Sample records for tar decoy serves

  1. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Regulated Expression of a Polymeric Tat Activation Response RNA Decoy as a Strategy for Gene Therapy in AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julianna Lisziewicz; Daisy Sun; Jason Smythe; Paolo Lusso; Franco Lori; Andrey Louie; Phillip Markham; John Rossi; Marvin Reitz; Robert C. Gallo

    1993-01-01

    We are investigating a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by intracellular expression of an RNA decoy and a ribozyme. The RNA decoy, consisting of polymeric Tat activation response elements (TARs), is designed to compete for Tat binding in an equilibrium with viral TAR RNA, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The expression of

  2. Optimal decoy intensity for decoy quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Masahito Hayashi

    2013-12-30

    In the decoy quantum key distribution, we show that a smaller decoy intensity gives a better key generation rate in the asymptotic setting when we employ only one decoy intensity and the vacuum pulse. In particular, the counting rate of single photon can be perfectly estimated when the decoy intensity is infinitesimal. The same property holds even when the intensities cannot be perfectly identified. Further, we propose a protocol to improve the key generation rate over the existing protocol under the same decoy intensity.

  3. Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gabriel L; Velazquez, Lourdes; Pham, Serena; Qaisar, Natasha; Delaney, James C; Viswanathan, Karthik; Albers, Leila; Comolli, James C; Shriver, Zachary; Knipe, David M; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Fygenson, Deborah K; Trevejo, Jose M; Wang, Jennifer P; Finberg, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor pocket on viral attachment proteins, acting as 'molecular sinks' and preventing the pathogen from binding to susceptible host cells. Decoy receptors functionalized with HS could bind to pathogens and prevent infection, so we generated decoy liposomes displaying HS-octasaccharide (HS-octa). These decoy liposomes significantly inhibited RSV, hPIV3, and HSV infectivity in vitro to a greater degree than the original HS-octa building block. The degree of inhibition correlated with the density of HS-octa displayed on the liposome surface. Decoy liposomes with HS-octa inhibited infection of viruses to a greater extent than either full-length heparin or HS-octa alone. Decoy liposomes were effective when added prior to infection or following the initial infection of cells in vitro. By targeting the well-conserved receptor-binding sites of HS-binding viruses, decoy liposomes functionalized with HS-octa are a promising therapeutic antiviral agent and illustrate the utility of the liposome delivery platform. PMID:25637710

  4. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(?2) in prior art to O(?) where ? is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution", . We also have done the first experimental demonstration of decoy state quantum key distribution, over 15km of Telecom fibers. This part of work is published in "Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution Over 15km", .

  5. TAR SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tar spot of grasses, also known as black leaf spot, is found on most members of the Poaceae. Tar spot appears principally on perennial grasses in moist, shaded areas and is rare on wheat and other annuals. It is found primarily in temperate regions. The disease is readily recognized by its glossy...

  6. Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiongfeng; Qi Bing; Zhao Yi; Lo, H.-K. [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we present a general theory of the decoy state protocol based on only two decoy states and one signal state. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the two decoy states and the signal state. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states - the vacuum and a weak decoy state - asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocol (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long-distance (larger than 100 km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical.

  7. Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    X. Ma; B. Qi; Y. Zhao; H. -K. Lo

    2005-05-10

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution. Here, we present a general theory of the decoy state protocol based on only two decoy states and one signal state. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the two decoy states and the signal state. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--the vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical.

  8. Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Zhao, Yi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-07-01

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we present a general theory of the decoy state protocol based on only two decoy states and one signal state. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the two decoy states and the signal state. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states—the vacuum and a weak decoy state—asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocol (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long-distance (larger than 100 km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical.

  9. Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiongfeng Ma; Bing Qi; Yi Zhao; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2005-01-01

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we present a general theory of the decoy state protocol based on only two decoy states and one signal state. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the two decoy states and the signal state. Our result

  10. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  11. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  12. In search of decoy/guardee to R genes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Basu, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses are coordinately controlled by both external and internal signals. Apt perception of pathogen attack and its appropriate conversion to internal signals ultimately determine the outcome of innate immunity. The present review predicts the involvement of unconventional ‘guard/decoy model’ in chickpea-Fusarium encounter. Rapid alkalinization factor is predicted to act as initial ‘Gatekeeper decoy’ counteracting fungal entry. Phospholipases and cystatins probably function as ‘Guardees’ being shielded by R gene(s). Serine Threonine Kinases decodes external pathogenic signals to in planta defense alarms. 14.3.3 provides clues to the wilt mechanism. The versatile sugars serve as signal generators and transmitters maintaining intra and inter cellular connectivity during stress. PMID:20855953

  13. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2009-04-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  14. Processing of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.O.

    1984-01-03

    The present invention relates to an improved process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands comprising first heating the raw tar sands with steam at a temperature sufficient to visbreak a portion of the bitumen without significant thermal cracking thereby producing a vaporous distillate product mixed with steam and lowering the viscosity and specific gravity of the residual bitumen on the heat treated tar sands. The distillate product and steam are cooled and condensed and mixed the heat treated tar sands containing residual beneficiated bitumen to form a slurry. Bitumen is then recovered from the slurry by a hot-water separation process.

  15. Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

  16. Fuels from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L.M.

    1986-03-01

    A general discussion of the tar sand resource in the US in presented. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with the development of synfuels are discussed. Predictions are made concerning the development of the tar sands resource in the US and Canada during the next 15 years.

  17. Tar sands` asphaltic mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Akinrogunde, E.A. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained from the laboratory investigation aimed at determining the possibility of making asphaltic mixes of acceptable quality for road surfacing, from raw tar sands (as they occur in nature). The tar sand samples consist mainly of fine sand, water, and bitumen. Five different types of asphaltic mixes were produced from tar sands and superheated aggregates. On the basis of Marshall and indirect tensile (Brazilian) tests carried out on the produced asphaltic mixes, the investigation revealed that raw tar sands are good material for the production of asphaltic mixes. The results of the investigation also suggest that for a given mix set, there may be correlation between maximum value of Marshall stability and maximum indirect tensile strength.

  18. Practical high-dimensional quantum key distribution with decoy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunandar, Darius; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Englund, Dirk R.

    2015-02-01

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) allows two parties to generate multiple secure bits of information per detected photon. In this work, we show that decoy-state protocols can be practically implemented for HD-QKD using only one or two decoy states. HD-QKD with two decoy states, under realistic experimental constraints, can generate multiple secure bits per coincidence at distances over 200 km and at rates similar to those achieved by a protocol with infinite decoy states. Furthermore, HD-QKD with only one decoy state is practical at short distances, where it is almost as secure as a protocol with two decoy states. HD-QKD with only one or two decoy states can therefore be implemented to optimize the rate of secure quantum communications.

  19. Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E): Better Ligands and Decoys for Better Benchmarking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target’s ligands by their Bemis–Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org. PMID:22716043

  20. Routing Around Decoys Max Schuchard1

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT Decoy Routing is a new approach to Internet censorship circum routing aims to ham- per nation-state level Internet censorship by having routers, rather than end hosts routing systems. We explore China, Syria, Iran, and Egypt as routing capable ad- versaries, and evaluate

  1. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  2. Thermal Recovery From Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Carrigy

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the progress made in developing improved technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands, it is logical to assume that as the world's supply of light and heavy oil is depleted, production of synthetic oil from the bitumen resources in tar sands will accelerate. As most of the known deposits of tar sands were discovered by

  3. Experimental Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution

    E-print Network

    Qi-Chao Sun; Wei-Long Wang; Yang Liu; Fei Zhou; Jason S. Pelc; M. M. Fejer; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Xian-Feng Chen; Xiongfeng Ma; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan

    2014-06-20

    The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources by varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we have experimentally demonstrated the passive decoy-state method over a 50-km-long optical fiber and have obtained a key rate of about 100 bit/s. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

  4. SPINNING-WING DECOYS IN MINNESOTA 993 Effects of spinning-wing decoys on

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    -wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breed- ing populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in North America. Key words Anas platyrhynchos, crippling, duck hunting, flock behavior, hunting nesting females and many hatch-year states are concerned that local mallard (Anas (HY) mallards

  5. Tuning inflammation and immunity by chemokine sequestration: decoys and more

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Bonecchi; Massimo Locati; Alberto Mantovani

    2006-01-01

    A set of chemokine receptors are structurally unable to elicit migration or conventional signalling responses after ligand engagement. These 'silent' (non-signalling) chemokine receptors regulate inflammatory and immune reactions in different ways, including by acting as decoys and scavengers. Chemokine decoy receptors recognize distinct and complementary sets of ligands and are strategically expressed in different cellular contexts. Importantly, viruses and parasites

  6. No Direction Home: The True Cost of Routing Around Decoys

    E-print Network

    Shmatikov, Vitaly

    --Decoy routing is a recently proposed approach for censorship circumvention. It relies on cooperating ISPs in the censorship region. A recent study, published in an award-winning CCS 2012 paper [24], suggested that censors in highly connected countries like China can easily defeat decoy routing by selecting Internet routes

  7. Bitumen recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Hupka, J.

    1984-09-11

    A process for recovering bitumen from tar sands wherein the tar sands are pretreated with a diluent, such as kerosene in the preferred embodiment, to lower the viscosity of the bitumen such that it is in the range of about 5 to about 20 poise at the digestion temperature. The tar sands are then digested at a temperature in the range of about 45/sup 0/ C. to about 60/sup 0/ C. and at a pH of about 7.8 to about 8.6. The tar sands are then transferred to a flotation cell where the bitumen-rich concentrate is separated from the sand.

  8. Immunomodulation of cystic fibrosis epithelial cells via NF-?B decoy oligonucleotide-coated polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wardwell, Patricia R; Bader, Rebecca A

    2015-05-01

    Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway is associated with enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and is thought to play a critical role in diseases hallmarked by inflammation, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Small nucleic acids that interfere with gene expression have been proposed as promising therapeutics for a number of diseases. However, applications have been limited by low cellular penetration and a lack of stability. Nano-sized carrier systems have been suggested as a means of improving the effectiveness of nucleic acid-based treatments. In this study, we successfully coated polysialic acid-N-trimethyl chitosan (PSA-TMC) nanoparticles with NF-?? decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs). To demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were administered to an in vitro model of CF generated via interleukin-1? or P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides stimulation of IB3-1 bronchial epithelial cells. While free ODN and PSA-TMC nanoparticles coated with scrambled ODNs did not have substantial impacts on the inflammatory response, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were able to reduce the secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, pro-inflammatory mediators of CF, by the epithelial cells, particularly at longer time points. In general, the results suggest that NF-?B decoy ODN-coated TMC-PSA nanoparticles may serve as an effective method of altering the pro-inflammatory environment associated with CF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1622-1631, 2015. PMID:25087735

  9. Decoy plasminogen receptor containing a selective Kunitz-inhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Schmidt, Amy E; Ogueli, Godwin I; Ponnuraj, Sathya M; Rannulu, Nalaka; Loo, Joseph A; Bajaj, Madhu S; Bajaj, S Paul

    2014-01-28

    Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2' residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ?5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ? 0.2 to 0.3 ?M) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ?-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(?)-plasmin-KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the ?-plasmin-KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

  10. Decoy Plasminogen Receptor Containing a Selective Kunitz-Inhibitory Domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2? residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ?5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ? 0.2 to 0.3 ?M) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ?-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(?)-plasmin–KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the ?-plasmin–KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

  11. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  12. The neural correlates of the decoy effect in decisions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianping; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the context in which options are presented. The introduction of an inferior option (a decoy) into the choice set can make one of the original options (the target) more attractive than and the other original option (the competitor). This so called "decoy effect" represents a striking violation of the "context-invariant" axiom, yet its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used a novel gambling task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate its neural basis. At both the stimulus and decision phases, choice sets with decoys activated the occipital gyrus and deactivated the inferior parietal gyrus. At the decision phase, choosing the targets vs. the competitors elicited stronger anterior insula activation, suggesting that perceptual salience drives heuristic decision making in the decoy effect. Moreover, across participants, activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) predicted a reduced susceptibility to the decoy effect, indicating that resisting the tendency to make heuristic decisions is taxing. Our findings highlight the power of the decoy effect in laboratory settings and document the neural mechanisms underlying the decoy effect. PMID:25147516

  13. The neural correlates of the decoy effect in decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianping; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the context in which options are presented. The introduction of an inferior option (a decoy) into the choice set can make one of the original options (the target) more attractive than and the other original option (the competitor). This so called “decoy effect” represents a striking violation of the “context-invariant” axiom, yet its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used a novel gambling task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate its neural basis. At both the stimulus and decision phases, choice sets with decoys activated the occipital gyrus and deactivated the inferior parietal gyrus. At the decision phase, choosing the targets vs. the competitors elicited stronger anterior insula activation, suggesting that perceptual salience drives heuristic decision making in the decoy effect. Moreover, across participants, activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) predicted a reduced susceptibility to the decoy effect, indicating that resisting the tendency to make heuristic decisions is taxing. Our findings highlight the power of the decoy effect in laboratory settings and document the neural mechanisms underlying the decoy effect. PMID:25147516

  14. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    E-print Network

    Patrick Rice; Jim Harrington

    2009-01-23

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  15. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    E-print Network

    Rice, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  16. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  17. Glucocorticoid Receptor DNA Binding Decoy Is a Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael J. Garabedian (NYU School of Medicine; Department of Microbiology REV)

    2010-02-09

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a paradigmatic DNA binding transcription factor and was described over 20 years ago as one of the first proteins identified to bind the enhancer region of genes called “response elements.” Since that time, an immense amount of work has revealed that GR transcriptional regulation is controlled at virtually every step of its activity: ligand binding, nuclear translocation, transcriptional cofactor binding, and DNA binding. Just when the major modes of GR regulation appear known, a new study provides yet another mechanism whereby GR transcriptional activity is controlled under conditions of cell growth arrest. In this case, GR activity is repressed by a small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from the growth arrest–specific transcript 5 gene that folds into a soluble glucocorticoid response element–like sequence and serves as a decoy for GR DNA binding. This unexpected mode of regulation by nucleic acid molecular mimicry is probably not confined to GR and should spark interest in the hunt for other ncRNAs that regulate transcription factor binding to DNA.

  18. Serving Sizes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this nutrition and estimation activity (page 12 of PDF), learners estimate serving sizes of different foods and compare their estimates to serving size information provided on nutrition food labels. A Quick Hand Measures guide helps learners visualize serving sizes of different foods using their hand (i.e. a closed fist = serving size of a piece of fruit). This activity also introduces learners to solid and liquid measures. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, reliable resource links and handouts.

  19. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  20. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  1. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  2. Infrared decoy and obscurant modelling and simulation for ship protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, Brian; Nicholls, Edgar; Walmsley, Roy; Ayling, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Imaging seekers used in modern Anti Ship Missiles (ASMs) use a variety of counter countermeasure (CCM) techniques including guard gates and aspect ratio assessment in order to counter the use of IR decoys. In order to improve the performance of EO/IR countermeasures it is necessary to accurately configure and place the decoys using a launcher that is trainable in azimuth and elevation. Control of the launcher, decoy firing times and burst sequences requires the development of algorithms based on multi-dimensional solvers. The modelling and simulation used to derive the launcher algorithms is described including the countermeasure, threat, launcher and ship models. The launcher model incorporates realistic azimuth and elevation rates with limits on azimuth and elevation arcs of fire. A Navier Stokes based model of the IR decoy includes thermal buoyancy, cooling of the IR smoke and its extinction properties. All of these factors affect the developing size, shape and radiance of the decoy. The hot smoke also influences the performance of any co-located chaff or other obscurant material. Typical simulations are described against generic imaging ASM seekers using shape discrimination or a guard gate.

  3. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, M.P.; Raedeke, A.H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

  4. Behavioural responses and attraction of New Zealand sea lions to on-land female decoys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AA Augé; BL Chilvers

    2010-01-01

    Using decoys to attract gregarious animals is a common management practice, but rarely used for pinnipeds. We investigated the behavioural responses of New Zealand (NZ) sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri, at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, to determine whether decoys can attract female sea lions and so could be useful for the establishment of new colonies. We deployed decoys near existing breeding

  5. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  6. Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shams Mousavi, S. H. [Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Photonic and Communication Systems, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Gallion, P. [TELECOM ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, 46 rue Barrault, 75013 Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

  7. A decoy-free approach to the identification of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, Giulia; Stock, Michiel; Verwaeren, Jan; Maddelein, Davy; De Baets, Bernard; Martens, Lennart; Degroeve, Sven

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of proteogenomics and metaproteomics studies indicate potential limitations of the application of the "decoy" database paradigm used to separate correct peptide identifications from incorrect ones in traditional shotgun proteomics. We therefore propose a binary classifier called Nokoi that allows fast yet reliable decoy-free separation of correct from incorrect peptide-to-spectrum matches (PSMs). Nokoi was trained on a very large collection of heterogeneous data using ranks supplied by the Mascot search engine to label correct and incorrect PSMs. We show that Nokoi outperforms Mascot and achieves a performance very close to that of Percolator at substantially higher processing speeds. PMID:25714903

  8. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  9. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

  10. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with intensity fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-su; Li, Hong-wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, proven to be more desirable than the active ones in some scenarios, also have the problem of device imperfections like intensity fluctuations. In this paper, the formula of key generation rate of the passive decoy-state protocol using the weak coherent pulse (WCP) source with intensity fluctuation is given, and then the influence of intensity fluctuations on the performance of the passive decoy-state protocol is rigorously characterized. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that intensity fluctuations have non-negligible influence on the performance of the passive decoy-state QKD protocol with WCP source. Most importantly, our simulations show that, under the same deviation of intensity fluctuations, the passive decoy-state method performs better than the active one decoy-state method and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy-state method.

  11. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

  12. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  13. Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks

    E-print Network

    Chun Zhou; Wan-su Bao; Hong-wei Li; Yang Wang; Yuan Li; Zhen-qiang Yin; Wei Chen; Zheng-fu Han

    2014-06-02

    For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is $10^{10}$. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

  14. Practical decoy state quantum key distribution with finite resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. G.; Cai, Q. Y.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the controllably secure quantum key distribution (QKD) with coherent source, i.e., the practical decoy state QKD with finite resource is studied within the scope of some controllable security parameters. Our simulation shows the controllably secure QKD is more resource-consuming compared with the practical decoy QKD with relatively statistical fluctuation. However, further numerically solutions show that both protocols agree well with each other in the asymptotic limit, where the resource is large enough but not infinite. Our work shows the dark counts will contribute apparently to the transmission distance when communication distance approaches to the asymptotic limit. It also shows that both the secure transmission distance and the rate of the secure final key can be increased apparently when the security estimation parameters are not fixed but numerically optimized.

  15. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  16. Passive decoy state quantum key distribution with practical light sources

    E-print Network

    Marcos Curty; Xiongfeng Ma; Bing Qi; Tobias Moroder

    2009-11-14

    Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. While active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty {\\it et al.}, Opt. Lett. {\\bf 34}, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this paper we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photo-detectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photo-detectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photo-detectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret ket rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

  17. Photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Yu Cai; Yong-Gang Tan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a photon-number-resolving decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme is presented based on recent experimental advancements. A new upper bound on the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses is given, which seems inherent as long as weak coherent sources and high lossy channel are used. This implies that our scheme is optimal in long-distance QKD with weak

  18. Antineoplastic Effect of Decoy Oligonucleotide Derived from MGMT Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25460932

  19. Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wazir Okera

    1974-01-01

    THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

  20. Characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Bunger

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen has been made using methods developed for high boiling petroleum fractions. The characterization includes information about the major compound types which can be compared with similar data for other tar sand bitumens and, more importantly, can be correlated with data from petroleum samples for which refining characteristics are known. Examination of

  1. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  2. Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2015-02-17

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ?35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF A GREAT HORNED OWL DECOY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE AND ADULT GRAY JAYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. MONTEVECCHI; A. D. MACCARONE

    The effects of a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) decoy on the feeding behavior of adult and juvenile Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were tested by comparing the feeding activity of the jays in the presence of the decoy with that in the presence of a Ring-necked Duck mount and in the absence of other species' models. The owl decoy had

  4. Security analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hasegawa; Masahito Hayashi; Tohya Hiroshima; Akihisa Tomita

    2007-01-01

    Decoy state method quantum key distribution (QKD) is one of the promising practical solutions to BB84 QKD with coherent light pulses. In the real world, however, statistical fluctuations with the finite code length cannot be negligible, and the securities of theoretical and experimental researches of the decoy method state QKD so far are based on the asymptotic GLLP's formula which

  5. Infrared decoys recognition method based on dual-band information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Songqi; Wang, Bingjian; Yi, Xiang; Yu, Haitao; Li, Jia; Zhou, Huixin

    2014-11-01

    Targets recognition is an important and difficult task in infrared guidance technology. But with the development of different kinds of infrared decoys, it is difficult to recognize targets from decoys only by information from single-band detectors. In order to improve targets recognition ability from decoys, more information should be used. In this paper, infrared radiation features of targets, infrared decoys and background are analyzed. Research shows that targets and decoys have differences in the thermal energy distribution in different bands because of their difference in material composition. Based on this difference, this paper proposes an information fusion method that fuses information from dual-band detectors to detect and recognize targets. Experimental results show that this method has a better performance compared to the method which only use information from single-band.

  6. Bonding energies of bitumen to tar sand mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    The bonding energy of bitumen in a tar sand was found by algebraically adding the heat of dissolution of bitumen on tar sand, heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and the heat of wetting of extracted tar sand mineral. The value for an Asphalt Ridge tar sand was found to be 270 cal/mole. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Long distance decoy state quantum key distribution in optical fiber

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, D; Hiskett, P A; Hughes, R J; Lita, A E; Nam, S W; Nordholt, J E; Peterson, C G; Rice, P R; Harrington, Jim W.; Hiskett, Philip A.; Hughes, Richard J.; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles G.; Rice, Patrick R.; Rosenberg, Danna

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultra-low-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photo-detectors, we have implemented the first finite statistics version of a decoy state protocol in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to both photon-number-splitting attacks and Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

  8. Polycondensates of sulfonated coal tar fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cukier; M. D. Jr. Camp

    1988-01-01

    A process for the polycondensation of sulfonated coal tar fraction having a distillation range of about 200° to 240°C at normal pressure, in the presence of about molar ratio of formaldehyde is described comprising: (a) sulfonating a coal tar fraction having a distillation range of about 200° - 240°C at normal pressure, having about 85% to 95% naphthalene the remaining

  9. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  10. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Protocol choice and parameter optimization in decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Feihu Xu; He Xu; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2014-06-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been demonstrated in both laboratories and field-tests using attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. Although researchers have studied various decoy-state MDI-QKD protocols with two or three decoy states, a clear comparison between these protocols is still missing. This invokes the question of how many types of decoy states are needed for practical MDI-QKD. Moreover, the system parameters to implement decoy-state MDI-QKD are only partially optimized in all previous works, which casts doubt on the actual performance of former demonstrations. Here, we present analytical and numerical decoy-state methods with one, two and three decoy states. We provide a clear comparison among these methods and find that two decoy states already enable a near optimal estimation and more decoy states cannot improve the key rate much in either asymptotic or finite-data settings. Furthermore, we perform a full optimization of system parameters and show that full optimization can significantly improve the key rate in the finite-data setting. By simulating a real experiment, we find that full optimization can increase the key rate by more than one order of magnitude compared to non-optimization. A local search method to optimize efficiently the system parameters is proposed. This method can be four orders of magnitude faster than a trivial exhaustive search to achieve a similar optimal key rate. We expect that this local search method could be valuable for general fields in physics.

  12. Protocol choice and parameter optimization in decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feihu; Xu, He; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-05-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been demonstrated in both laboratories and field tests using attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. Although researchers have studied various decoy-state MDI-QKD protocols with two or three decoy states, a clear comparison between these protocols is still missing. This invokes the question of how many types of decoy states are needed for practical MDI-QKD. Moreover, the system parameters to implement decoy-state MDI-QKD are only partially optimized in all previous works, which casts doubt on the actual performance of former demonstrations. Here, we present analytical and numerical decoy-state methods with one, two, and three decoy states. We provide a clear comparison among these methods and find that two decoy states already enable a near-optimal estimation and more decoy states cannot improve the key rate much in either asymptotic or finite-data settings. Furthermore, we perform a full optimization of system parameters and show that full optimization can significantly improve the key rate in the finite-data setting. By simulating a real experiment, we find that full optimization can increase the key rate by more than one order of magnitude compared to nonoptimization. A local search method to optimize efficiently the system parameters is proposed. This method can be four orders of magnitude faster than a trivial exhaustive search to achieve a similar optimal key rate. We expect that this local search method could be valuable for general fields in physics.

  13. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  14. Coal Tar, Pine Tar and Sulfonated Shale Oil Preparations: Comparative Activity, Efficacy and Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-H. Schmid; H. C. Korting

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tar and sulfonated shale oil preparations are used in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis vulgaris; due to the high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of tars, a possible relationship with cancer in humans has been postulated. On the other hand, the purity of sulfonated shale oils concerning PAHs guarantees a good tolerability during

  15. SVR_CAF: an integrated score function for detecting native protein structures among decoys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Yan, Wenying; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2014-04-01

    An accurate score function for detecting the most native-like models among a huge number of decoy sets is essential to the protein structure prediction. In this work, we developed a novel integrated score function (SVR_CAF) to discriminate native structures from decoys, as well as to rank near-native structures and select best decoys when native structures are absent. SVR_CAF is a machine learning score, which incorporates the contact energy based score (CE_score), amino acid network based score (AAN_score), and the fast Fourier transform based score (FFT_score). The score function was evaluated with four decoy sets for its discriminative ability and it shows higher overall performance than the state-of-the-art score functions. PMID:24115148

  16. General theory for decoy-state quantum key distribution with arbitrary number of intensities

    E-print Network

    Masahito Hayashi

    2007-08-13

    We develop a general theory for quantum key distribution (QKD) in both the forward error correction and the reverse error correction cases when the QKD system is equipped with phase-randomized coherent light with arbitrary number of decoy intensities. For this purpose, generalizing Wang's expansion, we derive a convex expansion of the phase-randomized coherent state. We also numerically check that the asymptotic key generation rates are almost saturated when the number of decoy intensities is three.

  17. Exact minimum and maximum of yield with a finite number of decoy light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro; Soujaeff, Alexandre; Takeuchi, Shigeki [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Information Technology R and D Center, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); JST-CREST/Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-12 Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, for the decoy state method using a finite number of decoy light intensities, we present improved upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic yield y{sub n} for n-photon states. In particular if all the light intensities are less than or equal to 1, they are not only a lower or upper bound, but in fact are the exact minimum or maximum.

  18. Antigen-Specific Peripheral Tolerance Induced by Topical Application of NF-?B Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwao Isomura; Kunio Tsujimura; Akimichi Morita

    2006-01-01

    Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for the establishment of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). However, antigen presentation by immature DC (iDC) might lead to antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. NF-?B plays significant roles in upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in DC and therefore we investigated whether NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) might induce tolerance to DTH. NF-?B decoy ODN suppressed

  19. Implementation of an information system for the traceability of live decoy birds.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Laura; Rizzo, Simone; Favero, Laura; Bonfanti, Lebana; Comin, Arianna; Marangon, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    In the Veneto region (northern Italy), some geographic areas in the Po Valley have a large concentration of industrial poultry farms and are located close to wet areas with high populations of wild waterfowl. Live decoy birds belonging to the orders of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes can constitute a "bridge" for avian influenza (AI) viruses between the wild reservoir and the rural holdings where live decoy birds are usually kept, sometimes together with poultry. Thus, the use of live decoy birds during bird hunting could increase the risk of exposure of poultry farms to AI viruses. Since 2008, this kind of hunting has been strictly regulated with regard to the detection and use of live decoy birds. In order to guarantee the application of appropriate AI risk-modulating and monitoring measures in the management of the live decoys according to the European Union (EU) provisions, a solid and well-structured information system has been created. The Regional Data Bank (RDB) of farms and livestock, which has been operating since 1997, also contains data on farms and poultry movements. Therefore, the RDB management software was updated to collect data from the hunters who keep live decoy birds, and specific functions were integrated to ensure the traceability of these birds. Each live decoy bird has been identified by an irremovable ring. The individual code of each ring is recorded in the RDB and linked to both the holder's code and the hunting area. Transfers and death/slaughtering of the registered birds are recorded, too. The activation of a computerized data collection system has proven to be a prerequisite for the implementation of a control system for live decoy birds and provides an essential tool for the management of AI emergencies. PMID:23402130

  20. NF-?B Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Enhanced Osteogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exposed to Polyethylene Particle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Sato, Taishi; Barcay, Katherine R; Waters, Heather; Loi, Florence; Zhang, Ruth; Pajarinen, Jukka; Egashira, Kensuke; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2015-03-01

    Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-?B in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-?B signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN upregulated OPG expression through a TGF-?1-dependent pathway. By measuring the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regard to cell phenotype, cell viability, and osteogenic ability was confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle-induced inflammation by NF-?B decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs and may potentially further mitigate periprosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability. PMID:25518013

  1. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  2. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  3. Using decoy effects to influence an online brand choice: the role of price-quality trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Huei-Chen; Liu, Wen-Liang

    2011-04-01

    This research aims to investigate decoy effects on online brand choices. To assess the influence of decoys, we test decoy effects on three constructs-product involvement, judgment conditions, and decoy conditions-within an online experiment. A survey of 635 Internet users and a 2?×?2?×?3 ANOVA between-subjects experimental design is used to guide the research design and the systematic analysis procedure. A major finding of this study is that a standard decoy seems to have a significant effect on an advertised (target) brand for high-involvement products; from the survey, it is also apparent that competitors can also use inferior decoys to increase brand preference for low-involvement products. PMID:21039134

  4. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  5. Tar sands. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar sands and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar sands. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. A library of protein surface patches discriminates between native structures and decoys generated by structure prediction servers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein surfaces serve as an interface with the molecular environment and are thus tightly bound to protein function. On the surface, geometric and chemical complementarity to other molecules provides interaction specificity for ligand binding, docking of bio-macromolecules, and enzymatic catalysis. As of today, there is no accepted general scheme to represent protein surfaces. Furthermore, most of the research on protein surface focuses on regions of specific interest such as interaction, ligand binding, and docking sites. We present a first step toward a general purpose representation of protein surfaces: a novel surface patch library that represents most surface patches (~98%) in a data set regardless of their functional roles. Results Surface patches, in this work, are small fractions of the protein surface. Using a measure of inter-patch distance, we clustered patches extracted from a data set of high quality, non-redundant, proteins. The surface patch library is the collection of all the cluster centroids; thus, each of the data set patches is close to one of the elements in the library. We demonstrate the biological significance of our method through the ability of the library to capture surface characteristics of native protein structures as opposed to those of decoy sets generated by state-of-the-art protein structure prediction methods. The patches of the decoys are significantly less compatible with the library than their corresponding native structures, allowing us to reliably distinguish native models from models generated by servers. This trend, however, does not extend to the decoys themselves, as their similarity to the native structures does not correlate with compatibility with the library. Conclusions We expect that this high-quality, generic surface patch library will add a new perspective to the description of protein structures and improve our ability to predict them. In particular, we expect that it will help improve the prediction of surface features that are apparently neglected by current techniques. The surface patch libraries are publicly available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~keasar/patchLibrary. PMID:21542935

  7. Recovery of bituminous products from tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    Acidic solvent compositions and method for separating bituminous products from tar sands which do not require a high shear environment employing such acidic solvent compositions are disclosed. The acidic solvent compositions comprise from about 15 to about 30 volume percent of an aqueous amine modified acidic constituent having a pH value of less than about 1, from about 1 to

  8. Process for extracting oil from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.B.; Russo, A.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes a process for the extraction of oil and bitumen fractions from tar sands. It comprises: heating the tar sands within the range of about seventy degrees Fahrenheit (70{degrees} F.) to about one hundred fifty five degrees Fahrenheit (155{degrees} F.); mixing the mined tar sands with an aqueous solution of water soluble separation chemicals that induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the sand under such temperature conditions, the chemicals being such that they also induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the water and separation chemicals. The separation chemicals comprise an aqueous solution of an effective amount of water conditioner, wetting agents and a coupling agent selected from the group consisting of sulfonated fatty acid salts; holding the mined tar sands and the separation chemicals for a sufficient period of time under sufficient quiescent conditions that the oil and bitumen become substantially separated from the sands, the separated oil and bitumen floating on the water and the sand sinking in the water; segregation of the oil or bitumen fractions from the water and separation chemicals and retention of the fractions for use as a chemical resource.

  9. Oil from shale and tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Perrini

    1975-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive survey of methods for processing oil shales and tar sands based on U.S. patent literature. Detailed technical information on most processes patented since 1960 is given; some methods for which patents were issued prior to 1960 are included. Oil shale retorting processes using gas combustion and solid heat transfer media are described. Hot water, cold

  10. A Solvent Extraction Process for Tar Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Graham; J. J. Helstrom; R. L. Mehlberg

    1987-01-01

    A process has been investigated for solvent extraction of bitumen from Sunnyside, Utah, tar sands. The Sunnyside deposit, in east central Utah, has 1 to 2 billion barrels of geological reserves with a richness of 6 to 10 wtX bitumen. In this process, the ore is crushed and the bitumen is dissolved from the mineral in mix tanks. The bitumen

  11. Solvent extraction of southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The socioeconomic aspects of the tar sands recovery were investigated by Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama conducted characterization and beneficiation studies on Alabama tar sands. Two sources in the state were identified, namely, Black Wax Hill and Spring Creek. Samples were obtained, beneficiated, then shared with the University of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas conducted research in three areas, namely, solvation and characterization of the tar sands phase equilibria as well as the design and operation of a bench-scale batch model. In the solvation studies, the results indicate that grinding the tar sands too fine results in downstream processing problems. Also, preliminary indications are that the beneficiation step may not be necessary in the solvation of the bitumen. The phase equilibria of the heptane/brine/isopropyl alcohol/XTOL{trademark} system is very complex. The salt concentration of the brine is significant in the partitioning of the isopropanol and heptane. Equilibrium data for some of the various combinations of chemical constituents have been obtained. Also included are appendices: statistical data on highways; petrography; Dean-Starke technique; FTIR and NMR spectra; FORTRAN computer program for GC; simulation of flash behavior for IPA/brine/fatty acid/N-C{sub 7} mixture; and previous progress reports. 32 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Aspects of Tar Sands Development in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. ADEWUSI

    1992-01-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigerian conventional oil. This article reviews the extent of the tar sands resources in Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production

  13. Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Vroome, V; Lin, G C; Appa, Y

    2000-01-01

    A randomized double-blind clinical study was conducted on two groups of 30 volunteers using either a non-tar shampoo (2% salicylic acid, 0.75% piroctone olamine and 0.5% elubiol) or a 0.5% coal tar shampoo. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to marked dandruff. The study consisted of a 3-week washout, followed by a 4-week treatment and a 4-week posttreatment regression phase. The clinical evaluations and subject self-assessments showed that the non-tar shampoo was as effective as the tar shampoo. Both received high approval ratings (> or =70%). Biometrological methods proved to be more sensitive than clinical evaluations to assess the efficacy of the shampoos. The non-tar shampoo yielded a significantly better reduction of Malassezia spp. counts (p<0.02) during the treatment phase and reduced the spontaneous increase in squamometry values (p< 0.01) during the posttreatment phase. It is concluded that a formulation associating salicylic acid, piroctone olamine and elubiol exhibited increased beneficial effects compared to the coal tar shampoo. PMID:10773717

  14. Human NgR-Fc decoy protein via lumbar intrathecal bolus administration enhances recovery from rat spinal cord contusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Sekine-Komo, Tomoko; Wirak, Dana; Frieden, Eric; Bhargava, Ajay; Maynard, George; Cafferty, William B J; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2014-12-15

    Axonal growth and neurological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by the presence of inhibitory proteins in myelin, several of which act via the NgR1 protein in neurons. A truncated soluble ligand-binding fragment of NgR1 serves as a decoy and promotes recovery in acute and chronic rodent SCI models. To develop the translational potential of these observations, we created a human sequence-derived NgR1(310)-Fc protein. This protein is active in vitro. When the human NgR1 decoy is administered by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion to rats with a spinal contusion injury at doses of 0.09-0.53?mg/kg/d, neurological recovery is improved. Effective doses double the percentage of rats able to bear weight on their hindlimbs. Next, we considered the half-life and distribution of NgR1(310)-Fc after bolus delivery to the lumbar intrathecal space. The protein is found throughout the neuraxis and has a tissue half-life of approximately 2 days in the rat, and 5 days in the nonhuman primate. At an intermittent, once every 4 day, lumbar bolus dosing schedule of 0.14?mg/kg/d, NgR1(310)-Fc promoted locomotor rat recovery from spinal cord contusion at least as effectively as continuous infusion in open field and grid walking tasks. Moreover, the intermittent lumbar NgR1(310)-Fc treatment increased the growth of raphespinal axons into the lumbar spinal cord after injury. Thus, human NgR1(310)-Fc provides effective treatment for recovery from traumatic SCI in this preclinical model with a simplified administration regimen that facilitates clinical testing. PMID:24964223

  15. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  16. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  17. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and thus climate forcing. Formerly tar balls were hypothesized to be formed in secondary processes in the atmosphere from lignin pyrolysis products. Based on their typical size distributions, morphology, chemical characteristics and other features we now suggest that tar balls are initially produced by the emission of primary tar droplets upon biomass burning. To verify our hypothesis tar balls were produced under laboratory conditions with the total exclusion of flame processes. An all-glass apparatus was designed and tar ball particles were generated from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood. The size range, morphology and the chemical composition of the laboratory-generated tar ball particles were similar to those observed in biomass smoke plumes or elsewhere in the atmosphere. Based on our results and the chemical and physical characteristics of tar we suggest that tar balls can be formed by the chemical transformation of emitted primary tar droplets.

  18. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  19. MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

    2009-09-01

    With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

  20. Quasi-Genes: The Many-Body Theory of Gene Regulation in the Presence of Decoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Anat

    During transcriptional regulation, transcription factor proteins bind to particular sites in the genome in order to switch genes on or off. The regulatory binding site intended for a transcription factor is just one out of millions of potential sites where the transcription factor can bind. Specificity of a binding motif determines whether less than one or up to tens of thousands of strong affinity binding sites can be expected by pure chance. The roles that these additional "decoy" binding sites play in the functioning of a cell are currently unknown. We incorporate decoys into traditional mass action and stochastic models of a simple gene network-the self-regulated gene-and use numerical and analytical techniques to quantify the effects that these extra sites have on altering gene expression properties. Counter-intuitively, we find that if bound transcription factors are protected from degradation, the mean steady state concentration of unbound transcription factors, , is insensitive to the addition of decoys. Many other gene expression properties do change as decoys are added. Decoys linearly increase the time necessary to reach steady state. Noise buffering by decoys occurs because of a coupling between the unbound proteomic environment and the reservoir of sites that can be very large, but the noise reduction is limited Poisson statistics because of the inherent noise resulting from binding and unbinding of transcription factors to DNA. This noise buffering is optimized for a given protein concentration when decoys have a 1/2 probability of being occupied. Decoys are able to preferentially stabilize one state of a bimodal system over the other, and exponentially increase the time to epigenetically switch between these states. In the limit that binding and unbinding rates are fast compared to the fluctuations in transcription factor copy number, we exploit timescale differences to collapse the model and derive analytical expressions that explain our numerical results. In analogy to traditional many-body systems, we derive effective parameters to describe a "quasi-gene" which can be used to approximate the influence of decoy binding sites on simple gene networks.

  1. Biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhang, Hai-long; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all the side-channel attacks from imperfections in the detection side. However, finite-size resources undoubtedly influence its performance and the achievable finite secret key rates of MDI-QKD are typically lower than that of standard decoy-state QKD. In this paper, we introduce the efficient decoy-state method with biased basis choice into the finite-key analysis and propose a decoy-state protocol for MDI-QKD. By applying vacuum + weak decoy-state method, we analytically derive concise formulas for estimating the lower bound of single-photon yield and the upper bound of phase error rate in the case of finite resources. The simulations show that proper basis choice combined with deliberate intensity choice can substantially enhance the performance of decoy-state MDI-QKD and, without a full optimization program, our protocol can bring a long-distance implementation (168 km on standard optical fiber) of MDI-QKD with a reasonable data size of total transmitting signals (N =1015 ).

  2. Tumor Endothelium Marker-8 Based Decoys Exhibit Superiority over Capillary Morphogenesis Protein-2 Based Decoys as Anthrax Toxin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Long; Guo, Qiang; Kong, Yirong; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Cheng, Yuanguo; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis. The toxin consists of three protein subunits: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Inhibition of PA binding to its receptors, tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) can effectively block anthrax intoxication, which is particularly valuable when the toxin has already been overproduced at the late stage of anthrax infection, thus rendering antibiotics ineffectual. Receptor-like agonists, such as the mammalian cell-expressed von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain of CMG2 (sCMG2), have demonstrated potency against the anthrax toxin. However, the soluble vWA domain of TEM8 (sTEM8) was ruled out as an anthrax toxin inhibitor candidate due to its inferior affinity to PA. In the present study, we report that L56A, a PA-binding-affinity-elevated mutant of sTEM8, could inhibit anthrax intoxication as effectively as sCMG2 in Fisher 344 rats. Additionally, pharmacokinetics showed that L56A and sTEM8 exhibit advantages over sCMG2 with better lung-targeting and longer plasma retention time, which may contribute to their enhanced protective ability in vivo. Our results suggest that receptor decoys based on TEM8 are promising anthrax toxin inhibitors and, together with the pharmacokinetic studies in this report, may contribute to the development of novel anthrax drugs. PMID:21674060

  3. A decoy set for the thermostable subdomain from chicken villin headpiece, comparison of different free energy estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Fogolari; Silvio C. E. Tosatto; Giorgio Colombo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimators of free energies are routinely used to judge the quality of protein structural models. As these estimators still present inaccuracies, they are frequently evaluated by discriminating native or native-like conformations from large ensembles of so-called decoy structures. RESULTS: A decoy set is obtained from snapshots taken from 5 long (100 ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the thermostable

  4. Proceedings of the 1986 tar sands symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, J.D.; Marchant, L.C. (eds.)

    1986-10-01

    The 1986 Tar Sand Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming Research Corporation, in Jackson, Wyoming, on July 7 to 10, 1986. The 10-session symposium included 36 presentations describing research, development, and commercial application of tar sand technologies of the US, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, and Venezuela. Over 80 participants represented the US, Canada, Germany, Japan, and Switzerland. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been referred, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Tar mobilization studies for a carbonate reservoir in Saudia Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sarbar, M.; Alqam, M. [Lab. R& D Center, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-12-31

    The presence of tar material in some parts of a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir affects somewhat both production of light oil, as well as hindering water injection used for pressure maintenance. Therefore, mobilization of some of this tar material will enhance reservoir permeability, especially around the wellbores, and will have a positive impact on oil production. Application of non-thermal methods is the most desirable way to achieve this. Lab analyses indicate that the viscosity of this tar material is much higher than any heavy tar currently being produced (such as Athabasca tar). Moreover, the weight % of strong aromatic solvent-insoluble tar material is 3 to 45 wt% of the total organic matter which varies between 1.0 to 5.5 wt% of the total weight of various rock samples tested. In addition Results of core flood tests indicate that: (a) injection of 1 wt% NaOH in water displayed an optimum effect on mobilizing both soluble and insoluble tar material from the core samples and enhancing the permeability significantly; (b) additional permeability enhancement was observed by injection of an aromatic solvent such as toluene or a diluted surfactant solution (more than 1000-fold increase in permeability was observed); (c) acidizing core samples which contain large quantities of tar material did not improve the permeability as this caused migration of some tar material which was released by the dissolution of the rock matrix. This then acted as a pore-blocking material, since tar is not soluble in injected acid solution.

  6. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  7. A NEW PROCESS FOR TAR SAND RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZEM M. SADEGHI; MOHAMMAD-ALI SADEGHI; JIH-FEN KUO; LONG-KUAN JANG; JIUNN-REN LIN; TEH FU YEN

    1992-01-01

    An extraction process for bitumen recovery from tar sand has been developed using an alkaline solution (e.g., NaOH, Na2SiO3) and sonication at a low temperature and ambient atmosphere. The bitumen recovered thus far is extraordinarily low in ash content and virtually free of metal and asphaltene, with an average gravity of 15° API for 95% cumulative recovery (based on carbon

  8. Chemical composition of high resin petroleum tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Popov; I. A. Posadov; D. A. Rozental; L. A. Kornilova

    1984-01-01

    The data from physico-chemical methods (elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, etc.) and integral structural analysis are used to calculate the average structural parameters and to determine structural-molecular models of compounds contained in commercial tar of West Siberian, Romashkino and Arlan petroleums. The high molar mass compounds of the petroleums examined were characterized by unique principles of structural-molecular organization of corresponding

  9. US tar sand oil recovery projects - 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.

    1985-02-01

    With a temporarily stable world oil price, which is lower than estimated values for most unconventional liquid hydrocarbon fuels, interest and activity in US tar sands has declined. Data are reported for 52 projects involving in situ, mining and plant extraction, and modified in situ technologies. The data include operator name, project location, project status (completed, current, or planned), project type (commercial or pilot) and, reservoir and oil characteristics.

  10. Exploration for tar sands in western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    McGrain, P.; Ponsetto, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Bitumen-impregnated sandstones are described along the eastern and southeastern rim of the Eastern Interior (Illinois) Basin in western Kentucky. Development in Kentucky to date has been from surface and near-surface deposits for almost exclusive use as a paving material. Published reserve estimates of western Kentucky deposits indicate more than 450 million metric tons of shallow strippable tar sands having equivalent bitumen content of 35 to 55 liters per metric ton. 16 refs.

  11. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with a passive decoy-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yu-Zhu; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Li; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all detector loopholes. When it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if Alice and Bob do not have strict single-photon sources. However, active modulation of source intensity, which is used to generate the decoy state, may leave side channels and leak additional information to Eve. In this paper, we consider the MDI-QKD with a passive decoy state, in which both Alice and Bob send pulses to an untrusted third party, Charlie. Then, in order to estimate the key generation rate, we derive two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of the yield and the upper bound of the error rate that both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to Charlie. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account based on the standard statistical analysis.

  12. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

  13. Decoy state quantum key distribution with a photon number resolved heralded single photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2006-03-01

    Recently a long distance and high key rate quantum key distribution (QKD) has become possible by the idea of the decoy state method. We show that a longer distance QKD is possible by utilizing a heralded single photon source (utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion) as a source instead of a weak coherent pulse (WCP) as proposed in the original decoy state method. Moreover, the key rate is improved by utilizing a presently available photon number resolving detector as a trigger detector of the heralded single photon source and it is shown to approach the key rate of the WCP.

  14. Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful

    E-print Network

    Y-H Zhou; Z. -W. Yu; X. -B. Wang

    2015-02-05

    The relatively low key rate seems to be the major barrier to its practical use for the decoy state measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD). We present a method for the decoy-state MDIQKD that hugely raises the key rate. For example, it can raise the key rate of the recent Shanghai experiment by moreover than 600 times. Calculation shows that our method can be immediately applied for practical secure private communication with {\\em fresh} secure keys generated from MDI-QKD.

  15. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.

    PubMed

    Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

  16. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of several tar sand asphalts prepared in past studies by several different investigators were compared with each other and with the properties of petroleum asphalts. These results were reviewed and discussed with regard to the potential use of tar sand bitumen in pavement applications. The data show that tar sand bitumen has good potential for use in highway pavements that meet today's performance specifications. No deficiencies in the tar sand asphalts were found that would be expected to seriously affect performance. On the other hand, the data indicate that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics, being relatively resistant to oxidative age hardening compared with typical petroleum asphalts. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared using two tar sand asphalts also showed acceptable strength properties and excellent resistance to moisture-induced damage.

  17. Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1986-09-01

    Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

  18. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  19. Study on characteristics of several Chinese tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianqiu; Li Shuyuan; Tan Huaping [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The characteristics of tar sands from Karamay and Erlian, China, have been investigated, and the effects of various factors on bitumen recovery have been assessed. These two tar sands contain about 8-10% bitumen. Bitumen recovered from Karamay tar sands has a lower content of resin, asphaltene, and sulfur than bitumen from Erlian. Hot water extraction is effective for the former, but ineffective for the latter. Furthermore, pyrolysis of tar sands has been carried out using Rock-Eval apparatus. Pyrolysis models have been developed which give a satisfactory fit to experimental data.

  20. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel cellular protein, TDP-43, that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR DNA sequence motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Ou, S H; Wu, F; Harrich, D; García-Martínez, L F; Gaynor, R B

    1995-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression is modulated by both viral and cellular factors. A regulatory element in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat known as TAR, which extends from nucleotides -18 to +80, is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. RNA transcribed from TAR forms a stable stem-loop structure which serves as the binding site for both Tat and cellular factors. Although TAR RNA is critical for Tat activation, the role that TAR DNA plays in regulating HIV-1 gene expression is not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that TAR DNA can bind cellular proteins, such as UBP-1/LBP-1, which repress HIV-1 gene expression and other factors which are involved in the generation of short, nonprocessive transcripts. In an attempt to characterize additional cellular factors that bind to TAR DNA, a lambda gt11 expression cloning strategy involving the use of a portion of TAR DNA extending from -18 to +28 to probe a HeLa cDNA library was used. We identified a cDNA, designated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), which encodes a cellular factor of 43 kDa that binds specifically to pyrimidine-rich motifs in TAR. Antibody to TDP-43 was used in gel retardation assays to demonstrate that endogenous TDP-43, present in HeLa nuclear extract, also bound to TAR DNA. Although TDP-43 bound strongly to double-stranded TAR DNA via its ribonucleoprotein protein-binding motifs, it did not bind to TAR RNA extending from +1 to +80. To determine the function of TDP-43 in regulating HIV-1 gene expression, in vitro transcription analysis was performed. TDP-43 repressed in vitro transcription from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in both the presence and absence of Tat, but it did not repress transcription from other promoters such as the adenovirus major late promoter. In addition, transfection of a vector which expressed TDP-43 resulted in the repression of gene expression from an HIV-1 provirus. These results indicate that TDP-43 is capable of modulating both in vitro and in vivo HIV-1 gene expression by either altering or blocking the assembly of transcription complexes that are capable of responding to Tat. PMID:7745706

  2. A Helpful Serving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  3. Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon was 28% of global oil use for the cumulative amounts over the past 200 years. So Alberta tar sands that tar sands are not so great that we need to be concerned about their effect on climate. They argue

  4. The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

  5. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  6. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  9. 43 CFR 3141.2 - Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Prelease exploration within Special Tar Sand Areas. 3141.2 Section 3141.2 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2 Prelease exploration...

  10. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Chemical composition of high resin petroleum tar

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, O.G.; Posadov, I.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Kornilova, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The data from physico-chemical methods (elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, etc.) and integral structural analysis are used to calculate the average structural parameters and to determine structural-molecular models of compounds contained in commercial tar of West Siberian, Romashkino and Arlan petroleums. The high molar mass compounds of the petroleums examined were characterized by unique principles of structural-molecular organization of corresponding typical fragments, which include similar naphthene-aromatic condensed systems of five-to-six rings; the results explain the possibility of mutual transitions of high molar mass petroleum compounds as well as the katagenic transformations of petroleum during processing. 12 references, 8 tables.

  12. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  13. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curty, Marcos; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Moroder, Tobias

    2010-02-01

    Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty , Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

  14. Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hasegawa; Masahito Hayashi; Tohya Hiroshima; Akihiro Tanaka; Akihisa Tomita

    2007-01-01

    We propose the improved decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics due to the finite code length and report on its demonstration. In our experiment, four different intensities including the vacuum state for optimal pulses are used and the key generation rate of 200 bps is achieved in the 20 km telecom optical fiber transmission keeping the eavesdropper's mutual

  15. Upper bounds for the secure key rate of the decoy-state quantum key distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos Curty; Tobias Moroder; Xiongfeng Ma; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2009-01-01

    The use of decoy states in quantum key distribution (QKD) has provided a method for substantially increasing the secret key rate and distance that can be covered by QKD protocols with practical signals. The security analysis of these schemes, however, leaves open the possibility that the development of better proof techniques or better classical postprocessing methods might further improve their

  16. Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangbin [IMAI Quantum Computation and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg. 201, 5-28-3, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    We propose an efficient decoy-state protocol for practical quantum key distribution using coherent states. The protocol uses four intensities of different coherent light. A good final key rate is achieved by our protocol with typical parameters of existing practical setups, even with a very low channel transmittance.

  17. Four-intensity Decoy-state Quantum Key Distribution with Enhanced Resistance against Statistical Fluctuation

    E-print Network

    Haodong Jiang; Ming Gao; Hong Wang; Hongxin Li; Zhi Ma

    2015-02-08

    Practical BB84 quantum key distribution has been proposed by utilizing attenuated lasers combined with the decoy-state technique. However, there is a big gap in performance between asymptotic and finite-data settings due to statistical fluctuation. Here, we propose a four-intensity decoy-state protocol with three nonzero intensities in only one basis. Compared to conventional three-intensity decoy-state protocols, our protocol has an additional intensity as a free variable to optimize the deviations caused by statistical fluctuation. We perform numerical simulations with full optimization to make a comparison with the existing three-intensity decoy-state protocols with biased basis choice. According to the simulation result, larger maximum transmission distance and higher secure key rates can be achieved with our protocol. The performance of quantum key distribution is highly improved especially when the number of detected pulses is small. Our protocol might play a key role in the coming ground-satellite quantum key distribution.

  18. The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  20. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  1. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000 ER27DE05.001 ER27DE05.002 [70...

  2. Biomass Gasifier Tars : Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Milne, N. Abatzaglou, and R.J. Evans.

    1998-11-01

    The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

  3. Model Experiments of Steam Stimulation in Nigerian Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. OMOLE; D. A. OMOLARA

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of producing heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand deposit by steam stimulation was investigated in the laboratory using a scaled and five unseated physical models (tar sands packs). The effect of oil saturation and different matrix grain size on oil recovery were also studied.A fabricated 91·44 cm (diameter), 33 cm (high) high pressure cast iron vessel (prototype

  4. PIGE-PIXE analysis of Nigerian tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Olabanji; A. M. I. Haque; S. Fazinic; R. Cherubini; G. Moschini

    1994-01-01

    As a rapidly growing vast country, there is need in Nigeria to develop alternative energy sources to meet its ever increasing energy demands. Tar sands apart from its popular use as a source of asphaltic material for road surfacing is a new energy raw material in Nigeria. The immense industrial applications and utilization of the by-products of tar sands provide

  5. Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

    1998-11-01

    The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

  6. Click Dimers To Target HIV TAR RNA Conformation Sunil Kumar,

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) competitive assay, circular dichroism (CD), and UV thermal denaturation temperature (Tm) of the HIV TAR RNA up to 10 °C. Ethidium bromide displacement (FID) and a FRET competition assay revealed nanomolar binding affinity between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA, while in case

  7. Textural characteristics of the Nigerian tar sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enu, E. I.

    1985-05-01

    Extensive tar sands with reserves of about 41 billion barrels of oil are known to occur in Cretaceous terrigenous sediments in Ondo and Ogun States of Nigeria. The hydrocarbon occurs in two predominantly sandy zones separated by an 8 m thick oil shale. The lower (Horizon Y) is mostly quartz sand, 3-26 m thick. It shows an upward fining of grains and increased consolidation updip. The upper Horizon X is 10-22 m of sandstone with interbedded shales and siltstones. The sands are loosely consolidated. Cementing material is lacking, the grains being held together largely by the tarry oil. Porosity is about 30% and mean oil saturation in both zones is 12%. The recorded clay content (2-7%) is considerably lower than the average for Athabasca, Canada (10-25%) and may enhance the settling properties of the tailing ponds. The sands are water-wet, fine- to medium-grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and positively skewed to near symmetrical. The Nigerian tar sands compare closely with the Athabasca sands in all the above textural parameters. They would thus be expected to show identical response to mining processing, except for the influence of higher ground-water table and the high humidity and ambient temperatures in Nigeria.

  8. Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

  9. Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

    2013-05-01

    A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. PMID:23567671

  10. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  11. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles From Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posfai, M.; Gelencser, A.; Simonics, R.; Arato, K.; Li, J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    'Tar balls,' amorphous carbonaceous spherules that are locally abundant in the tropospheric aerosol through biomass and biofuel burning, form a distinct group of particles, readily identifiable with electron microscopy. They differ from soot in lacking a turbostratic microstructure, and their morphology and composition (~90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. Although the material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic, the particles become largely insoluble through free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When they coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may slightly absorb sunlight. They are a widespread and previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  12. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-11-14

    A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

  13. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  15. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of southern California: Implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironm...

  16. Evaluating coal tar-water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute-solvent molecular interactions in tar phase.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Xu, Wanjing; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2008-09-01

    Equilibrium partitioning coefficients between an industrial coal tar sample and water (KCT/w) were determined for 41 polar and nonpolar solutes in batch systems. Together with literature values, 69 KCT/w data were analyzed using the following model approaches: Raoult's law, the single parameter linear free energy relationship (SPLFER) with octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow), the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs), SPARC and COSMOtherm. Estimations by Raoult's law and the SPLFER agreed well with the experimental log KCT/w values for the investigated coal tar, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. LSER resulted in as good estimations (RMSE=0.29) as the previous two. The LSER analysis revealed significant hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor properties of the studied coal tar phase. Using naphthalene as a surrogate solvent for the coal tar phase, SPARC and COSMOtherm provided fairly good predictions (RMSE of 0.63 and 0.65, respectively) of log KCT/w, without any additional empirical parameter. Further calculations using SPARC and COSMOtherm for partitioning between water and other tar-components (e.g., benzofuran, phenol and quinoline) suggested that minor components in coal tar do not significantly influence KCT/w of nonpolar solutes, and that Raoult's law and the SPLFER thus may be generally applied to these types of solutes, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes, regardless of coal tar compositions. In contrast, partitioning of H-bonding solutes (e.g., phenols) can significantly vary depending on the amount of polar tar-components such as N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Therefore, the presented successful applications of Raoult's law and SPLFER to the studied coal tar could be a special case, and these simple approaches may not provide reasonable estimations for partitioning of H-bonding solutes from compositionally different coal tars. PMID:18649918

  17. Phenolates determinations on coal-tar fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelov, P.N.; Andronova, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    In 1969, following a laboratory investigation, MMK adopted a potentiometric procedure for determining the phenols and alkali contents of grad A phenolates as a control laboratory procedure for the processes of extracting phenols from coal-tar fractions. The results obtained by the two procedures (Table 1) indicate that they are equally accurate; however, the potentiometric procedure is preferable because as already stated it simultaneously gives not only the phenols but also the alkali and sodium carbonate contents, both of which are very important in controlling the extraction of phenols from the various fractions. Another merit of the potentiometric procedure is its speed; the results are available within 15 min, including sample preparation and calculation.

  18. A simple reference state makes a significant improvement in near-native selections from structurally refined docking decoys

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shide; Liu, Song; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2007-01-01

    Near-native selections from docking decoys have proved challenging especially when unbound proteins are used in the molecular docking. One reason is that significant atomic clashes in docking decoys lead to poor predictions of binding affinities of near native decoys. Atomic clashes can be removed by structural refinement through energy minimization. Such an energy minimization, however, will lead to an unrealistic bias toward docked structures with large interfaces. Here, we extend an empirical energy function developed for protein design to protein–protein docking selection by introducing a simple reference state that removes the unrealistic dependence of binding affinity of docking decoys on the buried solvent accessible surface area of interface. The energy function called EMPIRE (EMpirical Protein-InteRaction Energy), when coupled with a refinement strategy, is found to provide a significantly improved success rate in near native selections when applied to RosettaDock and refined ZDOCK docking decoys. Our work underlines the importance of removing nonspecific interactions from specific ones in near native selections from docking decoys. PMID:17623864

  19. Bdellovibrio predation in the presence of decoys: Three-way bacterial interactions revealed by mathematical and experimental analyses.

    PubMed

    Hobley, Laura; King, John R; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small, gram-negative, motile bacterium that preys upon other gram-negative bacteria, including several known human pathogens. Its predation efficiency is usually studied in pure cultures containing solely B. bacteriovorus and a suitable prey. However, in natural environments, as well as in any possible biomedical uses as an antimicrobial, Bdellovibrio is predatory in the presence of diverse decoys, including live nonsusceptible bacteria, eukaryotic cells, and cell debris. Here we gathered and mathematically modeled data from three-member cultures containing predator, prey, and nonsusceptible bacterial decoys. Specifically, we studied the rate of predation of planktonic late-log-phase Escherichia coli S17-1 prey by B. bacteriovorus HD100, both in the presence and in the absence of Bacillus subtilis nonsporulating strain 671, which acted as a live bacterial decoy. Interestingly, we found that although addition of the live Bacillus decoy did decrease the rate of Bdellovibrio predation in liquid cultures, this addition also resulted in a partially compensatory enhancement of the availability of prey for predation. This effect resulted in a higher final yield of Bdellovibrio than would be predicted for a simple inert decoy. Our mathematical model accounts for both negative and positive effects of predator-prey-decoy interactions in the closed batch environment. In addition, it informs considerations for predator dosing in any future therapeutic applications and sheds some light on considerations for modeling the massively complex interactions of real mixed bacterial populations in nature. PMID:17021228

  20. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyir?-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

  1. FY 80 Tar Sands Program first quarterly report, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar sand extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of the near-term tar sand field experiments. Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for tar sands steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. Production well completions for the tar sand steam drive experiment have been examined, and a program to measure downhole steam quality in the experiment is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to tar sand reservoirs has commenced. The examination of new and novel concepts for extraction of tar sands has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Analyses of both microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being initiated.

  2. Serving and Portion Sizes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from each food group based on your age, sex, and physical activity level. Picture a serving size with these examples: 3 ounces of meat or poultry = a deck of cards 1–1 1/2 ounces of hard cheese = four dice 2 tablespoons of cream cheese = ...

  3. Carbazole Is a Naturally Occurring Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Inflammation Isolated from Antipsoriatic Coal Tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

    2006-01-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar

  4. Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2012-04-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

  5. Antifibrotic effect of synthetic Smad/Sp1 chimeric decoy oligodeoxynucleotide through the regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition in unilateral ureteral obstruction model of mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Woo Jung; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, In Hee; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is considered to be a common final pathway related to the progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease. It is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix through the pivotal role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Transforming growth factor-?1 is postulated to play a central role in renal fibrosis via a downstream pathway such as Smad. Specificity protein 1 (Sp1), which is another transcription factor, is also involved in the basal expression of extracellular matrix. In this study, we investigate the effect of Smad decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and Sp1 decoy ODN in unilateral ureteral obstruction induced renal fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the newly designed chimeric decoy ODN, which contains both Smad and Sp1 binding sequences in one decoy molecule (Smad/Sp1 chi decoy ODN), was demonstrated. The expression of fibrosis and inflammatory related cytokines and products of fibrosis were ameliorated in the Smad, Sp1 and chimeric decoy ODN treated groups compared with the scrambled decoy ODN treated group. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was suppressed by the Smad, Sp1 and Smad/Sp1 chi decoy ODN. Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot analysis revealed that Smad/Sp1 chi decoy ODN showed a more significant inhibitory effect on fibrosis and EMT compared with Smad and Sp1 decoy ODNs. These results support the efficacy of Smad/Sp1 chi decoy compared with a single Smad or Sp1 decoy ODNs in preventing renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. PMID:23791891

  6. Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

  7. Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics

    E-print Network

    Hasegawa, Jun; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tanaka, Akihiro; Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    We propose the improved decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics due to the finite code length and report on its demonstration. In our experiment, four different intensities including the vacuum state for optimal pulses are used and the key generation rate of 200 bps is achieved in the 20 km telecom optical fiber transmission keeping the eavesdropper's mutual information with the final key less than 2^{-9}.

  8. Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics

    E-print Network

    Jun Hasegawa; Masahito Hayashi; Tohya Hiroshima; Akihiro Tanaka; Akihisa Tomita

    2007-05-22

    We propose the improved decoy state quantum key distribution incorporating finite statistics due to the finite code length and report on its demonstration. In our experiment, four different intensities including the vacuum state for optimal pulses are used and the key generation rate of 200 bps is achieved in the 20 km telecom optical fiber transmission keeping the eavesdropper's mutual information with the final key less than 2^{-9}.

  9. Advantages of the circular dumbbell decoy in gene therapy and studies of gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, I K; Ahn, J D; Kim, H S; Park, J Y; Lee, K U

    2003-11-01

    Decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) that can reduce the trans-activity of transcription factors may be highly useful in gene therapy and the study of transcriptional regulation. Several different types of these double-stranded DNA decoys have been developed, including unmodified oligonucleotide duplexes, alphabeta-anomeric oligonucleotides, and oligonucleotide duplexes with methylphosphonate- and phosphorothioate-modified linkages. The latter ODNs have been particularly extensively studied but suffer from a number of limitations, including their insensitivity to polymerases, their lack of sequence specificity, and their tendency to activate immune responses. To resolve these problems, circular dumbbell (CD) double-stranded ODNs were developed. These CD ODNs are constructed by the circularization of the 3' and 5' ends of the oligonucleotides and enzymatic ligation. They exhibit high resistance to nucleases, are easily taken up by cells, and have a nontoxic unmodified backbone that resembles natural DNA. In this article, we review the method of constructing CD ODNs and their advantages compared to other modified ODNs for use as transcription decoys. PMID:14577652

  10. DARS (Decoys As the Reference State) potentials for protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Comeau, Stephen R; Vajda, Sandor

    2008-11-01

    Decoys As the Reference State (DARS) is a simple and natural approach to the construction of structure-based intermolecular potentials. The idea is generating a large set of docked conformations with good shape complementarity but without accounting for atom types, and using the frequency of interactions extracted from these decoys as the reference state. In principle, the resulting potential is ideal for finding near-native conformations among structures obtained by docking, and can be combined with other energy terms to be used directly in docking calculations. We investigated the performance of various DARS versions for docking enzyme-inhibitor, antigen-antibody, and other type of complexes. For enzyme-inhibitor pairs, DARS provides both excellent discrimination and docking results, even with very small decoy sets. For antigen-antibody complexes, DARS is slightly better than a number of interaction potentials tested, but results are worse than for enzyme-inhibitor complexes. With a few exceptions, the DARS docking results are also good for the other complexes, despite poor discrimination, and we show that the latter is not a correct test for docking accuracy. The analysis of interactions in antigen-antibody pairs reveals that, in constructing pairwise potentials for such complexes, one should account for the asymmetry of hydrophobic patches on the two sides of the interface. Similar asymmetry does occur in the few other complexes with poor DARS docking results. PMID:18676649

  11. Served everyday AMAZINGLY

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    & funky fries Coca Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta or Sprite Reg. Lrg. Classic Burger £3.90 £4.35 Cheese Burger £4 (vegan) £2.75 With a tomato & red onion salsa. Falafel & Spinach Burger £2.75 Fishfinger Sandwich £2 Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, Sprite' www.facebook.com/barone.sheffield Menu Served from 8pm til finish Food

  12. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  13. Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

    1988-05-01

    The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Painful and petechial rash after injecting black tar heroin.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, R G

    2015-02-01

    Abstract A painful petechial rash developed in a patient after the subcutaneous or intravenous injection of reported black tar heroin. Additional history and the appearance of the skin lesion suggested otherwise. PMID:25597468

  15. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

  16. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

  17. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

  18. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

  19. 33 CFR 117.831 - Pamlico and Tar Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.831 Pamlico and Tar Rivers. The draws of the US17-264 bridge, mile 37.2 at Washington, and...

  20. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.

  1. FY 80 Tar Sands program. Second quarterly report, April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.; Fox, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The research and development efforts in support of the Tar Sands program reservoir access and alternate extraction activities that were initiated last quarter have been continued and expanded. The development of a short course on the utilization of specialized drilling technology to Tar Sands has been investigated. The steam quality sampler is undergoing laboratory testing. Plans for a Tar Sands enhanced permeability workshop have been initiated. A special report on possible application of sand control methods to the Tar Sands steam injection test (TS-1S) experiment has been prepared. The first stage of the analysis of rf and microwave heating has been completed. The results of a series of laboratory experiments on in-situ hydrogenation are presented.

  2. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  3. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  4. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  5. Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    "Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  6. StatServ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offering links to software, publications, data mining, meetings, jobs, consulting, online information (such as courses, datasets, text books, etc.), and institutions, StatServ is your one-stop site for finding information on statistics. The software list contains the linked name of the software and developer, a brief description, and its availability. The Data mining section is a self-contained unit, providing general explanations of data mining and books, conferences, journals, reports, and software that deal with data mining. A search mechanism allows visitors a quick and easy method for finding specific information. Links to newsgroups and mailing lists are also available at the site.

  7. Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the world’s most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

  8. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  9. First-in-human trial of a STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide in head and neck tumors: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Thomas, Sufi. M.; Kim, Seungwon; Yeh, Joanne I.; Ferris, Robert L.; Johnson, Jonas T.; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Lee, Jessica; Sahu, Nivedita; Joyce, Sonali; Freilino, Maria L.; Shi, Haibin; Li, Changyou; Ly, Danith; Rapireddy, Srinivas; Etter, Jonathan P.; Li, Pui-Kai; Wang, Lin; Chiosea, Simion; Seethala, Raja R.; Gooding, William. E.; Chen, Xiaomin; Kaminski, Naftali; Pandit, Kusum; Johnson, Daniel. E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence implicating transcription factors, including STAT3, in oncogenesis, these proteins have been regarded as “undruggable”. We developed a decoy targeting STAT3 and performed a phase 0 trial. Expression levels of STAT3 target genes were decreased in the head and neck cancers following injection with the STAT3 decoy compared with tumors receiving saline control. Decoys have not been amenable to systemic administration due to instability. To overcome this barrier, we linked the oligonucleotide strands using hexa-ethyleneglycol spacers. This cyclic STAT3 decoy bound with high affinity to STAT3 protein, reduced cellular viability, and suppressed STAT3 target gene expression in cancer cells. Intravenous injection of the cyclic STAT3 decoy inhibited xenograft growth and downregulated STAT3 target genes in the tumors. These results provide the first demonstration of a successful strategy to inhibit tumor STAT3 signaling via systemic administration of a selective STAT3 inhibitor, thereby paving the way for broad clinical development. PMID:22719020

  10. A novel high resolution Calpha--Calpha distance dependent force field based on a high quality decoy set.

    PubMed

    Rajgaria, R; McAllister, S R; Floudas, C A

    2006-11-15

    This work presents a novel C(alpha)--C(alpha) distance dependent force field which is successful in selecting native structures from an ensemble of high resolution near-native conformers. An enhanced and diverse protein set, along with an improved decoy generation technique, contributes to the effectiveness of this potential. High quality decoys were generated for 1489 nonhomologous proteins and used to train an optimization based linear programming formulation. The goal in developing a set of high resolution decoys was to develop a simple, distance-dependent force field that yields the native structure as the lowest energy structure and assigns higher energies to decoy structures that are quite similar as well as those that are less similar. The model also includes a set of physical constraints that were based on experimentally observed physical behavior of the amino acids. The force field was tested on two sets of test decoys not in the training set and was found to excel on all the metrics that are widely used to measure the effectiveness of a force field. The high resolution force field was successful in correctly identifying 113 native structures out of 150 test cases and the average rank obtained for this test was 1.87. All the high resolution structures (training and testing) used for this work are available online and can be downloaded from http://titan.princeton.edu/HRDecoys. PMID:16981202

  11. Novel Ribbon-Type Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotides Preclude Airways Hyperreactivity and Th2 Cytokine Expression in Experimental Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Nakamura; Hiromi Nagashima; Masachika Akiyama; Atsuko Sato; Takayuki Miyamoto; Nobuhito Sasaki; Hiroo Nitanai; Koko Kowata; Toshihide Nakadate; Hitoshi Kobayashi; Noriyuki Uesugi; Tamotsu Sugai; Terutaka Kakiuchi; Hiroshi Inoue; Kohei Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is required for the differentiation of Th2 responses, so we examined its role in mouse experimental asthma and tested the hypothesis that an NFAT blockade with a decoy against NFAT can prevent asthma progression. Objective: To determine the effects of the NFAT decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on the development of airway inflammation, we

  12. A comparison of zeolite and dolomite as gasification tar-cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Unconverted liquid products produced during steam gasification of coal are heavy tars. The object of this study was to compare a zeolite with dolomite as tar-cracking catalysts. Up to 75% of ale tars from a lignite and a subbituminous coal were cracked to lower molecular weight compounds by use of a heated catalyst bed. Collection of the tars downstream of the catalyst bed resulted in approximately 50% less tar from the test with dolomite as the catalyst than with zeolite. Simulated distillations of the tars showed more effective cracking with the dolomite than with the zeolite.

  13. A comparison of dolomite and a zeolite for use as gasification tar-cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Unconverted liquid products produced during steam gasification of coal are heavy tars. The object of this study was to compare a zeolite with dolomite as tar-cracking catalysts. Up to 75% of the tars from a lignite and a subbituminous coal were cracked to lower molecular weight compounds by use of a heated catalyst bed. Collection of the tars downstream of the catalyst bed showed that approximately 50% less tar resulted from the test with dolomite as the catalyst than that obtained with zeolite. Simulated distillations of the tars showed more effective cracking with the dolomite than with the zeolite.

  14. Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))

    1993-01-01

    In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  16. Upper bounds for the secure key rate of the decoy-state quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curty, Marcos; Moroder, Tobias; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    The use of decoy states in quantum key distribution (QKD) has provided a method for substantially increasing the secret key rate and distance that can be covered by QKD protocols with practical signals. The security analysis of these schemes, however, leaves open the possibility that the development of better proof techniques or better classical postprocessing methods might further improve their performance in realistic scenarios. In this paper, we derive upper bounds on the secure key rate for decoy-state QKD. These bounds are based basically only on the classical correlations established by the legitimate users during the quantum communication phase of the protocol. The only assumption about the possible postprocessing methods is that double click events are randomly assigned to single click events. Further, we consider only secure key rates based on the uncalibrated device scenario which assigns imperfections such as detection inefficiency to the eavesdropper. Our analysis relies on two preconditions for secure two-way and one-way QKD. The legitimate users need to prove that there exists no separable state (in the case of two-way QKD) or that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension (one-way QKD) that is compatible with the available measurements results. Both criteria have been previously applied to evaluate single-photon implementations of QKD. Here we use them to investigate a realistic source of weak coherent pulses. The resulting upper bounds can be formulated as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program which can be efficiently solved. For the standard four-state QKD protocol, they are quite close to known lower bounds, thus showing that there are clear limits to the further improvement of classical postprocessing techniques in decoy-state QKD.

  17. Using an emissive uridine analogue for assembling fluorescent HIV-1 TAR constructs

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Seergazhi G.; Tor, Yitzhak

    2007-01-01

    Emissive nucleoside analogues that are sensitive to their microenvironment can serve as probes for exploring RNA folding and recognition. We have previously described the synthesis of an environmentally sensitive furan-containing uridine and its triphosphate, and have demonstrated that T7 RNA polymerase recognizes this modified ribonucleoside triphosphate as a substrate in in vitro transcription reactions. Here we report the enzymatic preparation of fluorescently tagged HIV-1 TAR constructs and study their interactions with a Tat peptide. Two extreme labeling protocols are examined, where either all native uridine residues are replaced with the corresponding modified fluorescent analogue, or only key residues are site-specifically modified. For the HIV-1 Tat–TAR system, labeling all native uridine residues resulted in relatively small changes in emission upon increasing concentrations of the Tat peptide. In contrast, when the two bulge U residues were site-specifically labeled, a reasonable fluorescence response was observed upon Tat titration. The scope and limitations of such fluorescently tagged RNA systems are discussed. PMID:18431440

  18. Passive decoy state quantum key distribution: Closing the gap to perfect sources

    E-print Network

    Wolfgang Mauerer; Christine Silberhorn

    2006-10-17

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme which closely matches the performance of a perfect single photon source. It nearly attains the physical upper bound in terms of key generation rate and maximally achievable distance. Our scheme relies on a practical setup based on a parametric downconversion source and present-day, non-ideal photon-number detection. Arbitrary experimental imperfections which lead to bit errors are included. We select decoy states by classical post-processing. This allows to improve the effective signal statistics and achievable distance.

  19. Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites.

  20. Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J

    2008-11-10

    We report the first gigahertz clocked decoy-protocol quantum key distribution (QKD). Record key rates have been achieved thanks to the use of self-differencing InGaAs avalanche photodiodes designed specifically for high speed single photon detection. The system is characterized with a secure key rate of 1.02 Mbit/s for a fiber distance of 20 km and 10.1 kbit/s for 100 km. As the present advance relies upon compact non-cryogenic detectors, it opens the door towards practical and low cost QKD systems to secure broadband communication in future. PMID:19581967

  1. Decoys and Regulatory “Receptors” of the IL-1/Toll-Like Receptor Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Garlanda, Cecilia; Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Gentile, Stefania; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Members of the IL-1 family play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Members of IL-1R like receptor (ILR) family include signaling molecules and negative regulators. The latter include decoy receptors (IL-1RII; IL-18BP) and “receptors” with regulatory function (TIR8/SIGIRR; IL-1RAcPb; DIGIRR). Structural considerations suggest that also TIGIRR-1 and IL-1RAPL may have regulatory function. The presence of multiple pathways of negative regulation of members of the IL-1/IL-1R family emphasizes the need for a tight control of members of this fundamental system. PMID:23847621

  2. Decoys and Regulatory "Receptors" of the IL-1/Toll-Like Receptor Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Garlanda, Cecilia; Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Gentile, Stefania; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Members of the IL-1 family play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Members of IL-1R like receptor (ILR) family include signaling molecules and negative regulators. The latter include decoy receptors (IL-1RII; IL-18BP) and "receptors" with regulatory function (TIR8/SIGIRR; IL-1RAcPb; DIGIRR). Structural considerations suggest that also TIGIRR-1 and IL-1RAPL may have regulatory function. The presence of multiple pathways of negative regulation of members of the IL-1/IL-1R family emphasizes the need for a tight control of members of this fundamental system. PMID:23847621

  3. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of Alabama tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The tar sand deposits of northwest Alabama contain large reserves of oil, part of which may one day be tapped to supplement conventional oil production. The largest reserves occur in the Hartselle Sandstone and Price Mountain Formation, both of Mississippian age. Commercial developments of Alabama's tar sand deposits have been limited to operations in west-central Colbert County. Here to surface mine the material for use as road construction material. No attempt has been made to establish a commercial-scale oil extraction operation. The Hartselle Sandstone has the best potential for future oil extraction operations. Total reserves have been estimated to be in the order of about 3 billion barrels of oil in place. Much of Alabama's tar sand resource occurs in deposits that are relatively thin, lean, and somewhat discontinuous. The degree of oil saturation in the Hartselle Sandstone has a wide variation that is apparently related to lithofacies.

  5. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  6. Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  16. Vehicular fuels and oxychemicals from biomass thermochemical tars

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) of biomass thermochemical tars can yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons and alkyl aromatics of chemical compositions similar to those presently used in diesel and gasoline engine fuels. Phenolics can be coproduced. Compositions of hydroprocessed tars are similar regardless of biomass feedstock used, suggesting that the two-stage process of pyrolysis and hydroprocessing may afford a somewhat universal route to the generation of useful hydrocarbons and oxychemicals from a variety of agricultural and forestry residues. 26 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  17. Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar

    SciTech Connect

    Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

  18. Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kocornik, D.

    1986-09-01

    Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Studies on the Recovery of Bitumen from Nigerian Tar Sands: I. Beneficiation and Solvent Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BAYONILE ADEMODI; TOKS OSHINOWO; SIKIRU A. SANNI; OLUKAYODE F. DAWODU

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectivelyTemperature, agitation, and tar sand\\/solvent (S\\/L)

  1. Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Liu, Yang; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) utilizes the laws of quantum mechanics to achieve information-theoretically secure key generation. This field is now approaching the stage of commercialization, but many practical QKD systems still suffer from security loopholes due to imperfect devices. In fact, practical attacks have successfully been demonstrated. Fortunately, most of them only exploit detection-side loopholes, which are now closed by the recent idea of measurement-device-independent QKD. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the source, which may still leave QKD systems insecure. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an attack that exploits a source-side loophole existing in qubit-based QKD systems using a weak coherent state source and decoy states. Specifically, by implementing a linear-optics unambiguous state discrimination measurement, we show that the security of a system without phase randomization—which is a step assumed in conventional security analyses but sometimes neglected in practice—can be compromised. We conclude that implementing phase randomization is essential to the security of decoy-state QKD systems under current security analyses.

  2. Purification of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer and TAR binding proteins EBP-1 and UBP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, F K; Garcia, J A; Harrich, D; Gaynor, R B

    1988-01-01

    Transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is regulated by viral proteins and cellular factors that bind to the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). At least five regions of the HIV LTR serve as binding sites for HeLa cellular proteins. One region containing two copies of the sequence GGGACTTTCC functions as an enhancer element for HIV transcriptional regulation. Another region between -17 and +44 known as the TAR region contains two copies of the sequence CTCTCTGG and is also important in tat-induced activation of the HIV LTR. HeLa cell extracts were used to purify cellular proteins binding to portions of the enhancer region (EBP-1) and the TAR region (UBP-1) by a combination of conventional and DNA affinity chromatography. Several species of proteins of between 55 and 60 kd were found to bind to specific sequences in the enhancer region and these proteins also bound to a portion of the NF-kappa B binding site in the immunoglobulin kappa enhancer. Two proteins of between 61 and 63 kd were the major species found to bind to specific sequences in the TAR region and fractions containing these proteins also bind to the TATA region. Both UBP-1 and EBP-1 exhibited specific binding as demonstrated by both UV cross-linking and DNase I footprinting. Mutations of either the enhancer or TAR regulatory regions prevented binding of these purified factors. These results demonstrate the binding of highly purified cellular proteins to important transcriptional regulatory regions in the HIV LTR. Images PMID:3138113

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

  4. Smokers' knowledge and understanding of advertised tar numbers: health policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This article examines health policy implications of providing smokers with numerical tar yield information in cigarette advertising. METHODS. Results of a national probability telephone survey regarding smokers' knowledge and understanding of numerical tar yields and deliveries are reported. RESULTS. Few smokers knew the tar level of their own cigarettes (the exception being smokers of 1- to 5-mg tar cigarettes), and a majority could not correctly judge the relative tar levels of cigarettes. Smokers were unsure whether switching to lower-tar cigarettes would reduce their personal health risks. Many smokers relied on absolute numbers in making trade-offs between number of cigarettes smoked and their tar levels, thus confusion machine-rated tar-yields with actual amounts ingested. CONCLUSIONS. The wisdom of the present method of providing tar and nicotine numbers in ads and recommendations for modifying the test protocol are now under discussion. This research indicates that these tar numbers and their implications are poorly understood. The paper recommends revisions in tar ratings to make them more useful and a required statement on cigarette packages to more explicitly relate tar levels to major health risks. PMID:8561236

  5. Properties of Utah tar sands, south Seep Ridge area, P. R. Spring deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Johnson; L. C. Marchant; C. Q. Cupps

    1975-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines analyzed three cores from the south Seep Ridge area jf the P. R. Spring tar sand deposit of northeastern Utah. Four tar sand zones are indicated in the area. The zones range in average thickness from 13 to 24 ft. The total net thickness of the tar sand in the three coreholes ranges from 71 to

  6. Thermal controls on biodegradation around the Peace River tar sands: Paleo-pasteurization to the west

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Adams; Cindy Riediger; Martin Fowler; Steve Larter

    2006-01-01

    Bitumens of the Alberta tar sands share a similar primary source rock, but exhibit varying levels of degradation. In the Peace River tar sands area, the wide range of API gravity and sulphur content in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs is investigated in terms of biodegradation processes, using detailed geochemical analyses, burial history modelling and charge\\/degrade modelling. Decreasing tar sand degradation to

  7. The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011. Notes intended% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels) resources. Supporters of UFF development argue that only 15% of the tar sands resource is economically

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of...used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the...

  11. FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Department Combustion-tube tests were conducted on a tar of physical and chemical characteristics similar to a natural, 19 to 25% water saturation and 21 to 32% tar saturation. In runs with distilled water, a combustion

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. ...1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused...

  13. HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):265270, Fall 2007 Use of decoy traps to protect blueberries

    E-print Network

    consumption by large flocks of juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) is a serious problem for growers starlings. Key words: blueberries, decoy traps, human­wildlife conflicts, relocation, starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, translocation, trapping Small fruit such as blueberries, cherries, and grapes are often subject

  14. Oligonucleotide decoy to NF-kappaB slowly released from PLGA microspheres reduces chronic inflammation in rat.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Daniela; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana; Iuvone, Teresa; Cinelli, Maria Pia; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Carnuccio, Rosa

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in the expression of several genes involved in the immune and inflammatory process. Previously, we demonstrated that NF-kappaB activation can be significantly inhibited by a double stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nevertheless, the therapeutic use of ODN requires a delivery system able to improve poor crossing of cell membranes and rapid in vivo enzymatic degradation. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres can increase ODN stability in biological environment and release the encapsulated drug in long time frames. Here, we used a decoy ODN against NF-kappaB and we investigated its effect, when administered in naked form or when delivered by PLGA microspheres, in a rat model of chronic inflammation. The subcutaneous implant of lambda-carrageenin-soaked sponges caused leukocyte infiltration and formation of granulation tissue which were inhibited up to 15 days by co-injection of microspheres releasing decoy ODN whereas naked decoy ODN showed this effect only up to 5 days. Molecular analysis performed on granulation tissue demonstrated an inhibition of NF-kappaB activation correlated to a decrease of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Our results suggest that microspheres could be an useful tool to improve pharmacokinetics of decoy ODN and may represent a strategy to inhibit NF-kappaB activation in chronic inflammation. PMID:19427583

  15. Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. Nelson; G. J. Carlson; A. L. Buerer

    1980-01-01

    The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

  16. Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

    1980-02-14

    The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF WHITEROCKS (UTAH) TAR SAND BITUMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Hslng Tsai; Milind D. Deo; Francis V. Hanson; Alex G. Oblad

    1991-01-01

    The native Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen was separated into several boiling range fractions for detailed analysis and characterization. The lighter fraction (477-617 K) was evaluated for use as a transportation fuel and the residues (>617 K and >728 K) were evaluated for use as road asphalts. The 617 K plus residue from the Whiterocks bitumen can be classified as

  18. STUDY OF COMPOSITION OF NIGERIAN TAR SAND BITUMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OKECHUKWU UKWUOMA

    1999-01-01

    Compositional characterization techniques developed for high-boiling heavy ends of petroleum have been applied to Nigerian tar sand bitumen. The bitumen was subjected to ion-exchange and ferric chloride coordination chromatography to separate acids, bases and neutral nitrogen compounds. The remaining Hydrocarbon plus fraction was separated into saturates, monoarmatics, diaromatics and polyaromatic plus polar compounds on dual packed column of silica -

  19. Thermal visbreaking of heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Omole; M. N Olieh; T Osinowo

    1999-01-01

    Mild thermal visbreaking of heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand was conducted at several temperatures for different lengths of time in the laboratory. The viscosity of the oil was found to reduce with thermal treatment. The reduction in viscosity was investigated deterministically in relation to the changes in the chemical composition of the oil after the mild thermal treatment.

  20. Toxicity assessment of sludge fluid associated with tar sand tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. Warith; Raymond N. Yong

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted in an effort to assess the toxicity of fluid emanating from potential sludges produced as a result of the “hot water extraction process”; employed in extracting oil from tar sand deposits in Alberta. A further attempt was made to identify specific components and\\/or properties which might be responsible for any toxicity observed in the emanating sludge

  1. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  2. A new approach for molecular diagnosis of TAR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yassaee, Vahid R; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Soltani, Ziba; Poorhosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. In most patients chromosomes at 1q21.1 harbor a 200-kb deletion consisted of many genes, including RBM8A. We aimed to examine a cost-effective method for investigation a consanguineous family clinically diagnosed as TAR syndrome. A comprehensive sequencing of RBM8A identified several SNPs including two low-frequency regulatory SNPs (rs139428292 and rs201779890) in the father, the mother and the proband in which they carried A/G, G/- and A/- alleles for rs139428292, respectively. They also had G/G genotype in the father, G/- in both mother and proband for rs201779890. In addition a SNP (rs872786) was found in mother as T/- allele while father and proband have possessed A/A and A/- alleles, respectively. Further investigation determined a rare null allele in the proband using quantitative real-time PCR. We concluded that compound inheritance of a rare null allele and one of the two low-frequency noncoding SNPs (rs139428292) in RBM8A are crucial for TAR syndrome. Quantitative real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing may recruit for molecular diagnosis of TAR rather than molecular cytogenetic study. PMID:24769264

  3. SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

  4. TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations Ines Khoufi, Bachar Wehbi, Anis Abstract-- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is among the most relevant forms of mobile ad-hoc networks. VANET helps improving traffic safety and efficiency. By exchanging information between each others

  5. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1996-11-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

  6. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

  7. Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

  8. Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouji Adachi; Peter R. Buseck

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric tar balls (TBs) are spherical, organic aerosol particles that occur in smoke from biomass burning (BB). They absorb sunlight and thereby cause warming of the atmosphere. This study reports a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of TBs from BB smoke samples collected within minutes to hours from emission in a tropical area of Mexico. Their spherical shapes as seen

  9. Cell Host & Microbe HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, David V.

    in a sequence-specific manner using shRNAs targeting the viral genome. HIV gag, pol, tat, rev, env, vif, and nefCell Host & Microbe Article HIV Evades RNA Interference Directed at TAR by an Indirect Compensatory@berkeley.edu DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2008.09.008 SUMMARY HIV can rapidly evolve when placed under selective pressure

  10. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  11. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  12. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    SciTech Connect

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  13. Effects of decoy molecules targeting NF-kappaB transcription factors in Cystic fibrosis IB3–1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Finotti, Alessia; Borgatti, Monica; Bezzerri, Valentino; Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria; Mancini, Irene; Cabrini, Giulio; Saviano, Michele; Avitabile, Concetta; Romanelli, Alessandra; Gambari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    One of the clinical features of cystic fibrosis (CF) is a deep inflammatory process, which is characterized by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, among which interleukin 8 (IL-8) represents one of the most important. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in developing therapies against CF to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients. Since transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a critical role in IL-8 expression, the transcription factor decoy (TFD) strategy might be of interest. In order to demonstrate that TFD against NF-kappaB interferes with the NF-kappaB pathway we proved, by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that treatment with TFD oligodeoxyribonucleotides of cystic fibrosis IB3–1 cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to a decrease occupancy of the Il-8 gene promoter by NF-kappaB factors. In order to develop more stable therapeutic molecules, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) based agents were considered. In this respect PNA-DNA-PNA (PDP) chimeras are molecules of great interest from several points of view: (1) they can be complexed with liposomes and microspheres; (2) they are resistant to DNases, serum and cytoplasmic extracts; (3) they are potent decoy molecules. By using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and RT-PCR analysis we have demonstrated that (1) the effects of PDP/PDP NF-kappaB decoy chimera on accumulation of pro-inflammatory mRNAs in P.aeruginosa infected IB3–1 cells reproduce that of decoy oligonucleotides; in particular (2) the PDP/PDP chimera is a strong inhibitor of IL-8 gene expression; (3) the effect of PDP/PDP chimeras, unlike those of ODN-based decoys, are observed even in the absence of protection with lipofectamine. These informations are of great impact, in our opinion, for the development of stable molecules to be used in non-viral gene therapy of cystic fibrosis. PMID:22772035

  14. Evidence for limits on the acceptability of lowest-tar cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, L T

    1989-01-01

    The sales of the lowest yield cigarettes (1-3 mg tar) seem to have been particularly resistant to the effects of promotion and advertising, while the sales of other low-yield cigarettes (4-9 mg tar) seem to have been increased by promotional efforts. This finding is consistent with the existence of a boundary of tar and nicotine acceptability below which consumers in general are not prepared to go. Use of lower tar cigarettes may be helpful for those who cannot stop smoking, but, since 1979, the percentage of cigarettes under 16 mg tar has changed little. PMID:2913841

  15. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    -level ozone) and ground-level ozone ·· Control ofControl of VOCsVOCs ·· Formation and control of.hut.fi/~rzevenhorzevenho//gasbookgasbook HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Definitions ofDefinitions of VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, tar, soot, other than methane, that are capable of producing photochemical oxidants by reactions with nitrogen

  16. Pour Some: Measure Serving Size

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Make snack time into measuring time and learn to read Nutrition Facts labels. Try this when you’re using “pourable” foods, such as cereal, yoghurt, or juice. As a group, choose measurements for each serving size. For instance, 1/4 cup is a “small” serving of cereal; 1/2 cup is “medium”; and ¾ cup is “large.” A pair circulates with the food and measuring cup, taking and filling everyone’s orders. Then, explore what’s on the “serving size” on the food package Nutrition Facts label. How does it compare to the serving size? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

  17. Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8 bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites. PMID:17358463

  18. Induction of Antagonistic Soluble Decoy Receptor Tyrosine Kinases by Intronic PolyA Activation

    PubMed Central

    Vorlová, Sandra; Rocco, Gina; LeFave, Clare V.; Jodelka, Francine M.; Hess, Ken; Hastings, Michelle L.; Henke, Erik; Cartegni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative intronic polyadenylation (IPA) can generate truncated protein isoforms with significantly altered functions. Here, we describe 31 dominant-negative, secreted variant isoforms of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are produced by activation of intronic poly(A) sites. We show that blocking U1-snRNP can activate IPA, indicating a larger role for U1-snRNP in RNA surveillance. Moreover, we report the development of an antisense-based method to effectively and specifically activate expression of individual soluble decoy RTKs (sdRTKs) to alter signaling, with potential therapeutic implications. In particular, a quantitative switch from signal transducing full-length vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) to a dominant-negative sKDR results in a strong anti-angiogenic effect both on directly targeted cells and on naïve cells exposed to conditioned media, suggesting a role for this approach in interfering with angiogenic paracrine and autocrine loops. PMID:21925381

  19. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  20. Reexamination of the decoy-state quantum key distribution with an unstable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2010-07-01

    We present an improved formula for the lower bound of the fraction of single-photon counts in a decoy-state protocol with an unstable source. Based on the formula, we study two-intensity protocol and three-intensity protocol. The major formula in the passive two-intensity protocol proposed by Adachi, Yamamoto, Koashi, and Imoto (AYKI) [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.180503 99, 180503 (2007)] actually always holds with whatever intensity fluctuation of pump light. Therefore, the protocol can always work securely without monitoring the source state or switching the source intensity. We also show that our result can greatly improve the key rate of the three-intensity protocol with a fluctuating coherent-state source.

  1. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  2. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    E-print Network

    Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Xiang-Chun Ma; Chun-Yan Li; Lin-Mei Liang

    2014-07-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum+weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  3. Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M Justin

    2010-02-23

    Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator-prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a 'theoretical curiosity'. PMID:19793737

  4. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  5. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    PubMed

    Sulc, Jind?ich; Stojdl, Ji?í; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Ji?í; Vacek, Ji?í; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

  6. A new higher temperature coal tar enamel pipeline coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Henegar, S.; Roder, B. [Reilly Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The integrity of a primer is well known to influence the overall performance of pipeline coatings. Conventional primer systems including chlorinated rubber based primers have long been used with coal tar enamel based pipeline coatings. While these offer high performance at ambient temperatures in field application, high temperature performance above 71 C is limited. There is a need for high temperature performance in oil and gas pipelines, especially near compressor stations for natural gas transmission and in the transport of higher viscosity crude oils. The performance of a newly developed epoxy primer that enhances a coal tar based pipeline coating system is described. Laboratory test results are reported which demonstrate improved high temperature resistance as measured by adhesion, cathodic disbondment, and water resistance. A pilot plant application of the system is described along with the test results of plant applied epoxy/CTE coated steel pipe compared to plant applied FBE coatings.

  7. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, G. F.; Oliver, R. L.; Elliott, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyolands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. The total in place resources, are 6.3 billion barrels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses is necessary before a more accurate determination of resources is attempted.

  8. Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.C.

    1982-11-30

    A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

  9. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  10. Decoy-DNA against special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 inhibits the growth and invasive ability of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamayoshi, Asako; Yasuhara, Mariko; Galande, Sanjeev; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

    2011-01-01

    "Triple-negative" (TN) breast cancers, which are characterized by estrogen receptor (-), progesterone receptor (-), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-), are typically associated with poor prognosis because of their aggressive tumor phenotypes. In recent years, the number of patients with breast cancers has remarkably increased, but there are only few available drugs for treatment of TN breast cancers. The development of novel drugs targeting TN breast cancer is urgently required. In the present study, we focused on the function of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) as a target molecule for the treatment of TN breast cancers. By recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcriptional factors, SATB1 regulates the expression of >1,000 genes related to cell growth and translocation. We synthesized a decoy DNA against SATB1, including the recognition sequence of SATB1. We examined the inhibitory effects of the decoy DNAs on cellular proliferation of a TN metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). SATB1-decoy DNA inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Especially, it was significant that SATB1-decoy DNA drastically reduced the invasive and metastatic capacity of MBA-MB-231 cells. Further, in the case of MCF7 cells (SATB1-negative breast cancer cell line), SATB1-decoy DNA did not exhibit any inhibitory effect. These data suggest that SATB1-decoy DNA may be an effective candidate for use as a molecular-targeting drug for treatment of TN breast cancer. PMID:21500976

  11. Tumour-associated macrophages targeted transfection with NF-?B decoy/mannose-modified bubble lipoplexes inhibits tumour growth in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-06-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2 phenotype that promotes tumour progression, and conversion of M2 TAM toward a tumouricidal M1 phenotype is a promising anti-cancer therapy. As NF-?B is a key regulator of macrophage polarization, we developed an in vivo TAM-targeting delivery system that combines mannose-modified bubble liposomes/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) and ultrasound (US) exposure. We investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection on TAM phenotype in solid tumour-bearing mice. Post-transfection tumour growth and survival rates were also recorded. Th2 cytokine (IL-10) level in TAM was significantly lower by NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure, while Th1 cytokine levels (IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6) were significantly higher when compared with controls. In addition, mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and arginase were significantly lower in TAM post-NF-?B decoy transfection. Importantly, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection inhibited tumour growth and prolonged survival rates in mice. Therefore, TAM-targeted NF-?B decoy transfection using Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure may be an effective approach for anti-cancer therapy based on TAM phenotypic conversion from M2 toward M1. PMID:24579693

  12. Ring-Sp1 decoy oligonucleotide effectively suppresses extracellular matrix gene expression and fibrosis of rat kidney induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chae, Y-M; Park, K-K; Lee, I-K; Kim, J-K; Kim, C-H; Chang, Y-C

    2006-03-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the consequence of an injury characterized by the accumulation of excess collagen and other extracellular matrix components, resulting in the destruction of the normal kidney architecture and subsequent loss of function. A transcription factor Sp1, originally described as a ubiquitous transcription factor, is involved in the basal expression of extracellular matrix genes and may, therefore, be important in fibrotic processes. Here, we report on the design of a ring-Sp1 decoy oligonucleotide, containing the consensus Sp1 binding sequence in a single decoy molecule without an open end, to create a novel therapeutic strategy for fibrosis. The ring-Sp1 decoy oligonucleotide is highly resistant to degradation by nucleases or serum compared to the conventional phosphorothioated double-stranded Sp1 decoy oligonucleotide, and effectively suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and fibronectin, the binding of Sp1 to the promoter region of these genes, and proliferation in response to serum in normal rat kidney fibroblasts. Moreover, treatment with the ring-Sp1 decoy in vivo significantly attenuates extracellular matrix gene expression in the rat kidney in which a unilateral ureteral obstruction had been induced. These results suggest that the ring-Sp1 decoy oligonucleotide represents promising therapeutic alternative to the conventional treatment of fibrotic disorders. PMID:16341057

  13. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel

    1981-01-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great\\u000a Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts\\u000a of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established\\u000a commercial practice, it

  14. Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars with iron oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tsuda; Shengji Wu; Eiji Sasaoka

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of wood (Cedar) biomass was carried out using a specially designed flow-type double beds micro reactor in a two step process: temperature programmed non-catalytic steam gasification of biomass was performed in the first (top) bed at 200–850°C followed by catalytic decomposition gasification of volatile matters (including tars) in the second (bottom) bed at a constant temperature, mainly 600°C.

  15. Comparison of laboratory and field steamfloods in tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are simulated at the Western Research Institute to prepare for pilot tests and commercial operations. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in one-dimensional reactor tubes in which the tar sand or heavy oil is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is verified in a reactor system that demonstrates the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. Both of these reactors are capable of testing combustion or steamflood processes at pressures as high as 1000 psi. Initial laboratory simulations have tested steamflooding of Asphalt Ridge tar sand for comparison with previous results from a pilot test near Vernal, Utah. Oil production rates, properties and residual saturations have been measured for different operating conditions, reservoir properties and bitumen concentrations. Corresponding operating parameters and production performance are compared to evaluate the relationships between the laboratory simulations and the field test results. These comparisons show that the residual oil saturations and sweep efficiencies in the laboratory tests are similar to the results of the field tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Target-decoy search strategy for increased confidence in large-scale protein identifications by mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua E Elias; Steven P Gygi

    2007-01-01

    Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has become the preferred method for conducting large-scale surveys of proteomes. Automated interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) spectra can be problematic, however, for a variety of reasons. As most sequence search engines return results even for 'unmatchable' spectra, proteome researchers must devise ways to distinguish correct from incorrect peptide identifications. The target-decoy

  17. Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Nakayama, Ryota

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths, when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for a realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. The proposed method improves the existing key generation rate even in the asymptotic setting.

  18. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

  19. Decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun-Mei; Li, Mo; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Han, Yun-Guang; Xu, Man-Li; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-01

    The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol is proposed to remove the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the assumption that the encoding systems are perfectly characterized. In contrast, the MDI-QKD protocol based on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (CHSH-MDI-QKD) weakens this assumption, which only requires the quantum state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space and the devices are independent. In experimental realizations, the weak coherent state, which is always used in QKD systems due to the lack of an ideal single-photon source, may be prepared in the high-dimensional space. In this paper, we investigate the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with s (3?s?5) intensities, including one signal state and s -1 decoy states, and we also consider the finite-size effect on the decoy-state CHSH-MDI-QKD protocol with five intensities. Simulation results show that this scheme is very practical.

  20. Protein Copy Number Distributions for a Self-Regulating Gene in the Presence of Decoy Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bokes, Pavol; Singh, Abhyudai

    2015-01-01

    A single transcription factor may interact with a multitude of targets on the genome, some of which are at gene promoters, others being part of DNA repeat elements. Being sequestered at binding sites, protein molecules can be prevented from partaking in other pathways, specifically, from regulating the expression of the very gene that encodes them. Acting as decoys at the expense of the autoregulatory loop, the binding sites can have a profound impact on protein abundance—on its mean as well as on its cell-to-cell variability. In order to quantify this impact, we study in this paper a mathematical model for pulsatile expression of a transcription factor that autoregulates its expression and interacts with decoys. We determine the exact stationary distribution for protein abundance at the single-cell level, showing that in the case of non-cooperative positive autoregulation, the distribution can be bimodal, possessing a basal expression mode and a distinct, up-regulated, mode. Bimodal protein distributions are more feasible if the rate of degradation is the same irrespective of whether protein is bound or not. Contrastingly, the presence of decoy binding sites which protect the protein from degradation reduces the availability of the bimodal scenario. PMID:25811868

  1. G4-DNA Formation in the HRAS Promoter and Rational Design of Decoy Oligonucleotides for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Membrino, Alexandro; Cogoi, Susanna; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2011-01-01

    HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation, transcription increased 5-fold, but when we stabilized the G-quadruplexes by guanidinium phthalocyanines, transcription decreased to 20% of control. By ChIP we found that sequence hras-1 is bound only by MAZ, while hras-2 is bound by MAZ and Sp1: two transcription factors recognizing guanine boxes. We also discovered by EMSA that recombinant MAZ-GST binds to both HRAS quadruplexes, while Sp1-GST only binds to qhras-1. The over-expression of MAZ and Sp1 synergistically activates HRAS transcription, while silencing each gene by RNAi results in a strong down-regulation of transcription. All these data indicate that the HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors. Finally, we designed decoy oligonucleotides mimicking the HRAS quadruplexes, bearing (R)-1-O-[4-(1-Pyrenylethynyl) phenylmethyl] glycerol and LNA modifications to increase their stability and nuclease resistance (G4-decoys). The G4-decoys repressed HRAS transcription and caused a strong antiproliferative effect, mediated by apoptosis, in T24 bladder cancer cells where HRAS is mutated. PMID:21931711

  2. Transcription factor decoy oligonucleotides modified with locked nucleic acids: an in vitro study to reconcile biostability with binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Crinelli, Rita; Bianchi, Marzia; Gentilini, Lucia; Palma, Linda; Sørensen, Mads D.; Bryld, Torsten; Babu, Ravindra B.; Arar, Khalil; Wengel, Jesper; Magnani, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Double-stranded oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing the consensus binding sequence of a transcription factor provide a rationally designed tool to manipulate gene expression at the transcriptional level by the decoy approach. However, modifications introduced into oligonucleotides to increase stability quite often do not guarantee that transcription factor affinity and/or specificity of recognition are retained. We have previously evaluated the use of locked nucleic acids (LNA) in the design of decoy molecules for the transcription factor ?B. Oligo nucleotides containing LNA substitutions displayed high resistance to exo- and endonucleolytic degradation, with LNA–DNA mix-mers being more stable than LNA–DNA–LNA gap-mers. However, insertion of internal LNA bases resulted in a loss of affinity for the transcription factor. This latter effect apparently depended on positioning of the internal LNA substitutions. Indeed, here we demonstrate that intra- and inter-strand positioning of internal LNAs has to be carefully considered to maintain affinity and achieve high stability, respectively. Unfortun ately, our data also indicate that LNA positioning is not the only parameter affecting transcription factor binding, the interference in part being dependent on the intrinsic conformational properties of this nucleotide analog. To circumvent this problem, the successful use of an ?-l-ribo- configured LNA is demonstrated, indicating LNA–DNA–?-l-LNA molecules as promising new decoy agents. PMID:15051810

  3. Evidence for conformational flexibility in the Tat–TAR recognition motif of cyclin T1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandreyee Das; Stephen P. Edgcomb; Ralph Peteranderl; Lily Chen; Alan D. Frankela

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin T1 (CycT1) is a cellular transcription elongation factor that also participates in Tat-mediated activation of several lentiviral promoters. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), CycT1 is required for Tat to bind tightly to TAR and interacts in the ternary complex via its Tat–TAR recognition motif (TRM). In the related bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), Tat recognizes its cognate TAR element with

  4. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    PubMed

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  5. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928?g/Nm3 and 1.923?g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  6. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  7. Respiratory effects of lowering tar and nicotine levels of cigarettes smoked by young male middle tar smokers. I. Design of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Withey, C H; Papacosta, A O; Swan, A V; Fitzsimons, B A; Burney, P G; Colley, J R; Holland, W W

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effect on respiratory health of male middle tar smokers changing the tar and nicotine levels of the cigarettes they smoke for a six month period. DESIGN--This was a randomised controlled trial. Middle tar smokers were randomly allocated to smoke one of three different types of cigarette (low tar, middle nicotine; middle tar, middle nicotine; and low tar, low nicotine) in place of their usual cigarette for a six month period. Main outcome measures were assessment of respiratory health by documenting respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates, and of nicotine inhalation by measuring the urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites. SETTING--21 local authority districts of England. SUBJECTS--Participants were male middle tar smokers aged 18-44 years. MAIN RESULTS--Postal questionnaires were sent to 265,016 individuals selected from the electoral registers of 21 local authority districts of England; 64% of questionnaires were returned revealing 7736 men aged 18-44 years who smoked only middle tar cigarettes. Of these, 7029 (90%) were sent a health warning and 707 (10%) were not; the latter acted as a control group to assess the effect of the health warning. Of the 7029 men who had received a health warning and were visited at the recruitment stage, 2666 agreed and were eligible to participate in the trial although only 1541 (58% of those who agreed and were eligible) actually started smoking the study cigarettes; 643 men (24% of those willing to participate at the beginning of the trial and 42% of those who actually started smoking the study cigarettes) completed the trial smoking the study cigarettes. Of these, 213 were in the low tar middle nicotine group, 220 were in the middle tar middle nicotine group, and 210 were in the low tar low nicotine group. CONCLUSIONS--This study shows the feasibility of identifying and recruiting sufficient numbers of male middle tar smokers, with adequate numbers completing the trial, to detect any changes in respiratory health over a six month period. PMID:1645086

  8. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM) climate data for both surface wind shear stress and wind direction. We performed GCM runs at various obliquity values to simulate the effects of changing obliquity on recent Mars climate. We found good general agreement between TAR orientation and GCM wind directions from present day obliquity conditions in many cases, but found no good correlation between wind shear stress and TAR distribution. We performed preliminary high resolution crater count studies of TARs in both equatorial and southern intracrater dunefield settings and compared these to superposition relationships between TARs and large dark dunes. Our results show that TARs near dunefield appear to be younger than TARs in the equatorial regions. We infer that active saltation from the large dunes keeps TARs active, but that TARs are not active under present day condition when distal to large dunes - perhaps supporting the interpretation that TARs are granule ripples. We conclude that local geology, rather than wind strength, controls TAR distribution, but that their orientation matches present-day regional wind patterns in most cases. We suggest that TARs are likely most (perhaps only) active today when they are proximal to large dark dune fields.

  9. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  10. Graduate Students Serve North Carolina

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    2009 Graduate Students Serve North Carolina The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill a Difference for North Carolina From the mountains to the coast, Carolina graduate students' research benefits North Carolina communities. The Impact Award recognizes and encourages graduate students whose research

  11. Graduate Students Serve North Carolina

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    2007 Graduate Students Serve North Carolina Graduate Education Advancement Board Impact Awards 2007The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill #12;F Making a Difference, Having an Impact on North Carolina From the mountains to the coast, Carolina graduate students' research benefits North Carolina

  12. Graduate Students Serve North Carolina

    E-print Network

    Sekelsky, Jeff

    2011 Graduate Students Serve North Carolina Graduate Education Advancement Board Impact Awards #12;Steve Matson, Dean The Graduate School The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 200 Bynum Hall: sandra_hoeflich@unc.edu U Dear Friends, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chancellor Holden

  13. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  14. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  15. Environmental assessment: tar sand in situ steam injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-12-01

    A field experiment is planned for the in situ recovery of bitumen from tar sand. The site is located on a ten acre site 6.5 miles West of Vernal, Utah, and the experiment will last about six months. The experiment will utilize steam to lower the viscosity of the bitumen and drive it into production wells where it is recovered. Due to the small scale of this experiment, the impact of the proposed action will be minimal. Impact on local biological life will be minimal. The experiment will have no effect on aquatic habitats. No rare or endangered biological species will be affected by the experiment.

  16. Reconstructing Protein Structures by Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields and Iterative Decoy Set Construction

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Claudio; Adelfio, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the fold of a protein from its amino acid sequence is one of the grand problems in computational biology. While there has been progress towards a solution, especially when a protein can be modelled based on one or more known structures (templates), in the absence of templates, even the best predictions are generally much less reliable. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the sequence alone, when templates of known structure are not available. This approach relies on a simple reconstruction procedure guided by a novel knowledge-based evaluation function implemented as a class of artificial neural networks that we have designed: Neural Network Pairwise Interaction Fields (NNPIF). This evaluation function takes into account the contextual information for each residue and is trained to identify native-like conformations from non-native-like ones by using large sets of decoys as a training set. The training set is generated and then iteratively expanded during successive folding simulations. As NNPIF are fast at evaluating conformations, thousands of models can be processed in a short amount of time, and clustering techniques can be adopted for model selection. Although the results we present here are very preliminary, we consider them to be promising, with predictions being generated at state-of-the-art levels in some of the cases. PMID:24970210

  17. The Murine Gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 Acts as an Immunogenic Decoy to Limit Virion Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Laurent; May, Janet S.; Colaco, Susanna; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2007-01-01

    Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but fail to block and even enhance its infection of IgG Fc receptor-bearing cells, suggesting that the antibody response to infection is actually poor at ablating virion infectivity completely. Here we analyzed this effect further by quantitating the glycoprotein-specific antibody response of MHV-68 carrier mice. Gp150 was much the commonest glycoprotein target and played a predominant role in driving Fc receptor-dependent infection: when gp150-specific antibodies were boosted, Fc receptor-dependent infection increased; and when gp150-specific antibodies were removed, Fc receptor-dependent infection was largely lost. Neither gp150-specific monoclonal antibodies nor gp150-specific polyclonal sera gave significant virion neutralization. Gp150 therefore acts as an immunogenic decoy, distorting the MHV-68-specific antibody response to promote Fc receptor-dependent infection and so compromise virion neutralization. This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins. PMID:17684552

  18. A novel conserved mechanism for plant NLR protein pairs: the “integrated decoy” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Stella; Bernoux, Maud; Moncuquet, Philippe; Kroj, Thomas; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant immunity is often triggered by the specific recognition of pathogen effectors by intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLR). Plant NLRs contain an N-terminal signaling domain that is mostly represented by either a Toll-interleukin1 receptor (TIR) domain or a coiled coil (CC) domain. In many cases, single NLR proteins are sufficient for both effector recognition and signaling activation. However, many paired NLRs have now been identified where both proteins are required to confer resistance to pathogens. Recent detailed studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana TIR-NLR pair RRS1 and RPS4 and on the rice CC-NLR pair RGA4 and RGA5 have revealed for the first time how such protein pairs function together. In both cases, the paired partners interact physically to form a hetero-complex receptor in which each partner plays distinct roles in effector recognition or signaling activation, highlighting a conserved mode of action of NLR pairs across both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We also describe an “integrated decoy” model for the function of these receptor complexes. In this model, a plant protein targeted by an effector has been duplicated and fused to one member of the NLR pair, where it acts as a bait to trigger defense signaling by the second NLR upon effector binding. This mechanism may be common to many other plant NLR pairs. PMID:25506347

  19. Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Chen, Xie-Le; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Kun; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Yin, Juan; Liang, Hao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-ground quantum key distribution has embarked on the stage of engineering implementation, and a global quantum-secured network is imminent in the foreseeable future. As one payload of the quantum-science satellite which will be ready before the end of 2015, we report our recent work of the space-bound decoy-state optical source. Specialized 850 nm laser diodes have been manufactured and the integrated optical source has gotten accomplished based on these LDs. The weak coherent pulses produced by our optical source feature a high clock rate of 100 MHz, intensity stability of 99.5%, high polarization fidelity of 99.7% and phase randomization. A series of space environment tests have been conducted to verify the optical source's performance and the results are satisfactory. The emulated final secure keys are about 120 kbits during one usable pass of the low Earth orbit satellite. This work takes a significant step forward towards satellite-ground QKD and the global quantum-secured network. PMID:25401878

  20. Professional and Part-Time Chemokine Decoys in the Resolution of Inflammation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Hansell (Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; Division of Immunology Infection and Inflammation REV)

    2007-05-01

    Inflammation is essential for protection from infection and for the repair of damaged tissue. Much is now known about how inflammation is induced and maintained, but the processes underlying the resolution of inflammation are often overlooked. However, resolution is an essential component of all successful inflammatory responses because it ensures the restoration of tissue homeostasis and prevents immunopathology of the type seen in chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Small secreted proteins called chemokines, acting through chemokine receptors, are known to be critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment and function during the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Thus, their efficient removal would seem to be a prerequisite for successful resolution. In recent years, it has emerged that specialized chemokine "decoy" receptors exist that actively participate in this process. Moreover, other chemokine receptors have been proposed to lead a double life and perform opposing roles during inflammation: leukocyte recruitment (by signaling) and resolution (by chemokine sequestration). A recent study provides further support for this theory by showing that apoptotic inflammatory leukocytes increase the number of surface chemokine receptors and that these receptors can remove chemokines from inflamed tissue. Leukocyte apoptosis is already known to aid resolution, not just because it eliminates leukocytes from inflamed tissues, but also because their consumption by macrophages leads to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The new work indicates that chemokine sequestration may be another mechanism exploited by dying cells to assist in the resolution of inflammation.

  1. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  2. The Presence of Conspecific Decoys Enhances the Attractiveness of an NaCl Resource to the Yellow-Spined Locust, Ceracris kiangsu

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl—treated filter paper. In a two—choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCL) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl—treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources. PMID:21539416

  3. Specific HIV-1 TAR RNA loop sequence and functional groups are required for human cyclin T1-Tat-TAR ternary complex formation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sara; Cao, Hong; Rana, Tariq M

    2002-05-21

    Replication of human immunodeficiency virus requires Tat protein which activates elongation of RNA polymerase II transcription at the HIV-1 promoter through interaction with the cyclin T1 (CycT1) subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-TEFb). Tat binds directly through its transactivation domain to the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb and induces loop sequence specific binding of the P-TEFb onto nascent HIV-1 TAR RNA. By using a gel electrophoresis method and a comprehensive set of TAR loop mutants, we have identified the sequence and structural determinants for high-affinity CycT1-Tat-TAR ternary complex formation. Our results show that CycT1 and Tat binding to TAR RNA is highly cooperative, and a capacity of 85%, a Hill coefficient of 2.7, and a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 2.45 nM were observed. These results indicate that there are three binding sites on TAR RNA. CycT1 does not bind TAR RNA in the absence of Tat, and Tat binding to TAR, while detectable, is very inefficient in the absence of CycT1. It is conceivable that the CycT1-Tat heterodimer directly binds to TAR RNA in the U-rich RNA bulge region and this binding facilitates the interactions of the CycT1-Tat heterodimer at the other two sites in the RNA loop region. On the basis of our results, we suggest a model where CycT1 interacts with Tat protein and positions the protein complex to make contacts with the G34 region of the loop sequence; G34 is critical for CycT1-Tat binding and forms a C30.G34 base pair. Two functional groups, O6 and N7, at nucleotide positions 32 and 34 in the TAR loop are essential for CycT1-Tat interactions with TAR RNA. The identity of two nucleotides, U31 and G33, is not critical, but they contribute to the stabilization of the RNA-protein complex. The presence of a single-nucleotide bulge of A35 or C35 is essential for distortion of the backbone RNA structure as well as the accessibility of functional groups in the major groove of the double-helical region. CycT1-Tat interaction with TAR RNA represents another example of the flexibility and complexity of RNA structure involved in protein recognition. PMID:12009901

  4. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming (I): Carbon deposition in experiments with toluene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Mendiara; Joakim M. Johansen; Rubén Utrilla; Paulo Geraldo; Anker D. Jensen; Peter Glarborg

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an innovative method for gas conditioning in biomass gasification is analyzed. The objective is to remove tar by selectively reforming the unwanted hydrocarbons in the product gas with a chemical looping reformer (CLR), while minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Toluene, in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed

  5. A process for producing carbonaceous matter from tar sand, oil shale and olive cake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M Alkhamis; M. M Kablan

    1999-01-01

    Many countries which do not produce oil are rich with other sources of energy that are not fully utilized, such as tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. Limited previous work was done on producing carbonaceous matter and separating volatile matter from combinations of tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. In this study, a process is designed and tested

  6. Formation and distribution of heavy oil and tar sands in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niu Jiayu; Hu Jianyi

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of geological and geochemical data mainly from China, combined with data from other countries, it is found that formation and distribution of global heavy oil and tar sands is controlled by Alpine tectonic movements. They form two accumulation belts: the Alpine and the Circum-Pacific. Heavy oils and tar sands in western and eastern China belong to Alpine

  7. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Murphey; D. Daitch

    2009-01-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed

  8. Response and acclimatisation of symptomless smokers on changing to a low tar, low nicotine cigarette

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Woodman; S P Newman; D Pavia; S W Clarke

    1987-01-01

    Ten symptomless smokers were switched from their usual cigarette to a low tar, low nicotine test cigarette for two weeks to investigate their immediate response and subsequent acclimatisation to the test cigarette. The tar (T) and nicotine (N) yields of the test cigarettes were T = 3.8 mg, N = 0.6 mg; the median yields of the usual cigarettes were

  9. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  10. Composition and Properties of Coal Tar DNAPLs at Former Manufactured Gas Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Birak; S. C. Hauswirth; D. A. Williams; J. A. Pedit; C. T. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Coal tar is a persistent source of groundwater contamination in the subsurface at many former manufactured gas plants (MGPs). Remediation of coal tar remains a significant environmental challenge due to its complex chemical composition, existence as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), and tendency to alter the wettability of porous media systems. Changes in wettability are believed to occur due

  11. Phase partition of organic pollutants between coal tar and water under variable experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borhane Mahjoub; Emmanuel Jayr; Rémy Bayard; Rémy Gourdon

    2000-01-01

    On some abandoned manufactured-gas plant sites the presence of a particular non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), namely coal tar, represents a potential source of groundwater pollution. The aim of this study was to characterise the phase partition of aromatic pollutants between coal tar and water. Batch trials have been carried out in order to evaluate the state of phase partition equilibrium

  12. Difference in PAH release processes from tar-oil contaminated soil materials with similar contamination history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Wehrer; Kai Uwe Totsche

    2009-01-01

    Tar-oil contaminated sites, for example, former manufactured gas- and tar-processing sites, pose a continuing threat to soil and groundwater in Europe. In this study, the release processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of five soil materials from four locations in Germany are discussed. All materials were investigated by means of column outflow experiments. Variable flow conditions were applied to reveal

  13. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  16. Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers Sunil Kumar, Dev P. Arya Laboratory region of HIV virus. TAR (trans activation response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at 50 -end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts interacts with a key regulatory protein, Tat

  17. THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    crushed-core material promoted LTO of the tar but did not alter HTO parameters significantly. With HTO high pressure gradients were required to breach the tar layer, and significant amounts of oil were the optimum solvent slug was injected #12;in portions alternating with hot water. The economics of the process

  18. MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen

    E-print Network

    /gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance be- tween four from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low

  19. 78 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; Pamlico River and Tar River; Washington, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pamlico River and Tar River; Washington, NC AGENCY: Coast...navigable waters of the Pamlico and Tar Rivers in Washington, NC in support of...display that was delayed due to Tropical Storm Andrea. This action is...

  20. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar at manufactured-gas plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, R.C. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Rao, P.S.C.; Lee, L.S.; Okuda, I. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Soil Science)

    1992-08-01

    One component of the EPRI's research on Envirorunental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) consists of developing information and models to predict releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at MGP sites. The results of this report focus primarily on release of PAHs from coal tars. There are at least two approaches to predicting the release of organic chemicals from coal tar to water. The simplest method to estimate aqueous concentrations is to assume that water solubility of a PAH compound released from the tar can be defined by equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions. Application of Raoult's law is another method to predict aqueous concentrations, which requires the assumption of ideal'' behavior for partitioning of PAHs between the tar and water phases. To evaluate the applicability of these two methods for predicting PAH releases, laboratory experiments were conducted with eight coal tar samples from former MGP sites across the country. Migration of chemicals in the environment and resulting contaminant plumes in groundwater are determined by leachate concentrations of the chemicals. The use of equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions will usually result in an overestimation of PAH concentrations in the leachate from a coal tar source, and thus the resulting PAH concentrations in groundwater. Raoult's law appears to be a more accurate approach to predicting the release of several PAHs from coal tars. Furthermore, if nonequilibrium conditions prevail, aqueous-phase PAH concentrations will be even lower than those predicted using Raoult's law.

  1. Three-dimensional combustion test of tar sand triangle material

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand deposits and heavy oil reservoirs are simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding the application of in situ processes to these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in a one-dimensional tubular reactor system. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters, as determined in one-dimensional simulations, in consolidated blocks of the field resource. A three-dimensional simulation of forward combustion was conducted on a block of material from the Tar Sand Triangle deposit. Although combustion was established in the block, the maintenance and advancement of the combustion front was not successful. Problems relating to maintaining and advancing the combustion front were analyzed. To overcome these problems, it has been determined that: (1) larger heated area must be established prior to unheated air injection, and (2) continuous monitoring of oxygen in the produced gas must be used to control air injection rates. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Phillips solves Venezuelan tar-belt producing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, R.E.; Meldau, R.F.

    1972-07-17

    Phillips Petroleum Co. and partners have just completed an expansion to produce, treat, and ship 88,000 bpd of heavy oil from the tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. The first phase of the expansion was a $4.5-million diluent project to produce 80 API oil from the largest reservoir in the Morichal field, Monagas State. The second phase was to drill 41 wells in Amoco's Jobo field under an operating contract. The final phase was a $3.5-million expansion of treating, pipeline, and terminal facilities to handle the increased throughput. The crude produced is naphthenic and after treating is ready for road-building use, and as residual fuel at its usual viscosity of 520 to 550 sfs at 122/sup 0/F. As an asphalt stock, it has a yield of 60 to 70% and is readily processed into quality-paving asphalts which meet standard specifications. Production of the viscous 80 API crude oil, even though the major oil reservoir in Morichal, was very limited until installation of the diluent facilities last year. The same problem exists all over the famous tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. Vast oil reserves exist almost continuously in the area shown by the base map, but the oil cannot be dehydrated, desalted or transported when produced by itself. Thus, the 80 API oil is a known reserve, but without an external supply of diluent it cannot be commercially recovered.

  4. Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in the news here in Norway as well about the Tar Sands.

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in the news here in Norway as well about the Tar Sands. Question: When you send us and political parties demanding that Statoil withdraw from Canadian tar sand. Grandparent Bente Bakke was joined

  5. Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-01-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

  7. Performance enhancement of a decoy-state quantum key distribution using a conditionally prepared down-conversion source in the Poisson distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Karlsson, Anders

    2007-07-01

    We study the behavior of decoy-state quantum key distribution systems using a conditionally prepared down-conversion source, analyzing such a source running in a mode of operation with either a thermal photon number distribution or a Poisson photon number distribution. By comparing both modes of operations to the three-intensity proposal of Wang , to the one-intensity proposal of Adachi , and to the currently demonstrated faint-laser pulse system, we demonstrate that a down-conversion source in a Poissonian mode of operation can largely enhance the performance of decoy-state quantum key distribution systems. This makes the down-conversion-based decoy-state system an interesting alternative to current technological implementations based on faint-laser pulses.

  8. Type I interferon mimetics bypass vaccinia virus decoy receptor virulence factor for protection of mice against lethal infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Chulbul M; Johnson, Howard M

    2014-08-01

    The canonical model of interferon (IFN) signaling focuses solely on the activation of STAT transcription factors which, according to the model, are initiated by the singular event of cross-linkage of the receptor extracellular domain by the IFN. The IFN has no further function beyond this. The model thus provides no approach to circumventing poxviruses decoy receptors that compete with the IFN receptors for IFNs. This simple event has allowed smallpox virus to decimate human populations throughout the ages. We have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that has resulted in the development of small peptide mimetics to both types I and II IFNs. In this report, we focus on a type I IFN mimetic at positions 152 to 189, IFN-?1(152-189), which corresponds to the C terminus of human IFN-?1. This mimetic functions intracellularly and is thus not recognized by the B18R vaccinia virus decoy receptor. Mimetic synthesized with an attached palmitate (lipo-) for cell penetration protects mice from a lethal dose of vaccinia virus, while the parent IFN-?1 is ineffective. Unlike IFN-?1, the mimetic does not bind to the B18R decoy receptor. It further differs from the parent IFN in that it lacks the toxicity of weight loss and bone marrow suppression in mice while at the same time possessing a strong adjuvant effect on the immune system. The mimetic is thus an innate and adaptive immune regulator that is evidence of the dynamic nature of the noncanonical model of IFN signaling, in stark contrast to the canonical or classical model of signaling. PMID:24964806

  9. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study. PMID:25372942

  10. ?-Arrestin Recruitment and G Protein Signaling by the Atypical Human Chemokine Decoy Receptor CCX-CKR*

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Anne O.; Verkaar, Folkert; van der Lee, Miranda M. C.; Timmerman, Claudia A. W.; Kuijer, Martien; van Offenbeek, Jody; van Lith, Lambertus H. C. J.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob; Zaman, Guido J. R.; Vischer, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptors form a large subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that predominantly activate heterotrimeric Gi proteins and are involved in immune cell migration. CCX-CKR is an atypical chemokine receptor with high affinity for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 chemokines, but is not known to activate intracellular signaling pathways. However, CCX-CKR acts as decoy receptor and efficiently internalizes these chemokines, thereby preventing their interaction with other chemokine receptors, like CCR7 and CCR9. Internalization of fluorescently labeled CCL19 correlated with ?-arrestin2-GFP translocation. Moreover, recruitment of ?-arrestins to CCX-CKR in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 was demonstrated using enzyme-fragment complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods. To unravel why CCX-CKR is unable to activate Gi signaling, CCX-CKR chimeras were constructed by substituting its intracellular loops with the corresponding CCR7 or CCR9 domains. The signaling properties of chimeric CCX-CKR receptors were characterized using a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter gene assay. Unexpectedly, wild type CCX-CKR and a subset of the chimeras induced an increase in CRE activity in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 in the presence of the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin. CCX-CKR signaling to CRE required an intact DRY motif. These data suggest that inactive Gi proteins impair CCX-CKR signaling most likely by hindering the interaction of this receptor with pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins that transduce signaling to CRE. On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold ?-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways. PMID:23341447

  11. ?-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR.

    PubMed

    Watts, Anne O; Verkaar, Folkert; van der Lee, Miranda M C; Timmerman, Claudia A W; Kuijer, Martien; van Offenbeek, Jody; van Lith, Lambertus H C J; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; Zaman, Guido J R; Vischer, Henry F

    2013-03-01

    Chemokine receptors form a large subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that predominantly activate heterotrimeric Gi proteins and are involved in immune cell migration. CCX-CKR is an atypical chemokine receptor with high affinity for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 chemokines, but is not known to activate intracellular signaling pathways. However, CCX-CKR acts as decoy receptor and efficiently internalizes these chemokines, thereby preventing their interaction with other chemokine receptors, like CCR7 and CCR9. Internalization of fluorescently labeled CCL19 correlated with ?-arrestin2-GFP translocation. Moreover, recruitment of ?-arrestins to CCX-CKR in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 was demonstrated using enzyme-fragment complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods. To unravel why CCX-CKR is unable to activate Gi signaling, CCX-CKR chimeras were constructed by substituting its intracellular loops with the corresponding CCR7 or CCR9 domains. The signaling properties of chimeric CCX-CKR receptors were characterized using a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter gene assay. Unexpectedly, wild type CCX-CKR and a subset of the chimeras induced an increase in CRE activity in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 in the presence of the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin. CCX-CKR signaling to CRE required an intact DRY motif. These data suggest that inactive Gi proteins impair CCX-CKR signaling most likely by hindering the interaction of this receptor with pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins that transduce signaling to CRE. On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold ?-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways. PMID:23341447

  12. Natural attenuation of coal tar organics in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.W.G.; Barker, J.F.; Hamilton, K.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research

    1995-12-31

    A volume of sand containing residual coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table under controlled field conditions to investigate natural attenuation processes for selected creosote compounds. Movement of groundwater through the source has led to the development of a complex dissolved organic plume, which has been monitored in detail for more than 1,000 days. During this period, several distinct types of behavior were evident for the monitored compounds. The m-xylene plume reached a maximum extent and has started to recede, while the naphthalene plume continues to migrate further from the source. Indications are that the dibenzofuran plume is at steady state, with no additional advancement and little change in plume mass over a 1-year period.

  13. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  14. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

  15. Numerical simulation of the wet forward combustion of California tar sand in a tube reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, P.

    1988-10-01

    The Tar Sand Reservoir Simulator (TSRS) is used to model the wet forward combustion of California tar sand from the Arroyo Grande deposit. The model's options and input data are selected to numerically duplicate the recent set of experiments conducted at Western Research Institute (WRI) in which the California tar sand was processed in a one-dimensional tube reactor. The experiments and their numerical simulation counterparts are conducted to evaluate the wet forward combustion process for the California tar sand and to evaluate the effects of differing injection gas steam-to-oxygen ratios on recovery performance. Simulation results indicate that the combustion front can be successfully propagated through the Arroyo Grande deposit. The injection pressure required to maintain flow is significantly lower for the processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand than for the processing of Asphalt Ridge or Sunnyside tar sand. The numerical simulations show the same general trends of reduced fuel deposition, increased oil yield, increased frontal velocity, and decreased temperature with increasing steam-to-oxygen ratio as were observed in the experimental tests conducted on both the Arroyo Grande and Asphalt Ridge tar sands. 15 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  17. Determining the characteristics of the direct coke oven gas tar fog

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vshivtsev, G.; Simonov, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    In the cooling of coke oven gas, the principal part of the tar in the gas main condenses and is discharged to the mechanical clarifiers with the water. The remaining part of the tar is present chiefly in the form of fog. The vapor phase of the tar is insignificant and consists primarily of fractions boiling below 300/sup 0/C. Separation of the tar from the direct gas in the primary gas coolers is determined principally by the conditions of precipitation of the aerosols and absorption of the low-boiling fractions of tar, naphthalene and crude benzol on the drops of tar fog. The particle size of the aerosols in the direct gas is described by a log normal distribution curve. The diameter of the principal part of the particles is 0.8 to 7.0 microns. In the direct gas after the primary gas coolers with vertical tubes at temperatures below 40/sup 0/C there are three condensed phases: naphthalene crystals, water droplets and tar. (JMT)

  18. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Bergboer, Judith G M; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; Hato, Stanleyson V; van der Valk, Pieter G M; Schröder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2013-02-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD. PMID:23348739

  19. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  20. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  1. Novel cationic liposome formulation for the delivery of an oligonucleotide decoy to NF-kappaB into activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Daniela; Laguardia, Valeria; Arpicco, Silvia; Simeon, Vittorio; Carnuccio, Rosa; Fattal, Elias

    2008-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in several pathological processes, such as inflammation. Pro-inflammatory genes expression can be down-regulated by using an oligonucleotide (ODN) decoy to NF-kappaB. Cationic liposomes are largely used to improve ODN uptake into cells, although a higher transfection efficiency and a lower toxicity are required to use them in therapy. In this work, we investigated the potential of a novel liposome formulation, based on the recently synthesised cationic lipid (2,3-didodecyloxypropyl) (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (DE), as the delivery system for a double stranded ODN decoy to NF-kappaB. Liposomes composed of DE or DE mixed with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or cholesterol as helper lipids were complexed with ODN at different +/- charge ratios. In vitro uptake and the effect of ODN, naked or complexed with DE-containing liposomes, were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The use of helper lipids increased liposome physical stability up to 1 year at 4 degrees C. ODN complexed with DE/cholesterol liposomes, at the +/- charge ratio of 8, showed a limited cytotoxicity and the highest inhibition of nitrite production, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity. Confocal microscopy confirmed a high ODN cell uptake obtained with DE/cholesterol liposomes at the highest +/- charge ratio. PMID:18482831

  2. Prediction of borehole stability in tar sands with the use of a rheological model

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.S.; Kagar, M. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia)); Marx, C. (Technical Univ. of Clausthal (DE))

    1992-07-01

    The convergence characteristics of the borehole in tar sand are described by means of a nonlinear equation of state. The geometrical model of a cylindrical cavity was taken as a basis. The viscoelastic behavior of tar sand was investigated with the use of Burger's rheological model. The rheological constants were determined by means of creep tests on original tar sand. The model thus developed was used to investigate the contraction of wellbore under different bottomhole conditions. The most unfavorable case thereby observed does not pose a serious problem from the point of practical consideration.

  3. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  4. EMPLOYMENT FACTS: THE KEYSTONE XL PIPELINE Under the forest in northern Alberta, Canada lie the world's largest deposits of so-called "tar sands,"

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    the world's largest deposits of so-called "tar sands," sand mixed with thick, tar-like oil. To produce one barrel of heavy crude oil from tar sands requires strip mining the forest, extracting four tons of earth to terminals at Nederland, Texas on the Gulf of Mexico. Tar sands oil heats to more than 150 degrees

  5. Predation in the Presence of Decoys: An Inhibitory Factor on Pathogen Control by Bacteriophages or Bdellovibrios in Dense and Diverse Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL H. F. WILKINSON

    2001-01-01

    Several attempts have been made at the removal of specific pathogens from the intestinal microflora using either bacteriophages or “predatory” bacteria such as Bdellovibrio spp. To date these attempts have had mixed success. A mechanism explaining these findings based on competitive hindrance by non-prey, or decoy species is put forward. It is shown that this hindrance tends to damp out

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at § 1910.1002...

  7. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  8. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  9. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  10. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  11. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1201.301-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-70...TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 language and describe the...

  12. New insights into the genetic basis of TAR (thrombocytopenia-absent radii) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Albers, Cornelis A; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ouwehand, Willem H; Ghevaert, Cedric

    2013-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare disorder combining specific skeletal abnormalities with a reduced platelet count. Rare proximal microdeletions of 1q21.1 are found in the majority of patients but are also found in unaffected parents. Recently it was shown that TAR syndrome is caused by the compound inheritance of a low-frequency noncoding SNP and a rare null allele in RBM8A, a gene encoding the exon-junction complex subunit member Y14 located in the deleted region. This finding provides new insight into the complex inheritance pattern and new clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying TAR syndrome. We discuss TAR syndrome in the context of abnormal phenotypes associated with proximal and distal 1q21.1 microdeletion and microduplications with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:23602329

  13. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

  14. Fragment based search for small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 Tat-TAR.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Mirco; Stark, Sebastian; Kalden, Elisabeth; Ackermann, Bettina; Ferner, Jan; Scheffer, Ute; Shoja-Bazargani, Fatemeh; Erdel, Veysel; Schwalbe, Harald; Göbel, Michael W

    2014-12-15

    Basic molecular building blocks such as benzene rings, amidines, guanidines, and amino groups have been combined in a systematic way to generate ligand candidates for HIV-1 TAR RNA. Ranking of the resulting compounds was achieved in a fluorimetric Tat-TAR competition assay. Although simple molecules such as phenylguanidine are inactive, few iteration steps led to a set of ligands with IC50 values ranging from 40 to 150 ?M. 1,7-Diaminoisoquinoline 17 and 2,4,6-triaminoquinazoline 22 have been further characterized by NMR titrations with TAR RNA. Compound 22 is bound to TAR at two high affinity sites and shows slow exchange between the free ligand and the RNA complex. These results encourage investigations of dimeric ligands built from two copies of compound 22 or related heterocycles. PMID:25466178

  15. A STAT3-decoy oligonucleotide induces cell death in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line by blocking nuclear transfer of STAT3 and STAT3-bound NF-?B

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is frequently activated in tumor cells. Activated STAT3 forms homodimers, or heterodimers with other TFs such as NF-?B, which becomes activated. Cytoplasmic STAT3 dimers are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation; they interact with importins via a nuclear localization signal (NLS) one of which is located within the DNA-binding domain formed by the dimer. In the nucleus, STAT3 regulates target gene expression by binding a consensus sequence within the promoter. STAT3-specific decoy oligonucleotides (STAT3-decoy ODN) that contain this consensus sequence inhibit the transcriptional activity of STAT3, leading to cell death; however, their mechanism of action is unclear. Results The mechanism of action of a STAT3-decoy ODN was analyzed in the colon carcinoma cell line SW 480. These cells' dependence on activated STAT3 was verified by showing that cell death is induced by STAT3-specific siRNAs or Stattic. STAT3-decoy ODN was shown to bind activated STAT3 within the cytoplasm, and to prevent its translocation to the nucleus, as well as that of STAT3-associated NF-?B, but it did not prevent the nuclear transfer of STAT3 with mutations in its DNA-binding domain. The complex formed by STAT3 and the STAT3-decoy ODN did not associate with importin, while STAT3 alone was found to co-immunoprecipitate with importin. Leptomycin B and vanadate both trap STAT3 in the nucleus. They were found here to oppose the cytoplasmic trapping of STAT3 by the STAT3-decoy ODN. Control decoys consisting of either a mutated STAT3-decoy ODN or a NF-?B-specific decoy ODN had no effect on STAT3 nuclear translocation. Finally, blockage of STAT3 nuclear transfer correlated with the induction of SW 480 cell death. Conclusions The inhibition of STAT3 by a STAT3-decoy ODN, leading to cell death, involves the entrapment of activated STAT3 dimers in the cytoplasm. A mechanism is suggested whereby this entrapment is due to STAT3-decoy ODN's inhibition of active STAT3/importin interaction. These observations point to the high potential of STAT3-decoy ODN as a reagent and to STAT3 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in tumor cells as a potential target for effective anti-cancer compounds. PMID:21486470

  16. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  17. Augmentation of elastase?induced emphysema by cigarette smoke: Effects of reducing tar and nicotine content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Diamond

    1987-01-01

    The effects of reducing the tar and nicotine concentration of cigarette smoke were examined in a rat model of smoke?augmented, porcine pancreatic elastase? (PPE?) induced, pulmonary emphysema. Sixty?eight female Long?Evans rats were divided approximately evenly into seven groups: control, PPE, PPE plus sham smoke, high?tar\\/ nicotine cigarette smoke (2R1; 38.8 mg total particulate matter and 2.2 mg nicotine per cigarette),

  18. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Skubal; R. G. Luthy

    1994-01-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering ¹⁴COâ evolved during biotransformation of the [¹⁴C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There

  19. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ?PAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ?PAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  20. Cost analysis serves many purposes.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the utility of performing cost analysis of family planning (FP) personnel resources by relying on a system analysis framework in developing countries. A study of a national provider that distributes 16% of all FP services in Mexico found that more efficient use of staff would increase the number of clients served. Nurses and doctors worked slightly more than 6 hours/day, and 38% of a nurse's time and 47% of a physician's time was spent in meetings, administrative duties, unoccupied work time, and personal time. The Mexican government proposed increasing the work day to 8 hours and increasing to 66% the portion of the work day spent on direct client activity. With this change, services would increase from 1.5 million couple-years of protection (CYP) to 1.8 million CYP in 2010, without additional staff, and CYP cost would decline. CYP costs could potentially be reduced by increasing the number of contraceptive units provided per visit and switching from a 1-month- to a 3-month-duration injectable contraceptive. A Bangladesh study found that CYP costs could be reduced by eliminating absenteeism and increasing work time/day by 1 hour. Cost studies can address specific human resource issues. A study in Thailand found that Norplant was more expensive per CYP than injectables and the IUD, and Norplant acceptors were willing to switch to other effective modern methods. The Thai government decided to target Norplant to a few target groups. Staff time use evaluations can be conducted by requiring staff to record their time or by having clients maintain records of staff time on their health cards. The time-motion study, which involves direct observations of how staff spend their time, is costly but avoids estimation error. A CEMOPLAF study in Ecuador found that 1 visit detected almost as many health problems as 4 visits. Some studies examine cost savings related to other services. PMID:12293235

  1. Comparison of tar sands and phosphatic clay tailings properties, disposal, and reclamation options

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, W.A.; Carrier, W.D. III [BCI, Lakeland, FL (United States); Burns, R. [Suncor, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The tar sands industry of northern Alberta, much like the phosphate mining industry of Florida, is having to deal with the long term management of a fine-grained tailings waste. The production of synthetic crude from surface deposits of tar sands results in a combined tailings mixture of sand, bitumen, and clay. The phosphate industry bonification process separates the clay and sand waste streams at the plant and these materials are generally deposited in separate disposal areas. Both the tar sands fine tailings and the waste phosphatic clays exhibit engineering characteristics associated with highly plastic clays. This behavior is typically characterized by large changes in void ratio and permeability with changes in effective stress. Recent technology exchanges between the phosphate and tar sands industries reveal some encouraging opportunities for waste disposal and reclamation planning in the tar sands industry. Studies involving the mixing of mature fine oil sands tailings and sand (with and without chemical additives) have provided some improvements in the tar sands tailings material consolidation and permeability properties.

  2. Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander; Day, D. E.; Lee, Tae-bum; Wang, Chong M.; Carrico, C. E.; Carrillo, John R.; Cowin, James P.; Collett, J. G.; Iedema, Martin J.

    2005-11-09

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (? = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.

  3. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  4. Multi-stage air flotation of tar sand wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.; McTernan, W.F.; Asce, A.M.; Laya, C.J.

    1986-04-01

    In 1980, the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a steam-driven tar sand recovery experiment near Vernal, UT which yielded 1,150 barrels of bitumen and 6,250 barrels of process water, which was highly contaminated with emulsified oils and dissolved organics. The process waters were successfully treated by bench-scale, continuous-flow air flotation (AF), but significant amounts of very diluted sludge were generated. The present study investigated the effects of adding a second flotation stage to the AF system to thicken stage I sludge, produce a clean effluent suitable for recycling, and thereby increase the hydraulic efficiency of the system. Key stage II operating variables were polymer dose, air flowrate, and liquid residence time. These were optimized to minimize sludge volume and maximize effluent quality and volume. Total organic carbon and total suspended solids removals in the stage II system were 96 and 99%, respectively. Overall sludge production equalled about 2% of the total influent flow.

  5. Characterization and potential utilization of Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.H.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G. (Lab. of Coal Science, Synthetic Fuels and Catalysis, Dept. of Fuels Engineering, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the native Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen that was separated into several boiling range fractions for detailed analysis and characterization. The lighter fraction (477-617 K) was evaluated for use as a transportation fuel and the residues ({gt}617 K and {gt}728 K) were evaluated for use as road asphalts. The 617 K plus residue from the Whiterocks bitumen can be classified as a viscosity grade AC-10 asphalt whereas the 728 K plus residue failed to meet asphalt specifications. Apart from the asphalt specification tests, several sophisticated techniques were used to characterize these fractions. The detailed structure of the low molecular weight portions of Whiterocks bitumen (477-617 K and 617-728 K) was determined by combined GC-MS. Several physical properties were also measured to evaluate the potential of the 477-617 K fraction as a high density/energy aviation turbine fuel. This lower molecular weight fraction of the bitumen contained predominantly naphthenic hydrocarbons and lesser concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons. This was confirmed by the FTIR spectra and by the GC-MS analyses. As a result, the 477-617 K fraction appeared to be an excellent candidate as a feedstock for the production of high density, aviation turbine fuels following mild hydrotreating.

  6. Healthy Foods under $1 Per Serving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods under $1 into your weekly menu planning. Apples (raw with skin) Great for: Snacks, green salads, ... and fruit salads What's a serving? 1 large apple Nutrition Info per serving: About 116 calories, 5. ...

  7. REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL

    E-print Network

    REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL Requestor's Name of alcohol served and to prevent individuals from driving, if impaired, or returning to work. Approved: (1 Services, Building 400. NOTE: No alcohol may be served during sports activities until games are completed

  8. Statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zong-Wen; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with a three-intensity decoy-state method. Taking the statistical fluctuations for different sources jointly, we present more tightened formulas for some key quantities used in calculating the secure final key. Numerical simulation shows that, given the total number of pulses 1012, our method improves the key rate by about 97% for a distance of 50 km compared with the result given by Xu et al. [F. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052333], and improves the key rate by 145 % for a distance of 100 km compared with the result from full optimization of all parameters but treating the statistical fluctuations traditionally, i.e., treating the fluctuations for different sources separately.

  9. Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Chen, Wei; Xavier, Guilherme; Swillo, Marcin; Zhang, Tao; Sauge, Sebastien; Tengner, Maria; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can; Karlsson, Anders

    2008-03-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a decoy-state quantum key distribution scheme (QKD) with a heralded single-photon source based on parametric down-conversion. We used a one-way Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with a four states and one-detector phase-coding scheme, which is immune to recently proposed time-shift attacks, photon-number splitting attacks, and can also be proven to be secure against Trojan horse attacks and any other standard individual or coherent attacks. In principle, the setup can tolerate the highest losses or it can give the highest secure key generation rate under fixed losses compared with other practical schemes. This makes it a quite promising candidate for future quantum key distribution systems.

  10. Improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method

    E-print Network

    Zong-Wen Yu; Yi-Heng Zhou; Xiang-Bin Wang

    2015-01-26

    We present an improved statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement device independent quantum key distribution with three-intensity decoy-state method. Taking the statistical fluctuations for different sources jointly, we present more tightened formulas for some key quantities used in calculating the secure final key. Numerical simulation shows that, given the total number of pulses $10^{12}$, our method improves the key rate by about 97\\% for a distance of 50kms compared with the result given by Xu., et al. (Phys. Rev. A 89, 052333); and improves the key rate by $146\\%$ for a distance of 100kms compared with the result from full optimization of all parameters but treating the statistical fluctuations traditionally, i.e., treating the fluctuations for different sources separately.

  11. Semaphorin-PlexinD1 signaling limits angiogenic potential via the VEGF decoy receptor sFlt1.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Tomasz; Gay, Carl Michael; Blondelle, Jordan; Singh, Manvendra K; Flaherty, Kathleen McCrone; Means, Paula Casey; Herwig, Lukas; Krudewig, Alice; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus; Epstein, Jonathan A; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús

    2011-08-16

    Sprouting angiogenesis expands the embryonic vasculature enabling survival and homeostasis. Yet how the angiogenic capacity to form sprouts is allocated among endothelial cells (ECs) to guarantee the reproducible anatomy of stereotypical vascular beds remains unclear. Here we show that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling, previously implicated in sprout guidance, represses angiogenic potential to ensure the proper abundance and stereotypical distribution of the trunk's segmental arteries (SeAs). We find that Sema-PlxnD1 signaling exerts this effect by antagonizing the proangiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling ensures the proper endothelial abundance of soluble flt1 (sflt1), an alternatively spliced form of the VEGF receptor Flt1 encoding a potent secreted decoy. Hence, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling regulates distinct but related aspects of angiogenesis: the spatial allocation of angiogenic capacity within a primary vessel and sprout guidance. PMID:21802375

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Dynamic Signatures of TAR RNA?Small Molecule Complexes Provide Insight into RNA Structure and Recognition †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Edwards; Snorri Th. Sigurdsson

    2002-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the correlation between RNA structure and RNA internal dynamics in complexes of HIV-1 TAR RNA with small molecules. TAR RNAs containing single nitroxide spin-labels in the 2'-position of U23, U25, U38, or U40 were incubated with compounds known to inhibit TAR-Tat complex formation. The combined changes in nucleotide mobility at all

  13. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    There is significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly because of the central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes-gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal beneficiation. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for more reliable correlation for prediction of vapor pressure of heavy, primary coal tars. The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to extending the work on measurements of vapor pressures of tars. For this purpose, cellulose tar and cellulose tar related compounds have been selected as model systems. Cellulose tar has a much narrower distribution of molecular weight than does coal tar, and it is much more homogeneous. Thus it is better to develop the methods to be used for coal tars on this simpler model system first.

  14. Partitioning studies of coal-tar constitutents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Rostad; W. E. Pereira; M. F. Hult

    1985-01-01

    Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol\\/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may

  15. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Scott C; Miller, Cass T

    2014-10-15

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal. PMID:25190671

  16. TarFisDock: a web server for identifying drug targets with docking approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Honglin; Gao, Zhenting; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Hailei; Yang, Kun; Yu, Kunqian; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Jianhua; Wang, Xicheng; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-01-01

    TarFisDock is a web-based tool for automating the procedure of searching for small molecule–protein interactions over a large repertoire of protein structures. It offers PDTD (potential drug target database), a target database containing 698 protein structures covering 15 therapeutic areas and a reverse ligand–protein docking program. In contrast to conventional ligand–protein docking, reverse ligand–protein docking aims to seek potential protein targets by screening an appropriate protein database. The input file of this web server is the small molecule to be tested, in standard mol2 format; TarFisDock then searches for possible binding proteins for the given small molecule by use of a docking approach. The ligand–protein interaction energy terms of the program DOCK are adopted for ranking the proteins. To test the reliability of the TarFisDock server, we searched the PDTD for putative binding proteins for vitamin E and 4H-tamoxifen. The top 2 and 10% candidates of vitamin E binding proteins identified by TarFisDock respectively cover 30 and 50% of reported targets verified or implicated by experiments; and 30 and 50% of experimentally confirmed targets for 4H-tamoxifen appear amongst the top 2 and 5% of the TarFisDock predicted candidates, respectively. Therefore, TarFisDock may be a useful tool for target identification, mechanism study of old drugs and probes discovered from natural products. TarFisDock and PDTD are available at . PMID:16844997

  17. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2014-10-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

  18. Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

    2001-12-15

    The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers. PMID:11820470

  19. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  20. New perspective for the development of Bemolanga Tar Sand Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rakoto-Andriantsilavo, M.D.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.; Spariharijaona, A. [Office des Mines Nationales et des Industries Strategiques, Antanarivo (Madagascar)

    1995-12-31

    As known, Madagascar has available tar sand deposit which is estimated at 3 billions tons. During the past ten years, OMNIS, a stage agency for hydrocarbons exploration, performed studies (prefeasibility and feasibility) the aim of which was to produce a 15,000 BPD of synthetic crude to satisfy domestic petroleum needs this potential resource. In the framework of this project, some bitumen extraction processes were tested at the scales of laboratory and/or pilot-unit (CLARK HOT WATER process, TOSCO process, L.R. process, RTR process, and AOSTRA/Taciuk process). In addition, mining and upgrading engineering evaluations were carried out. The results of these investigations display that an ore open-pit mining exploitation, bitumen extraction and upgrading are technically feasible. Nevertheless, some problems arise for the economy of the whole project which is capital intensive and marginal. In the actual petroleum industry environment, where crude prices continue to drop and no perspective price increase is anticipated in the near future, it is difficult or even impossible to promote the project and attract petroleum companies. This unfavourable situation leads to review and consideration of alternatives for the development of this huge resource which could assist the Malagasy Republic with its economy. After the presentation of the main results issued from Bemolanga syncrude production project, this paper deals with such alternative and attempts to elaborate an outline for a new concept of the development of Bemolanga resource. This preliminary outline, considered in the actual Malagasy economic framework where private national and/or international investment is encouraged, tries to overcome the requirement of a high initial investment cost for an industrial scale plant by an approach via a demonstration unit which produces a road bitumen and could further finance the extension to an industrial syncrude production plant.

  1. A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker; Chris Herrington [Watershed Protection and Development Review Department, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Resource Management Division

    2009-07-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The results indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Tar reduction in pyrolysis vapours from biomass over a hot char bed.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P; Ryu, C; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2009-12-01

    The behaviour of pyrolysis vapours over char was investigated in order to maximise tar conversion for the development of a new fixed bed gasifier. Wood samples were decomposed at a typical pyrolysis temperature (500 degrees C) and the pyrolysis vapours were then passed directly through a tar cracking zone in a tubular reactor. The product yields and properties of the condensable phases and non-condensable gases were studied for different bed lengths of char (0-450 mm), temperatures (500-800 degrees C), particle sizes (10 and 15 mm) and nitrogen purge rates (1.84-14.70 mm/s). The carbon in the condensable phases showed about 66% reduction by a 300 mm long char section at 800 degrees C, compared to that for pyrolysis at 500 degrees C. The amount of heavy condensable phase decreased with increasing temperature from about 18.4 wt% of the biomass input at 500 degrees C to 8.0 wt% at 800 degrees C, forming CO, H(2) and other light molecules. The main mode of tar conversion was found to be in the vapour phase when compared to the results without the presence of char. The composition of the heavy condensable phase was simplified into much fewer secondary and tertiary tar components at 800 degrees C. Additional measures were required to maximise the heterogeneous effect of char for tar reduction. PMID:19604685

  3. Effects of model coal tar components on adhesion strength of polyurethane coating on steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, N.; Fujino, K. [Nippon Steel Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

    2005-04-15

    In order to study the effects of coal tar components on the adhesion strength of a heavy duty anticorrosive coating formed with tar-urethane resin oil on a steel plate, polyurethane coatings that were compounded with 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic compounds as model coal tar components were prepared. In the model coal tar, components, naphthalene, quinoline, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good compatibility with polyurethane. To test their heavy duty anticorrosive properties, tensile adhesion strength of the cured coatings prepared with the compatible model coal tar components was measured, and the change in tensile adhesion strength as a function of time during salt-water spray treatment was measured. We found that the systems compounded with naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and phenanthrene showed good properties in an ordinary state for adhesion strength. However, only the system with 2-naphthol was found to have good properties in the change of tensile adhesion strength as a function or time during salt-water spray treatment. The curing time of the system with 2-naphthol was slower than that or the others, i.e., we found an inverse proportion between curing speed and adhesion durability. We also measured the dynamic viscoelasticity of cured coatings.

  4. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  5. The linear relationship between cigarette tar and nicotine yields: regulatory implications for smoke constituent ratios.

    PubMed

    St Charles, F K; Cook, C J; Clayton, P M

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoke analyte yields are often expressed as ratios relative to tar or nicotine yields, usually to compare different products or to estimate human uptake of smoke in relation to nicotine uptake measurements. The method, however, can lead to distorted interpretations, especially in the case of ratios from ultra-low tar yield cigarettes. In brief, as tar yields decrease below the 5–6 mg per cigarette range, the tar-to-nicotine ratio (TNR) decreases rapidly in a non-linear fashion. If, however, the nicotine yield, rather than the ratio, is plotted versus the tar yield, the non-linearity disappears and a straight line is obtained, with a slight positive intercept for nicotine on the ordinate. Unlike the ratio, the slope appears to depend only on the concentration of the nicotine in the blend and does not appear to vary with smoking parameters such as puff volume, puff interval or length smoked or with cigarette design parameters such as length, circumference or the amount of filtration or filter ventilation. Therefore, such a slope is analogous to the TNR although, unlike that ratio, it is invariant. Even more simply, the concentration of the nicotine in the blend, at least for American blend-style cigarettes, provides a similar index. PMID:21216263

  6. Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derick G; Gupta, Lovleen; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Keith Moo-Young, H; Coleman, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States. Bulk properties analyzed included percent ash, Karl Fisher water content, viscosity and average molecular weight. Chemical properties included monocyclic- and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, alkylated aromatic concentrations, and concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic fractions. It was found that there was at least an order-of-magnitude variation in all properties measured between the eleven coal tars. Additionally, two coal tars obtained from the same manufactured gas plant site had very different properties, highlighting that there can be wide variations in coal tar properties from different samples obtained from the same site. Similarities were also observed between the coal tars. The relative chemical distributions were similar for all coal tars, and the coal tars predominantly consisted of PAHs, with naphthalene being the single-most prevalent compound. The C(9-22) aromatic fraction, an indicator of all PAHs up to a molecular weight of approximately 276 gmole(-1), showed a strong power-law relationship with the coal tar average molecular weight (MW (ct)). And the concentrations of individual PAHs decreased linearly as MW (ct) increased up to ca. 1000 gmole(-1), above which they remained low and variable. Implications of these properties and their variation with MW (ct) on groundwater quality are discussed. Ultimately, while these similarities do allow generalities to be made about coal tars, the wide range of coal tar bulk and chemical properties reported here highlights the complex nature of coal tars. PMID:16698063

  7. Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-01-01

    We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence of superoxide dismutase lead to lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. This method was applied to many kinds of research and commercial cigarettes. With a few exceptions, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed after a fixed time from each cigarette smoke was proportional to its tar yield.

  8. A correlation of United States tar sand bitumen viscosities with NMR spectroscopic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Turner, T.F. (Western Research Institute, Box 3395, Laramie, WY (US))

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed whereby the viscosity of a tar sand bitumen at any temperature can be calculated from nuclear magnetic resonance parameters. The method is semi empirical but is based upon some fundamental theoretical concepts for molecular mobility and intermolecular interactions. Using this method, the viscosities of three United States tar sand bitumens have been correlated to the weighted average spin-spin, relaxation rates for the semiliquid, solidlike mobile, and solidlike rigid phases of the bitumens. The results indicate that bitumens with a high viscosity have a greater amount of solidlike rigid phase and lesser amounts of solidlike mobile and semiliquid phases than do the bitumens with low viscosity. It is also shown that the viscosity of a tar sand bitumen over a 100 degree temperature range can be determined from a single NMR experiment conducted near room temperature.

  9. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F; Bellamy, Christopher OC; Hughes, Jeremy H

    2007-01-01

    A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. PMID:17892538

  10. Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Tuesday released this 251-page monograph detailing the dangers of "low tar" cigarettes. The monograph, the thirteenth in NCI's Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph Series, reports findings that reductions in cancer rates are due to decreases in smoking prevalence not to changes in cigarette design, which according to NCI, have done little to address public health needs in the past 50 years. NCI here reports on ways in which smokers compensate for lower levels of tar and nicotine, reasons why Federal Trade Commission (FTC) testing methods are inadequate, and marketing methods designed to give smokers a false sense of security regarding low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Users can download the monograph by chapter or as a whole in .pdf format.

  11. Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Sato, Taishi; Keeney, Michael; Li, Chenguang; Pajarinen, Jukka; Yang, Fan; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-08-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-?B could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-?B activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-?B binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-?, MCP1, MIP1? and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-?B ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:24814879

  12. FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    of food poisoning increases as time passes. · Hand contact with unwrapped food should be kept to a minimum1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which

  13. Binding of Tat to TAR and Recruitment of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b Occur Independently in Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATJAZ BARBORIC; RAN TAUBE; NADA NEKREP; KOH FUJINAGA; B. MATIJA PETERLIN

    2000-01-01

    Transcriptional transactivators (Tat) from many lentiviruses interact with their cognate transactivation response RNA structures (TAR) to increase rates of elongation rather than initiation of transcription. For several of them, the complex of Tat and a species-specific cyclin T1 must be formed before the binding to TAR can occur with high affinity and specificity. In sharp contrast, Tat from the bovine

  14. Structural determinants of TAR RNA-DNA annealing in the absence and presence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Kanevsky, Igor; Chaminade, Françoise; Chen, Yingying; Godet, Julien; René, Brigitte; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves; Mauffret, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA–DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop–loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop–loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open ‘Y’ conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the ‘Y’ conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part. PMID:21724607

  15. Tar sands. June 1970-November 1983 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for June 1970-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning mining processes and recovery of tar sands from bitumen and other materials. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their recovery are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Tar sands. December 1983-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for December 1983-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning mining processes and recovery of tar sands from bitumen and other materials. The physical and chemical properties of tar sands are discussed, and the economics of their recovery are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 352 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

    2011-02-28

    Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation. PMID:21194834

  18. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  19. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  20. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

  1. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1 - September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude. This project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal; (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars; and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. During this quarter we have extended the work on measurements of vapor pressures of coal tars, using the continuous Knudsen effusion technique. These results need further analysis and therefore in this report we describe only the general idea behind the technique, and also show some typical results.

  2. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  3. Activation of HIV-1 pre-mRNA 3' processing in vitro requires both an upstream element and TAR.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, G M; Fleming, E S; Oetjen, J

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome presents an intriguing dilemma for the 3' processing of viral transcripts--to disregard a canonical 'core' poly(A) site processing signal present at the 5' end of the transcript and yet to utilize efficiently an identical signal that resides at the 3' end of the message. The choice of processing sites in HIV-1 appears to be influenced by two factors: (i) proximity to the cap site, and (ii) sequences upstream of the core poly(A) site. We now demonstrate that an in vivo-defined upstream element that resides within the U3 region, 76 nucleotides upstream of the AAUAAA hexamer, acts specifically to enhance 3' processing at the HIV-1 core poly(A) site in vitro. We furthermore show that efficient in vitro 3' processing requires the RNA stem-loop structure of TAR, which serves to juxtapose spatially the upstream element and the core poly(A) site. An analysis of the stability of 3' processing complexes formed at the HIV-1 poly(A) site in vitro suggests that the upstream element may function by increasing processing complex stability at the core poly(A) site. Images PMID:1425577

  4. About CTEP — CTMBTECH ListServ

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical Trials Monitoring Branch (CTMB) has established a special electronic mailing list called the CTMBTECH ListServ. The ListServ is designated to communicate technical discussions regarding the redesign of the current CTMB Audit Database System (CTMB-ADS) to a WEB-based system. Those who subscribe to the CTMBTECH ListServ are able to participate in discussions concerning the redesign of the CTMB-ADS by sending and receiving email messages to and from the CTMB and other Cooperative Groups.

  5. Decoy cells and malignant cells coexisting in the urine from a transplant recipient with BK virus nephropathy and bladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Galed-Placed, Ignacio; Valbuena-Ruvira, Luis

    2011-12-01

    The search for decoy cells (DC) in urine is widely used as screening for BK virus (BKV) reactivation in transplant recipients. BKV cytopathic effect of DC must not be confused with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This report presents a case of coexistence of DC and malignant cells in the urine from a transplant recipient with BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN) and bladder adenocarcinoma. A 38-year-old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease underwent a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. Four years post-transplantation, BK virus studies were performed for renal dysfunction. Isolated DC and DC in casts were identified in urine. Also, the tests for BKV DNA were positive in serum and renal allograft biopsy. BKVN was treatment-resistant and the patient returned to hemodialysis. A kidney transplant nephrectomy was performed 2 years later. The next urine cytology showed, in addition to DC, other distinct cells with nuclear atypia highly suggestive of malignancy. Some cells showed both, malignant and DC features. A bladder adenocarcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy and BKV proteins were demonstrated on tumor cells, supporting a possible role for BKV in the oncogenic pathway in this clinical setting. The presence of DC in the urine from a transplant recipient is the hallmark of BKV activation, but it does not exclude the existence of carcinoma. Furthermore, the presence of highly atypical cells should raise, not eliminate, the possibility of neoplastic transformation of the bladder. PMID:22081531

  6. How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

  7. CXCL1 inhibits airway smooth muscle cell migration through the decoy receptor Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines.

    PubMed

    Al-Alwan, Laila A; Chang, Ying; Rousseau, Simon; Martin, James G; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba

    2014-08-01

    Airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) migration is an important mechanism postulated to play a role in airway remodeling in asthma. CXCL1 chemokine has been linked to tissue growth and metastasis. In this study, we present a detailed examination of the inhibitory effect of CXCL1 on human primary ASMC migration and the role of the decoy receptor, Duffy AgR for chemokines (DARC), in this inhibition. Western blots and pathway inhibitors showed that this phenomenon was mediated by activation of the ERK-1/2 MAPK pathway, but not p38 MAPK or PI3K, suggesting a biased selection in the signaling mechanism. Despite being known as a nonsignaling receptor, small interference RNA knockdown of DARC showed that ERK-1/2 MAPK activation was significantly dependent on DARC functionality, which, in turn, was dependent on the presence of heat shock protein 90 subunit ?. Interestingly, DARC- or heat shock protein 90 subunit ?-deficient ASMCs responded to CXCL1 stimulation by enhancing p38 MAPK activation and ASMC migration through the CXCR2 receptor. In conclusion, we demonstrated DARC's ability to facilitate CXCL1 inhibition of ASMC migration through modulation of the ERK-1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway. PMID:24981451

  8. Narrative Evaluation Report on the Institute for Serving the Under-Served.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Paula

    The North Shore Community College Library Training Institute, "Serving the Under-Served", was a five-day conference of public and community college librarians, designed to foster cooperation and communication and to focus attention on those people not being adequately served by either type of library. The activities of the Institute, including its…

  9. One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers

    E-print Network

    Woo, Grace

    2008-10-18

    The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

  10. MMiiddddllee EEaasstteerrnn Serves 12-15

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Selections below. SSaakkuurraa Serves 10-15 All-Vegetarian sushi: Cucumber Rolls and Avocado Rolls. 12 sushi Roll with Masago, California Roll, Cucumber Roll, Avocado Roll. Rolls are wrapped in white rice

  11. REGISTRATION OF TARS-SR05 MULTIPLE DISEASE-RESISTANT DRY BEAN GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TARS-SR05 was developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the College of Agricultural Science, University of Puero Rico, and the University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station as a multiple disease-resistant, small red dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplas...

  12. Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, A; Polzin, G; Saylor, J; Richter, P; Ashley, D; Watson, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Survey of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide (CO) smoke deliveries from 77 cigarette brands purchased in 35 countries was conducted using a standardised machine smoking method. The goal of this study was to determine regional variations and differences in the tar, nicotine, and CO smoke yields of a cigarette brand manufactured by a leading transnational corporation and of non-US locally popular cigarette brands. Design: The majority of the cigarettes were purchased in each of the participating countries by delegate members of the World Health Organization and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for analysis. Smoke deliveries were determined using a standardised smoking machine method and subsequent gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis. Results: The smoke deliveries varied widely. Mainstream smoke deliveries varied from 6.8 to 21.6 mg tar/cigarette, 0.5 to 1.6 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 5.9 to 17.4 mg CO/cigarette. In addition to the smoke deliveries, the cigarettes were examined to determine physical parameters such as filter composition, length, and ventilation levels. Conclusion: Analysis of the smoke deliveries suggested that cigarettes from the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific WHO regions tended to have higher tar, nicotine, and CO smoke deliveries than did brands from the European, American, or African WHO regions surveyed. PMID:14985595

  13. Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

  14. BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

  15. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point). Among the most visible manifestations of marine oil in the environment is the formation and beach accumulation is common on many California beaches due to chronic oil emissions from natural oil seeps

  16. On the Periphery of the Tar Sands. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the diary of Karl Clark that focuses on his experiences in the Athabasca tar sands. The diary helps decipher the nature of 1920s town life and the pioneering spirit involved in exploring the oil sands. Includes background information on Clark. (CMK)

  17. School Nurses as Advocates for Youth Tobacco Education Programs: The TAR WARS Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Costley, C. Mark; Cain, Jeff; Zaiger, Donna; McMullen, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    TAR WARS is an interactive, anti-tobacco program for fifth graders designed to promote positive health choices by increasing students' awareness of attitudes regarding tobacco use and the effects of tobacco on the body. The program encourages health care provider involvement in community health activities and mobilizes community support against…

  18. To: Academic Senate From: Carleton DeTar, Chair RPT Standards Committee

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    in the University's regular academic units. The libraries intend that their evaluation and promotion procedures. Libraries (returned with comments to the libraries) c. Educational Leadership and Policy (first, approvedTo: Academic Senate From: Carleton DeTar, Chair RPT Standards Committee Re: Annual Report 2009

  19. Simultaneous PIXE and PIGME Analysis of a Nigerian Tar Sand Sample from a Deep Borehole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. I. Obiajunwa; J. I. Nwachukwu

    2000-01-01

    Tar sands from a deep borehole in southwestern Nigeria were subjected to elemental analysis by simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) techniques. The concentration of 22 major, minor and trace elements, namely Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, Ga, Ge, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, Zn and

  20. As detailed in two previous Reviews in Nature Rev. , justification for developing therapies that tar-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    . In addition, epidemiological evidence indicates that insulin secretion rate (reflected by cpeptide levels to reduce insulin signalling, particularly in subjects with increased insulin levels. Of the dozens of drug therapies that tar- get the insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) receptor family (IIRF) included

  1. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  2. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  3. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  4. MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

  5. Rapid report Glacial trees from the La Brea tar pits show physiological constraints

    E-print Network

    Nippert, Jesse

    glacial period, low CO2, tree rings. Summary · While studies of modern plants indicate negative responsesRapid report Glacial trees from the La Brea tar pits show physiological constraints of low CO2 trees, further suggesting limiting [CO2] in glacial plants. · This study provides some of the first

  6. Potential end uses of oil produced by wet forward combustion of Asphalt Ridge tar sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Thomas; P. M. Harnsberger; F. D. Guffey

    1987-01-01

    In this report an evaluation is made of the potential end uses of an oil produced from Asphalt Ridge tar sand by wet forward combustion. The oil is evaluated with respect to its potential to produce a specification-grade asphalt and an aviation turbine fuel. To accomplish this the oil was vacuum distilled to produce a distillate and a residue. The

  7. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  8. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  9. Second three-dimensional physical simulation of forward combustion in tar sand triangle material

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are experimentally simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding in situ processing of these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in one-dimensional reactor tubes in which the tar sand or heavy oil sand is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. A three-dimensional test of in situ combustion was conducted on a block of material from the Tar Sand Triangle. This test was the second such test conducted on the Tar Sand Triangle material and incorporated several design features to overcome problems identified in the first test. Although combustion was established in the block, the maintenance and advancement of the combustion front was not successful. The problem with sustaining combustion appears to be excessive heat loss to the surrounding refractory and the sweep gas. These heat losses reduce the temperature in the combustion zone and inhibit utilization of the oxygen in the injected gas. Poor oxygen utilization leads to lower combustion temperatures and less driving force for the combustion front. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Three-dimensional laboratory simulation of the hot-gas injection process for tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.; Glaser, R.R.

    1985-07-01

    In situ recovery technologies for tar sand and heavy oil are simulated at the Western Research Institute to develop a technological base for understanding in situ processing of these resources. Wide ranges of process parameters are tested in a one-dimensional tubular reactor in which the tar sand or heavy oil sand is uniformly reconstituted to nearly the same permeability and porosity as the field resource. Three-dimensional process performance is evaluated by testing the most promising operating parameters in consolidated blocks of the field resource. The potential of hot-gas injection for the preheat and production of tar sand has been evaluated with three-dimensional and one-dimensional laboratory simulations. The three-dimensional simulation has shown that by using a fracture, a highly saturated tar sand can be heated while a significant portion of the bitumen is produced. Oil production rate, residual saturation, and produced oil quality have been measured for various operating parameters. The characteristic shape of the temperature responses in the three-dimensional block indicates that both conduction and convection are significant heat transfer mechanisms. The two most influential operating parameters have been found to be the heat input rate and the injected gas temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The numerical simulation of four forward combustion tube experiments using the tar sand triangle resource

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, P.

    1986-09-01

    Two mathematical models, Tar Sand Reservoir Simulator 1 (TSRS1) and Tar Sand Reservoir Simulator 2 (TSRS2), are used to numerically simulate the thermal recovery of oil from tar sand in tube reactor tests conducted at Western Research Institute. The results from these two models are compared to the results from four Tar Sand Triangle tube reactor forward combustion experiments (Romanowski and Thomas 1986). Although the comparative analyses of the numerical simulations and the experimental results were hampered by the bypassing of air, reactor plugging, and the use of wall heaters during the experiments, the simulators predicted tube reactor performance reasonably well. The comparison of results indicates that air bypassing influenced measured oil yields, combustion temperatures, and reactor pressures and was most noticeable during the highest flux experiment. Non-adiabatic conditions resulting from the reactor wall heaters affected measured front velocities and combustion temperatures, and were most apparent during the lower flux experiments. The results from TSRS2 (which accounts for the steam-char, the CO/sub 2/-char, and the water-gas shift reactions) more accurately describe the forward combustion process. Accounting for these reactions results in lower combustion temperatures, higher combustion front velocities, and improved product gas compositions compared to the results from the TSRS1 simulations. 18 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Using polymer solutions to enhance recovery of mobile coal tar and creosote DNAPLs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W Giese; Susan E Powers

    2002-01-01

    Direct pumping and enhanced recovery of coal tar and creosote dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from the subsurface have had mixed results because these DNAPLs are viscous fluids that can potentially alter aquifer wettability. To improve the inefficiencies associated with waterflooding, the research presented here considered the use of a polymer solution that can be added to the injected flood

  13. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

    2005-01-01

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

  14. PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF U.S. TAR SANDS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors traceable to the increasing shortfall in U.S. production of natural crude have rekindled interests in U.S. tar sands as a source of synthetic fuel. Reported here are the results of a preliminary study to assess the potential primary environmental impacts of production and...

  15. Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

  16. Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Groundwater contamination due to complex organic mixtures such as coal tar, creosote and fuels is a widespread problem in industrialized regions. Although most compounds in these mixtures are biodegradable, the contaminant sources are very persistent for many decades after the contamination occurred (e.g., more than 100 years ago at gasworks sites). This limited bioavailability is due to slow dissolution processes. This study presents results from a large scale tank experiment (8 m long) on the long-term (354 days) dissolution kinetics of BTEX and PAHs from a 2.5 m long coal tar pool and 0.5 m long (smear) zone containing coal tar blobs distributed in a coarse sand. The results indicate (1) that Raoult's law holds for estimation of the saturation aqueous concentrations of the coal tar constituents, (2) that for the dissolution of smear zones longer than approximately 0.1 m and with more than 3-5% residual saturation, the local equilibrium assumption is valid and (3) that although very small (<0.1 mm), the transverse vertical dispersivity dominates the pool dissolution processes. Typical time scales for removal of the pollutants from the blob zone and the pool are in the order of a few weeks to more than 10,000 years, respectively.

  17. CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH ASPHALTIC AND COAL TAR COATINGS USED IN POTABLE WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic response was assessed with 0.2 ml of 4 asphaltic and 3 coal tar based paints applied topically in acetone to the shaved back of female SENCAR mice. Two weeks later a promotion schedule involving application of 1 microgram of TPA in acetine 3 x weekly to the back was ...

  18. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  19. Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age

    E-print Network

    Organic geochemical evidence for pine tar production in middle Eastern Sweden during the Roman Iron Age Bjo¨ rn Hjulstro¨ m a,*, Sven Isaksson a , Andreas Hennius b a The Archaeological Research related to a new stretch of the highway E4 in middle Sweden during 2002e2003. These features could be sub

  20. Plantar pressures in the tennis serve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Girard; Frank Eicher; Jean-Paul Micallef; Grégoire Millet

    2010-01-01

    In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for

  1. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

  2. Social-Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Generalization of Effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR)

    PubMed Central

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR—primarily targeted at facial affect recognition—or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)—primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre–post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:21860049

  3. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors. PMID:18657318

  4. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games. PMID:19197212

  5. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

  6. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and TAR-drug interactions compare well with those reported in the literature using other non-biosensor techniques. Thus, acoustic physics offers considerable potential for detailed biophysical analysis of nucleic acid-ligand binding and for screening of small molecule interactions with nucleic acids.

  7. Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

    2000-11-01

    The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high concentrations (about 120 mg/kg) in the soil. In contrast, experiments carried out with coal tar particles revealed a significant effect. Naphthalene sorption appeared to be proportional to the amount of coal tar added to the sand or soil, and a much higher affinity of naphthalene for XOM ( Koc above 2000 cm 3/g) than SOM ( Koc around 300 cm 3/g) was observed. Naphthalene transport in the columns of sand or soil spiked with coal tar particles was simulated very satisfactorily with a dual double-domain model. Around 90% of naphthalene retention by coal tar was found to occur within the organic phase, suggesting a phase partition process which may be explained by the amorphous nature of the XOM and its extreme affinity for naphthalene. For SOM, however, which is present as porous microaggregates of clay and humic substances, with less affinity for naphthalene, only 1/3 of naphthalene retention was found to occur within the organic phase, underlining the significant role of surface adsorption in the short term behavior of naphthalene in soil. For longer contact times, the model simulations proposed in the present study should be coupled to slow sorption, aging and biodegradation models to describe long-term behavior of naphthalene in soil-tar-water systems.

  8. Plantar pressures in the tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Eicher, Frank; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Millet, Grégoire

    2010-06-01

    In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for each type of serve and service stance style in random order. Plantar pressure distribution was recorded using Pedar insoles divided into nine areas for analysis. Mean and peak pressures (+15.2%, P < 0.01 and +12.8%, P < 0.05) as well as maximal forces (+20.2%, P < 0.01) were higher under the lateral forefoot of the front foot in first than in second serves, while mean forces were higher (+17.2%, P < 0.05) under the lesser toes. Relative load was higher on the lateral forefoot (+20.4%, P < 0.05) but lower (-32.5%, P < 0.05) on the medial heel of the front foot with foot-up compared with foot-back stance. Using a foot-up stance, loading of the back foot was higher (+31.8%, P < 0.01) under the lateral mid-foot but lower (-29.9%, P < 0.01) under the medial forefoot. The type of serve and the stance style adopted have a significant effect on foot loading. Such findings might help improve mechanical efficiency of the serve. PMID:20496222

  9. 5.NF How many servings of oatmeal?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A package contains 4 cups of oatmeal. There is $\\frac{1}{3}$ cup of oatmeal in each serving. How many servings of oatmeal are there in the package? Exp...

  10. Effect of Genetic Variants in Two Chemokine Decoy Receptor Genes, DARC and CCBP2, on Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Huan; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Fan, Lei; Ou, Zhou-Luo; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of two chemokine decoy receptors (CDRs), DARC and D6, on breast cancer metastasis is mainly due to their ability to sequester pro-malignant chemokines. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the DARC and CCBP2 (encoding D6) genes may be associated with breast cancer progression. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic contributions of DARC and CCBP2 to metastatic potential, indicated by lymph node metastasis (LNM). Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (potentially functional SNPs and block-based tagging SNPs) in DARC and CCBP2 were genotyped in 785 breast cancer patients who had negative lymph nodes and 678 patients with positive lymph nodes. Two non-synonymous SNPs, rs12075 (G42D) in DARC and rs2228468 (S373Y) in CCBP2, were observed to be associated with LNM in univariate analysis and remained significant after adjustment for conventional clinical risk factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.79) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98), respectively. Additional functional experiments revealed that both of these significant SNPs could affect metastasis of breast cancer in xenograft models by differentially altering the chemokine sequestration ability of their corresponding proteins. Furthermore, heterozygous GD genotype of G42D on human erythrocytes had a significantly stronger chemokine sequestration ability than homozygous GG of G42D ex vivo. Our data suggest that the genetic variants in the CDR genes are probably associated with the varied metastatic potential of breast cancer. The underlying mechanism, though it needs to be further investigated, may be that CDR variants could affect the chemokine sequestration ability of CDR proteins. PMID:24260134

  11. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Risk of cancer from the use of tar bitumen in road works.

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, U; Woitowitz, H J

    1989-01-01

    Tar bitumens are increasingly being used as a binder in road works. They consist of a standard product of about 70% bitumen and 25-30% tar. Tar bitumens are classifiable as the pyrolysis products of organic materials and are applied hot. Depending on the temperature used there are emissions of various intensities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are carcinogenic. A total of 250 one hour air samples was taken at breathing height on 20 days at 11 road works sites. The region of road paving operations in the immediate neighbourhood of the finishing machine operator and the screedmen were the chosen sampling points. A total of 19 unsubstituted chromatography/mass spectrometry. These included benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, all of which are carcinogenic. The median concentrations of chrysene and of benzo[b,j + k] fluoranthenes (determined en masse) were 9.3 and 2.8 micrograms/m3 respectively. The median concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were 0.7 and 0.2 micrograms/m3 respectively. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene had the lowest median concentration with about 0.03 micrograms/m3. Of the resulting shift means, the BaP concentration was over 1 microgram/m3 in about 50% of the cases, over 2 micrograms/m3 in 35%, and over 5 micrograms/m3 in about 15%. Even when the temperature of the paving mix was only between 120 degrees and 135 degrees C. 4.8% of the concentrations (identical to 3 samples) were greater than 2 micrograms BaP/m3, this value was exceeded in 34.9% of the determinations (identical to 30 samples) when the temperature of the tar bitumen was between 135 degrees and 150 degrees C. The highest concentration measured here was 17.8 micrograms BaP/m3. The recommended maximum paving temperature of the paving mix of 150 degrees C was exceeded in about 23% of all cases. The maximum concentration determined under any condition was 22 microgram/m(3). Thus the employment of tar bitumen as a binding material during road paving operations must be regarded as causing a considerable risk to health. The primary task is to ascertain whether tar bitumen can be replaced as a binder in paving for roads and what safety measures are practicable. PMID:2920140

  13. How does the tennis serve technique influence the serve-and-volley?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Martin; Benoit Bideau; Guillaume Nicolas; Paul Delamarche; Richard Kulpa

    2012-01-01

    In tennis, a high ball velocity and a fast run toward the net are key features to successful performance of “serve-and-volley” players. For the serve, tennis players can use two techniques: the foot-up (FU) or foot-back (FB) technique. The aim of this study was to determine if the running time toward the net after the serve and the ball velocity

  14. Procedures to install the Design Architect IC Tool Extract eldo.tar.gz and daic.tar.gz to any location. They occupy 1.4 GB and 1.1 GB

    E-print Network

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    Procedures to install the Design Architect IC Tool Extract eldo.tar.gz and daic.tar.gz to any/home/xxxx/ then insert "/mnt/home/xxxx/" before what is already The file before editing : MGC_LOCATION_MAP_2 # MGC IC sources_lib $MGC_IC_SOURCES_LIB icflow_home/pkgs/utilities_ic.ixe/mgc_icstd_lib/sources_lib # MGC IC

  15. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  16. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  17. Development of Japanese green tea serving robot \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Masuda; Daigo Misaki

    2005-01-01

    Although the amount of consumption of Japan green tea is increasing in recent years, the person who drinks green tea in traditional manners of Japanese green tea has decreased. Many consumers are drinking the commercial green tea in a beverage PET bottle. This paper introduces the automatic Japanese greed tea serving robot \\

  18. Getting It Together: Serving the Adult Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community needs assessment survey conducted by the College of DuPage (Illinois) which served to advertise existing programs, provide public relations for the adult education council, and obtain measures of need for existing or expanded educational and leisure activities. (MB)

  19. Chris Simpson Chris Simpson serves as Pella

    E-print Network

    Anstreicher, Kurt M.

    Chris Simpson Chris Simpson serves as Pella Corporation's Senior Vice President of Marketing and Sales. His responsibilities include leading the corporate efforts of marketing and customer satisfaction divisions and locations. His last position was the General Manager of the Whirlpool Brand, where

  20. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  1. Technology Transfer Center | Institutes Served By TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Technology Transfer Center (TTC) provides technology transfer services to NCI. In addition, TTC is a designated Competitive Service Center (CSC) for technology transfer, offering to other NIH institutes a range of services from consultations to full technology transfer services. TTC serves the twelve institutes listed below.

  2. Ratio model serves suprathreshold color luminance discrimination

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Kathy T.

    Ratio model serves suprathreshold color­ luminance discrimination Marcel J. Sankeralli and Kathy T the responses of the three postreceptoral mechanisms are combined to subserve discrimination of suprathreshold model of suprathreshold color­luminance dis- crimination, in which discrimination depends on a ratio

  3. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD

    E-print Network

    GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SERVING SAFE FOOD Revised September, 2008 Use Common Sense · Understand your liability and responsibilities. · Use food from a licensed and approved source. · Never leave food unattended. Someone could tamper with it. · Select safe foods for your event. · Keep cold foods COLD (below

  4. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Serving Customized Master Menu

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    : apple, banana, grapes, pears, strawberries, melons (water, cantaloupe, & musk), plums, nectarines, mango Multigrain Cherrios and Milk Homebaked WW Pumpkin Muffin Baked Chicken Breast with Wild and Long Grain Rice Chicken Breast in a Pineapple Salsa sauce served with Wild and Long Grain Rice and Green Beans Fresh

  5. Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings 1- 16 ounce can refried beans 1 cup MASTER MIX ¼ cup over medium heat, brown ground meat. Drain fat. Remove from heat. 3. Mix refried beans, MASTER MIX and water in a mixing bowl. Spread mixture in bottom and halfway up sides of pie pan. 4. On top of bean

  6. Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings 1box refrigerated rolled pie crust, softened as directed on box 1 (10.75 ounce) can condensed Low Fat, Low Sodium Cream of Chicken Soup 1 (10 ounce) package frozen mixed vegetables 1 cup cubed cooked rotisserie chicken ¼ cup cooked diced onion 1. Preheat

  7. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  8. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  9. Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)

    SciTech Connect

    T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2008-06-15

    The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

  10. NCI ‘s Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 13, “Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Tar Machine-Measured Yield

    Cancer.gov

    Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to testify today on the research findings of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), regarding the disease risk of so called low-tar or “light” cigarettes, and the challenges of conveying accurate information to smokers about the levels of tar, nicotine, and other hazardous chemicals in cigarette smoke.

  11. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m2. In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules. PMID:23667539

  13. Numerical modeling of contaminant transport resulting from dissolution of a coal-tar pool in an experimental aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Y. Lee; Johannes Khinast; Jung-Hoon Kim

    2007-01-01

    A previously developed two-dimensional numerical model is further developed for simulating the transport of dissolved contaminants\\u000a originating from dissolution of a coal tar pool in a stratified, saturated porous medium. The model is used to simulate contaminant\\u000a transport resulting from a rectangular-shaped coal-tar-pool dissolution experiment conducted in a large-scale experimental\\u000a aquifer. The experimental porous medium consists of two sand strata,

  14. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ? Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ? Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ? Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ? Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  15. Beliefs about the relative harm of “light” and “low tar” cigarettes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Elton-Marshall; G T Fong; M P Zanna; Y Jiang; D Hammond; R J O’Connor; H-H Yong; L Li; B King; Q Li; R Borland; K M Cummings; P Driezen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMany smokers in Western countries perceive “light” or “low tar” cigarettes as less harmful and less addictive than “regular” or “full flavoured” cigarettes. However, there is little research on whether similar perceptions exist among smokers in low and middle incomes, including China.ObjectiveTo characterise beliefs about “light” and “low tar” cigarettes among adult urban smokers in China.MethodsWe analysed data from Wave

  16. Creating a ribonuclease T-tat that preferentially recognizes and hydrolyzes HIV1 TAR RNA in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Dow-Tien; Tsai Yuan-Jhih; Lin Alan

    2007-01-01

    A ribonuclease, RNase T-tat, specifically designed to hydrolyze the TAR RNA of HIV-1 virus has been engineered. The protein was made by domain swapping the TAT peptide at the loop 3 position of ribonuclease T1. The RNase T-tat maintains a guanine-specific RNA hydrolytic activity, and char- acteristically displayed a specific affinity for the TAR RNA of HIV-1. In the in

  17. Interaction of YB1 with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and TAR RNA modulates viral promoter activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer A. Ansari; Mahmut Safak; Gary L. Gallia; Bassel E. Sawaya; Shohreh Amini; Kamel Khalili

    Transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome is mediated by viral and cellular factors. TAR, an unusual RNA regulatory element with a stem-bulge-loop structure at the 5« ends of all nascent viral transcripts is critical for HIV-1 transcription. TAR is the target for Tat, a viral transcription factor encoded early in the HIV-1 life- cycle and

  18. The Test Analysis Retrieval System (TARS): Meeting the challenges of the network's test processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelmaszek, Robert L.; Lumsden, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    The Networks Systems Test Section (GSFC 531.4) is responsible for managing a variety of engineering and operational tests used to assess the status of the Network elements relative to readiness certification for new and ongoing mission support and for performance trending. To conduct analysis of data collected during these tests, to disseminate and share the information, and to catalog and create reports based on the analysis is currently a cumbersome and inefficient task due primarily to the manual handling of paper products and the inability to easily exchange information between the various Networks elements. The Test Analysis and Retrieval System (TARS) is being implemented to promote concise data analysis, intelligible reporting of test results, to minimize test duplication by fostering a broad sharing of test data, and perhaps most importantly, to provide significantly improved response to the Network's internal and external customers. This paper outlines the intended application, architecture, and benefits of the TARS.

  19. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  20. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  1. Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

  2. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 1. Overview and plume development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.

    1999-10-01

    A volume of sand containing coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. Coal tar creosote is a mixture of more than 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and phenolic compounds. A representative group of seven compounds was selected for detailed study: phenol, m-xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran and carbazole. Movement of groundwater through the source led to the development of a dissolved organic plume, which was studied over a 4-year period. Qualitative plume observations and mass balance calculations indicated two key conclusions: (1) compounds from the same source can display distinctly different patterns of plume development and (2) mass transformation was a major influence on plume behaviour for all observed compounds.

  3. A method for classifying tar sand oil versus heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a method of using composition data for differentiating tar sand oil from heavy crude oil. The necessary composition data are derived from a gross composition analysis of the oil and a simulated distillation curve. Small samples are adequate for both of these analyses. Thus the method described herein can be used on rock extracts for which the amount of material is not adequate for an accurate viscosity measurement. The method is based on the following four composition parameters, each expressed as a weight percent: the light hydrocarbon fraction, the heavy hydrocarbon fraction, the asphaltenes, and the resins. The reliability of the method is demonstrated using data on 24 samples from six different tar sand accumulations and 16 samples from 15 different heavy oil accumulations.

  4. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Richard W; Huynh, Kelvin V; Hoang, Timothy V; Crowley, David E

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to identify culturable surfactant-producing bacterial species that inhabit the 40,000-year-old natural asphalt seep at the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Using phenanthrene, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tryptic soy broth as growth substrates, culturable bacteria from the tar pits yielded ten isolates, of which three species of gamma-proteobacteria produced biosurfactants that accumulated in spent culture medium. Partially purified biosurfactants produced by these strains lowered the surface tension of water from 70 to 35-55 mN/m and two of the biosurfactants produced 'dark halos' with the atomized oil assay, a phenomenon previously observed only with synthetic surfactants. Key findings include the isolation of culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria that comprise a relatively small fraction of the petroleum-degrading community in the asphalt. PMID:22851192

  5. Mathematical modeling for in situ thermal recovery processes in tar sand: Model description and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, P.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental model for numerically simulating the in situ thermal recovery of oil from a tar sand resource has been developed. This simulator generates results consistent with experimental findings. The numerical model accounts for the major phenomena that occur in the thermal processing of tar sand. The model accounts for the three-phase flow of oil, water, and gas. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by liquid and vapor equilibria, reaction kinetics, reservoir properties, and processing conditions. Energy is transferred by the mechanisms of conduction, convection, reaction kinetics, and by vaporization and condensation. The solution technique employed in the model is based on a highly efficient method using the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme with a variable time-step algorithm. Results are compared with results of another numerical simulator as well as with results from a recent experiment conducted at WRI. These initial comparisons have shown good agreement and have identified areas for further improvement.

  6. True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Boade, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

  7. Progressive nodular histiocytoma associated with thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR syndrome) and angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Rosón, Elena; Flórez, Angeles; Feal, Carlos; De La Torre, Carlos; García-Doval, Ignacio; Abalde, Teresa; Cruces, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was admitted due to a long-standing history of cutaneous lesions, which were gradually increasing in number and size, located on the trunk and extremities. Histological studies confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis of histiocytomas. Moreover, the patient had numerous smooth erythematous papules on her chin and around her nose, which were diagnosed histologically as angiofibromas. The patient had congenital phocomelia. Analytical and imaging studies revealed the presence of bilateral phocomelia due to absent radii and thrombocytopenia (TAR syndrome). Multiple histiocytomas in a normolipaemic patient bring up several differential diagnoses. Slow progressive evolution without spontaneous resolution and a scattered distribution on the trunk and extremities suggest the diagnosis of progressive nodular histiocytoma. To our knowledge progressive nodular histiocytoma has not been reported previously associated either with TAR syndrome or with angiofibromas. These entities are uncommon, thus their association may not be due to chance. PMID:16874423

  8. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  9. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  10. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in deepwater horizon oil spill tar balls.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow-up studies. PMID:25647548

  11. Identification of functional microRNAs released through asymmetrical processing of HIV1 TAR elementy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique L. Ouellet; Isabelle Plante; Patricia Landry; Corinne Barat; Marie-Eve Janelle; Louis Flamand; Michel J. Tremblay; Patrick Provost

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and RNA silencing pathways is complex and multifaceted. Essential for efficient viral transcription and supporting Tat-mediated transac- tivation of viral gene expression, the trans-activation responsive (TAR) element is a structured RNA located at the 5' end of all transcripts derived from HIV-1. Here, we report that this element is a source

  12. Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.

    PubMed

    Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

  13. A New Tar Sand Recovery Process: Recovery Methods and Characterization of Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZEM M. SADEGHI; MOHAMMAD-ALI SADEGHI; JIH-FEN KUO; LONG-KUAN JANG; TEH FU YEN

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach to bitumen recovery from tar sands using sodium silicate solution and low-power ultrasound was successfully demonstrated (U.S. Patent 4,765,885; 4,891,131) in this laboratory. Elemental analysis indicated that the quality of the bitumen recovered was upgraded by this treatment (the hexane soluble fraction of the recovered bitumen was higher than the raw bitumen). The active compounds responsible for

  14. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of metals and silicon in tar-sands fly-ash.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Bueno, C O; Rempel, G L; Spink, D R

    1982-06-01

    Atomic-absorption spectrometric methods are described for the determination of metals and silicon in a fly-ash which is produced during oil recovery from Alberta tar sands. The techniques of standard additions and matrix matching are compared. An experimental design for the detection, estimation and correction of interference effects arising in the determination of specific elements in the fly-ash is presented. PMID:18963166

  15. NITROGEN COMPOUND DISTRIBUTION AND FUEL INCOMPATIBILITY REACTIONS IN A TAR SAND DERIVED MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet M. Hughes; Erna J. Beal; George W. Mushrush

    1995-01-01

    A high paraffin, high nitrogen, low sulfur jet fuel derived from Athabasca tar sands was studied. The organo-nitrogen compounds in the fuel were isolated by mild acid extraction followed by silica-gel adsorption. Three extracts were derived from this fuel: a basic nitrogen compounds extract, BNC, in methylene chloride, a non-basic nitrogen compounds extract, NBNC, in methyl alcohol and an NBNC

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAXES ISOLATED FROM HEAVY OILS PRODUCED FROM NORTHWEST ASPHALT RIDGE TAR SANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Branthaver; K. P. Thomas; S. M. Dorrence; R. A. Heppner; Michael J. Ryan

    1983-01-01

    During the late 1970's, the Laramie Energy Technology Center operated two in-situ combustion projects in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit of Utah. Some of the heavy oils produced were observed to have high pour points, which resulted in handling problems in cold weather. These heavy oils contain waxes, which were found to be n-alkane homologues ranging past carbon

  17. Torsional guided-wave attenuation in coal-tar-enamel-coated, buried piping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Kwun; S. Y Kim; M. S Choi; S. M Walker

    2004-01-01

    Attenuation of the fundamental torsional guided waves in a coal-tar-enamel-coated pipe was investigated experimentally over a 5–30-kHz frequency range and up to a 1.7-m soil cover. The attenuation coefficients in the coated pipe above the ground were an order of magnitude greater than in bare pipe and, over the frequency range studied, it increased approximately linearly with frequency. Soil cover

  18. Detection of free radicals in aqueous extracts of cigarette tar by electron spin resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lun-Yi Zang; Koni Stone; William A. Pryor

    1995-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar (ACT) autooxidize to produce semiquinone, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals in air-saturated buffered aqueous solutions. The semiquinone species were detected by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and identified as o-and p-benzosemiquinone radicals by comparison with the ESR signals of catechol and hydroquinone radicals under similar conditions. The rate of formation of these radicals was dependent

  19. Application of multidimensional analytical transport models to coal-tar derivatives

    E-print Network

    Sim, Youn

    1992-01-01

    of the city of St. Louis Park in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area (after Hult and Schoenberg, 1984) The major contaminant is creosote, which is composed of 854 PAH, such as naphthalene, anathracene and phenanthrene, and 2-17 4 phenolics... and Recovery Act of 1976 (Ehrlich, Goerlitz, Godsy, and Hult, 1982). Inorganic constituents such as sodium and chloride in the drift-Platteville system were also discharged along with the coal-tar derivatives. Unlike phenolic compounds and PAH...

  20. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.