucleotide pre-microRNAs(miRNAs) to 21-25 nucleotide mature miRNAs. Findings Using co-immunoprecipitation and protein-identification by mass spectrometry, we characterized intracellular proteins that complex with TRBP. These interacting proteins include those that have been described to act in protein synthesis, RNA modifications and processing, DNA transcription, and cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings provide a proteome of factors that may cooperate with TRBP in activities such as miRNA processing and in RNA interference by the RISC complex.

2011-01-01

145

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

146

Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

Yan, T.Y.

1986-09-01

147

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2010-07-22

148

Technical Problems in the Mining of Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which affect the selection of equipment, mine layout, and sequence of operations are discussed as they relate to the open-pit mining of tar sands. These factors include the overburden to-tar-sand ratio, geological, and hydrological conditions and general limitations of open pit methods. Overburden removal is discussed from the standpoints of overburden properties, equipment selection, and field operations. Tar sand

KFM Gold

1967-01-01

149

Subfractionation of coal tar neutral fraction. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to develop a fractionation scheme for a neutral coal-tar fraction which had been isolated from coal-tar pitch. Silica gel (7631869) chromatography was used to fractionate the neutral fraction of a 2kg sample of coal-tar. Class separation was affected by the sequential elution of the neutral fraction with solvents of increasing polarity over an activated silica gel

D. R. Jones; H. G. Reilich; H. J. ONeill

1975-01-01

150

Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that currently do not meet the…

Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

2010-01-01

151

Wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack against plug-and-play quantum key distribution systems with decoy states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to collect information about the key without being discovered. For example, without the decoy-state method, Eve can perform the photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack and get full information without introducing any perturbation, since weak laser pulses are widely used in practical systems instead of single-photon sources. However, the decoy-state method against PNS attack itself may introduce another loophole while closing the loophole of multiphoton pulses. In this paper, a fatal loophole of practical decoy-state plug-and-play QKD systems has been exploited and a wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting (WSPNS) attack scheme against plug-and-play QKD systems with the decoy-state method is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the eavesdropper can get full information about the key generated between the legitimate parties just like the PNS attack was performed in plug-and-play QKD systems without the decoy-state method.

Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

2012-09-01

152

Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions  

PubMed Central

This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods.

Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

2011-01-01

153

Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual [sup 14]C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual [sup 14]C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance.

Lajoie, C.A.

1991-01-01

154

Comparison of the emission of IR decoy flare under controlled laboratory and on-field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the optical properties of decoy flares such as peak intensity, rise time and function time as well as the trajectory after being ejected are crucial to ensure the decoy effectiveness and the protection of the aircraft. The Countermeasures Laboratory of the "Institute of technology Marañosa" (ITM) has performed a measurement campaign during the spring of 2008 to determine the IR decoy signature in both wind tunnel test and in-flight conditions. Both tests are complementary because of the different test conditions that influence the behavior of the flare burn profile. Deviations were found between two sets of data due to high wind-stream and high altitudes. Comparison of both sets of results allows extrapolating the measurements in stationary conditions to that of a real scenario. Besides, these comparisons are useful to validate IR flare emission simulation software. The radiant intensity and burn time was calculated trough a sequence of calibrated images. The effect of the influent parameter on the emitted intensity were also Identified and measured. Analysis of in-flight measurements took into account the altitude, aerodynamic conditions, angle aspect and of course the wind speed. Sky radiance and atmospheric transmittance were also calculated. The radiation measurements of IR flares on flight and wind tunnel test are performed with a MWIR camera equipped with a 350mm focal length lens. Besides the camera a Circular Variable Filter (CVF) spectrorradiometer was used for the tunnel test. For the field trial an automatic tracking system of targets were used in order to determine the flare trajectory.

Sánchez Oliveros, Carmen; Martín Aragón, Laura; Macias Jareño, Raquel

2009-09-01

155

Learning from Decoys to Improve the Sensitivity and Specificity of Proteomics Database Search Results  

PubMed Central

The statistical validation of database search results is a complex issue in bottom-up proteomics. The correct and incorrect peptide spectrum match (PSM) scores overlap significantly, making an accurate assessment of true peptide matches challenging. Since the complete separation between the true and false hits is practically never achieved, there is need for better methods and rescoring algorithms to improve upon the primary database search results. Here we describe the calibration and False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation of database search scores through a dynamic FDR calculation method, FlexiFDR, which increases both the sensitivity and specificity of search results. Modelling a simple linear regression on the decoy hits for different charge states, the method maximized the number of true positives and reduced the number of false negatives in several standard datasets of varying complexity (18-mix, 49-mix, 200-mix) and few complex datasets (E. coli and Yeast) obtained from a wide variety of MS platforms. The net positive gain for correct spectral and peptide identifications was up to 14.81% and 6.2% respectively. The approach is applicable to different search methodologies- separate as well as concatenated database search, high mass accuracy, and semi-tryptic and modification searches. FlexiFDR was also applied to Mascot results and showed better performance than before. We have shown that appropriate threshold learnt from decoys, can be very effective in improving the database search results. FlexiFDR adapts itself to different instruments, data types and MS platforms. It learns from the decoy hits and sets a flexible threshold that automatically aligns itself to the underlying variables of data quality and size.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Dhirendra; Dash, Debasis

2012-01-01

156

Designing CXCL8-based decoy proteins with strong anti-inflammatory activity in vivo  

PubMed Central

IL (interleukin)-8 [CXCL8 (CXC chemokine ligand 8)] exerts its role in inflammation by triggering neutrophils via its specific GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), CXCR1 (CXC chemokine receptor 1) and CXCR2, for which additional binding to endothelial HS-GAGs (heparan sulphate-glycosaminoglycans) is required. We present here a novel approach for blocking the CXCL8-related inflammatory cascade by generating dominant-negative CXCL8 mutants with improved GAG-binding affinity and knocked-out CXCR1/CXCR2 activity. These non-signalling CXCL8 decoy proteins are able to displace WT (wild-type) CXCL8 and to prevent CXCR1/CXCR2 signalling thereby interfering with the inflammatory response. We have designed 14 CXCL8 mutants that we subdivided into three classes according to number and site of mutations. The decoys were characterized by IFTs (isothermal fluorescence titrations) and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) to determine GAG affinity. Protein stability and structural changes were evaluated by far-UV CD spectroscopy and knocked-out GPCR response was shown by Boyden chamber and Ca2+ release assays. From these experiments, CXCL8(?6F17KF21KE70KN71K) emerged with the most promising in vitro characteristics. This mutant was therefore further investigated in a murine model of mBSA (methylated BSA)-induced arthritis in mice where it showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results, we propose that dominant-negative CXCL8 decoy proteins are a promising class of novel biopharmaceuticals with high therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

Falsone, Angelika; Wabitsch, Veronica; Geretti, Elena; Potzinger, Heide; Gerlza, Tanja; Robinson, James; Adage, Tiziana; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Kungl, Andreas J.

2013-01-01

157

Novel Ribbon-Type Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotides Preclude Airways Hyperreactivity and Th2 Cytokine Expression in Experimental Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is required for the differentiation of Th2 responses, so we examined its role in mouse experimental asthma and tested the hypothesis that an NFAT blockade with a decoy against NFAT can prevent asthma progression. Objective: To determine the effects of the NFAT decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on the development of airway inflammation, we

Yutaka Nakamura; Hiromi Nagashima; Masachika Akiyama; Atsuko Sato; Takayuki Miyamoto; Nobuhito Sasaki; Hiroo Nitanai; Koko Kowata; Toshihide Nakadate; Hitoshi Kobayashi; Noriyuki Uesugi; Tamotsu Sugai; Terutaka Kakiuchi; Hiroshi Inoue; Kohei Yamauchi

2011-01-01

158

Controlled release of NF ?B decoy oligonucleotides from biodegradable polymer microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate a poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)\\/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA\\/PEG) delivery system for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) decoy phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (ODNs). PLGA\\/PEG microparticles loaded with ODNs were fabricated with entrapment efficiencies up to 70%. The effects of PEG contents (0, 5, and 10wt%), ODN loading densities (0.4, 4, and 40?g\\/mg), and pH of the incubation medium (pH

Xun Zhu; Lichun Lu; Bradford L Currier; Anthony J Windebank; Michael J Yaszemski

2002-01-01

159

Decoys and Regulatory "Receptors" of the IL-1/Toll-Like Receptor Superfamily  

PubMed Central

Members of the IL-1 family play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Members of IL-1R like receptor (ILR) family include signaling molecules and negative regulators. The latter include decoy receptors (IL-1RII; IL-18BP) and “receptors” with regulatory function (TIR8/SIGIRR; IL-1RAcPb; DIGIRR). Structural considerations suggest that also TIGIRR-1 and IL-1RAPL may have regulatory function. The presence of multiple pathways of negative regulation of members of the IL-1/IL-1R family emphasizes the need for a tight control of members of this fundamental system.

Garlanda, Cecilia; Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Gentile, Stefania; Mantovani, Alberto

2013-01-01

160

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

161

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01

162

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX)

2010-01-12

163

Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

164

Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

2006-04-15

165

48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252âTar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002...

2011-10-01

166

48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252âTar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002...

2012-10-01

167

Tar Barreler's Hump: An Unusual Presentation of a Posttraumatic Pseudolipoma  

PubMed Central

This is an interesting paper of a 4?cm posttraumatic pseudolipoma on the back of the neck of an adult man who has participated in “tar barrel rolling” since adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pseudolipoma to be reported in the literature in association with tar barreling.

Olubaniyi, Babajide Olusola; Sidhu, Harbir; Long, Alex; de-Sousa, Nigel; Redfern, Andrew

2012-01-01

168

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of

R. L. Fox; J. R. Wayland

1980-01-01

169

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

170

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

171

Operational data on the liquid phase tar chamber at Leuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This file is a series of operational records and diagrams of the liquid phase tar chamber at Leuna. According to Haehnel (in a brief general section) in the chamber a brown coal low temperature carbonization tar was distilled with a small amount of oil. Lighter fractions were led off and the residue was cycled to the liquid phase hydrogenation. When

2008-01-01

172

Use of solvents to enhance PAH biodegradation of coal tar-  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation of coal tar-contaminated soils containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of PAHs. Five coal tar-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with two solvents, acetone and ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of the PAH compounds. The biodegradation of various PAHs in the pretreated soils

Pak-Hing Lee; Say Kee Ong; Johanshir Golchin

2001-01-01

173

Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required

Tsoung-yuan Yan

1986-01-01

174

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Azaarenes in a Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal tar sample taken from a well located on the site of a former coal tar distillation plant was dissolved in methylene chloride and fractionated into acids, bases, and neutrals by acid\\/base partitioning. Alumina chromatography was used to separate the base fraction into five fractions, one of which contained the azaarenes. These fractions were subjected to gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry.

Viorica Lopez-avila; Susan Kraska; Michael Flanagan

1988-01-01

175

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

176

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1989-11-14

177

Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor FP3 Exerts Potent Antiangiogenic Effects  

PubMed Central

The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptors stimulates tumor growth; therefore, modulation of VEGF would be a viable approach for antiangiogenic therapy. We constructed a series of soluble decoy receptors containing different VEGF receptor 1 (FLT1) and VEGF receptor 2 (KDR) extracellular domains fused with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (Ig) and evaluated their antiangiogenic effects and antitumor effects. Results of in vitro binding and cell proliferation assays revealed that decoy receptor FP3 had the highest affinity to VEGF-A and -B. Compared with bevacizumab, FP3 more effectively inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and vessel sprouting from rat aortic rings. FP3 significantly reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, critical proteins in the VEGF-mediated survival pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, FP3 inhibited tumor growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer (LoVo) tumor models, and reduced microvessel density in tumor tissues. The FP3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher than that of bevacizumab at the same dose. FP3 also demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Taken together, FP3 shows a high affinity for VEGF and produced antiangiogenic effects, suggesting its potential for treating angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer.

Yu, De-Chao; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Ji Young; Shin, Hyewon; Deng, Hongxin; Wei, Yuquan; Yun, Chae-Ok

2012-01-01

178

Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) utilizes the laws of quantum mechanics to achieve information-theoretically secure key generation. This field is now approaching the stage of commercialization, but many practical QKD systems still suffer from security loopholes due to imperfect devices. In fact, practical attacks have successfully been demonstrated. Fortunately, most of them only exploit detection-side loopholes, which are now closed by the recent idea of measurement-device-independent QKD. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the source, which may still leave QKD systems insecure. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an attack that exploits a source-side loophole existing in qubit-based QKD systems using a weak coherent state source and decoy states. Specifically, by implementing a linear-optics unambiguous state discrimination measurement, we show that the security of a system without phase randomization—which is a step assumed in conventional security analyses but sometimes neglected in practice—can be compromised. We conclude that implementing phase randomization is essential to the security of decoy-state QKD systems under current security analyses.

Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Liu, Yang; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-08-01

179

Diversity, decoys and the dilution effect: how ecological communities affect disease risk.  

PubMed

Growing interest in ecology has recently focused on the hypothesis that community diversity can mediate infection levels and disease ('dilution effect'). In turn, biodiversity loss--a widespread consequence of environmental change--can indirectly promote increases in disease, including those of medical and veterinary importance. While this work has focused primarily on correlational studies involving vector-borne microparasite diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus), we argue that parasites with complex life cycles (e.g. helminths, protists, myxosporeans and many fungi) offer an excellent additional model in which to experimentally address mechanistic questions underlying the dilution effect. Here, we unite recent ecological research on the dilution effect in microparasites with decades of parasitological research on the decoy effect in macroparasites to explore key questions surrounding the relationship between community structure and disease. We find consistent evidence that community diversity significantly alters parasite transmission and pathology under laboratory as well as natural conditions. Empirical examples and simple transmission models highlight the diversity of mechanisms through which such changes occur, typically involving predators, parasite decoys, low competency hosts or other parasites. However, the degree of transmission reduction varies among diluting species, parasite stage, and across spatial scales, challenging efforts to make quantitative, taxon-specific predictions about disease. Taken together, this synthesis highlights the broad link between community structure and disease while underscoring the importance of mitigating ongoing changes in biological communities owing to species introductions and extirpations. PMID:20190121

Johnson, P T J; Thieltges, D W

2010-03-15

180

Monitoring tat peptide binding to TAR RNA by solid-state 31P-19F REDOR NMR  

PubMed Central

Complexes of the HIV transactivation response element (TAR) RNA with the viral regulatory protein tat are of special interest due in particular to the plasticity of the RNA at this binding site and to the potential for therapeutic targeting of the interaction. We performed REDOR solid-state NMR experiments on lyophilized samples of a 29 nt HIV-1 TAR construct to measure conformational changes in the tat-binding site concomitant with binding of a short peptide comprising the residues of the tat basic binding domain. Peptide binding was observed to produce a nearly 4 ? decrease in the separation between phosphorothioate and 2?F labels incorporated at A27 in the upper helix and U23 in the bulge, respectively, consistent with distance changes observed in previous solution NMR studies, and with models showing significant rearrangement in position of bulge residue U23 in the bound-form RNA. In addition to providing long-range constraints on free TAR and the TAR–tat complex, these results suggest that in RNAs known to undergo large deformations upon ligand binding, 31P–19F REDOR measurements can also serve as an assay for complex formation in solid-state samples. To our knowledge, these experiments provide the first example of a solid-state NMR distance measurement in an RNA–peptide complex.

Olsen, Greg L.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Deka, Pritilekha; Varani, Gabriele; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.; Drobny, Gary P.

2005-01-01

181

HIV-1 TAR RNA subverts RNA interference in transfected cells through sequestration of TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP.  

PubMed

TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was recently discovered to be an essential partner for Dicer and a crucial component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a critical element of the RNA interference (RNAi) of the cell apparatus. Human TRBP was originally characterized and cloned 15 years ago based on its high affinity for binding the HIV-1 encoded leader RNA, TAR. RNAi is used, in part, by cells to defend against infection by viruses. Here, we report that transfected TAR RNA can attenuate the RNAi machinery in human cells. Our data suggest that TAR RNA sequesters TRBP rendering it unavailable for downstream Dicer-RISC complexes. TAR-induced inhibition of Dicer-RISC activity in transfected cells was partially relieved by exogenous expression of TRBP. PMID:16887810

Bennasser, Yamina; Yeung, Man Lung; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

2006-08-03

182

Evaluating coal tar-water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute-solvent molecular interactions in tar phase.  

PubMed

Equilibrium partitioning coefficients between an industrial coal tar sample and water (KCT/w) were determined for 41 polar and nonpolar solutes in batch systems. Together with literature values, 69 KCT/w data were analyzed using the following model approaches: Raoult's law, the single parameter linear free energy relationship (SPLFER) with octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow), the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs), SPARC and COSMOtherm. Estimations by Raoult's law and the SPLFER agreed well with the experimental log KCT/w values for the investigated coal tar, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. LSER resulted in as good estimations (RMSE=0.29) as the previous two. The LSER analysis revealed significant hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor properties of the studied coal tar phase. Using naphthalene as a surrogate solvent for the coal tar phase, SPARC and COSMOtherm provided fairly good predictions (RMSE of 0.63 and 0.65, respectively) of log KCT/w, without any additional empirical parameter. Further calculations using SPARC and COSMOtherm for partitioning between water and other tar-components (e.g., benzofuran, phenol and quinoline) suggested that minor components in coal tar do not significantly influence KCT/w of nonpolar solutes, and that Raoult's law and the SPLFER thus may be generally applied to these types of solutes, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes, regardless of coal tar compositions. In contrast, partitioning of H-bonding solutes (e.g., phenols) can significantly vary depending on the amount of polar tar-components such as N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Therefore, the presented successful applications of Raoult's law and SPLFER to the studied coal tar could be a special case, and these simple approaches may not provide reasonable estimations for partitioning of H-bonding solutes from compositionally different coal tars. PMID:18649918

Endo, Satoshi; Xu, Wanjing; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schmidt, Torsten C

2008-07-22

183

Isolation of a nuclease-resistant decoy RNA that selectively blocks autoantibody binding to insulin receptors on human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

An RNA containing 2'-amino pyrimidines has been isolated using in vitro selection techniques that specifically and avidly (apparent Kd approximately 30 nM) binds a mouse monoclonal antibody called MA20. This 2'-amino-derivatized RNA is at least 10,000-fold more stable than unmodified RNA in serum, and can act as a decoy and block MA20 binding to its natural antigen, the human insulin receptor, on lymphocytes. Furthermore, this RNA decoy can inhibit MA20-mediated downmodulation of insulin receptor expression on human lymphocytes in culture by up to 90%. Surprisingly, the decoy RNA cross-reacts with autoantibodies from patients with extreme insulin resistance and can inhibit these antiinsulin receptor antibodies from downmodulating insulin receptor expression by up to 80% without impeding insulin binding to its receptor. These results suggest that in vitro-selected decoy RNAs may be able to specifically and selectively block oligoclonal autoimmune responses to self-antigens in patients with autoimmune diseases.

1996-01-01

184

Transcription factor decoy oligonucleotides modified with locked nucleic acids: an in vitro study to reconcile biostability with binding affinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded oligonucleotides (ODNs) contain- ing the consensus binding sequence of a transcrip- tion factor provide a rationally designed tool to manipulate gene expression at the transcriptional level by the decoy approach. However, modifica- tions introduced into oligonucleotides to increase stability quite often do not guarantee that transcrip- tion factor affinity and\\/or specificity of recognition are retained. We have previously evaluated

Rita Crinelli; Marzia Bianchi; Lucia Gentilini; Linda Palma; Mads D. Sørensen; Torsten Bryld; Ravindra B. Babu; Khalil Arar; Jesper Wengel; Mauro Magnani

2004-01-01

185

Carbazole Is a Naturally Occurring Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Inflammation Isolated from Antipsoriatic Coal Tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

2006-01-01

186

Characterization of tars from Estonian Kukersite oil shale based on their volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation of primary tar during fossil fuel pyrolysis is one of the processes that can influence yield and composition of pyrolysis products. The objective of this paper was to illustrate the volatility of oil shale primary pyrolysis tars. The focus was on the less volatile heavy end of the tar. The primary tar for study was produced from pyrolysis of

Vahur Oja

2005-01-01

187

Particle size distribution and chemical composition of coal-tar fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was intended to characterize the chemical and physical nature of coal-tar fumes emitted from spreading applications of coal tar. Two separate experiments were performed. The first resulted in the determination of a coal-tar fume particle size distribution. The second experiment resulted in the identification of the primary compounds found in collected tar fumes and a determination of their

DOUGLAS C. HITTLE; JAMES J. STUKEL

1976-01-01

188

FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

1980-05-01

189

Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

190

Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin.  

PubMed

The incidence of wound botulism is increasing and the epidemiology of the disease is changing. The majority of new cases are associated with injection drug use, in particular, the use of Mexican black tar heroin. This case report and discussion of wound botulism illustrate the following important points: Dysphagia, dysphonia, diplopia, and descending paralysis, in association with injection drug use, should alert the treating physician to the possibility of wound botulism. In such patients, the onset of respiratory failure may be sudden and without clinically obvious signs of respiratory weakness. For the reported patient, maximum inspiratory force measurements were the only reliable indicator of respiratory muscle weakness. This is a measurement not routinely performed in the ED, but may prove essential for patients with suspected wound botulism. To minimize the effect of the botulinum toxin and to decrease length of hospital stay, antitoxin administration and surgical wound debridement should be performed early. PMID:9262701

Anderson, M W; Sharma, K; Feeney, C M

1997-08-01

191

Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential for widespread real-world applications, but no secure long-distance experiment has demonstrated the truly practical operation needed to move QKD from the laboratory to the real world due largely to limitations in synchronization and poor detector performance. Here, we report results obtained using a fully automated, robust QKD system based on the Bennett Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with low-noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) and decoy levels to produce a secret key with unconditional security over a record 140.6 km of optical fibre, an increase of more than a factor of five compared with the previous record for unconditionally secure key generation in a practical QKD system.

Rosenberg, D.; Peterson, C. G.; Harrington, J. W.; Rice, P. R.; Dallmann, N.; Tyagi, K. T.; McCabe, K. P.; Nam, S.; Baek, B.; Hadfield, R. H.; Hughes, R. J.; Nordholt, J. E.

2009-04-01

192

Reexamination of the decoy-state quantum key distribution with an unstable source  

SciTech Connect

We present an improved formula for the lower bound of the fraction of single-photon counts in a decoy-state protocol with an unstable source. Based on the formula, we study two-intensity protocol and three-intensity protocol. The major formula in the passive two-intensity protocol proposed by Adachi, Yamamoto, Koashi, and Imoto (AYKI) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180503 (2007)] actually always holds with whatever intensity fluctuation of pump light. Therefore, the protocol can always work securely without monitoring the source state or switching the source intensity. We also show that our result can greatly improve the key rate of the three-intensity protocol with a fluctuating coherent-state source.

Hu Jiazhong; Wang Xiangbin [Department of Physics and the Key Laboratory of Atomic and Nanosciences, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-07-15

193

FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

1980-09-01

194

Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

1988-05-01

195

The compensating behavior of smokers: taxes, tar, and nicotine.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake is unaffected. Young smokers, aged 18-24, are much more responsive to changes in taxes than are older smokers, and their total daily tar and nicotine intake actually increases after a tax hike. We illustrate that tax-induced compensating behavior may eliminate some health benefits generated by reduced smoking participation. A more appropriate tax might be based on the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes. PMID:11794360

Evans, W N; Farrelly, M C

1998-01-01

196

Control Technologies for Particulate and Tar Emissions from Coal Converters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce t...

C. Chen C. Koralek L. Breitstein

1979-01-01

197

Noncatalytic liquefaction of tar with low-temperature hydrothermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water at hydrothermal and supercritical conditions is considered a promising solvent for the degradation of hazardous waste\\u000a into harmless compounds. Tar liquefaction experiments were conducted using a batch-type reactor at temperatures between 623?K\\u000a and 673?K and at pressures between 25 and 40?MPa. A reaction mechanism for tar liquefaction is proposed. Moreover, on the\\u000a basis of the experimental results, this method

Wahyudiono; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2007-01-01

198

TarO: a target optimisation system for structural biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

TarO (http:\\/\\/www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk\\/taro) offers a single point of reference for key bioinformatics analyses relevant to selecting proteins or domains for study by structural biology techniques. The protein sequence is analysed by 17 algorithms and compared to 8 databases. TarO gathers putative homologues, including orthologues, and then obtains predictions of properties for these sequences including crystallisation propensity, pro- tein disorder and post-translational

Ian M. Overton; C. A. Johannes Van Niekerk; Lester G. Carter; Alice Dawson; David M. A. Martin; Scott Cameron; Stephen A. Mcmahon; Malcolm F. White; William N. Hunter; James H. Naismith; Geoffrey J. Barton

2008-01-01

199

Economic analysis of the utilization of oil from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of producing and using tar-sand crude are governed to a considerable degree by the costs involved in its recovery. The principal methods used for the recovery of tar-sand crudes in the USSR are ~n 8~tu combustion and steam injection into the formation. These recovery methods have been developed to the stage of commercial testing [i, 3]. Underground and

A. M. Zeninskii; I. Kh. Yumangulova

1980-01-01

200

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19

201

Thrombocytopenia and absent radii (TAR) syndrome associated with horseshoe kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TAR syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by limb abnormalities, especially absent radii, and hypomegakaryocytic\\u000a thrombocytopenia. Previous reports have included two infants with genitourinary abnormalities. We report a newborn with bilaterally\\u000a absent radii and foreshortened ulnae, hypoplastic humeri, a left clubfoot, a ventricular septum defect, and persistent thrombocytopenia.\\u000a This constellation of abnormalities is consistent with the TAR syndrome. In

A. Bradshaw; L. F. Donnelly; J. W. Foreman

2000-01-01

202

Evaluation of a mixed aerobic culture for degrading coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Partial biodegradation of a gasification tar as sole carbon source in a dilute two-phase mixture was demonstrated by carbon dioxide evolution. Volatilization of the tar followed by biodegradation reduced the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved suggesting that the lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are preferentially degraded. While addition of a surfactant increased the partitioning of some PAHs into the aqueous phase, neither the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved nor the degradation of specific PAHs was substantially increased.

Enzminger, J.D.; Lepore, J.V.; Gleason, C.; Dreyer, C.

1986-01-01

203

Shale oil low, tar sand high in diesel emissions  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported on the performance testing of diesel fuels derived from shale oil and from tar sands. The study compared combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions, and particulate emissions and their mutagenic activity. Shale-oil-derived diesel fuel had lower nitrogen oxide emissions than either the tar sand fuel or the control diesel fuel and also the lowest mutagenic activity. 2 figures.

Not Available

1987-03-01

204

Characterization and treatment of tars and biomass gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis have the potential to make a significant impact on energy supplies in the United States and have demonstrated their commercial potential in many projects around the country. The environmental aspects of biomass gasification need to be defined to assure that the technology makes its maximum impact on energy supplies. One area that needs further development is characterization and treatment of the tar byproduct from gasifiers and pyrolyzers. This paper examines the effect of the type of gasifier/pyrolyzer and the processing conditions on the yield and properties of tars and condensates. End use limitations for tars are discussed. Wet scrubbing is the most common method of tar removal from gases. The scrub liquor will require treatment to remove organics before it can be disposed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a catalytic tar destruction process that will treat the hot, raw gas from the gasifier and convert the tars to gas. The process increases the gas yield and cold gas efficiency of the gasification process, produces a clean gas that can be used for many applications, and produces a clean condensate that can be disposed with minimal treatment. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Elliott, D.C.; Mudge, L.K.

1988-08-01

205

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1989-05-01

206

Differentiation of AmpC beta-lactamase binders vs. decoys using classification k NN QSAR modeling and application of the QSAR classifier to virtual screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of inaccurate scoring functions in docking algorithms may result in the selection of compounds with high predicted\\u000a binding affinity that nevertheless are known experimentally not to bind to the target receptor. Such falsely predicted binders\\u000a have been termed ‘binding decoys’. We posed a question as to whether true binders and decoys could be distinguished based\\u000a only on their

Jui-Hua Hsieh; Xiang S. Wang; Denise Teotico; Alexander Golbraikh; Alexander Tropsha

2008-01-01

207

Process for upgrading tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for upgrading a charge of a tar sand bitumen concentrate containing metal impurities, colloidal calcium-containing clay and water. It consists of contacting the charge in a riser contacting zone in the presence of a low boiling organic solvent with hot fluidizable attrition-resistant substantially catalytically-inert microspheres, which are 20 to 150 microns in diameter and are composed of previously calcined kaolin clay. The contact takes place at high temperature and short contact time, which permits vaporization of the high hydrogen containing components of the bitumen. The period of time is less than that which induces substantial thermal cracking of the charge. At the end of the time the vaporized produce is separated from the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay, the microspheres of calcined kaolin clay now bearing a deposit of combustible solid, metal impurities and adherent particles of colloidal calcium-containing clay originally contained in the bitumen concentrate, immediately reducing the temperature of the vaporized product to minimize thermal cracking and recovering the product for further refining to produce one or more premium products.

Bartholic, D.B.; Reagan, W.J.

1989-02-14

208

Angiopoietin decoy secreted at tumor site impairs tumor growth and metastases by inducing local inflammation and altering neoangiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2\\/TEK (exTEK) has been used as an angiopoietin decoy to study the role of angiopoietins in the tumor–host interactions, using a syngeneic model of experimental metastases and subcutaneous tumor. Soluble exTEK secreted by transfected tumor cells inhibited HUVECs from forming tubes in Matrigel. ExTEK-transfected C26 colon carcinoma and TS\\/A mammary tumor cells

Cecilia Melani; Antonella Stoppacciaro; Chiara Foroni; Federica Felicetti; Alessandra Caré; Mario P. Colombo

2004-01-01

209

LuciPHOr: Algorithm for Phosphorylation Site Localization with False Localization Rate Estimation Using Modified Target-Decoy Approach.  

PubMed

The localization of phosphorylation sites in peptide sequences is a challenging problem in large-scale phosphoproteomics analysis. The intense neutral loss peaks and the coexistence of multiple serine/threonine and/or tyrosine residues are limiting factors for objectively scoring site patterns across thousands of peptides. Various computational approaches for phosphorylation site localization have been proposed, including Ascore, Mascot Delta score, and ProteinProspector, yet few address direct estimation of the false localization rate (FLR) in each experiment. Here we propose LuciPHOr, a modified target-decoy-based approach that uses mass accuracy and peak intensities for site localization scoring and FLR estimation. Accurate estimation of the FLR is a difficult task at the individual-site level because the degree of uncertainty in localization varies significantly across different peptides. LuciPHOr carries out simultaneous localization on all candidate sites in each peptide and estimates the FLR based on the target-decoy framework, where decoy phosphopeptides generated by placing artificial phosphorylation(s) on non-candidate residues compete with the non-decoy phosphopeptides. LuciPHOr also reports approximate site-level confidence scores for all candidate sites as a means to localize additional sites from multiphosphorylated peptides in which localization can be partially achieved. Unlike the existing tools, LuciPHOr is compatible with any search engine output processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline. We evaluated the performance of LuciPHOr in terms of the sensitivity and accuracy of FLR estimates using two synthetic phosphopeptide libraries and a phosphoproteomic dataset generated from complex mouse brain samples. PMID:23918812

Fermin, Damian; Walmsley, Scott J; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Choi, Hyungwon; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

2013-08-05

210

Blockage of the STAT3 signaling pathway with a decoy oligonucleotide suppresses growth of human malignant glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliomas are the most common type of primary tumor in the human central nervous system. STAT3, a signal transducer and activator\\u000a of transcription 3, is over expressed in gliomas. Its involvement in tumorgenesis can be attributed to its ability to induce\\u000a cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) which correspond closely to the\\u000a STAT3 response element within the

Jinhai Gu; Gang Li; Tao Sun; Yuhang Su; Xulong Zhang; Jie Shen; Zhigang Tian; Jian Zhang

2008-01-01

211

In vivo transfection of NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides attenuate renal ischemia\\/reperfusion injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo transfection of NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotides attenuate renal ischemia\\/reperfusion injury in rats.BackgroundIschemic acute renal failure (ARF) is a common and often fatal condition characterized by tubular epithelial cell necrosis and marked monocyte infiltration. Inflammatory mechanisms, including cell adhesion, cell infiltration, and cytokine production, are involved. These processes are thought to be directly or indirectly regulated by nuclear factor ?B

CHANG CHUN CAO; XIAO QIANG DING; ZHOU LOU OU; CHUN FENG LIU; PENG LI; LEI WANG; CHUN FANG ZHU

2004-01-01

212

Discriminating the native structure from decoys using scoring functions based on the residue packing in globular proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Setting the rules for the identification of a stable conformation of a protein is of utmost importance for the efficient generation of structures in computer simulation. For structure prediction, a considerable number of possible models are generated from which the best model has to be selected. Results Two scoring functions, Rs and Rp, based on the consideration of packing of residues, which indicate if the conformation of an amino acid sequence is native-like, are presented. These are defined using the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and the partner number (PN) (other residues that are within 4.5 Å) of a particular residue. The two functions evaluate the deviation from the average packing properties (ASA or PN) of all residues in a polypeptide chain corresponding to a model of its three-dimensional structure. While simple in concept and computationally less intensive, both the functions are at least as efficient as any other energy functions in discriminating the native structure from decoys in a large number of standard decoy sets, as well as on models submitted for the targets of CASP7. Rs appears to be slightly more effective than Rp, as determined by the number of times the native structure possesses the minimum value for the function and its separation from the average value for the decoys. Conclusion Two parameters, Rs and Rp, are discussed that can very efficiently recognize the native fold for a sequence from an ensemble of decoy structures. Unlike many other algorithms that rely on the use of composite scoring function, these are based on a single parameter, viz., the accessible surface area (or the number of residues in contact), but still able to capture the essential attribute of the native fold.

2009-01-01

213

Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tar balls are spherical, organic aerosol particles that result from biofuel or biomass burning. They absorb sunlight and cause warming of the atmosphere. Although distinctive when viewed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) because of their spherical shape, much remains to be determined about details of their compositions, occurrences, and generation. Here we aim to characterize the occurrences of tar balls using individual-particle analyses with a TEM and to study their formation in young biomass-burning smoke. The samples were collected using the U.S. Forest Service Twin Otter aircraft during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) campaign conducted in March 2006. We analyzed 84 TEM grid samples from ~30 biomass-burning events near Mexico City and over Yucatan. Sixty samples were from young smoke (less than an hour old), and others were from haze that mainly occurred from biomass burning. Tar balls have neither an evident nucleus nor are they normally attached to other particles. They are almost perfectly spherical on TEM grids, indicating that they were solid when collected. It appears as if tar balls consist of lower volatility organic matter than many other organic aerosol particles. On average, 9% by number of biomass-burning aerosol particles were tar balls in samples collected between a few minutes to an hour after emission. On the other hand, samples collected within a few minutes after emission included few or no tar balls. The occurrences and abundances of atmospheric tar balls are important when evaluating the effects of smoke on local and regional climate.

Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

2009-12-01

214

Second Generation Crewserved and Individual Served Weaponsights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TRANSVARO Elektron Aletleri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S. of Istanbul, Turkey, is marketing second generation crew-served and individual served weapon sights. TRANSVARO Model 9865A (crewserved) and Model 9866A (individual served) weaponsights are lightweight, pa...

1989-01-01

215

A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Activation Loop Defines the Decoy Characteristic of VEGFR-1/FLT-1*  

PubMed Central

VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. The decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is required for normal development and angiogenesis. To date, there is no molecular explanation for this unusual characteristic of VEGFR-1. Here we show that the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is linked to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue in the activation loop. This amino acid is highly conserved among all the type III RTKs and corresponds to aspartic acid, but in VEGFR-1 it is substituted to asparagine. Mutation of asparagine (Asn1050) within the activation loop to aspartic acid promoted enhanced ligand-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation and kinase activation in vivo and in vitro. The mutant VEGFR-1 (Asp1050) promoted endothelial cell proliferation but not tubulogenesis. It also displayed an oncogenic phenotype as its expression in fibroblast cells elicited transformation and colony growth. Furthermore, mutation of the invariable aspartic acid to asparagine in VEGFR-2 lowered the autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines 1052 and 1057. We propose that the conserved aspartic acid in the activation loop favors the transphosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines, and its absence renders RTK to a less potent enzyme by disfavoring transphosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines.

Meyer, Rosana D.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rahimi, Nader

2006-01-01

216

G4-DNA Formation in the HRAS Promoter and Rational Design of Decoy Oligonucleotides for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation, transcription increased 5-fold, but when we stabilized the G-quadruplexes by guanidinium phthalocyanines, transcription decreased to 20% of control. By ChIP we found that sequence hras-1 is bound only by MAZ, while hras-2 is bound by MAZ and Sp1: two transcription factors recognizing guanine boxes. We also discovered by EMSA that recombinant MAZ-GST binds to both HRAS quadruplexes, while Sp1-GST only binds to qhras-1. The over-expression of MAZ and Sp1 synergistically activates HRAS transcription, while silencing each gene by RNAi results in a strong down-regulation of transcription. All these data indicate that the HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors. Finally, we designed decoy oligonucleotides mimicking the HRAS quadruplexes, bearing (R)-1-O-[4-(1-Pyrenylethynyl) phenylmethyl] glycerol and LNA modifications to increase their stability and nuclease resistance (G4-decoys). The G4-decoys repressed HRAS transcription and caused a strong antiproliferative effect, mediated by apoptosis, in T24 bladder cancer cells where HRAS is mutated.

Membrino, Alexandro; Cogoi, Susanna; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

2011-01-01

217

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

218

Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches  

SciTech Connect

In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

1993-01-01

219

Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available.

Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

2011-07-01

220

Professional and Part-Time Chemokine Decoys in the Resolution of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflammation is essential for protection from infection and for the repair of damaged tissue. Much is now known about how inflammation is induced and maintained, but the processes underlying the resolution of inflammation are often overlooked. However, resolution is an essential component of all successful inflammatory responses because it ensures the restoration of tissue homeostasis and prevents immunopathology of the type seen in chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Small secreted proteins called chemokines, acting through chemokine receptors, are known to be critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment and function during the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Thus, their efficient removal would seem to be a prerequisite for successful resolution. In recent years, it has emerged that specialized chemokine "decoy" receptors exist that actively participate in this process. Moreover, other chemokine receptors have been proposed to lead a double life and perform opposing roles during inflammation: leukocyte recruitment (by signaling) and resolution (by chemokine sequestration). A recent study provides further support for this theory by showing that apoptotic inflammatory leukocytes increase the number of surface chemokine receptors and that these receptors can remove chemokines from inflamed tissue. Leukocyte apoptosis is already known to aid resolution, not just because it eliminates leukocytes from inflamed tissues, but also because their consumption by macrophages leads to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The new work indicates that chemokine sequestration may be another mechanism exploited by dying cells to assist in the resolution of inflammation.

Chris Hansell (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology Infection and Inflammation REV); Robert Nibbs (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre;Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation REV)

2007-05-01

221

Suppression of microRNAs by dual-targeting and clustered Tough Decoy inhibitors.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression that contribute to almost any cellular process. Methods for managing of miRNA activity are attracting increasing attention in relation to diverse experimental and therapeutic applications. DNA-encoded miRNA inhibitors expressed from plasmid or virus-based vectors provide persistent miRNA suppression and options of tissue-directed micromanaging. In this report, we explore the potential of exploiting short, hairpin-shaped RNAs for simultaneous suppression of two or more miRNAs. Based on the "Tough Decoy" (TuD) design, we create dual-targeting hairpins carrying two miRNA recognition sites and demonstrate potent co-suppression of different pairs of unrelated miRNAs by a single DNA-encoded inhibitor RNA. In addition, enhanced miRNA suppression is achieved by expression of RNA polymerase II-transcribed inhibitors carrying clustered TuD hairpins with up to a total of eight miRNA recognition sites. Notably, by expressing clustered TuD inhibitors harboring a single recognition site for each of a total of six miRNAs, we document robust parallel suppression of multiple miRNAs by inhibitor RNA molecules encoded by a single expression cassette. These findings unveil a new potential of TuD-based miRNA inhibitors and pave the way for standardizing synchronized suppression of families or clusters of miRNAs. PMID:23324610

Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Bak, Rasmus O; Haslund, Didde; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

2013-01-16

222

A decoy receptor 3 analogue reduces localised defects in phagocyte function in pneumococcal pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic strategies to modulate the host response to bacterial pneumonia are needed to improve outcomes during community-acquired pneumonia. This study used mice with impaired Fas signalling to examine susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and decoy receptor 3 analogue (DcR3-a) to correct factors associated with increased susceptibility. Methods Wild-type mice and those with varying degrees of impairment of Fas (lpr) or Fas ligand signalling (gld) were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae and microbiological and immunological outcomes measured in the presence or absence of DcR3-a. Results During established pneumonia, neutrophils became the predominant cell in the airway and gld mice were less able to clear bacteria from the lungs, demonstrating localised impairment of pulmonary neutrophil function in comparison to lpr or wild-type mice. T-cells from gld mice had enhanced activation and reduced apoptosis in comparison to wild-type and lpr mice during established pneumonia. Treatment with DcR3-a reduced T-cell activation and corrected the defect in pulmonary bacterial clearance in gld mice. Conclusions The results suggest that imbalance in tumour necrosis factor superfamily signalling and excessive T-cell activation can impair bacterial clearance in the lung but that DcR3-a treatment can reduce T-cell activation, restore optimal pulmonary neutrophil function and enhance bacterial clearance during S pneumoniae infection.

Daigneault, Marc; Thompson, Alfred A R; Walmsley, Sarah R; Gill, Sharonjit K; Witcher, Derrick R; Wroblewski, Victor J; Hellewell, Paul G; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

2012-01-01

223

Recovery Plan: Tar Spinymussel ('Elliptio (Canthyria) steinstansana') Johnson and Clarke. First Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This North Carolina endemic is listed as endangered. Presently there are only three known remaining populations of the Tar spinymussel--two extremely small, apparently nonreproducing, populations in the main stem of the Tar River and a third, larger popul...

J. A. Fridell

1992-01-01

224

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.9 catalytic tar cracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment, including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure-swing absorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons...

R. C. Timpe

1995-01-01

225

Tar Sand Occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with Emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describin...

A. J. VerPloeg R. H. DeBruin

1983-01-01

226

Serving Area Sizing for Conversion Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Serving Area Concept, the telephone distribution network is divided into discrete areas called serving areas. To economically balance the distribution and feeder costs required to serve new residential construction, serving areas are sized to include from 200 to 600 ultimate living units. In addition to its use for new residences, SAC is now being successfully applied to the

D. Luber

1979-01-01

227

Serving the world's poor, profitably.  

PubMed

By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets. PMID:12227146

Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

2002-09-01

228

Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction  

SciTech Connect

The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

1985-04-01

229

Tar sand pyrolysis with product oil recycling: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Eight tests were conducted using Asphalt Ridge tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on oil yield and product distribution and to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics. A 48-hour test was conducted to measure the operating time required to reach a steady state with respect to the composition of product gas and the elemental compositions of light product oil and heavy recycle oil. A 30-hour test was conducted using Sunnyside tar sand to obtain preliminary data. The product oil samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of hydrocarbon types and to relate this distribution to that typical of various fuel types. No major operational difficulties were experienced with the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor system. Experimental results obtained from the Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands indicate that oil yields from the ROPE/copyright/ process could be greater than yields from conventional pyrolysis processes. 3 refs., 10 figs., 41 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Guffey, F.D.; Romanowski, L.J.

1987-09-01

230

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01

231

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Tat Protein Binds Trans-Activation-Responsive Region (TAR) RNA in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

tat, the trans-activator protein for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), has been expressed in Escherichia coli from synthetic genes. Purified tat binds specifically to HIV-1 trans-activation-responsive region (TAR) RNA in gel-retardation, filter-binding, and immunoprecipitation assays. tat does not bind detectably to antisense TAR RNA sequences, cellular mRNA sequences, variant TAR RNA sequences with altered stem-loop structures, or TAR DNA.

Colin Dingwall; Ingemar Ernberg; Michael J. Gait; Sheila M. Green; Shaun Heaphy; Jonathan Karn; Anthony D. Lowe; Mohinder Singh; Michael A. Skinner; Robert Valerio

1989-01-01

232

Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2010-12-01

233

In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

1985-10-01

234

1-hydroxypyrene in human urine after exposure to coal tar and a coal tar derived product.  

PubMed

A method for isolating 1-hydroxypyrene from urine is described. The presence of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was identified by fluorescence excitation and emission scanning after HPLC-separation. 1-Hydroxypyrene could be detected in the urine of rats following oral administration of as little as 0.5 microgram pyrene. The dose-dependence of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was evident after a wide range of pyrene dosing. After therapeutical coal tar treatment of dermatological patients the enhanced excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene was highly significant. Employees of a creosote impregnating plant showed an excretion pattern of 1-hydroxypyrene which could be related to their work. 1-Hydroxypyrene in urine of non-exposed people was very low, but detectable. It is suggested that the method reported is suitable for the assessment of uptake of man to pyrene, a compound that is commonly present in work environments which are associated with pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:4077281

Jongeneelen, F J; Anzion, R B; Leijdekkers, C M; Bos, R P; Henderson, P T

1985-01-01

235

Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

1983-01-01

236

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

237

Unit root tests in TAR and STAR models: Power comparison and applications to economic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys recently proposed unit root tests in TAR and STAR models and investigates the power of those tests using Monte Carlo experiments. The models reviewed in this paper are as fol- lows: 2 regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) models with asymmetric adjustment, 3 regime TAR models with a unit root process in the middle regime, smooth transition autoregressive (STAR)

Daiki Maki

238

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. The method comprises submerging tar sand in a sufficient amount of a circulating solvent in which the bitumen is soluble, and, while the tar sand is so submerged, sonicating within the solvent with a sufficient amount of sonic energy to break apart any connections

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

239

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. Tar sand is submerged in a sufficient amount of a circulating solvent in which the bitumen is soluble. While the tar sand is so submerged, the slurry is subjected to sonic energy to break apart any connections between sand granules and to remove bitumen

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

240

43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

2012-10-01

241

Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics

A. J. VerPloeg; R. H. DeBruin

1983-01-01

242

29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

2013-07-01

243

Temperature impact on the formation of tar from biomass pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar evolution was measured as a function of temperature during wood pyrolysis in a free-fall reactor operated at near atmospheric pressure. The yields of total tar and phenolic compounds were markedly reduced whereas aromatic compounds increased with increasing temperature between 700 and 900°C. The chemical distribution of principal tar constituents at selected time points was obtained by intermittent sampling using

Qizhuang Yu; Claes Brage; Guanxing Chen; Krister Sjöström

1997-01-01

244

Structure-Based Rational Design of a Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Decoy Receptor with High Binding Affinity for a Target Protein  

PubMed Central

Repeat proteins are increasingly attracting much attention as alternative scaffolds to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural features. Nonetheless, engineering interaction interface and understanding molecular basis for affinity maturation of repeat proteins still remain a challenge. Here, we present a structure-based rational design of a repeat protein with high binding affinity for a target protein. As a model repeat protein, a Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) decoy receptor composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules was used, and its interaction interface was rationally engineered to increase the binding affinity for myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2). Based on the complex crystal structure of the decoy receptor with MD2, we first designed single amino acid substitutions in the decoy receptor, and obtained three variants showing a binding affinity (KD) one-order of magnitude higher than the wild-type decoy receptor. The interacting modes and contributions of individual residues were elucidated by analyzing the crystal structures of the single variants. To further increase the binding affinity, single positive mutations were combined, and two double mutants were shown to have about 3000- and 565-fold higher binding affinities than the wild-type decoy receptor. Molecular dynamics simulations and energetic analysis indicate that an additive effect by two mutations occurring at nearby modules was the major contributor to the remarkable increase in the binding affinities.

Lee, Sang-Chul; Hong, Seungpyo; Park, Keunwan; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Dongsup; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Kim, Hak-Sung

2012-01-01

245

A gene therapy strategy using a transcription factor decoy of the E2F binding site inhibits smooth muscle proliferation in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The application of DNA technology to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes in vivo has important therapeutic potentials. The transcription factor E2F plays a pivotal role in the coordinated transactivation of cell cycle-regulatory genes such as c-myc, cdc2, and the gene encoding proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that are involved in lesion formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that double-stranded DNA with high affinity for E2F may be introduced in vivo as a decoy to bind E2F and block the activation of genes mediating cell cycle progression and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Gel mobility-shift assays showed complete competition for E2F binding protein by the E2F decoy. Transfection with E2F decoy inhibited expression of c-myc, cdc2, and the PCNA gene as well as vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation both in vitro and in the in vivo model of rat carotid injury. Furthermore, 2 weeks after in vivo transfection, neointimal formation was significantly prevented by the E2F decoy, and this inhibition continued up to 8 weeks after a single transfection in a dose-dependent manner. Transfer of an E2F decoy can therefore modulate gene expression and inhibit smooth muscle proliferation and vascular lesion formation in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Morishita, R; Gibbons, G H; Horiuchi, M; Ellison, K E; Nakama, M; Zhang, L; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Dzau, V J

1995-01-01

246

The Presence of Conspecific Decoys Enhances the Attractiveness of an NaCl Resource to the Yellow-Spined Locust, Ceracris kiangsu  

PubMed Central

Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl—treated filter paper. In a two—choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCL) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl—treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources.

Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

2011-01-01

247

?-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR.  

PubMed

Chemokine receptors form a large subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that predominantly activate heterotrimeric Gi proteins and are involved in immune cell migration. CCX-CKR is an atypical chemokine receptor with high affinity for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 chemokines, but is not known to activate intracellular signaling pathways. However, CCX-CKR acts as decoy receptor and efficiently internalizes these chemokines, thereby preventing their interaction with other chemokine receptors, like CCR7 and CCR9. Internalization of fluorescently labeled CCL19 correlated with ?-arrestin2-GFP translocation. Moreover, recruitment of ?-arrestins to CCX-CKR in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 was demonstrated using enzyme-fragment complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods. To unravel why CCX-CKR is unable to activate Gi signaling, CCX-CKR chimeras were constructed by substituting its intracellular loops with the corresponding CCR7 or CCR9 domains. The signaling properties of chimeric CCX-CKR receptors were characterized using a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter gene assay. Unexpectedly, wild type CCX-CKR and a subset of the chimeras induced an increase in CRE activity in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 in the presence of the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin. CCX-CKR signaling to CRE required an intact DRY motif. These data suggest that inactive Gi proteins impair CCX-CKR signaling most likely by hindering the interaction of this receptor with pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins that transduce signaling to CRE. On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold ?-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways. PMID:23341447

Watts, Anne O; Verkaar, Folkert; van der Lee, Miranda M C; Timmerman, Claudia A W; Kuijer, Martien; van Offenbeek, Jody; van Lith, Lambertus H C J; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; Zaman, Guido J R; Vischer, Henry F

2013-01-22

248

The Michael Mason Prize: Pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies, stressed out antigens and the deployment of decoys.  

PubMed

The antiphospholipid syndrome is a common autoimmune cause of vascular thrombosis and recurrent miscarriages. aPLs that target the N-terminal domain [Domain I (DI)] of the phospholipid binding protein ß2-glycoprotein I (ß2GPI) represent the key sub-population of aPLs that promote thrombosis. This review describes two research arms relating to the study of this autoantigen. The first arm describes recent novel biochemical and functional insights into the molecular structure of ß2GPI in vivo and how this may be altered in APS. These findings support the emerging hypothesis that redox modification of ß2GPI may be relevant to the pathogenesis of APS and the development of pathogenic anti-ß2GPI antibodies. The second arm describes how a recombinant DI peptide engineered using a bacterial expression system was used to delineate the fine immunodominant epitopes on DI that pathogenic anti-ß2GPI antibodies target. The epitope was found to be conformational and revolve around arginine (R) 39 within DI. Thus, whole recombinant DI was used in an in vivo mouse model as a novel decoy peptide inhibitor of anti-ß2GPI antibodies. DI and a high binding mutant completely abrogated the pathogenic effects of aPL in this murine model, with loss of inhibition of pathogenicity observed upon mutating the residue R39 to serine. This proof-of-principle study supports the ongoing development of recombinant DI as a novel therapeutic inhibitory peptide for patients with APS. PMID:22120465

Ioannou, Yiannis

2011-11-24

249

Decoy receptor 3 regulates the expression of various genes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily, lacks the transmembrane domain of conventional TNFRs in order to be a secreted protein. DcR3 competitively binds and inhibits members of the TNF family, including Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A). We previously reported that TNF?-induced DcR3 overexpression in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested that DcR3 acting as a ligand directly induces the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts. Furthermore, we reported that DcR3 induces very late antigen-4 (VLA--4) expression in THP-1 macrophages, inhibiting cycloheximide-induced apoptosis and that DcR3 binds to membrane-bound TL1A expressed on RA-FLS, resulting in the negative regulation of cell proliferation induced by inflammatory cytokines. In the current study, we used cDNA microarray to search for genes in RA-FLS whose expression was regulated by the ligation of DcR3. The experiments revealed the expression profiles of genes in RA-FLS regulated by DcR3. The profiles showed that among the 100 genes most significantly regulated by DcR3, 45 were upregulated and 55 were downregulated. The upregulated genes were associated with protein complex assembly, cell motility, regulation of transcription, cellular protein catabolic processes, cell membrane, nucleotide binding and glycosylation. The downregulated genes were associated with transcription regulator activity, RNA biosynthetic processes, cytoskeleton, zinc finger region, protein complex assembly, phosphate metabolic processes, mitochondrion, ion transport, nucleotide binding and cell fractionation. Further study of the genes detected in the current study may provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by DcR3-TL1A signaling. PMID:23912906

Fukuda, Koji; Miura, Yasushi; Maeda, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Masayasu; Hayashi, Shinya; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2013-08-01

250

Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muggah Creek estuary has accumulated contaminants from 100 years of iron, steel and coke manufacturing in its contributing watershed. The estuary, locally known as the Tar Ponds, contains sediments contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A program of groundwater modelling was aimed at estimating current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, via groundwater. The conceptual model developed for

Mark King

251

Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first in a series of independent analyses by Andrew Martin Fischer, commissioned by Tibet Watch, a research-based organisation established in London in 2006, examines the rapid growth that has been generated in the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR) through the extremely heavy government spending and investment strategies of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). His analysis, based on official government

A. M. Fischer

2007-01-01

252

Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants

N. de Nevers; B. Glenne; C. Bryner

1979-01-01

253

A Case Study on Overcoming the Requirements Tar Pit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software requirements are defined in many industries using informal software requirements specifications that are based on standards such as IEEE 830. Also, in teams of small to medium-sized projects there are often no experienced requirements engineers. These two factors leave product development efforts in a tar pit of ambiguities and misunderstandings that is risking product success. We investigated the adoption

Samuel Fricker; Martin Glinz; Peter Kolb

2006-01-01

254

Materials testing at the Vernal, Utah tar sands liquefaction site  

Microsoft Academic Search

General corrosion and U-bend and C-ring stress corrosion specimens were exposed in the product line at the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Vernal, Utah in situ tar sands liquefaction site. This test utilized steam injection to liquefy the entrapped bitumen which was then pumped to storage tanks. General corrosion resulting from exposure to these particular test conditions was negligible, with only

1981-01-01

255

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

256

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.---GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it

C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

1981-01-01

257

A Mathematical Model for the Solvent Leaching of Tar Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent flooding is the basis for a wide range of EOR methods and has been shown to be a possible method of creating initial steam injectivity in tar sands. This paper presents a unique model of the dissolution of a semisolid bitumen, resulting from the injection of a solvent. The solution of the mathematical equations describing this phenomenon is discussed.

M. Oguztoreli

1986-01-01

258

THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER IN TARRED AND SHELTERED MICE  

PubMed Central

Mice sheltered for long periods from the intercurrent access of living entities out of the environment developed tar cancer with the same frequency as controls exposed to an unusual extent. This happened although the food of the two groups differed profoundly in character.

Rous, Peyton; Botsford, Elizabeth

1932-01-01

259

Evaluation of Coal Tar Tumorigenic Potential in p53 +\\/? Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of transgenic p53 +\\/ m mice for use as a short-term assay for identifying chemical carcinogens has been primarily evaluated using single chemicals. There have been no reports on the use of this model for assessing the carcinogenic potential of complex organic mixtures containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the ability of coal tar to induce

Renu Singh; Nehal Modi; Tim Stakhiv; Eric H. Weyand; M. A. Hanes

2003-01-01

260

Hot-Gas Injection in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a one-dimensional reactor to evaluate the potential of hot-gas injection for the in situ recovery of oil from tar sand. The use of hot gas was examined both as a preheating technique before a steamflood and as an ...

L. J. Romanowski K. P. Thomas

1985-01-01

261

Tar sand pyrolysis with product oil recycling: Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight tests were conducted using Asphalt Ridge tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on oil yield and product distribution and to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics. A 48-hour test was conducted to measure the operating time required to reach a steady state with respect to the composition of product gas

C. Y. Cha; F. D. Guffey; L. J. Romanowski

1987-01-01

262

Expression of the TAR RNA binding protein in human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testis, several RNA binding proteins have been shown to play a role in the translational regulation of specific transcripts. The human protein TRBP (TAR RNA binding protein) is the homologue of the mouse Prbp (Prm-1 RNA binding protein) involved in the protamine mRNA translational delay. TRBP is known to activate the HIV-1 long terminal repeat but this protein has

Jean Pierre Siffroi; Marie Francoise Alfonsi; Georges Guellaen; Jean Pierre Dadoune; Hopital Henri Mondor

2001-01-01

263

Chromatographic Techniques for Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) method has traditionally been used to evaluate exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV), it fails to identify any components in the sample. Traditional gas or liquid chromatography techniques used in conjunction with the BSF will measure specific compounds, which constitute only a portion of the total contents of the sample. In this work, three

D. R. BALYA; R. S. DANCHIK

1984-01-01

264

Alcohol flushing for enhanced removal of coal tar from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol flushing for enhancing the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and reducing coal tar concentrations in the aqueous-phase leachate was investigated. Four soil columns were packed with relatively undisturbed coal tar contaminated soils collected from a former coal gasification site. These columns were leached with water and then flushed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solutions. Initially, total coal tar concentrations in water leachate ranged from = 0.1 to 150 mg/L for the four columns. Coal tar concentrations in the column effluent generally increased three to five orders of magnitude during the initial IPA flush. Each column was flushed with 1-3 pore volumes of an IPA solution. Reduction of coal tar concentrations in water leachate, attributed to the alcohol flushing, was noted in three of the four columns. The total coal tar removed from the soil columns during the IPA flushes constituted from 54 to 97% of the total coal tar removed during both water leaching (240-800 pore volumes) and alcohol flushing (1-3 pore volumes). The alcohol flushing removed from 3 to 19 % of the total coal tar in the various soil columns. Results indicated that alcohol flushing can enhance the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and can reduce the aqueous-phase coal tar concentrations in the leachate. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hayden, N.J. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Van der Hoven, E.J. [Living Technologies, Inc., Burlington, VT (United States)

1996-11-01

265

Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development  

SciTech Connect

The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

1979-06-01

266

Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality  

SciTech Connect

Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

Stauffer, T.

1993-10-15

267

Canadian heavy oil, tar sands. Part 2 (Conclusion). Heavy oil, tar sands play key role in Alberta, Saskatchewan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the large reserves of W. Canadian tar sands deposits, 35 billion bbl of oil can be recovered economically by open pit mining, dredging, hot water extraction, and fuel substitution. On heavy oil reserves in Canada, application of economically proven tertiary recovery could permit the production of 2.5 billion bbl of oil from the Lloydminster Fields and 3.7 billion

M. S. Abougoush; J. P. Letkeman; R. K. V. McCreary; H. Ryckborst; J. H. Wennekers

1979-01-01

268

Attenuation of murine antigen-induced arthritis by treatment with a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor STAT-1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1) plays a pivotal role in the expression of inflammatory gene products involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis such as various cytokines and the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40/CD40L) receptor-ligand dyad. The therapeutic efficacy of a synthetic decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) binding and neutralizing STAT-1 was tested in murine antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) as a model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The STAT-1 decoy ODN was injected intra-articularly in methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA)-immunized mice 4 h before arthritis induction. Arthritis was evaluated by joint swelling measurement and histological evaluation and compared to treatment with mutant control ODN. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mBSA-specific antibodies and auto-antibodies against matrix constituents were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The transcription factor neutralizing efficacy of the STAT-1 decoy ODN was verified in vitro in cultured synoviocytes and macrophages. Single administration of STAT-1 decoy ODN dose-dependently suppressed joint swelling and histological signs of acute and chronic arthritis. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-proteoglycan IgG titres were significantly reduced in STAT-1 decoy ODN-treated mice, whereas mBSA, collagen type I and type II specific immunoglobulins were not significantly affected. Intra-articular administration of an anti-CD40L (anti-CD154) antibody was similarly effective. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA) of nuclear extracts from synoviocytes incubated with the STAT-1 decoy ODN in vitro revealed an inhibitory effect on STAT-1. Furthermore, the STAT-1 decoy ODN inhibited the expression of CD40 mRNA in stimulated macrophages. The beneficial effects of the STAT-1 decoy ODN in experimental arthritis presumably mediated in part by affecting CD40 signalling in macrophages may provide the basis for a novel treatment of human RA.

Huckel, Marion; Schurigt, Uta; Wagner, Andreas H; Stockigt, Renate; Petrow, Peter K; Thoss, Klaus; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Henzgen, Steffen; Hecker, Markus; Brauer, Rolf

2006-01-01

269

siRNAs, ribozymes and RNA decoys in modeling stem cell-based gene therapy for HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Gene therapy strategies for HIV infection require gene transduction of hematopoietic stem cells with effective therapeutic constructs. Here we summarize our studies on anti-HIV ribozymes, RNA decoys and the newly described siRNAs. The therapeutic constructs consisted of an anti-CCR5 ribozyme to down-regulate the HIV-1 cell surface co-receptor and ribozymes targeted to viral mRNAs coding for the tat, rev and env proteins. The RNA decoy targeted rev and the siRNA was directed against a sequence common to rev and tat mRNAs. CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells were transduced with retroviral or lentiviral vectors containing these constructs. They were differentiated into macrophages in vitro and T cells in vivo in a SCID-hu mouse thymopoiesis model. The transgene-containing macrophages and T cells were found to be phenotypically normal. When challenged in vitro with HIV-1, they showed significant anti-viral resistance. These proof-of-concept studies demonstrated the utility of RNA-based anti-HIV constructs for gene therapy. PMID:12894572

Akkina, Ramesh; Banerjea, Akhil; Bai, Jirong; Anderson, Joseph; Li, Ming-Jie; Rossi, John

270

Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

PubMed

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

Sulc, Jind?ich; Stojdl, Ji?í; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Ji?í; Vacek, Ji?í; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

2011-09-16

271

CSAR Data Set Release 2012: Ligands, Affinities, Complexes, and Docking Decoys  

PubMed Central

A major goal in drug design is the improvement of computational methods for docking and scoring. The Community Structure Activity Resource (CSAR) has collected several data sets from industry and added in-house data sets that may be used for this purpose (www.csardock.org). CSAR has currently obtained data from Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, and Vertex and is working on obtaining data from several others. Combined with our in-house projects, we are providing a data set consisting of 6 protein targets, 647 compounds with biological affinities, and 82 crystal structures. Multiple congeneric series are available for several targets with a few representative crystal structures of each of the series. These series generally contain a few inactive compounds, usually not available in the literature, to provide an upper bound to the affinity range. The affinity ranges are typically 3–4 orders of magnitude per series. For our in-house projects, we have had compounds synthesized for biological testing. Affinities were measured by Thermofluor, Octet RED, and isothermal titration calorimetry for the most soluble. This allows the direct comparison of the biological affinities for those compounds, providing a measure of the variance in the experimental affinity. It appears that there can be considerable variance in the absolute value of the affinity, making the prediction of the absolute value ill-defined. However, the relative rankings within the methods are much better, and this fits with the observation that predicting relative ranking is a more tractable problem computationally. For those in-house compounds, we also have measured the following physical properties: logD, logP, thermodynamic solubility, and pKa. This data set also provides a substantial decoy set for each target consisting of diverse conformations covering the entire active site for all of the 58 CSAR-quality crystal structures. The CSAR data sets (CSAR-NRC HiQ and the 2012 release) provide substantial, publically available, curated data sets for use in parametrizing and validating docking and scoring methods.

2013-01-01

272

Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest distribution and annual harvest rates of mallards due to increasing use of SWDs by hunters in North America.

Szymanski, M. L.; Afton, A. D.

2005-01-01

273

Drugs and Aquatic Animals / La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 47 minute radio broadcast discusses how some of the drugs we take, including Prozac and birth control medications, are showing up in aquatic animals such as fish and frogs. The show examines how these drugs are ending up in aquatic ecosystems; what effects they might have on animals that live in and around the water, including the feminization of fish; whether humans are endangered by eating affected fish; and whether human drugs are causing environmental changes. The second part of the show discusses the La Brea tar pits of Los Angeles, and how ancient asphalt has created a modern-day scientific treasure trove. The ice age fossils of the tar pits of Rancho La Brea have given researchers a look back at the Los Angeles area of 10,000 to 40,000 years ago.

274

Sydney Tar Ponds: Some Problems in Quantifying Toxic Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate\\u000a a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia,\\u000a Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials

EDWARD FURIMSKY

2002-01-01

275

Process for recovery of bitumen from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitumen contained in tar sands is extracted in a primary extraction step which produces a bitumen-containing froth. A hydrogen donor diluent solvent is added to the froth, and the froth-solvent mix is subjected to a desalting operation. A bitumen-solvent product from the desalting step is subjected to a coking operation. In one embodiment, a delayed coker is used, and a

1983-01-01

276

Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great\\u000a Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts\\u000a of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established\\u000a commercial practice, it

C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

1981-01-01

277

A STEAMFLOOD EXPERIMENT IN A UTAH TAR SAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in Utah tar sand, LETC TS-IS, was conducted in the N. Asphalt Ridge Deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of 2 concentric inverted 5-spot patterns. The zone chosen for the experiment was a 45-ft (14-m) thick sandstone in

Lyle Johnson Jr; L. J. Fahy; Leo Romanowski Jr

1981-01-01

278

Quantitative Tar and Plastic Waste Distributions in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE report in this letter the first quantitative data on tar and plastic waste distributions in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean. During the Canadian Transpac-72 cruise, thirty-seven surface tows were made with a neuston net to collect particu-late pollutants quantitatively. (The net, a Kahl Scientific model with a mouth 80 cm by 30.5 cm and a 150 µm

C. S. Wong; David R. Green; Walter J. Cretney

1974-01-01

279

Syncrude develops tar sands, aided by unique utility hookup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many energy-intensive process industries are confronted with power supply and demand margins. Such is the case with Syncrude Canada Ltd., a refinery that is currently producing ca. 100,000 bpd from N. Alberta's oil-rich Athabasca tar sands. Syncrude mines the oil sands using huge draglines, each weighing more than 6000 tons and using close to 10 MW. When all 4 are

Ujimoto

1981-01-01

280

Structural Characterization of Oil Component of High Temperature Pyrolysis Tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar samples obtained through high temperature carbonization of three different bituminous coals were separated into oil, asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions by soxhlet extraction. The oil fraction was further separated into parafinic, neutral aromatic and polar aromatic sub-fractions by silica gel chromatography. By means of the FT-IR spectroscopy of the sub-fractions, an attempt was made to define the existing functional groups,

H. SUTCU; I. TOROGLU; S. PISKIN

2005-01-01

281

Improving the scheme for sedimentation and refining of tar liquor  

SciTech Connect

When battery No. 5 was commissioned at the Kemerovo Coke Works, it was found that the standard design scheme previously used for sedimentation and refining of the tar liquor was no longer satisfactory. The temperature of the excess ammonia liquor decreased, which led to frequent obstruction of the water seals for the wastewater from the ammonia columns and entry of pitch into the phenol removal scrubber. The new scheme now in use and its advantages are briefly described.

Chizhik, V.N.; Zubitskii, B.D.

1983-01-01

282

Production of alcohols from olefins in low temperature coal tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olefins constitute as much as one-half the neutral oil obtained by low-temperature carbonization of low-rank coals. It is difficult to separate these olefins from other materials in the tar fractions. However, without a prior separation, a large fraction of these olefins can be converted to mixtures of primary alcohols by hydroformylation with Hâ + CO in the presence of dicobalt

B. D. Blaustein; S. J. Metlin; I. Wender

1964-01-01

283

Transfection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides suppresses expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Vasculature development is thought to be an important aspect in the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Among the many angiogenic factors produced by tumor cells, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered to play a key role in angiogenic processes. VEGF synthesis is modulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) function within the hypoxic microenvironment of growing cancer tissue. To inhibit HIF-1 activation, oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were synthesized and transferred with either the consensus sequence for HIF-1 binding or a mutated form of this sequence. If we could transfer a large number of ODNs into the cancer cell nucleus, activated HIF-1 might bind to the ODNs, resulting in inhibition of hypoxia-induced VEGF synthesis. We transferred these ODNs into cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (SAS cells) using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome method. Hypoxia-mediated expression of VEGF by cancer cells was suppressed by transfection of HIF-1 decoy ODNs, but not by mutated HIF-1 decoy ODNs. HIF-1 decoy ODN transfection also inhibited VEGF protein synthesis. These results suggest that transfection with HIF-1 decoy ODNs is effective for regulating tumor growth by reducing VEGF. PMID:22582814

Imai, Mie; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Nariai, Yoshiki; Kanno, Takahiro; Sekine, Joji; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Mori, Yoshihide

2012-05-15

284

An autonomous ice-cream serving robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous ice cream serving robot is pre- sented in this video. The video was filmed during the Automatica 2010 trade fair in Munich. Within four days, approximately 250 scoops of different kinds of ice cream have been served to visitors during the fair. Using the KUKA light-weighted robotic arms and the DLR\\/HIT robotic hands, two scientific aspects are shown

Zhixing Xue; Steffen Ruehl; Andreas Hermann; Thilo Kerscher; Ruediger Dillmann

2011-01-01

285

Preparation of Superior Coal-tar Pitch from a High-Temperature Coal Tar by Solvent Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature coal tar was sequentially extracted in a batch extraction system with petroleum ether, methanol, acetone, carbon disulfide, and isometric acetone\\/carbon disulfide mixed solvent to afford extracts 1 to 5 (E1 to E5). All the extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. As the heaviest extract, E5 mainly consists of condensed arenes with five or more rings according to

J.-S. Zhou; X.-Y. Wei; Y.-P. Zhao; Y.-Q. Dou; X.-S. Cong; Z.-M. Zong; X. Fan

2011-01-01

286

Evaluating coal tar–water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute–solvent molecular interactions in tar phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium partitioning coefficients between an industrial coal tar sample and water (KCT\\/w) were determined for 41 polar and nonpolar solutes in batch systems. Together with literature values, 69 KCT\\/w data were analyzed using the following model approaches: Raoult’s law, the single parameter linear free energy relationship (SPLFER) with octanol–water partitioning coefficients (Kow), the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs), SPARC and

Satoshi Endo; Wanjing Xu; Kai-Uwe Goss; Torsten C. Schmidt

2008-01-01

287

Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar

B. J. Mahler; P. C. van Metre

2010-01-01

288

Family Physicians and Youth Tobacco-free Education: Outcomes of the Colorado Tar Wars Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tar Wars is a national school-based tobacco-free education program operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The Tar Wars lesson uses an interactive 45-min session taught by volunteer family physicians in 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms and focuses on the short-term image- based consequences of tobacco use. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Tar Wars pro-

Jeffrey J. Cain; W. Perry Dickinson; Douglas Fernald; Caroline Bublitz; L. Miriam Dickinson; David West

289

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases;

Charles M. Kinoshita; Yue Wang; Jiachun Zhou

1995-01-01

290

Laboratory studies on solvent extraction of low-temperature tar oils by aqueous sodium salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aqueous saturated sodium salicylate for the extraction of tar acids from a low-temperature tar fraction is discussed. Solubility and equilibrium data for the system (neutral oil-tar acids-aqueous sodium salicylate) when plotted on a ternary diagram showed 2 types of curves: an ordinary bite type and another a loop containing solid and liquid phases. The tie-line data agree

P. Raj; M. A. K. Akmal; Y. V. S. Rao; S. M. Ahmed; R. Vaidyeswaran

1970-01-01

291

In-Bed Catalytic Tar Reduction in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Steam Gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nickel-enriched catalytic bed material was tested for tar reduction in a 100 kWth dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier. Gas composition and tar content were measured after the reactor and compared with data from gasification tests without a catalytic bed material. H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 contents in the product gas, as well as tar conversion rates, are reported

Christoph Pfeifer; Reinhard Rauch; Hermann Hofbauer

2004-01-01

292

Product yields and kinetics from the vapor phase cracking of wood pyrolysis tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogeneous vapor phase cracking of newly formed wood pyrolysis tar was studied at low molar concentrations as a function of temperature (773 - 1.073 K), at residence times of 0.9 - 2.2 s. Tar conversions ranged from about 5 to 88%. The tars were generated by low heating rate (0.2 K\\/s) pyrolysis of --2 cm deep beds of sweet

Michael L. Boroson; Jack B. Howard; W. A. Peters

1989-01-01

293

Beach tar on bermuda: Recent observations and implications for global monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum residues (pelagic tar) have been reported from beaches all over the world since the 1960s, and have been quantitatively measured at a few locations. At the south-facing open ocean beaches of Bermuda, rapid exchange of tar with the sea makes it possible to use the quantity of beach tar as a measure of open-ocean petroleum pollution. Brief surveys conducted

James N Butler; Peter G Wells; Sharon Johnson; John J Manock

1998-01-01

294

Nucleobase modified neamines, their synthesis and binding specificity for HIV TAR RNA.  

PubMed

Twenty neamine derivatives having a nucleobase, adenine, cytosine, guanine or thimine with a lysine or an argine as a linker and, also, without linker were synthesized and their binding specificity for HIV TAR RNA was studied. Any nucleobase modification on neamine enhanced their binding affinities for TAR RNA. The binding affinity of neamine derivatives having a nucleobase at the closer position to neamine does not depend on the base, but having farther position has shown base specificity for TAR binding. PMID:18029660

Watanabe, Kenatarou; Katou, Toyofusa; Ikezawa, Yasunori; Yajima, Saki; Shionoya, Hirohito; Akagi, Takashi; Hamasaki, Keita

2007-01-01

295

Utilization of heavy pyrolysis tars as raw materials for carbon black production  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A feasibility study has been carried out for the utilization, in carbon black production, of the heavy tars obtained in existing USSR ethylene units operating on naphtha, gaseous hydrocarbons, or mixed feedstocks.2.The heavy-tar yield amounts to 3 to 5% of pyrolysis feedstock weight.3.In the majority of cases, the heavy tar now being produced will satisfy the requirements imposed on the

A. S. Andreeva; G. F. Lesokhina; T. N. Mukhina; V. M. Kurganov; L. A. Kolesnikova

1974-01-01

296

Purifying filter-clogging coal tar formed from low-temperature coal carbonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is provided for purifying filter-clogging coal tar residue of the type obtained by low-temperature carbonization of coal. Such coal tar residues include viscous organic coal tar constituents, particulate solid impurities and liquid water. Applicants' process includes the step of heating coal at 450*-700* C. At least substantially in the absence of air to thereby decompose the coal to

H. Kokot; I. Romey

1980-01-01

297

Residue contact-count potentials are as effective as residue-residue contact-type potentials for ranking protein decoys  

PubMed Central

Background For over 30 years potentials of mean force have been used to evaluate the relative energy of protein structures. The most commonly used potentials define the energy of residue-residue interactions and are derived from the empirical analysis of the known protein structures. However, single-body residue 'environment' potentials, although widely used in protein structure analysis, have not been rigorously compared to these classical two-body residue-residue interaction potentials. Here we do not try to combine the two different types of residue interaction potential, but rather to assess their independent contribution to scoring protein structures. Results A data set of nearly three thousand monomers was used to compare pairwise residue-residue 'contact-type' propensities to single-body residue 'contact-count' propensities. Using a large and standard set of protein decoys we performed an in-depth comparison of these two types of residue interaction propensities. The scores derived from the contact-type and contact-count propensities were assessed using two different performance metrics and were compared using 90 different definitions of residue-residue contact. Our findings show that both types of score perform equally well on the task of discriminating between near-native protein decoys. However, in a statistical sense, the contact-count based scores were found to carry more information than the contact-type based scores. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that the performance of either type of score is very similar on a range of different decoys. This similarity suggests a common underlying biophysical principle for both types of residue interaction propensity. However, several features of the contact-count based propensity suggests that it should be used in preference to the contact-type based propensity. Specifically, it has been shown that contact-counts can be predicted from sequence information alone. In addition, the use of a single-body term allows for efficient alignment strategies using dynamic programming, which is useful for fold recognition, for example. These facts, combined with the relative simplicity of the contact-count propensity, suggests that contact-counts should be studied in more detail in the future.

Bolser, Dan M; Filippis, Ioannis; Stehr, Henning; Duarte, Jose; Lappe, Michael

2008-01-01

298

Semaphorin-PlexinD1 signaling limits angiogenic potential via the VEGF decoy receptor sFlt1.  

PubMed

Sprouting angiogenesis expands the embryonic vasculature enabling survival and homeostasis. Yet how the angiogenic capacity to form sprouts is allocated among endothelial cells (ECs) to guarantee the reproducible anatomy of stereotypical vascular beds remains unclear. Here we show that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling, previously implicated in sprout guidance, represses angiogenic potential to ensure the proper abundance and stereotypical distribution of the trunk's segmental arteries (SeAs). We find that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling exerts this effect by antagonizing the proangiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling ensures the proper endothelial abundance of soluble flt1 (sflt1), an alternatively spliced form of the VEGF receptor Flt1 encoding a potent secreted decoy. Hence, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling regulates distinct but related aspects of angiogenesis: the spatial allocation of angiogenic capacity within a primary vessel and sprout guidance. PMID:21802375

Zygmunt, Tomasz; Gay, Carl Michael; Blondelle, Jordan; Singh, Manvendra K; Flaherty, Kathleen McCrone; Means, Paula Casey; Herwig, Lukas; Krudewig, Alice; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus; Epstein, Jonathan A; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús

2011-07-28

299

Experimental decoy-state quantum key distribution with a sub-poissionian heralded single-photon source.  

PubMed

We have experimentally demonstrated a decoy-state quantum key distribution scheme (QKD) with a heralded single-photon source based on parametric down-conversion. We used a one-way Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with a four states and one-detector phase-coding scheme, which is immune to recently proposed time-shift attacks, photon-number splitting attacks, and can also be proven to be secure against Trojan horse attacks and any other standard individual or coherent attacks. In principle, the setup can tolerate the highest losses or it can give the highest secure key generation rate under fixed losses compared with other practical schemes. This makes it a quite promising candidate for future quantum key distribution systems. PMID:18352685

Wang, Qin; Chen, Wei; Xavier, Guilherme; Swillo, Marcin; Zhang, Tao; Sauge, Sebastien; Tengner, Maria; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can; Karlsson, Anders

2008-03-05

300

Semaphorin-PlexinD1 Signaling Limits Angiogenic Potential via the VEGF Decoy Receptor sFlt1  

PubMed Central

Summary Sprouting angiogenesis expands the embryonic vasculature enabling survival and homeostasis. Yet how the angiogenic capacity to form sprouts is allocated among endothelial cells (ECs) to guarantee the reproducible anatomy of stereotypical vascular beds remains unclear. Here we show that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling, previously implicated in sprout guidance, represses angiogenic potential to ensure the proper abundance and stereotypical distribution of the trunk’s Segmental Arteries (SeAs). We find that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling exerts this effect by antagonizing the pro-angiogenic activity of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Specifically, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling ensures the proper endothelial abundance of soluble flt1 (sflt1), an alternatively spliced form of the VEGF receptor Flt1 encoding a potent secreted decoy. Hence Sema-PlxnD1 signaling regulates distinct but related aspects of angiogenesis: the spatial allocation of angiogenic capacity within a primary vessel and sprout guidance.

Zygmunt, Tomasz; Gay, Carl Michael; Blondelle, Jordan; Singh, Manvendra K.; Flaherty, Kathleen McCrone; Means, Paula Casey; Herwig, Lukas; Krudewig, Alice; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Torres-Vazquez, Jesus

2011-01-01

301

Epstein-Barr Virus Transcription Activator Rta Upregulates Decoy Receptor 3 Expression by Binding to Its Promoter?  

PubMed Central

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble decoy receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is overexpressed in various malignant tumor types. DcR3 has been implicated in tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and by interfering with immune surveillance. A previous study showed that DcR3 expression is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphomas but rarely with non-EBV-positive B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that the presence of EBV may affect DcR3 expression. Here, we demonstrated enhanced DcR3 expression upon EBV reactivation in P3HR1 cells and in EBV-infected 293 cells. This enhancement, however, could not be detected in 293 cells infected with EBV with BRLF1 deleted. We found that EBV transactivator, Rta, could upregulate DcR3 expression by direct binding to an Rta-responsive element (RRE) located in the DcR3 promoter region and that this RRE is important for Rta-mediated DcR3 expression. Overexpressing CREB-binding protein (CBP) further enhanced Rta-dependent DcR3 expression, suggesting Rta-dependent DcR3 transcription activity is mediated by CBP. Previously, Rta was shown to enhance phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) activity. However, Rta-transduced PI 3-K activity plays a minor role in DcR3 expression. This is the first report to demonstrate that Rta upregulates a cellular gene by direct binding to an RRE.

Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Hsu, Chen-Fang; Fong, Pei-Fen; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Chi-Ju

2007-01-01

302

Mouse neutrophils express the decoy type 2 interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R2) constitutively and in acute inflammatory conditions.  

PubMed

The proinflammatory activities of IL-1 are tightly controlled at different levels. IL-1R2 acts as a decoy receptor and has been shown to regulate the biological effects of IL-1 in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about its natural expression in the mouse in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In this study, we examined IL-1R2 mRNA and protein expression in isolated cells and tissues in response to different stimulatory conditions. Data obtained using ex vivo CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) peripheral blood cells and in vitro-differentiated CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) BMG indicated that neutrophils are the major source of constitutively expressed IL-1R2 in the mouse. The expression of IL-1R2 on BMG and ex vivo Ly6G(+) peripheral blood cells was highly up-regulated by HC. IL-1R2 pull-down experiments showed that mouse rIL-1? binds to BMG IL-1R2, whereas binding of IL-1Ra could not be detected. Furthermore, LPS treatment induced shedding of IL-1R2 from the neutrophil membrane in vitro and in vivo, executed mainly by ADAM17. Finally, in in vivo models of inflammation, including thioglycolate-induced acute peritonitis and acute lung injury, infiltrating Ly6G(+) neutrophils, expressed IL-1R2. Our data show that in the mouse, neutrophils mainly express the decoy receptor IL-1R2 under naïve and inflammatory conditions. These data suggest that neutrophils may contribute to the resolution of acute inflammation. PMID:23817563

Martin, Praxedis; Palmer, Gaby; Vigne, Solenne; Lamacchia, Céline; Rodriguez, Emiliana; Talabot-Ayer, Dominique; Rose-John, Stefan; Chalaris, Athena; Gabay, Cem

2013-07-01

303

A decoy oligonucleotide to NF-?B delivered through inhalable particles prevents LPS-induced rat airway inflammation.  

PubMed

The inflammatory process plays a crucial role in the onset and progression of several lung pathologies, including cystic fibrosis (CF), and the involvement of NF-?B is widely recognized. The specific inhibition of NF-?B by decoy oligonucleotides delivered within the lung may be beneficial, although rationally designed systems are needed to optimize their pharmacological response. Prompted by this need, we have developed and tested in vivo an inhalable dry powder for the prolonged delivery of a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide to NF-?B (dec-ODN), consisting of large porous particles (LPPs) based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid. First, LPPs containing dec-ODN (dec-ODN LPPs) were engineered to meet the aerodynamic criteria crucial for pulmonary delivery, to gain an effective loading of dec-ODN, to sustain its release, and to preserve its structural integrity in lung lining fluids. We then investigated the effects of dec-ODN LPPs in a rat model of lung inflammation induced by the intratracheal aerosolization of LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results show that a single intratracheal insufflation of dec-ODN LPPs reduced the bronchoalveolar neutrophil infiltration induced by LPS for up to 72 hours, whereas naked dec-ODN was able to inhibit it only at 6 hours. The persistent inhibition of neutrophil infiltrate was associated with reduced NF-?B/DNA binding activity, as well as reduced IL-6, IL-8, and mucin-2 mRNA expression in lung homogenates. We consider it noteworthy that the developed LPPs, preventing the accumulation of neutrophils and NF-?B-related gene expression, may provide a new therapeutic option for the local treatment of inflammation associated with lung disease. PMID:23590300

De Stefano, Daniela; Coletta, Ciro; Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa; Falcone, Lucia; d'Angelo, Ivana; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana; Carnuccio, Rosa; Sorrentino, Raffaella

2013-08-01

304

HIV-1 TAR element is processed by Dicer to yield a viral micro-RNA involved in chromatin remodeling of the viral LTR  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a regulatory mechanism conserved in higher eukaryotes. The RNAi pathway generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) or micro RNA (miRNA) from either long double stranded stretches of RNA or RNA hairpins, respectively. The siRNA or miRNA then guides an effector complex to a homologous sequence of mRNA and regulates suppression of gene expression through one of several mechanisms. The suppression of gene expression through these mechanisms serves to regulate endogenous gene expression and protect the cell from foreign nucleic acids. There is growing evidence that many viruses have developed in the context of RNAi and express either a suppressor of RNAi or their own viral miRNA. Results In this study we investigated the possibility that the HIV-1 TAR element, a hairpin structure of ~50 nucleotides found at the 5' end of the HIV viral mRNA, is recognized by the RNAi machinery and processed to yield a viral miRNA. We show that the protein Dicer, the enzyme responsible for cleaving miRNA and siRNA from longer RNA sequences, is expressed in CD4+ T-cells. Interestingly, the level of expression of Dicer in monocytes is sub-optimal, suggesting a possible role for RNAi in maintaining latency in T-cells. Using a biotin labeled TAR element we demonstrate that Dicer binds to this structure. We show that recombinant Dicer is capable of cleaving the TAR element in vitro and that TAR derived miRNA is present in HIV-1 infected cell lines and primary T-cell blasts. Finally, we show that a TAR derived miRNA is capable of regulating viral gene expression and may be involved in repressing gene expression through transcriptional silencing. Conclusion HIV-1 TAR element is processed by the Dicer enzyme to create a viral miRNA. This viral miRNA is detectable in infected cells and appears to contribute to viral latency.

Klase, Zachary; Kale, Prachee; Winograd, Rafael; Gupta, Madhur V; Heydarian, Mohammad; Berro, Reem; McCaffrey, Timothy; Kashanchi, Fatah

2007-01-01

305

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

306

Laboratory screening of thermal recovery processes for Tar Sand Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Four thermal processes (steam displacement, not-gas pyrolysis, reverse and forward combustion) were evaluated to select the most effective oil recovery process for the in situ development of the tar sand resource at Tar Sand Triangle, Utah. Reverse combustion was not considered an effective process for this deposit because of the low initial bitumen content and the nonutilization of the residual coke. Since the hot-gas pyrolysis process simulates the pyrolysis of bitumen in the forward combustion process, only steam displacement and hot-gas pyrolysis were chosen for laboratory evaluation using a tubular reactor. In the laboratory evaluation the residual oil and coke saturation after steam displacement was found to be independent of the initial bitumen content and totaled 29% of pore voluem. Since the initial bitumen saturation wasn't much greater than the residual oil saturation, the oil yield from the steam displacement test was only 9.1 wt % of the initial bitumen. The oil yield from the hot-gas pyrolysis test was 54 wt % of the initial bitumen, which is almost identical to the Fischer assay yield. The residual coke and product gas were 23 and 21 wt % of the initial bitumen, respectively. These values are much different from those determined by Fischer assay because of the steam-char and water-gas shift reactions of the hot-gas pyrolysis test. Since the forward combustion process utilizes the residual coke and is expected to produce oil yields equivalent to the hot-gas pyrolysis process, it was selected as the most promising process for the recovery of oil from the Tar Sand Triangle resource. 16 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Romanowski, L.J. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

1985-11-01

307

Polymerization in narrow fractions of coal tar wash-oil  

SciTech Connect

Certain changes take place in coal tar wash-oil as it is circulated through the benzol hydrocarbons recovery and distillation cycle. It undergoes condensation, loses much of its light distillates content and attains a higher cp. One major problem with coal tar wash-oil is its tendency to form polymers as it circulates through the processing cycle and comes into contact with coke-oven gas. The polymerization rate is affected by a number of factors relating to the composition of the wash-oil, the concentrations in the coke-oven gas of components capable of promoting condensation and the operating conditions in the processing cycle. It has been shown that H/sub 2/S and O/sub 2/ in the coke-oven gas greatly accelerate polymerization processes in the wash-oil. Cyanide compounds and oxides of nitrogen also impair the quality of coal tar wash-oil.The deterioration of wash-oil in circulation leads to a serious rise in its cp and the rapid build-up of deposits on the scrubber packings, with serious effects on the performances of the benzol recovery and distillation sections. We have attempted to evaluate the polymerization tendencies of individual narrow wash-oil fractions. The tests were planned to simulate the conditions under which wash-oil can condense and polymerize. The results show that polymerization proceeds most rapidly in the fractions boiling at 280 to 285 and 285 to 295/sup 0/C. They rapidly increase in density and viscosity and lower the quality of the entire oil. The most stable fractions in respect of polymerization are those boiling up to 270/sup 0/C and up to 280/sup 0/C. These tests have shown that wash-oil boiling up to 280/sup 0/C is the least liable to polymerization; its processing quality is superior and the specific consumption can thus be reduced.

Volkov, E.L.; Akulov, P.V.; Zhilyaev, Yu. A.; Samarkina, A.A.

1981-01-01

308

Thermal decomposition of acid tar in a hydrocarbon medium  

SciTech Connect

The process of thermal decomposition of acid tars formed during the purification of oils has been studied. It has been shown that, at a temperature of 120-160{degrees}C, the main gaseous product is sulphur dioxide, the amount of which increases with increasing temperature. The reaction proceeds via the formation of a non-acid intermediate product, possibly sulphone. Petroleum asphaltenes are used as the reducing agents for hexavalent sulphur. Hydrocarbons of different classes are inert under the reaction conditions studied.

Bukharkina, T.V.; Digurov, N.G.; Zharkikh, V.A. [D.I. Mendeleyev Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute (Russian Federation)] [and others

1993-12-31

309

Process for recovery of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Bitumen contained in tar sands is extracted in a primary extraction step which produces a bitumen-containing froth. A hydrogen donor diluent solvent is added to the froth, and the froth-solvent mix is subjected to a desalting operation. A bitumen-solvent product from the desalting step is subjected to a coking operation. In one embodiment, a delayed coker is used, and a gas oil fraction from the coker overhead vapors in hydrogenated and used as the donor solvent in the desalting step.

Anderson, A.L.

1983-05-31

310

Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

2011-12-01

311

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand utilizing ultrasonic energy and stirring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given for removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. The method comprises contacting tar sand with an excess of solvent in which the bitumen is soluble, said contacting being performed within a vessel wherein simultaneously the solvent is being stirred and ultrasonic energy is being applied, the ultrasonic energy being of an intensity

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

312

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand utilizing ultrasonic energy and stirring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. Tar sand is contacted with an excess of solvent in which the bitumen is soluble, the contacting being performed within a vessel wherein simultaneously the solvent is being stirred and ultrasonic energy is being applied. The ultrasonic energy is of an intensity sufficient to

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

313

Pulsed Corona Discharges for Tar Removal from Biomass Derived Fuel Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To supply combustion engines or gasturbines with fuel gas obtained from biomass gasification, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas. Also the production of chemicals by processes such as Fisher-Tropsch requires a high gas quality. Especially heavy aromatic hydrocarbons (“tars”) must be removed. In this work, we give an overview of our investigations on tar removal by pulsed corona

A. J. M. Pemen; S. A. Nair; K. Yan; E. J. M. van Heesch; K. J. Ptasinski; A. A. H. Drinkenburg

2003-01-01

314

Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: use of dolomite and untreated olivine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and dolomite for tar destruction. Some researchers investigated olivine

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen; Sander V. B. van Paasen; Patrick C. A. Bergman; Jacob H. A. Kiel

2005-01-01

315

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg

N. L. Benowitz; P. Jacob; L. Yu; R. Talcott; S. Hall; R. T. Jones

1986-01-01

316

Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: a new approach to safer smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logic of expecting people who cannot stop smoking to switch to cigarettes that have hardly any nicotine is questionable. Tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes available in Britain today correlate 0-93, and further reduction of tar intake is limited by the reluctance of smokers to tolerate similar reductions in nicotine. A new approach would be to aim at lowering

M A Russell

1976-01-01

317

Assessment of in situ solvent extraction for remediation of coal tar sites. Process modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface contamination at many former manufactured gas plants (MGP) resulted from on-site disposal in wells, pits, and lagoons of coal tar, a byproduct of the gasification process. Coal tar is difficult to pump from the ground because of its density and viscosity. A technique employed with success in enhanced oil recovery, in situ solvent extraction, may be useful for remediation

M. A. Ali; S. B. Roy; D. A. Dzombak

2009-01-01

318

Analysis of coal tars collected from Rocky Mountain 1 ELW and CRIP modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tars were sampled as composites from the Extended Linked Well (ELW) and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) product streams of the Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification field test. Analyses were performed for the following chemical and physical properties: (1) density, (2) elemental composition, and (3) simulated distillation. Heating value and molecular weight for each coal tar sample

F. A. Barbour; S. L. Campbell; J. R. Covell

1988-01-01

319

Literature survey of in situ processes for application to the US tar sand resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tar sands in the United States and worldwide are a large potential source of hydrocarbon liquids that has yet to be sufficiently developed. The development of the US tar sand resource lags the worldwide development and poses a challenge that has not been ...

L. A. Johnson

1989-01-01

320

Preliminary Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for the Analysis of Production Losses from Tar Sand Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of thermally altered tar sand bitumen. The objective of the study was to determine if changes in the chemical composition of the tar sand bitum...

F. D. Guffey R. E. Cummings

1986-01-01

321

Composition and Properties of Coal Tar DNAPLs at Former Manufactured Gas Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar is a persistent source of groundwater contamination in the subsurface at many former manufactured gas plants (MGPs). Remediation of coal tar remains a significant environmental challenge due to its complex chemical composition, existence as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), and tendency to alter the wettability of porous media systems. Changes in wettability are believed to occur due

P. S. Birak; S. C. Hauswirth; D. A. Williams; J. A. Pedit; C. T. Miller

2007-01-01

322

Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

Soderberg, D.J.

1988-03-01

323

Response and acclimatisation of symptomless smokers on changing to a low tar, low nicotine cigarette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten symptomless smokers were switched from their usual cigarette to a low tar, low nicotine test cigarette for two weeks to investigate their immediate response and subsequent acclimatisation to the test cigarette. The tar (T) and nicotine (N) yields of the test cigarettes were T = 3.8 mg, N = 0.6 mg; the median yields of the usual cigarettes were

G Woodman; S P Newman; D Pavia; S W Clarke

1987-01-01

324

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in viral mutants with altered TAR RNA stem structures.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat-mediated trans-activation requires the structural integrity of TAR RNA and the cooperative interaction of human host cell proteins. The TAR domain, minimally required for tat response, includes the Tat binding pyrimidine bulge, the TAR RNA upper stem, and the loop sequences. However, little is known about the significance of the 5'-stem structure of TAR in the regulation of viral growth. We designed viral mutations, specifically in the TAR RNA lower stem structure, and studied their effects on the kinetics of viral growth in T-lymphocyte cell lines and in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mutations that destabilized the lower TAR stem structure inhibited viral growth to various degrees in different CD4+ T-cells. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the lower stem structure of TAR plays an important role in viral growth, presumably by binding to specific host cell proteins that stabilize Tat-TAR interactions. PMID:8607271

Rounseville, M P; Lin, H C; Agbottah, E; Shukla, R R; Rabson, A B; Kumar, A

1996-02-15

325

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2009-04-01

327

Structural evolution of Eucalyptus tar pitch-based carbons during carbonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood tar pitches are generated as by-products by the charcoal manufacturing industry. They have a macromolecular structure constituted mainly by phenolic, guaiacylic, and siringylic units common to lignin. Due to their characteristics, biopitches are been investigated as precursors of carbon materials such as carbon fibers, bioelectrodes and activated carbons. In the present work the structural evolution of Eucalyptus tar pitches

Marcos J. Prauchner; Vânya M. D. Pasa; Nelcy D. S. Molhallem; Choyu Otani; Satika Otani; Luiz C. Pardini

2005-01-01

328

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2013-04-01

329

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen,

J. G. Reynolds; R. W. Crawford

1988-01-01

330

Isolation and characterization of saturates from tar sand bitumens and thermally produced oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A desorptive Soxhlet extraction technique and a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure were used to isolate saturates from tar sand bitumens and produced oils. The oils had been thermally recovered by combustion and hot-gas injection from samples of the Asphalt Ridge and the Tar Sand Triangle deposits in Utah. The distributions of the saturates in the produced oils and in the

1986-01-01

331

Effect of polar components on the physico-chemical properties of coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of polar compounds like phenols and pyridine-type bases on the morphology and glass transition of coal tar is investigated. A coal tar sample is separated into various fractions which thereafter are recombined progressively in order to reconstitute the starting sample. At each step, the glass transition temperature and activation energy of the relaxation process of the glassy fractions

Philippe Chambrion; Ronald Bertau; Pierre Ehrburger

1995-01-01

332

Investigation of sulphur compounds in coal tar using monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a non renewable fossil fuel, used mainly as a source of electrical energy and in the production of coke. It is subjected to thermal treatment, pyrolysis, which produces coke as a main product, in addition to a condensed liquid by-product, called tar. Tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds which contains different chemical classes, presenting aromatic and

Maria Elisabete Machado; Elina Bastos Caramão; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini

2011-01-01

333

Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar at manufactured-gas plant sites  

SciTech Connect

One component of the EPRI's research on Envirorunental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) consists of developing information and models to predict releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at MGP sites. The results of this report focus primarily on release of PAHs from coal tars. There are at least two approaches to predicting the release of organic chemicals from coal tar to water. The simplest method to estimate aqueous concentrations is to assume that water solubility of a PAH compound released from the tar can be defined by equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions. Application of Raoult's law is another method to predict aqueous concentrations, which requires the assumption of ideal'' behavior for partitioning of PAHs between the tar and water phases. To evaluate the applicability of these two methods for predicting PAH releases, laboratory experiments were conducted with eight coal tar samples from former MGP sites across the country. Migration of chemicals in the environment and resulting contaminant plumes in groundwater are determined by leachate concentrations of the chemicals. The use of equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions will usually result in an overestimation of PAH concentrations in the leachate from a coal tar source, and thus the resulting PAH concentrations in groundwater. Raoult's law appears to be a more accurate approach to predicting the release of several PAHs from coal tars. Furthermore, if nonequilibrium conditions prevail, aqueous-phase PAH concentrations will be even lower than those predicted using Raoult's law.

Loehr, R.C. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Rao, P.S.C.; Lee, L.S.; Okuda, I. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Soil Science)

1992-08-01

334

Asphaltenes from Coal Tar and Creosote: Their Role in Reversing the Wettability of Aquifer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wettability of a subsurface system contaminated by coal tar or creosote is a major determinant of the capillary forces and, hence, the distribution and recoverability of these contaminants. The objective of this paper was to identify mechanisms that control the wetting characteristics of coal tar and creosote in the subsurface. Asphaltenes separated from these nonaqueous phase liquids were mixed

Jianzhong Zheng; Jiahui Shao; Susan E. Powers

2001-01-01

335

SELECTIVE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF “MINA DO LEÃO” COAL TAR BASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective isolation of coal tar bases was performed by using two different separation methods: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and column liquid chromatography (CLC). Two cuts, A (boiling range 100°C – 230°C) and B (boiling range 230°C – 300°C), obtained by distillation of “Mina do Leao” coal tar oil, are compared after the isolation of bases by both methods through elemental analysis,

Elina B. Caramão; L. M. F. Gomes; M. D. Oliveira; A. Bristoti; Fernando M. Lanças

1990-01-01

336

Structural and dynamic characterization of the upper part of the HIV1 cTAR DNA hairpin  

Microsoft Academic Search

First strand transfer is essential for HIV-1 reverse transcription. During this step, the TAR RNA hairpin anneals to the cTAR DNA hairpin; this annealing reaction is promoted by the nucleocapsid protein and involves an initial loop-loop interaction between the apical loops of TAR and cTAR. Using NMR and probing methods, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of the top

L. Zargarian; I. Kanevsky; A. Bazzi; J. Boynard; F. Chaminade; P. Fosse; O. Mauffret

2009-01-01

337

Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

2002-05-01

338

The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present details of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 square degrees medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m with the post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ? 2 ?Jy (AB=23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (Elais-N1, Elais-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra-Deep Fied South and XMM). Data will be made available to the community in the Spring of 2012. SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z ? 5 to the present day, and is the first extragalactic survey both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z ? 1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths to provide a coherent picture of the formation of massive galaxies.

Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Lacy, M.; Farrah, D.; Surace, J.; Jarvis, M.; Oliver, S.; Maraston, C.; SERVS Team

2012-01-01

339

Sorption of methane and ethane high-molecular tars at supercritical temperatures in the Henry region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical and experimental study of the absorption of methane and ethane by high-molecular tars occurring in oil-gas-condensate deposits is carried out. An original approach to determining the physicochemical parameters of high-molecular tars and to constructing isotherms of absorption of the main components of natural gas by such tars was proposed. The model of the process was developed by analogy with the theory of dissolution of gases in liquids. The sorption of gases by the tar at supercritical temperatures was described within the framework of the van’t Hoff theory of dilute solutions. The proposed approach made it possible to develop a new effective thermodynamic method for calculating the solubility of the component of natural gas in tar at supercritical temperatures and pressure typical of the conditions of natural gas recovery.

Dmitrievskii, A. N.; Skibitskaya, N. A.; Vul'Fson, A. N.; Zekel, L. A.; Pribylov, A. A.

2007-05-01

340

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed Central

Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products.

Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

1979-01-01

341

Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed

Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

1979-06-01

342

Enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene in oil tar-contaminated soils supplemented with Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has shown promise as an organism suitable for the breakdown of a broad spectrum of environmental pollutants, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The focus of this study was to determine whether P. chrysosporium could effectively operate in an actual field sample of oil tar-contaminated soil. The soil was loaded with [14C]phenanthrene to serve as a model compound representative of the PAHs. Soil with the native flora present under static, aerobic conditions with buffering (pH 5.0 to 5.5) displayed full mineralization on the order of 20% in 21 days. The addition of P. chrysosporium was synergistic, with full mineralization on the order of 38% in 21 days. In addition to full mineralization, there was an increase in the proportion of radiolabelled polar extractives, both soluble and bound, in the presence of P. chrysosporium. From this study, it is apparent that the native soil microflora can be prompted into full mineralization of PAHs in some contaminated soils and that this mineralization can be enhanced when supplemented with the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium. With further refinement, this system may prove an effective bioremediation technology for soils contaminated with PAHs.

Brodkorb, T.S.; Legge, R.L. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1992-09-01

343

5.NF How many servings of oatmeal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A package contains 4 cups of oatmeal. There is $\\frac{1}{3}$ cup of oatmeal in each serving. How many servings of oatmeal are there in the package? Exp...

344

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.9 catalytic tar cracking  

SciTech Connect

Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment, including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure-swing absorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means of removing these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generating useful products, such as methane gas, which is crucial to operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. Aerosol tars are not readily removed from gas streams by conventional means and, as a consequence, often end up plugging filters or fouling fuel cells, turbines, or sorbents. Catalytic cracking of these tars to molecular moieties of C{sub 10} or smaller would prevent the problems commonly attributed to the tars. As an example, the moving Bourdon fixed-bed gasifier, by virtue of its efficient countercurrent heat exchange and widespread commercial use, may offer the lowest-cost integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system if tar generation and wastewater contamination can be minimized. We evaluate the potential of selected catalysts to minimize tar accumulation and maximize char conversion to useful liquid and/or gaseous products. Owing to the potential for production of extremely toxic nickel carbonyl gas, care must be exercised in the use of a NISMM catalyst for cracking tars at high temperatures in reducing atmospheres such as those produced by coal gasification. We observed a fifty percent or more of tar produced during steam gasification of Beulah lignite at temperatures of 400{degrees}-800+{degrees}C when cracked by either dolomite or zeolite maintained at a temperature of 50{degrees}C-100{degrees}C below that of the reactor.

Timpe, R.C.

1995-09-01

345

Solvent extraction of oil shale or tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Oil shales or tar sands are extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula: R(N)-M(=O)(-R1)-N(-R2)-R3 where M is a carbon, sulfur or phosphorus atom, R/sup 2/ and R/sup 3/ are each a hydrogen atom or a lowe alkyl group, R and R/sup 1/ are each a lower alkyl group, another -N(-R2)-R3 group, a monocyclic arom group, or R/sup 1/ can be another -N(-R3)-M(=O)(-R1)-R(N) group or R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/ together can represent the atoms necessary to close a heterocyclic ring, and n=1 where M=phosphorus and is otherwise 0, to substantially remove the non-fixed carbon content of the oil shale or tar sands, leaving a solid residue of fixed carbon, ash minerals, and non-extractable matter.

Stiller, A.H.; Hammack, R.W.; Sears, J.T.

1983-08-02

346

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600[degree]C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600[degree]C. Similar to virgin'' chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750[degree]C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750[degree]C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO[sub x] conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01

347

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28

348

Serving Distant Learners through Instructional Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Wood Community College (JWCC) serves a district population of approximately 90,000 in a predominantly rural section of west-central Illinois. In an effort to address the needs of the rural long-distance learner, JWCC has implemented a variety of instructional delivery techniques. Since its inception, JWCC has contracted with other area…

Drea, John T.; Armistead, L. Pendleton

349

Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

350

Serving Multicultural Patients: Community Pharmacist Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of community pharmacists in New York City toward serving multicultural customers. The study also examined the effect of demographic factors on cultural sensitivity of pharmacists. A survey instrument was developed consisting of twenty-one attitude questions on a Likert scale. Factor Analysis revealed six dimensions underlying cultural sensitivity in pharmacy practice. A

Madhu Agrawal

1999-01-01

351

Serving Ethnic Minorities. Topical Paper 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…

Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others

352

TAO: how facebook serves the social graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 800 million people around the world share their social interactions with friends on Facebook, providing a rich body of information referred to as the social graph. In this talk, I describe how we model and serve this graph. Our model uses typed nodes (fbobjects) and edges (associations) to express the relationships and actions that happen on Facebook. We access

Venkateshwaran Venkataramani; Zach Amsden; Nathan Bronson; George Cabrera III; Prasad Chakka; Peter Dimov; Hui Ding; Jack Ferris; Anthony Giardullo; Jeremy Hoon; Sachin Kulkarni; Nathan Lawrence; Mark Marchukov; Dmitri Petrov; Lovro Puzar

2012-01-01

353

Serving Rural Youth: A Regional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The regional approach as an alternative for meeting the needs of rural youth is discussed in comparison to the small school district which cannot possibly serve the broad spectrum of student needs in rural areas. The rural educational setting and its shortcomings are described as the lack of facilities, a lack of an obvious connection between…

Edington, Everett D.

354

Exemplary Programs Serving Special Populations. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for educational administrators, state-level personnel, program coordinators, teachers, and researchers, this monograph highlights five exemplary vocational programs serving individuals from special populations. Identified through an extensive national search in 1990, each program exemplifies successful practices for secondary and…

Burac, Zipura T.

355

Manipulation support system for large serving robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with a support system for large serving robots like container stackers or cranes. The ambition is thereby that the effector of the robot grabs or stacks automatically containers in order to assist especially untrained operators. The robot is equipped with a special sensor system to capture the container in question. The paper presents two different sensor apparatus.

A. Hildebrandt; O. Sawodny

2004-01-01

356

How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

2013-01-01

357

A 2.5kV to 22V, 1kW radar decoy power supply using silicon carbide semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.5kVdc to 22Vdc 1kW power supply utilizing 3.2kV silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs and Schottky diodes is presented. The power supply provides power to solid-state microwave power amplifiers in an aircraft towed radar decoy. High voltage silicon carbide semiconductors are utilized to switch the high voltage at high frequency without requiring input series connection of devices or converters. A half

Amit K. Jain; David McIntosh; Matt Jones; Brian Ratliff

2011-01-01

358

Signal Peptide Cleavage from GP5 of PRRSV: A Minor Fraction of Molecules Retains the Decoy Epitope, a Presumed Molecular Cause for Viral Persistence  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the major pathogen in the pig industry. Variability of the antigens and persistence are the biggest challenges for successful control and elimination of the disease. GP5, the major glycoprotein of PRRSV, is considered an important target of neutralizing antibodies, which however appear only late in infection. This was attributed to the presence of a “decoy epitope” located near a hypervariable region of GP5. This region also harbors the predicted signal peptide cleavage sites and (dependent on the virus strain) a variable number of potential N-glycosylation sites. Molecular processing of GP5 has not been addressed experimentally so far: whether and where the signal peptide is cleaved and (as a consequence) whether the “decoy epitope” is present in virus particles. We show that the signal peptide of GP5 from the American type 2 reference strain VR-2332 is cleaved, both during in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes and in transfected cells. This was found to be independent of neighboring glycosylation sites and occurred in a variety of porcine cells for GP5 sequences derived from various type 2 strains. The exact signal peptide cleavage site was elucidated by mass spectrometry of virus-derived and recombinant GP5. The results revealed that the signal peptide of GP5 is cleaved at two sites. As a result, a mixture of GP5 proteins exists in virus particles, some of which still contain the “decoy epitope” sequence. Heterogeneity was also observed for the use of glycosylation sites in the hypervariable region. Lastly, GP5 mutants were engineered where one of the signal peptide cleavage sites was blocked. Wildtype GP5 exhibited exactly the same SDS-PAGE mobility as the mutant that is cleavable at site 2 only. This indicates that the overwhelming majority of all GP5 molecules does not contain the “decoy epitope”.

Thaa, Bastian; Sinhadri, Balaji Chandrasekhar; Tielesch, Claudia; Krause, Eberhard; Veit, Michael

2013-01-01

359

MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, we designed oligonucleotides that mimic one of the G-quadruplexes formed by NHE (G4-decoys). To increase their nuclease resistance, two locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifications were introduced at the 3?-end, whereas to enhance the folding and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased the Kaplan–Meier median survival time by 70%. Together, our data show that MAZ-specific G4-decoys mimicking a KRAS quadruplex are promising for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina; Geci, Imrich; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

2013-01-01

360

Long-Term Inhibition of HIV1 Infection in Primary Hematopoietic Cells by Lentiviral Vector Delivery of a Triple Combination of Anti-HIV shRNA, Anti-CCR5 Ribozyme, and a Nucleolar-Localizing TAR Decoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial therapies for the treatment of HIV-1 infection have proven to be effective in reducing patient viral loads and slowing the progression to AIDS. We have developed a series of RNA-based inhibitors for use in a gene therapy-based treatment for HIV-1 infection. The transcriptional units have been inserted into the backbone of a replication-defective lentiviral vector capable of transducing a

Ming-Jie Li; James Kim; Shirley Li; John Zaia; Jiing-Kuan Yee; Joseph Anderson; Ramesh Akkina; John J. Rossi

2005-01-01

361

Routing in DiffServ multicast environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QOS aware applications have propelled the development of two complementary technologies, Multicasting and Differentiated Services. To provide the required QOS on the Internet, either the bandwidth needs to be increased (Multicasting) or limited bandwidth prioritized among users (DiffServ). Although, the bandwidth on the Internet is continually increasing, the backbone is still insufficient to support QOS without resource allocations. Hence, there is a need to map multicasting in a DiffServ Environment to conserve network bandwidth and to provision this bandwidth in an appropriate fashion. In this regard, two issues have to be addressed. One, the key difference between multicast and DiffServe routing is the structure of the multicast tree. This tree is maintained in multicast aware routers whereas in DiffServe, the core routers maintain no state information regarding the flows. Second, the task of restructuring the multicast tree when members join/leave. Currently, the first issue is addressed by embedding the multicast information within the packet itself as an additional header field. In this paper, we propose a neural network based heuristic approach to address the second problem of routing in a dynamic DiffServe Multicast environment. Many dynamic multicast routing algorithms have been proposed. The greedy algorithm creates a near optimal tree when a node is added but requires many query/reply messages. The PSPT algorithm cannot construct a cost optimal tree. The VTDM algorithm requires the estimated number of nodes that will join and is not flexible. The problem of building an optimal tree to satisfy QOS requirements at minimum cost and taking minimum network resources is NP- complete and none of the above solutions give an optimal solution. We have modeled this combinatorial optimization as a nonlinear programming problem and trained an artificial neural network to solve the problem. The problem is tractable only when the QOS parameters are combined into DiffServe classes because of the flows are short-lived in dynamic multicasting. It has been shown that modification of the existing tree requires local search involving only a few nodes to determine to which existing node a newly added node should be connected. Simulation shows that the performance of this neural network based algorithm is superior in terms of cost and number of query messages in cases where the average multicast group size was large and the bias of the joining rate was close to one but performed poorly for small groups with respect to greedy algorithms. The cost of tree construction becomes independent of the group size when then the group size becomes larger than fifty or so.

Verma, Shekhar

2002-07-01

362

Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes. Design Analysis of the association between the tar rating of the brand of cigarette smoked in 1982 and mortality from lung cancer over the next six years. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses used to

Jeffrey E Harris; Michael J Thun; Alison M Mondul; Eugenia E Calle

2004-01-01

363

Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

2012-04-24

364

Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics of the oil. Thin sections from both the tar zone and barren zones were made and examined to determine textural characteristics and kinds of pore-filling cements. In addition, samples were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope to gain insight into the diagenesis of the reservoir rock and trapping mechanisms. The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit was investigated because it was considered potentially commercial, and the results of the study could aid in forming an economical plan of development for this deposit and similar deposits elsewhere in the State. Also, the area provided an excellent opportunity to examine surface exposures of a tar sand deposit. The final phase of the study involved mapping the Bush Butte quadrangle and looking for additional tar sand deposits in the quadrangle. The search for additional deposits was carried out based on a model developed by examination of the Trapper Canyon Deposit. 16 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

VerPloeg, A.J.; DeBruin, R.H.

1983-01-01

365

Numerical simulation of the wet forward combustion of California tar sand in a tube reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Reservoir Simulator (TSRS) is used to model the wet forward combustion of California tar sand from the Arroyo Grande deposit. The model's options and input data are selected to numerically duplicate the recent set of experiments conducted at Western Research Institute (WRI) in which the California tar sand was processed in a one-dimensional tube reactor. The experiments and their numerical simulation counterparts are conducted to evaluate the wet forward combustion process for the California tar sand and to evaluate the effects of differing injection gas steam-to-oxygen ratios on recovery performance. Simulation results indicate that the combustion front can be successfully propagated through the Arroyo Grande deposit. The injection pressure required to maintain flow is significantly lower for the processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand than for the processing of Asphalt Ridge or Sunnyside tar sand. The numerical simulations show the same general trends of reduced fuel deposition, increased oil yield, increased frontal velocity, and decreased temperature with increasing steam-to-oxygen ratio as were observed in the experimental tests conducted on both the Arroyo Grande and Asphalt Ridge tar sands. 15 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Vaughn, P.

1988-10-01

366

Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

367

Minority-Serving Institutions of Higher Education: Serving Communities, Revitalizing the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Institutions of higher education (IHEs) that serve minority populations are unique both in their missions and in their day-to-day operations. Some of these colleges and universities are located in remote regions of the country, while others serve congested urban neighborhoods. Their constituents range from Native Americans, the country's oldest…

US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2009

2009-01-01

368

Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III  

Cancer.gov

NCI developed a database to facilitate the examination of dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) in terms of servings from each of The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups. This database builds on a similar one, previously developed by the USDA Food Surveys Research Group for their 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

369

Identification of a novel HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge binding protein.  

PubMed Central

The Tat protein binds to TAR RNA to stimulate the expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome. Tat is an 86 amino acid protein that contains a short region of basic residues (aa49-aa57) that are required for RNA binding and TAR is a 59 nucleotide stem-loop with a tripyrimidine bulge in the upper stem. TAR is located at the 5' end of all viral RNAs. In vitro, Tat specifically interacts with TAR by recognising the sequence of the bulge and upper stem, with no requirement for the loop. However, in vivo the loop sequence is critical for activation, implying a requirement for accessory cellular TAR RNA binding factors. A number of TAR binding cellular factors have been identified in cell extracts and various models for the function of these factors have been suggested, including roles as coactivators and inhibitors. We have now identified a novel 38 kD cellular factor that has little general, single-stranded or double-stranded RNA binding activity, but that specifically recognises the bulge and upper stem region of TAR. The protein, referred to as BBP (bulge binding protein), is conserved in mammalian and amphibian cells and in Schizosaccharomyces pombe but is not found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BBP is an effective competitive inhibitor of Tat binding to TAR in vitro. Our data suggest that the bulge-stem recognition motif in TAR is used to mediate cellular factor/RNA interactions and indicates that Tat action might be inhibited by such competing reactions in vivo. Images

Baker, B; Muckenthaler, M; Vives, E; Blanchard, A; Braddock, M; Nacken, W; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

1994-01-01

370

Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar  

SciTech Connect

Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

2006-06-15

371

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01

372

Exploring the limits of fold discrimination by structural alignment: A large scale benchmark using decoys of known fold  

PubMed Central

Protein structure comparison by pairwise alignment is commonly used to identify highly similar substructures in pairs of proteins and provide a measure of structural similarity based on the size and geometric similarity of the match. These scores are routinely applied in analyses of protein fold space under the assumption that high statistical significance is equivalent to a meaningful relationship, however the truth of this assumption has previously been difficult to test since there is a lack of automated methods which do not rely on the same underlying principles. As a resolution to this we present a method based on the use of topological descriptions of global protein structure, providing an independent means to assess the ability of structural alignment to maintain meaningful structural correspondances on a large scale. Using a large set of decoys of specified global fold we benchmark three widely used methods for structure comparison, SAP, TM-align and DALI, and test the degree to which this assumption is justified for these methods. Application of a topological edit distance measure to provide a scale of the degree of fold change shows that while there is a broad correlation between high structural alignment scores and low edit distances there remain many pairs of highly significant score which differ by core strand swaps and therefore are structurally different on a global level. Possible causes of this problem and its meaning for present assessments of protein fold space are discussed.

Hollup, Siv Midtun; Sadowski, Michael I.; Jonassen, Inge; Taylor, William R.

2011-01-01

373

How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss  

SciTech Connect

Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-12-15

374

A Soluble Fn14-Fc Decoy Receptor Reduces Infarct Volume in a Murine Model of Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TWEAK acts on responsive cells via binding to a small cell surface receptor named Fn14. Recent studies have demonstrated that TWEAK can stimulate numerous cellular responses including cell proliferation, migration, and proinflammatory molecule production, but the role of this cytokine in cardiovascular disease and stroke has not been established. The present study investigated whether TWEAK or Fn14 expression was regulated in a murine model of cerebral ischemia and whether TWEAK played a role in ischemia-mediated cell death. We found that TWEAK and Fn14 were expressed by primary mouse cerebral cortex-derived astrocytes and neurons cultured in vitro. Also, both the TWEAK and Fn14 proteins were present at elevated levels in the ischemic penumbra region after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Finally, we report that intracerebroventricular injection of a soluble Fn14-Fc decoy receptor immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion significantly reduced infarct volume and the extent of microglial cell activation and apoptotic cell death in the ischemic penumbra. We conclude that the cytokine TWEAK may play an important role in ischemia-induced brain injury and that inhibition of TWEAK expression or function in the brain may represent a novel neuroprotective strategy to treat ischemic stroke.

Yepes, Manuel; Brown, Sharron A.N.; Moore, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Elizabeth P.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01

375

Novel VEGF Decoy Receptor Fusion Protein Conbercept Targeting Multiple VEGF Isoforms Provide Remarkable Anti-Angiogenesis Effect In Vivo  

PubMed Central

VEGF family factors are known to be the principal stimulators of abnormal angiogenesis, which play a fundamental role in tumor and various ocular diseases. Inhibition of VEGF is widely applied in antiangiogenic therapy. Conbercept is a novel decoy receptor protein constructed by fusing VEGF receptor 1 and VEGF receptor 2 extracellular domains with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin. In this study, we systematically evaluated the binding affinity of conbercept with VEGF isoforms and PlGF by using anti-VEGF antibody (Avastin) as reference. BIACORE and ELISA assay results indicated that conbercept could bind different VEGF-A isoforms with higher affinity than reference. Furthermore, conbercept could also bind VEGF-B and PlGF, whereas Avastin showed no binding. Oxygen-induced retinopathy model showed that conbercept could inhibit the formation of neovasularizations. In tumor-bearing nude mice, conbercept could also suppress tumor growth very effectively in vivo. Overall, our study have demonstrated that conbercept could bind with high affinity to multiple VEGF isoforms and consequently provide remarkable anti-angiogenic effect, suggesting the possibility to treat angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer and wet AMD etc.

Wang, Qin; Li, Tao; Wu, Zhigang; Wu, Quan; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Delun; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

376

Assessment uncertainty associated to the analysis of tar from gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The uncertainty evaluation associated with the quantification of tar from gasification of sewage sludge is present. Each of the sources of uncertainty associated with the wet type sampling method and GC-MS analysis was identified to determine the critical stages of the analytical methodology in order to reduce them. The study shows that major contributions to the overall uncertainty are related to extraction steps. High expanded uncertainties were found for all compounds, due to the segregation of the tar in different samples because of the sampling method. However, the analytical method used was successfully applied for the evaluation of the tar cleaning filter in a real gasification plant. PMID:22099649

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa M; Sánchez Hervás, José M

2011-09-29

377

Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report  

PubMed Central

A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure.

Hiemstra, Thomas F; Bellamy, Christopher OC; Hughes, Jeremy H

2007-01-01

378

Proceedings of the oil shale and tar sand contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years the Oil Shale and Tar Sand Programs of the US DOE (Department of Energy) have shifted emphasis from a basic research approach to an applied research and development approach. The 38 papers and poster sessions presented here cover the following topics: oil shale processing (hydroretorting, pyrolysis, coking, cracking, and the ROPE process); tar sand processing (solvent extraction, pyrolysis, hydropyrolysis, ROPE process, and hot water processing); design of oil shale and tar sand processing plants; reaction kinetics and mathematical modeling of processes; spent shale utilization; economics; and chemical composition and analysis. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base. (CK)

Bartke, T.C. (ed.)

1990-04-01

379

Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

King, P.H.

1982-07-01

380

Issues in serving the forensic client.  

PubMed

In the course of a study of a team model of intensive case management for people with serious mental illness who are homeless and leaving Philadelphia jails, several issues regarding the interaction of mental health and jail systems have arisen. Among these issues are continuity of care in an unpredictable jail system, extensive involvement of family members in the charges brought against clients, and the use of legal sanctions toward therapeutic outcomes. This article discusses these issues both as they have appeared in the literature and as they have affected the progress of the study. Implications for community mental health system interactions with jails in serving forensic clients are explored. PMID:7863370

Solomon, P; Draine, J

1995-01-01

381

New insights into the genetic basis of TAR (thrombocytopenia-absent radii) syndrome.  

PubMed

Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare disorder combining specific skeletal abnormalities with a reduced platelet count. Rare proximal microdeletions of 1q21.1 are found in the majority of patients but are also found in unaffected parents. Recently it was shown that TAR syndrome is caused by the compound inheritance of a low-frequency noncoding SNP and a rare null allele in RBM8A, a gene encoding the exon-junction complex subunit member Y14 located in the deleted region. This finding provides new insight into the complex inheritance pattern and new clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying TAR syndrome. We discuss TAR syndrome in the context of abnormal phenotypes associated with proximal and distal 1q21.1 microdeletion and microduplications with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:23602329

Albers, Cornelis A; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ouwehand, Willem H; Ghevaert, Cedric

2013-04-17

382

Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques.  

PubMed

Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (?¹³C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source. PMID:23522683

Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Zakaria, M P; Naik, B G; Prasad, K V S R

2013-03-19

383

Bench Scale Fixation of Soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the result of a bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated ...

G. Rupp

1989-01-01

384

Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free ...

K. L. Skubal R. G. Luthy

1994-01-01

385

Analysis of coal tars collected from Rocky Mountain 1 ELW and CRIP modules  

SciTech Connect

Coal tars were sampled as composites from the Extended Linked Well (ELW) and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) product streams of the Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification field test. Analyses were performed for the following chemical and physical properties: (1) density, (2) elemental composition, and (3) simulated distillation. Heating value and molecular weight for each coal tar sample were estimated from the elemental and simulated distillation analyses. Major organic compounds in the coal tars were determined by glass capillary gas chromatography. The following chemical types were extracted from the coal tars: (1) bases; (2) strong acids; (3) weak acids; and (4) neutrals, the non-extractable portion. Each neutral fraction was separated into: (1) saturates, (2) aromatics, and (3) polar aromatics using silica gel column chromatography. 12 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Barbour, F.A.; Campbell, S.L.; Covell, J.R.

1988-06-01

386

Energy Requirements for the Production of a Synthetic Crude Oil from Athabasca Tar Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed process analysis is provided of operations for producing syncrude from tar sands at the Athabasca deposit in Alberta, Canada. A comparison is made of the calculated net energy requirement of the syncrude with those determined previously for oth...

D. F. Hemming

1976-01-01

387

Chemical and Physical Characterization of Tar Samples from the Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physical and chemical characterization of tar samples recovered primarily from the northwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean and along the eastern coast of the United States was carried out. The task involved a multiparameter analysis scheme which include...

P. R. Mommessin J. C. Raia

1974-01-01

388

Investigation of the ROPE(copyright) process performance on Sunnyside tar sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pyrolysis temperature for Sunnyside tar sand and to verify the operability and efficiency of the ROPE process at steady-state conditions for production of feedstock materials. The experime...

C. Y. Cha L. A. Johnson F. D. Guffey

1990-01-01

389

Structure of HIV-1 TAR RNA in the absence of ligands reveals a novel conformation of the trinucleotide bulge.  

PubMed Central

Efficient transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter depends on binding of the viral regulatory protein Tat to a cis-acting RNA regulatory element, TAR. Tat binds at a trinucleotide bulge located near the apex of the TAR stem-loop structure. An essential feature of Tat-TAR interaction is that the protein induces a conformational change in TAR that repositions the functional groups on the bases and the phosphate backbone that are critical for specific intermolecular recognition of TAR RNA. We have previously determined a high resolution structure for the bound form of TAR RNA using heteronuclear NMR. Here, we describe a high resolution structure of the free TAR RNA based on 871 experimentally determined restraints. In the free TAR RNA, bulged residues U23 and C24 are stacked within the helix, while U25 is looped out. This creates a major distortion of the phosphate backbone between C24 and G26. In contrast, in the bound TAR RNA, each of the three residues from the bulge are looped out of the helix and U23 is drawn into proximity with G26 through contacts with an arginine residue that is inserted between the two bases. Thus, TAR RNA undergoes a transition from a structure with an open and accessible major groove to a much more tightly packed structure that is folded around basic side chains emanating from the Tat protein.

Aboul-ela, F; Karn, J; Varani, G

1996-01-01

390

Upper Extremity Physical Factors Affecting Tennis Serve Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty1 tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors

David B. Cohen; Michael A. Mont; Kevin R. Campbell; Barry N. Vogelstein; John W. Loewy

1994-01-01

391

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed

Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington

2009-01-01

392

Unreliable\\/Inadequate Information on the Efficacy of Solidification\\/Stabilization of Sydney Tar Pond Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the Sydney Tar Ponds Agency (STPA) has been attempting to justify its selection of cement-based solidification\\/stabilization (S\\/S)of the Sydney Tar Ponds sediments and Coke Oven soils as the remediation approach for these areas. STPA has enlisted the assistance of Dr. Colin Hills of the Center for Contaminated Land Reclamation in Kent, England, to make statements in support of the

G. Fred Lee

393

Synergistic induction of DNA strand breakage by cigarette tar and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of human cancer at a variety of sites, although its carcinogenic mechanisms remains unestablished. Cigarette smoke can be divided into two phases, gas phase and particulate matter (tar). Both phases contain high concentrations of oxidants and free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and quinone/hydroquinone complex in the tar. We have found that incubation of pBR322 plasmid DNA with aqueous extracts of cigarette tar and a NO-releasing compound (diethylamine NONOate) caused synergistic induction of DNA single-strand breakage, whereas either cigarette tar alone or NO alone induced much less strand breakage. This synergistic effect of cigarette tar and NO on DNA strand breakage was prevented by high concentrations of superoxide dismutase, carboxy-PTIO (an NO-trapping agent) or N-acetylcysteine, whereas hydroxyl radical scavengers such as dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and D-mannitol did not show inhibitory effects. Possible mechanisms for this synergistic effect mediated by cigarette tar and NO are proposed, including involvement of peroxynitrite, which is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent formed rapidly by the reaction between NO and O2.-. NO is present in the gas phase of smoke and may be formed by a constitutive or inducible NO synthase in the lung, whereas O2.- is generated by auto-oxidation of polyhydroxyaromatic compounds such as catechol and 1,4-hydroquinone present in cigarette tar. Thus, potent reactive species including peroxynitrite formed by the interaction between cigarette tar and NO may play an important role in smoking-related diseases including lung cancer. PMID:9230280

Yoshie, Y; Ohshima, H

1997-07-01

394

HIV1 TAR miRNA protects against apoptosis by altering cellular gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: RNA interference is a gene regulatory mechanism that employs small RNA molecules such as microRNA. Previous work has shown that HIV-1 produces TAR viral microRNA. Here we describe the effects of the HIV-1 TAR derived microRNA on cellular gene expression. RESULTS: Using a variation of standard techniques we have cloned and sequenced both the 5' and 3' arms of

Zachary Klase; Rafael Winograd; Jeremiah Davis; Lawrence Carpio; Richard Hildreth; Mohammad Heydarian; Sidney Fu; Timothy McCaffrey; Eti Meiri; Mila Ayash-Rashkovsky; Shlomit Gilad; Zwi Bentwich; Fatah Kashanchi

2009-01-01

395

Heavy metal concentrations in sediment deposits on the Tar River floodplain following Hurricane Floyd  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between the magnitude of a flood event and the resulting environmental impacts remains unclear. This study examines\\u000a the impact of the flood of record on heavy metal deposition on the Tar River floodplain in eastern North Carolina, USA. Samples\\u000a of sediment deposited on the floodplain following Hurricane Floyd were collected from 85 sites along the lower Tar River

Patrick Pease; Scott Lecce; Paul Gares; Catherine Rigsby

2007-01-01

396

Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (HâOâ) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its HâOâ concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The HâOâ concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence

T. Nakayama; D. F. Church; W. A. Pryor

1989-01-01

397

Isolation and Characterization of Methanocorpusculum labreanurn sp. nov. from the LaBrea Tar Pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of coccoid methanogen was isolated from the surface sediments of Tar Pit Lake at the LaBrea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, Calif. Surface colonies of strain ZT (= OGC lT) (T = type strain) were tan, circular, clear, and convex with entire edges. The cells were irregular, nonmotile, and coccoid (diameter, 0.4 to 2.0 pm) and grew

YIZHANG ZHAO; DAVID R. BOONE; ROBERT A. MAH; JANE E. BOONE; LUYING XUN

398

The Effects of Coal Tar Based Pavement Sealer on Amphibian Development and Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal tar based pavement sealers are applied regularly to parking lots and contain significant levels of polycyclic aromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recently a connection between elevated levels of PAHs in streams and storm water runoff from parking\\u000a lots has been identified. We tested the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement sealers could alter the survival, growth,\\u000a and development of amphibians using

Pamela J. Bryer; Jan. N. Elliott; Emily J. Willingham

2006-01-01

399

Structures of HIV TAR RNA-ligand complexes reveal higher binding stoichiometries.  

PubMed

Target TAR by NMR: Tripeptides containing arginines as terminal residues and non-natural amino acids as central residues are good leads for drug design to target the HIV trans-activation response element (TAR). The structural characterization of the RNA-ligand complex by NMR spectroscopy reveals two specific binding sites that are located at bulge residue U23 and around the pyrimidine-stretch U40-C41-U42 directly adjacent to the bulge. PMID:19444830

Ferner, Jan; Suhartono, Marcel; Breitung, Sven; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Hennig, Mirko; Wöhnert, Jens; Göbel, Michael; Schwalbe, Harald

2009-06-15

400

Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can affect amphibians in lethal and many sublethal ways. There are many natural and\\u000a anthropogenic sources of PAHs in aquatic environments. One potentially significant source is run off from surfaces of parking\\u000a lots and roads that are protected with coal tar sealants. Coal tar is 50% or more PAH by wet weight and is used in

Thomas BommaritoDonald; Donald W. Sparling; Richard S. Halbrook

2010-01-01

401

Effects of the reforming reagents and fuel species on tar reforming reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, using wood chips and polyethylene (PE) as fuels, the effects of air and\\/or steam as reagents on the tar reforming were clarified quantitatively with a simulated gasifier\\/reformer apparatus of a two-staged gasification process. The results show that when only steam or air was supplied into the reformer, the tar residual rate (defined as the ratio of the

Yin Wang; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

402

A study on wood gasification for low-tar gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of an experimental study on two-stage wood gasification and attempts to reduce the tar content of the gas. Increasing the wood-chip moisture content resulted in an increase of CO2 and H2 but a decrease of the CO concentration without significantly affecting the tar content in the producer gas. For a particular primary air flow rate, an increase

S. C Bhattacharya; Hoang-Luong Pham

1999-01-01

403

Characterization and beneficiation of bitumen-free domestic tar sands. Open file report  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a study to determine if residues from fractional distillation represent a potential source of mineral values. To develop this information, pilot-plant tar-sand residues or toluene-cleaned tar sands from 23 deposits were examined. The nature of the residues was determined by standard mineralogical methods and the chemical compositions were determined by X-ray and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy.

Altringer, P.B.; McDonough, P.J.; Brooks, P.T.

1982-09-01

404

Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Prosthecate Bacterium Brevundimonas abyssalis TAR-001T  

PubMed Central

We report the 3.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Brevundimonas abyssalis strain TAR-001T, isolated from deep-sea floor sediment. The draft genome sequence of strain TAR-001T consists of 2,979,700 bp in 128 contigs, with a G+C content of 68.2%, 2,946 potential coding sequences (CDS), 3 rRNAs, and 41 tRNAs.

Nishi, Shinro; Usui, Keiko; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Tadashi; Hatada, Yuji

2013-01-01

405

Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Prosthecate Bacterium Brevundimonas abyssalis TAR-001T.  

PubMed

We report the 3.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Brevundimonas abyssalis strain TAR-001(T), isolated from deep-sea floor sediment. The draft genome sequence of strain TAR-001(T) consists of 2,979,700 bp in 128 contigs, with a G+C content of 68.2%, 2,946 potential coding sequences (CDS), 3 rRNAs, and 41 tRNAs. PMID:24136847

Tsubouchi, Taishi; Nishi, Shinro; Usui, Keiko; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Tadashi; Hatada, Yuji

2013-10-17

406

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

407

The kinetics of the pyrolysis of tar sands and of the combustion of coked sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone (tar sand) particles have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tar sand deposits investigated in this study, all of which are oil-wet sands from the Uinta Basin the State of Utah, included PR Spring Rainbow I, Whiterocks, and Sunnyside. The isothermal experiments indicated that first-order kinetics fit most of the

Lin

1988-01-01

408

Quenched nonisothermal pyrolysis of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan heavy oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quenched nonisothermal experiments were performed on Asphalt Ridge tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and Boscan oil at two heating rates. Reactions were quenched at temperatures in the range of 200-- 600°C (392--1112°F) and the nonvolatile organic products were sequentially extracted with n-heptane, toluene, and pyridine. Coke contents were determined by combustion. Kinetic analyses of the coversion of

T. F. Turner; R. R. Glaser; B. E. Thomas

1989-01-01

409

Characterization of a Human TAR RNA-Binding Protein That Activates the HIV1 LTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression is activated by Tat, a virally encoded protein. Tat trans-activation requires viral (trans-activation-responsive; TAR) RNA sequences located in the R region of the long terminal repeat (LTR). Existing evidence suggests that Tat probably cooperates with cellular factors that bind to TAR RNA in the overall trans-activation process. A HeLa complementary DNA was

Anne Gatignol; Alicia Buckler-White; Ben Berkhout; Kuan-Teh Jeang

1991-01-01

410

Characterization of coal tars by HPLC group type separation and capillary GC of volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Group separation of malthene fractions of tar samples obtained from brown coals of different ranks at two different temperatures\\u000a (500 and 800?C) was performed by HPLC using amino-cyano bonded phase packing with two eluent systems of different polarities\\u000a and backflushing technique. Group composition of different tar samples was compared and evaluated. Amount and distribution\\u000a of volatile compounds in the malthene

L. Szepesy; M. Horváth; K. Lakszner

1984-01-01

411

A p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylated substrate domain decoy disrupts v-Crk signaling  

PubMed Central

Background The adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas) has been shown to be involved in different cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration and transformation. This protein has a substrate domain with up to 15 tyrosines that are potential kinase substrates, able to serve as docking sites for proteins with SH2 or PTB domains. Cas interacts with focal adhesion plaques and is phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinases FAK and Src. A number of effector molecules have been shown to interact with Cas and play a role in its function, including c-crk and v-crk, two adaptor proteins involved in intracellular signaling. Cas function is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of its substrate domain, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas in part regulates its control of adhesion and migration. To determine whether the substrate domain alone when tyrosine phosphorylated could signal, we have constructed a chimeric Cas molecule that is phosphorylated independently of upstream signals. Results We found that a tyrosine phosphorylated Cas substrate domain acts as a dominant negative mutant by blocking Cas-mediated signaling events, including JNK activation by the oncogene v-crk in transient and stable lines and v-crk transformation. This block was the result of competition for binding partners as the chimera competed for binding to endogenous c-crk and exogenously expressed v-crk. Conclusion Our approach suggests a novel method to study adaptor proteins that require phosphorylation, and indicates that mere tyrosine phosphorylation of the substrate domain of Cas is not sufficient for its function.

Kirsch, Kathrin H; Kensinger, Margaret; Hanafusa, Hidesaburo; August, Avery

2002-01-01

412

Recognition of HIV-TAR RNA using neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates.  

PubMed

Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA. PMID:24012122

Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Watkins, Derrick; Wang, Deyun; Appella, Daniel H; Arya, Dev P

2013-08-14

413

Pyrolysis of sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand is defined as any sand or rock which is impregnated with heavy oil or bitumen. (This excludes coal, oil shale, and Gilsonite). In the United States alone, there are an estimated 60 billion barrels of bitumen in tar sand, some of which is recoverable. The Sunnyside deposit in Utah accounts for approximately 4.4 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, making it an attractive deposit for recovery processing. Several commercial concerns have had financial interest in the development of recovery processing, including in-situ thermal (Shell Oil), steam flooding (Signal Oil and Gas), and solvent extraction (AMOCO). Laboratory pyrolysis of a given tar sand is useful in pyrolysis type recovery research, both in-situ and surface. Several laboratory studies have been performed on Sunnyside tar sand, to elucidate its performance - fluidized-bed and fixed-bed pyrolysis, hydropryolysis, hot water and solvent extraction. This paper summarizes the authors' initial efforts in the laboratory pyrolysis of Sunnyside tar sand, and compares the results to the pyrolysis of other domestic tar sands (Asphalt Ridge from Utah and Big Clifty from Kentucky) studied under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01

414

Survey serves up food for thought.  

PubMed

An independent survey into hospital food standards in England conducted earlier this year for the Soil Association saw over half of those patients surveyed admit they would not be happy serving the meals they received during a recent hospital stay to a child, while 29% said the food was so bad that, at times, they could not recognise what was on their plate. Nearly of quarter of the 1,000 indviduals questioned by OnePoll, meanwhile, had opted out of hospital catering altogether--choosing to have every meal brought in to them by visiting relatives; nor, the Soil Association says, is enough English hospital food being locally or sustainably sourced. PMID:21966695

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-09-01

415

28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. 522.14 Section 522.14 Judicial...INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil...

2013-07-01

416

Use of a Molecular Decoy to Segregate Transport from Antigenicity in the FrpB Iron Transporter from Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe3+ with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe3+ ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe3+ binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe3+-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe3+. The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a ‘molecular decoy’ to distract immune surveillance.

Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.; Derrick, Jeremy P.

2013-01-01

417

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human IL-22 bound to its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in inflammatory responses. Human IL-22 was incubated with its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP (IL-22 binding protein) and the IL-22–IL-22BP complex was crystallized in hanging drops using the vapour-diffusion method. Suitable crystals were obtained from polyethylene glycol solutions and diffraction data were collected to 2.75?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.9, c = 172.5?Å, and contained two IL-22–IL-­22BP complexes per asymmetric unit.

Watanabe, Leandra; de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Nascimento, Alessandro Silva; Colau, Didier; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

2009-01-01

418

Partitioning studies of coal-tar constitutents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol\\/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may

C. E. Rostad; W. E. Pereira; M. F. Hult

1985-01-01

419

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

There is significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly because of the central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes-gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal beneficiation. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for more reliable correlation for prediction of vapor pressure of heavy, primary coal tars. The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to extending the work on measurements of vapor pressures of tars. For this purpose, cellulose tar and cellulose tar related compounds have been selected as model systems. Cellulose tar has a much narrower distribution of molecular weight than does coal tar, and it is much more homogeneous. Thus it is better to develop the methods to be used for coal tars on this simpler model system first.

Suuberg, E.M.

1995-12-31

420

Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.  

PubMed

Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations. PMID:12402101

Furimsky, Edward

2002-12-01

421

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease.  

PubMed

In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and alpha-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. PMID:20234357

Chen-Plotkin, Alice S; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

2010-03-16

422

Process to separate bituminous material from sand (tar sands)  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous sand such as oil sand or tar sand is mixed with a halogenated organic solvent which has a density greater than that of water at the same temperature. The slurry is continuously transferred to a conveyor system which is at least partially submerged in water, with the slurry being fed onto the portion of the conveyor which is submerged. As the sands move through the water on the conveyor, the organic solvent containing the bituminous material separates from the sand and forms a separate phase beneath the water. The sands ultimately move upwardly on the conveyor through the surface of the water. The organic phase is removed from beneath the water surface and the halogenated solvent is flashed therefrom in a flash evaporator chamber. Solvent vapors are withdrawn from the evaporator chamber by a compressor, and the compressed vapors are introduced into a condenser chamber. A heat exchange medium is continuously circulated between the condenser and evaporator chambers, with heat being transferred from the heat exchange medium in the evaporator and back to the heat exchange medium in the condenser. Bituminous organic material is withdrawn from the evaporator chamber and condensed solvent is recovered from the condenser. Preferably, the heat exchange means comprises a plurality of heat pipes, with mutually respective end portions of the heat pipes extending into the condenser chamber and the other end portions extending into the evaporator chamber.

Gagon, H.W.

1982-08-03

423

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and ?-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology.

Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

2010-01-01

424

Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

Stephens, Thomas E. [Code 660, GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2007-07-12

425

Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Analytics and Synthesis

2013-01-01

426

Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).  

PubMed

'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated. PMID:19649735

Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N

2009-08-02

427

Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

2011-01-01

428

Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

2011-01-01

429

The tar fraction of cigarette smoke does not promote arteriosclerotic plaque development.  

PubMed Central

In addition to being the single greatest known environmental cause of cancer, cigarette smoke (CS) is also a major contributor to heart disease. We reported previously that 1) inhalation of either mainstream or sidestream CS promotes aortic arteriosclerotic plaque development; 2) 1,3 butadiene, a vapor-phase component of CS, promotes plaque development at 20 ppm, which at the time was only 2 times higher than the threshold limit value; and 3) individual tar fraction carcinogens in CS, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines, either do not promote plaque development or do so only at high concentrations. These results suggested that the tar fraction is not the primary source of plaque-promoting agents in CS. We asked whether repeated exposure to the tar fraction of CS, collected in a cold trap (TAR), promotes plaque development in an avian model of arteriosclerosis. Acetone extracts of mainstream CS tar from burning, unfiltered reference cigarettes were solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and injected weekly into cockerels for 16 weeks (25 mg/kg/week). Positive controls were injected weekly with the synthetic PAH carcinogen, 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) dissolved in DMSO and negative controls were injected with DMSO. Plaque location and prevalence did not differ from group to group. Morphometric analysis of plaque cross-sectional areas showed that plaque sizes, which are log-normally distributed, were significantly larger in the DMBA cockerels compared to both the TAR and DMSO groups. There were no significant differences in plaque size between DMSO and TAR cockerels. The results reported here, combined with other recent findings, support the conclusion that the primary arteriosclerotic plaque-promoting components of CS are in the vapor phase. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Penn, A; Keller, K; Snyder, C; Nadas, A; Chen, L C

1996-01-01

430

Preliminary evaluation of chemical indicators for the analysis of production losses from tar sand recovery  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of thermally altered tar sand bitumen. The objective of the study was to determine if changes in the chemical composition of the tar sand bitumen can be correlated to chemically related production losses or thermal history of the bitumen. Tar sand samples from the Tar Sand Triangle deposit in southeastern Utah were thermally altered under autogenous conditions at temperatures of 380/sup 0/C, 400/sup 0/C, and 420/sup 0/C for time periods ranging from 1 to 24 hours. The thermally altered tar sands was serially extracted with normal heptane, toluene, and pyridine. The normal heptane extracts from each thermal alteration experiment were analyzed by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) to determine the presence of several classes of compounds. The heptane fractions from the thermally altered tar sand represent a complex mixture that can not be evaluated using conventional combined GC/MS techniques. For this reason, the presence of the different classes of compounds was determined by profiling ions selected to represent each class of targeted compounds. The classes of compounds targeted for this analysis included normal alkanes, tricyclic diterpanes, pantacyclic triterpanes, and aromatic species having general empirical formulas ranging from C/sub n/H/sub 2n-6/ through C/sub n/H/sub 2n-40/. The results of this investigation indicate that the pentacyclic triterpanes are the only class of compounds that follow a trend with the thermal alteration conditions. The relative intensity of the pentacyclic triterpanes decreases with increasing exposure time for each temperature investigated. This class of compounds may be useful for tracing the thermal history of tar sand bitumen in a process. 12 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

Guffey, F.D.; Cummings, R.E.

1986-03-01

431

Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene  

SciTech Connect

Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

2000-02-01

432

Distribution and quantification of thin tar mats in a North sea field  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of infra-meter thick tar mats has been investigated in a North sea oil field and has resulted in a high resolution description of tar mats location within 13 wells more or less evenly distributed accross the field (45 km{sup 2}). This paper presents a procedure to assess the 3 D distribution and the total volume of non-productive heavy oil using geostatistical approaches. In the considered area, the tars are preferentially deposited in the southeastern part of the field in reservoir zones displaying relatively high pore volumes. The suggested mechanism of emplacement of the tar is related to the deposition of bitumen onto minerals along favored oil avenues during the process of oil feeding of the reservoir. Multiple regression applied on each individual reservoir units provides a regional relationship between, on one hand, cumulative thickness of tar (dependent variable) and, on the other hand, total pore volume and distance to the inferred point of entry of the oil filling the field (predictor variables). Geostatistical analysis have been performed on the reservoir facies distribution in order to build a stochastic simulation (Heresim software). The simulations are based on the interpretation of the depositional sequence using variograms and proportion curves. The results are 3D images of the reservoir with respect of the spatial structure of the lithofacies distribution. Pore volume variability, measured for each lithofacies, has been added into the simulation results. The resulting images of the reservoir porosity, used in conjunction with the multivariate correlations, led to estimate the 3D distribution of tar mats in the field, allowing a quantitative evaluation of the total tar volume.

Carpentier, B.; Huc, A.Y. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-08-01

433

Targeted disruption of transcriptional regulatory function of p53 by a novel efficient method for introducing a decoy oligonucleotide into nuclei  

PubMed Central

Decoy oligonucleotides have been used for functional sequestering of transcription factors. Efficient introduction into cells is a prerequisite for the oligonucleotides to exert their blocking function. Lipofection is the most widely used technique for that purpose because of its convenience and relatively high efficiency. However, the transduction efficiency of lipofection largely depends on cell types and experimental conditions and the introduced nucleotides are not specifically directed to nuclei where they exert their major function. In the present study, we designed a new system for transporting oligonucleotides into cell nuclei. The vehicle is composed of glutathione-S-transferase, 7 arginine residues, the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and a nuclear localization signal, which are linked with flexible glycine stretches. The p53-responsive element linked to the GAL4 upstream activating sequence was efficiently transferred by the vehicle protein into nuclei of primary cultures of neuronal cells, embryonic stem cells and various human normal cells. Transcriptional activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 and Bax by p53 on exposure to cisplatin was completely blocked by introducing the p53 decoy oligonucleotide. Thus, the system developed in the present study can be a convenient and powerful tool for specifically disrupting the function of DNA-binding proteins in culture.

Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Nukui, Takamasa; Sonegawa, Hiroyuki; Murata, Hitoshi; Futami, Junichiro; Yamada, Hidenori; Huh, Nam-ho

2005-01-01

434

Interruption of intrachromosomal looping by CCCTC binding factor decoy proteins abrogates genomic imprinting of human insulin-like growth factor II.  

PubMed

Monoallelic expression of IGF2 is regulated by CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) binding to the imprinting control region (ICR) on the maternal allele, with subsequent formation of an intrachromosomal loop to the promoter region. The N-terminal domain of CTCF interacts with SUZ12, part of the polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2), to silence the maternal allele. We synthesized decoy CTCF proteins, fusing the CTCF deoxyribonucleic acid-binding zinc finger domain to CpG methyltransferase Sss1 or to enhanced green fluorescent protein. In normal human fibroblasts and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines, the CTCF decoy proteins bound to the unmethylated ICR and to the IGF2 promoter region but did not interact with SUZ12. EZH2, another part of PRC2, was unable to methylate histone H3-K27 in the IGF2 promoter region, resulting in reactivation of the imprinted allele. The intrachromosomal loop between the maternal ICR and the IGF2 promoters was not observed when IGF2 imprinting was lost. CTCF epigenetically governs allelic gene expression of IGF2 by orchestrating chromatin loop structures involving PRC2. PMID:21536749

Zhang, He; Niu, Beibei; Hu, Ji-Fan; Ge, Shengfang; Wang, Haibo; Li, Tao; Ling, Jianqun; Steelman, Brandon N; Qian, Guanxiang; Hoffman, Andrew R

2011-05-01

435

Decoying the cap- mRNA degradation system by a double-stranded RNA virus and poly(A)- mRNA surveillance by a yeast antiviral system.  

PubMed Central

The major coat protein of the L-A double-stranded RNA virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae covalently binds m7 GMP from 5' capped mRNAs in vitro. We show that this cap binding also occurs in vivo and that, while this activity is required for expression of viral information (killer toxin mRNA level and toxin production) in a wild-type strain, this requirement is suppressed by deletion of SKI1/XRN1/SEP1. We propose that the virus creates decapped cellular mRNAs to decoy the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease specific for cap- RNA encoded by XRN1. The SKI2 antiviral gene represses the copy numbers of the L-A and L-BC viruses and the 20S RNA replicon, apparently by specifically blocking translation of viral RNA. We show that SKI2, SKI3, and SKI8 inhibit translation of electroporated luciferase and beta-glucuronidase mRNAs in vivo, but only if they lack the 3' poly(A) structure. Thus, L-A decoys the SKI1/XRN1/SEP1 exonuclease directed at 5' uncapped ends, but translation of the L-A poly(A)- mRNA is repressed by Ski2,3,8p. The SKI2-SKI3-SKI8 system is more effective against cap+ poly(A)- mRNA, suggesting a (nonessential) role in blocking translation of fragmented cellular mRNAs.

Masison, D C; Blanc, A; Ribas, J C; Carroll, K; Sonenberg, N; Wickner, R B

1995-01-01

436

Distinguish protein decoys by using a scoring function based on a new AMBER force field, short molecular dynamics simulations, and the generalized born solvent model.  

PubMed

Recent works have shown the ability of physics-based potentials (e.g., CHARMM and OPLS-AA) and energy minimization to differentiate the native protein structures from large ensemble of non-native structures. In this study, we extended previous work by other authors and developed an energy scoring function using a new set of AMBER parameters (also recently developed in our laboratory) in conjunction with molecular dynamics and the Generalized Born solvent model. We evaluated the performance of our new scoring function by examining its ability to distinguish between the native and decoy protein structures. Here we present a systematic comparison of our results with those obtained with use of other physics-based potentials by previous authors. A total of 7 decoy sets, 117 protein sequences, and more than 41,000 structures were evaluated. The results of our study showed that our new scoring function represents a significant improvement over previously published physics-based scoring functions. PMID:15103626

Lee, Mathew C; Duan, Yong

2004-05-15

437

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas vs lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m2 of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. PMID:19673284

Scoggins, Mateo; Ennis, Tom; Parker, Nathan; Herrington, Chris

2009-07-01

438

Field scale characterization and modeling of contaminant release from a coal tar source zone.  

PubMed

A coal tar contaminated site was characterized using traditional and innovative investigation methods. A careful interpretation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data allowed for the conceptualization of the heterogeneous coal tar distribution in the subsurface. Past and future contaminant release from the source zone was calculated using a modeling framework consisting of a three-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) and two hydrogeochemical models (MIN3P). Computational time of long-term simulations was reduced by simplifying the coal tar composition using 3 composite and 2 individual constituents and sequential application of a 2D centerline model (for calibration and predictions) and a 3D model (only for predictions). Predictions were carried out for a period of 1000 years. The results reveal that contaminant mass flux is governed by the geometry of zones containing residual coal tar, amount of coal tar, its composition and the physicochemical properties of the constituents. The long-term predictions made using the 2D model show that even after 1000 years, source depletion will be small with respect to phenanthrene, 89% of initial mass will be still available, and for the moderately and sparingly soluble composite constituents, 60% and 98%, respectively. PMID:18538890

D'Affonseca, Fernando M; Blum, Philipp; Finkel, Michael; Melzer, Reiner; Grathwohl, Peter

2008-04-13

439

A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots  

SciTech Connect

Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

2009-07-01

440

Source diagnostic and weathering indicators of tar balls utilizing acyclic, polycyclic and S-heterocyclic components.  

PubMed

This study represents a forensic chemical analysis to define the liability for the coastal bitumens polluting the beaches of the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. Six tar balls collected from several locations along the coast of the city were analyzed for their acyclic and polycyclic hydrocarbons as well as sulfur heterocycles using GC/FID, GC/AED and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. The analysis of one Egyptian crude oil is also included as a possible source oil. The tar ball samples were at early stages of weathering. Based on the GC traces and biomarker signatures, the tar balls could be genetically different. One sample collected from the Eastern Harbor region appears to be a Bunker C type fuel produced from Egyptian crudes. The refining process has removed the low molecular weight components. On the other hand, the wide n-alkane distribution together with the absence of an unresolved complex mixture suggests that crude oils probably from tank washings, ballast discharges or accident spills from tankers could have contributed significantly to the other tar ball samples. The distribution of source specific hopane and sterane markers revealed that the tar samples probably originate from different oil fields. PMID:15051374

Hegazi, A H; Andersson, J T; Abu-Elgheit, M A; El-Gayar, M Sh

2004-05-01

441

PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water  

SciTech Connect

The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

2006-10-01

442

Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water.  

PubMed

Coal tar aged in a large-scale, artificial aquifer experiment for five years was subsequently investigated for leaching behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After five years, the initially liquid coal tar had solidified and formed segregated particles with a grain size similar to that of the sandy aquifer material. The composition of the aged coal tar (ACT) with regard to PAHs was remarkably different from that of the original bulk coal tar (BCT), because most of the low-molecular-weight compounds had been depleted. Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 degrees C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2- to 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult's law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van't Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs. PMID:19309178

Liu, Lihua; Endo, Satoshi; Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C

2009-03-23

443

Quenched nonisothermal pyrolysis of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan heavy oil mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Quenched nonisothermal experiments were performed on Asphalt Ridge tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and Boscan oil at two heating rates. Reactions were quenched at temperatures in the range of 200-- 600{degree}C (392--1112{degree}F) and the nonvolatile organic products were sequentially extracted with n-heptane, toluene, and pyridine. Coke contents were determined by combustion. Kinetic analyses of the coversion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand and Boscan coprocessing mixtures show remarkable similarities. A kinetic fit to data from both Asphalt Ridge and Boscan oil coprocessing tests was performed with the result being a good fit to all the data. The shapes of the soluble, nonvolatile product concentrations indicate a series reaction scheme leading to the formation of coke and pyridine-soluble material. For the Asphalt Ridge tar sand, both heptane and toluene solubles decompose to form pyridine solubles and coke. For the Boscan oil/tar sand mixtures, heptane solubles form toluene solubles which form pyridine solubles and coke. 6 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Turner, T.F.; Glaser, R.R.; Thomas, B.E.

1989-08-01

444

High tar yields from low-rank coals in non-catalyzed hydropyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Hydropyrolysis is potentially an attractive means for the production of synthetic fuels and chemical feedstocks from coals. It offers a simpler process configuration than traditional direct liquefaction with a higher throughput and avoids problems with liquid (tar)-solids (residue) separation. Recent evaluations of coal liquefaction processes have concluded that, provided 50% or more distillable liquids can be produced, hydropyrolysis will be a viable alternative to the traditional vehicle solvent-based processes. For low-rank coals, hydrogenation catalysts are much less effective than for their bituminous counterparts with the increases in tar yields being typically less than 10% daf coal{sup 6}. Nonetheless, without catalyst, the tar yields of 40--50% at 150 bar pressure are appreciably higher than for bituminous coals. In this investigation, tests have been conducted at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and using an extremely low heating rate of 5{degrees}C/min on the Wyodak Argonne Premium Coal Sample (APCS) and the high-sulfur Mequinenza and Rasa lignites to ascertain whether tar yields could be further increased without catalyst. It was initially considered that the tar yields for low rank coals are limited by the fact that retrogressive reactions, particularly those involving phenolic and carboxylic moities, are more prevalent than for bituminous coals. Data obtained indicates that low heating rates do, in fact, improve the conversion for low-rank coals.

Klavetter, E.; Mitchell, S.C.; Garcia, R.; Snape, C.E.

1993-08-01

445

UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS MOLECULAR SIEVE IN CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF COAL TAR COMPOUNDS Pemanfaatan Zeolit Aktif sebagai Molecular Sieve untuk Pengisi Kolom Kromatografi pada Pemisahan Komponen Tar Batu Bara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of activated zeolite (ZAA) as molecular sieve to separate compounds of coal tar from vaccum fractional distillation, have been done. The size of zeolite was 10-20 mesh and used as solid phase in column chromatography with length of 30 cm. The first step of the research was coal pyrolisis and the product (tar) was distillated by fractional column and

Dwi Retno; Nurotul Wahidiyah; Bambang Setiaji; Iqmal Tahir

446

Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars  

SciTech Connect

Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

1987-04-01

447

Test requirements for coal-tar mixtures on airport pavements. Final report, May 1991-October 1992  

SciTech Connect

The research documented in this report represents an effort to evaluate the test procedures for coal tar mixtures. The various coal tar test methods have been evaluated under several levels of test variables. The and scuff resistance tests were evaluated under three types of shingles and an aluminum substrate. The fuel resistance test was evaluated under three levels of sand loading and three levels of film thickness. In addition, all of the tests were evaluated under two levels of humidity. The analysis of the data indicates that the effect of the substrate is insignificant in all of the tests. The effect of humidity is significant on some tests, while the effects of sand loading and film thickness are highly significant on the results of the fuel resistance tests.... Coal tar, Additive, Freeze-Thaw, Scuff, Peel, Tile, Shingle, Fuel resistance, Humidity, Brookfield, Viscosity.

Sebaaly, P.E.; Thirmarayappa, V.; Epps, J.

1993-01-01

448

Technological limitations in the isolation of individual components of hard-coal tar by fractional distillation  

SciTech Connect

Hard-coal tar is the source of a valuable raw material for the chemical industry. It contains considerable amounts of naphthalene and its homologs, indole, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran and fluorene. Of the above-mentioned substances, naphthalene is isolated on the industrial scale, and the resources of the other components are scarcely utilized. The difficulties in the creation of a rational technology for isolating the individual components are determined to some degree by the inadequacy of the study of the physicochemical laws of the separation of a hard-coal tar as a polyazeotropic-polyeutectic mixture. In the reported study, the technological limitations arising in the isolation from hard-coal tar by fractional distillation of naphthalene and its homologs, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran and fluorene have been investigated by the method of thermodynamic-topological analysis. 5 refs.

Belousova, O.A.; Lekhova, G.B.; Kharlampovich, G.D.

1981-01-01

449

Corrosion Study of AISI 304, AISI 321 and AISI 430 Stainless Steels in a Tar Sand Digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work has investigated the corrosion properties of three types of stainless steels in a tar sand digester environment with the aim of establishing their relative resistances in the environment. The corrosion experiments for the stainless steels were conducted by the non-electrochemical immersion technique with corrosion rates expressed in mils per year (mpy). The spectroscopy analysis of the Nigerian tar

L. E. Umoru; A. A. Afonja; B. Ademodi

450

Fourier grain shape analysis as a tool for indicating batch recoveries of bitumen from Athabasca tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of weight percent fines have been considered in the past as important factors in controlling the recoveries of bitumen from tar sands using batch extractors. However, in the marine sands of the Athabasca deposit, fines break down as a predictor of batch recovery; in some places even low fines tar sands do not yield acceptable batch bitumen recoveries. It

M. M. Smith; R. Ehrlich; A. Hardin

1983-01-01

451

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed

D. ORourke; D. Kullen; L. Gierek; K. Wescott; M. Greby; G. Anast; M. Nesta; L. Walston; R. Tate; A. Azzarello; B. Vinikour; B. Van Lonkhuyzen; J. Quinn; R. Yuen

2007-01-01

452

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at adv