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1

The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infusion of dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) stimulated in vitro the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. The utilization of oligofructans, glucose, fructose and total saccharides was determined by enzymatic and phenol-sulfuric methods. Dandelion oligofructans were important source of carbon and energy for bifidobacteria tested.

I. Trojanová; V. Rada; L. Kokoška; E. Vlková

2004-01-01

2

The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root.  

PubMed

The infusion of dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) stimulated in vitro the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. The utilization of oligofructans, glucose, fructose and total saccharides was determined by enzymatic and phenol-sulfuric methods. Dandelion oligofructans were important source of carbon and energy for bifidobacteria tested. PMID:15567259

Trojanová, I; Rada, V; Kokoska, L; Vlková, E

2004-12-01

3

Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1  

PubMed Central

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. Fructan concentrations, 1-SST activities, 1-SST protein, and mRNA concentrations were compared in different organs during vegetative and generative development of T. officinale plants. Expression of 1-SST was abundant in young roots but very low in leaves. 1-SST was also expressed at the flowering stages in roots, stalks, and receptacles. A good correlation was found between northern and western blots showing transcriptional regulation of 1-SST. At the pre-flowering stage, 1-SST mRNA concentrations and 1-SST activities were higher in the root phloem than in the xylem, resulting in the higher fructan concentrations in the phloem. Fructan localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in phloem parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements. However, inulin-like crystals occasionally appeared in xylem vessels.

Van den Ende, Wim; Michiels, An; Van Wonterghem, Dominik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Van Laere, Andre

2000-01-01

4

Prezygotic barriers to gene flow between Taraxacum ceratophorum and the invasive Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Prezygotic reproductive barriers limit interspecific gene flow between congeners. Here, I examine the strength of floral isolation and interspecific pollen-pistil barriers between an invasive apomictic, Taraxacum officinale, and the indigenous sexual alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum. Experimental arrays of either native inflorescences or a mixture of native and exotic inflorescences were used to examine insect preference and to track movement of a pollen analog. Using hand-pollinations, conspecific and heterospecific pollen germination success on native stigmas was compared. To additionally test for interspecific pollen competition, T. ceratophorum plants received one of three possible hand-pollinations: control conspecific pollination, concomitant conspecific and heterospecific pollination (mixed), or conspecific pollen followed by heterospecific pollen 15 min later (staggered). Floral isolation was negligible as no insect preference was detected. On a presence/absence basis, florets on native inflorescences received slightly less pollen analog from heterospecific donors than from conspecific donors; however, the amount of dye particles transferred from either Taraxacum species to stigmas on recipient T. ceratophorum inflorescences was equivalent. In contrast to weak floral isolation, strong pollen germination and pollen competition barriers should reduce the potential for hybridization. Heterospecific T. officinale pollen exhibited reduced germination success on T. ceratophorum stigmas in comparison to conspecific pollen. Furthermore, a significant pollen-competition effect on the percentage of hybrid offspring was detected only when T. officinale preceded T. ceratophorum pollen by 15 min. This result indicates that conspecific pollen out-competes heterospecific pollen but further suggests that biotic and abiotic factors reducing pollen accrual rates may partially remove barriers to natural hybridization. PMID:19504127

Brock, Marcus T

2009-08-01

5

Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

2014-05-01

6

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

7

Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

Yoshie, Fumio

2014-05-01

8

Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced Hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study.  

PubMed

Taraxacum officinale L is a medicinal plant, which has enormous medicinal values against various types of liver disorders and it has traditionally been used for the treatment of liver problems by people from the South East Asia. Previously we have screened the crude methanolic extract of T. officinale against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Present study was designed to compare the protective effect of ethanolic and n-hexane extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight) along with silymarin (100 mg/kg) a standard drug was administered to experimental animals. It was observed that ethanolic plant extract has significantly reduced the negative effect of CCl4 as compared to n-hexane extract and effect of extract was increased with increasing dose level. Although both leaf extracts decreased the concentration of TBARS, H2O2 and nitrite contents which enhance due to CCl4 toxicity but effect was higher in ethanolic extract. The results clearly indicated that Taraxacum officinale ethanolic leaves extract has better protective effect against CCl4 induced liver tissues toxicity. This claim was also supported by histopathological results obtained during this study and this might be due to presence of various polar phytochemicals that might be more prevent in this extract. PMID:25015447

Gulfraz, Muhammad; Ahamd, Dawood; Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz; Qureshi, Rehmatullah; Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Jabeen, Nyla; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz

2014-07-01

9

The effects of dietary Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale extract powder on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality in finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 144 [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] finishing pigs with initial body weight (BW) of 50.09±0.51kg were used to evaluate the effects of Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) and Taraxacum officinale (T. officinale) extract powder on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality in pig. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design according

L. Yan; Q. W. Meng; I. H. Kim

2011-01-01

10

Density-Independent Mortality and Increasing Plant Diversity Are Associated with Differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-Strategists  

PubMed Central

Background Differential selection between clones of apomictic species may result in ecological differentiation without mutation and recombination, thus offering a simple system to study adaptation and life-history evolution in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We caused density-independent mortality by weeding to colonizer populations of the largely apomictic Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) over a 5-year period in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We compared the offspring of colonizer populations with resident populations deliberately sown into similar communities. Plants raised from cuttings and seeds of colonizer and resident populations were grown under uniform conditions. Offspring from colonizer populations had higher reproductive output, which was in general agreement with predictions of r-selection theory. Offspring from resident populations had higher root and leaf biomass, fewer flower heads and higher individual seed mass as predicted under K-selection. Plants grown from cuttings and seeds differed to some degree in the strength, but not in the direction, of their response to the r- vs. K-selection regime. More diverse communities appeared to exert stronger K-selection on resident populations in plants grown from cuttings, while we did not find significant effects of increasing species richness on plants grown from seeds. Conclusions/Significance Differentiation into r- and K-strategists suggests that clones with characteristics of r-strategists were selected in regularly weeded plots through rapid colonization, while increasing plant diversity favoured the selection of clones with characteristics of K-strategists in resident populations. Our results show that different selection pressures may result in a rapid genetic differentiation within a largely apomictic species. Even under the assumption that colonizer and resident populations, respectively, happened to be r- vs. K-selected already at the start of the experiment, our results still indicate that the association of these strategies with the corresponding selection regimes was maintained during the 5-year experimental period.

Lipowsky, Annett; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard

2012-01-01

11

Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.  

PubMed

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and ?-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PMID:22026646

Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

2012-02-01

12

Phenolic compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale roots inhibit cell adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of cell adhesion molecule-mediated cell adhesion might be novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. In this study, nine phenolic compounds were isolated from the methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale roots by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR and MS), to be 6-gingerol (1), 8-gingerol (2), 10-gingerol

Seung Woong Lee; Ju-Hwan Lim; Min Seok Kim; Ji-Hak Jeong; Gyu-Yong Song; Woo Song Lee; Mun-Chual Rho

2011-01-01

13

EDTA reduces lead accumulation in Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of EDTA in phytoextraction studies has been reported to increase heavy metal accumulation in above-ground parts or to have no negative impact on the overall (root\\/shoot) accumulation levels in terrestrial plants. At a purely quantitative level, this study assessed the phytoextraction potential of a previously untested high-biomass terrestrial plant, Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), in the presence of Pb

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

14

A new triterpene glycoside from the roots of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the EtOH-soluble portion of Symphytum officinale roots has resulted in the isolation of a new pentacyclic triterpene glycoside of oleanolic acid. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic studies, including 2D nmr, and chemical evidences as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L -arabinopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid [1]. PMID:8482944

Ahmad, V U; Noorwala, M; Mohammad, F V; Sener, B

1993-03-01

15

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predict and data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence. PMID:11931095

Bergant, Klemen; Kajfez-Bogataj, Lucka; Crepinsek, Zalika

2002-02-01

16

Phthalides in the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

The composition of the phthalide mixture of the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale Koch was investigated. The phthalide mixture was analyzed by combining separation methods - GLC, LSC and TLC - and subsequently using spectroscopic methods - IR, MS and NMR. E- and Z-butylidenephthalide, E- and Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide and validene-4,5-dihydrophthalide were found to be present; isosenkyunolide and propylidenephthalide were tentatively identified. The influence of the isolation procedure on the composition of the phthalide mixture was tentatively studied by comparison of mixtures isolated by solvent extraction and hydrodistillation respectively. PMID:17402120

Gijbels, M J; Scheffer, J J; Baerheim Svendsen, A

1982-04-01

17

A bidesmosidic triterpene glycoside from the roots of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

A new bidesmosidic triterpenoidal saponin of hederagenin was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the roots of Symphytum officinale L. Its structure was elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, heteronuclear 1H-13C correlated spectroscopy (heteroCOSY), 13C NMR, DEPT, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence as 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin-28-O-[beta-D-gluco pyranosyl- (-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]ester. PMID:7764880

Noorwala, M; Mohammad, F V; Ahmad, V U; Sener, B

1994-05-01

18

A bidesmosidic hederagenin hexasaccharide from the roots of Symphytum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bidesmosidic triterpenoidal saponin 3-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-l- -arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin-28-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d- glucopyranosyl] ester, was isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale. The structure was assigned by chemical methods and spectral analysis (1H, 13C, DEPT, NMR, EI-MS and FAB-MS) including 1H?1H COSY, 1H?13C COSY and HOHAHA. The prosapogenin of this saponin is also a new compound.

Faryal Vali Mohammad; Mushtaq Noorwala; Viqar Uddin Ahmad; Bilge Sener

1995-01-01

19

A bidesmosidic hederagenin hexasaccharide from the roots of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

A new bidesmosidic triterpenoidal saponin 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L - arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin-28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester, was isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale. The structure was assigned by chemical methods and spectral analysis (1H, 13C, DEPT, NMR, EI-MS and FAB-MS) including 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY and HOHAHA. The prosapogenin of this saponin is also a new compound. PMID:7546550

Mohammad, F V; Noorwala, M; Ahmad, V U; Sener, B

1995-09-01

20

Antimycobacterials from lovage root (Ligusticum officinale Koch).  

PubMed

The n-hexane extract of Lovage root was found to significantly inhibit the growth of both Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155 and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and therefore a bioassay-guided isolation strategy was undertaken. (Z)-Ligustilide, (Z)-3-butylidenephthalide, (E)-3-butylidenephthalide, 3-butylphthalide, ?-prethapsenol, falcarindiol, levistolide A, psoralen and bergapten were isolated by chromatographic techniques, characterized by NMR spectroscopy and MS, and evaluated for their growth inhibition activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H??Rv using the whole-cell phenotypic spot culture growth inhibition assay (SPOTi). Cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells was employed for assessing their degree of selectivity. Falcarindiol was the most potent compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 20 mg/L against the virulent H??Rv strain; however, it was found to be cytotoxic with a half-growth inhibitory concentration (GIC??) in the same order of magnitude (SI?

Guzman, Juan David; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Gupta, Antima; Prieto, Jose M; Gibbons, Simon; Bhakta, Sanjib

2013-07-01

21

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins.  

PubMed

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to lead chelation in vitro. Using this in vitro metal chelation method, we showed that immobilised tannins prepared from lateral roots of Symphytum officinale L., that contained high tannin levels, chelated 3.5 times more lead than those from main roots with lower tannin levels. This trend was confirmed using increasing concentrations of tannins from a single root type, and using purified tannins (tannic acid) from Chinese gallnuts. This study presents a new, simple, and reliable method that demonstrates direct lead-tannin chelation. In relation to phytoremediation, it also suggests that plant roots with more 'built-in' tannins may advantageously accumulate more lead. PMID:19477483

Chin, Lily; Leung, David W M; Harry Taylor, H

2009-07-01

22

Isolation of symlandine from the roots of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) using countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

Three pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symlandine, symphytine, and echimidine (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale using a one-step countercurrent chromatography procedure. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR methods. This is the first description of the separation of symlandine (1) from its stereoisomer, symphytine (2). PMID:11430014

Kim, N C; Oberlies, N H; Brine, D R; Handy, R W; Wani, M C; Wall, M E

2001-02-01

23

Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs  

PubMed Central

A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

Yan, L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Park, J. C.; Kim, I. H.

2012-01-01

24

The Pattern of Genetic Variability in Apomictic Clones of Taraxacum officinale Indicates the Alternation of Asexual and Sexual Histories of Apomicts  

PubMed Central

Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts.

Majesky, Lubos; Vasut, Radim J.; Kitner, Miloslav; Travnicek, Bohumil

2012-01-01

25

[Development of root-layers of symphytum officinale L. and their storage and consumption of carbohydrates].  

PubMed

In root-layers of Symphytum officinale development as well as storage and consumption of carbohydrates is determined by day length, in a manner similar to that in plants developed from seeds. Root-layers differ in the following points: 1. Flowers are always formed after 16-19 leaves, even at a day length of 12 hours at which 26-29 leaves usually appear before flowers are formed. 2. In cultures kept at temperatures of at least +10° C fructosans are stored in the young shoot-born roots, while the amount of fructosans is reduced in the buds, in the subterraneous shoot parts and in the old root pieces. The old root piece remains a living part in the root-system of the layer and takes part in the renewed storage of starch just like the primary root of plants developed from seeds. PMID:24549342

Staesche, K

1967-12-01

26

A New Bidesmosidic Triterpenoidal Saponin from the Roots of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

A new triterpenoidal saponin having hederagenin as the aglycone was isolated from the roots of SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE L. The structure of this saponin was elucidated by FAB-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, 2D-NMR analyses and chemical studies as 3- O-[beta- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin 28- O-[beta- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl] ester. PMID:17236008

Ahmad, V U; Mohammad, F V; Noorwala, M; Sener, B

1993-10-01

27

Symphytoxide A, a triterpenoid saponin from the roots of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

A new triterpenoidal saponin of hederagenin named symphytoxide A has been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the roots of Symphytum officinale and characterized on the basis of chemical investigations and spectroscopic studies as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin. The structure of this new saponin was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments including heteroCOSY, COSY-45 degrees as well as HMBC measurements and other spectroscopic techniques. The saponin exhibited hypotensive activity in anesthetized rats. PMID:7763474

Ahmad, V U; Noorwala, M; Mohammad, F V; Sener, B; Gilani, A H; Aftab, K

1993-03-01

28

Sugar utilization and invertase activity in hairy-root and cell-suspension cultures of Symphytum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete consumption of sugars can lead to limited growth of hairy roots. To shed light on this phenomenon, growth, sugar\\u000a consumption, and invertase activity were examined in hairy-root batch cultures of Symphytum officinale L. and in reference cell-suspension cultures of the same species. Sucrose was supplied as sole carbon source. In the hairy-root\\u000a cultures, sucrose concentration decreased gradually during growth,

Nurit Shimon-Kerner; David Mills; Jose C. Merchuk

2000-01-01

29

Growth and essential oil composition of hairy root cultures of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (lovage)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformed root cultures of Levisticum officinale (lovage) were established by inoculation of aseptically grown seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 carrying plasmid pRiA4::70GUS. Hairy roots growth in four different types of liquid culture media was determined by the dissimilation method and by measuring the fresh and dry weight of the roots. The composition of the essential oils from the hairy

Pedro A. G. Santos; A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Margarida Oliveira; José G. Barroso; Luis G. Pedro; Stanley G. Deans; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

2005-01-01

30

Menthol and geraniol biotransformation and glycosylation capacity of Levisticum officinale hairy roots.  

PubMed

The biotransformation capacity of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch hairy root cultures was studied by evaluating the effect of the addition of 25 mg/L menthol or geraniol on morphology, growth, and volatiles production. L. officinale hairy root cultures were maintained for 7 weeks in SH medium, in darkness at 24 degrees C and 80 r.p.m., and the substrates were added 15 days after inoculation. Growth was evaluated by measuring fresh and dry weight and by using the dissimilation method. Volatiles composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Hairy roots morphology and growth were not influenced by substrate addition. No new volatiles were detected after menthol addition and, as was also the case with the control cultures, volatiles of these hairy roots were dominated by (Z)-falcarinol (1-45%), N-octanal (3-8%), palmitic acid (3-10%), and (Z)-ligustilide (2-9%). The addition of geraniol induced the production of six new volatiles: nerol/citronellol/neral (traces-15%), alpha-terpineol (0.2-3%), linalool (0.1-1.2%), and geranyl acetate (traces-2%). The relative amounts of the substrates and some of their biotransformation products decreased during the course of the experiment. Following the addition of beta-glycosidase to the remaining distillation water, analysis of the extracted volatiles showed that lovage hairy roots were able to convert both substrates and their biotransformation products into glycosidic forms. GC:gas chromatography GC-MS:gas chromatography-mass spectrometry SH:Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) culture medium. PMID:19156598

Nunes, Inês S; Faria, Jorge M S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

2009-03-01

31

Improved method for isolation of lycopsamine from roots of comfrey (Symphytum officinale).  

PubMed

An improved method for the isolation and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots was developed, introducing very fast, selective and ion residue-free reduction of N-oxides followed by ion-exchange chromatography giving a non-aqueous solution of alkaloids, from which solvents can be easily removed. With this procedure the use of large volumes of organic solvents, very slow reduction of N-oxides and input of additional impurities was avoided. Lycopsamine, which proved to be the major alkaloid, was additionally purified by preparative layer chromatography (PLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity of the alkaloid was confirmed by (I)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:22908565

Janes, Damjan; Kalamar, Bostjan; Kreft, Samo

2012-07-01

32

Poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] from Symphytum officinale roots and its biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-molecular-weight (>1000 kDa) water-soluble biopolymers, the main component of which was poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric\\u000a acid] or poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene] according to IR and NMR spectroscopy, were isolated from roots\\u000a of Symphytum officinale. They exhibit antioxidant activity as expressed in a decrease of active oxygen species (AOS) by interfering\\u000a directly in their formation process by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and binding directly AOS.

V. Barbakadze; A. J. J. van den Berg; C. J. Beukelman; J. Kemmink; H. C. Quarles van Ufford

2009-01-01

33

Nitrogen stress induction on Levisticum officinale hairy roots grown in darkness and under photoperiod conditions: effect on growth and volatile components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH4\\u000a +:NO3\\u000a ? ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24°C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness\\u000a or in a 16 h light\\/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated\\u000a by

Monya M. Costa; A. Cristina Figueiredo; José G. Barroso; Luis G. Pedro; Stanley G. Deans; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

2008-01-01

34

[Annual developmental cycle of roots and shoots in Symphytum officinale L. in relation to storage and consumption of carbohydrates].  

PubMed

The development of the root and shoot system of Symphytum officinale always begins with the formation of a rape with 6-8 leaves on its epicotyl. After this stage development is determined by the length of the day. If the day is shorter than 15 hours, the subterraneous organs grow thicker. Flower formation needs a day length of at least 12 hours, shoot growth a day length of 14 hours. The shorter the day length the more leaves are formed.Starch is always stored until 6-8 leaves are formed by the young plant. After this stage it is only stored when the days are longer than 14 hours. When the days are shorter the amount of starch is reduced, partly during the thickening of the subterraneous organs. Fructosans are stored and reduced independent of day length. They are consumed during shoot elongation and flowering.A hydrolysis of starch and fructosans is also caused by low temperatures during the winter.Starch and fructosans are stored to a different degree in the various subterraneous organs: the most is stored in the shoot-born roots and the least in the subterraneous shoot parts. In the latter organs the carbohydrate content is influenced the most by the growth processes. PMID:24554049

Staesche, K

1966-09-01

35

Polyphenoloxidase Silencing Affects Latex Coagulation in Taraxacum Species1[W  

PubMed Central

Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution.

Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prufer, Dirk

2009-01-01

36

Nitrogen stress induction on Levisticum officinale hairy roots grown in darkness and under photoperiod conditions: effect on growth and volatile components.  

PubMed

Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24 degrees C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness or in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Greater growth was attained in darkness with 10:90 (control, SH medium), 50:50 and 25:75 NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios, and also with SH control medium under the photoperiod condition, with a 10, 14, 12.5 and 12.5 fold increase of biomass in terms of dry weight, respectively, at the end of 42 days of growth. UPGMA cluster analysis of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots grown with different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios confirmed their chemical variability. Although no particular grouping was detected in relation to the NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios or light conditions studied, most of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots were either dominated by n-octanal, (Z)-falcarinol or both components in about the same relative amounts. PMID:18273553

Costa, Monya M; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Deans, Stanley G; Scheffer, Johannes J C

2008-07-01

37

Mycena sp., a mycorrhizal fungus of the orchid Dendrobium officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endophytic fungus, F-23, was isolated from the roots of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, an endangered Chinese medicinal plant. The sequence of the ITS region indicated that the isolate belongs\\u000a to the genus Mycena. After 4 months of inoculation, the root systems of D. officinale that were inoculated with F-23 fungus were much larger than the control’s root systems.

Lichun Zhang; Juan Chen; Yali Lv; Chuan Gao; Shunxing Guo

38

Carcinogenic activity of Symphytum officinale.  

PubMed

The carcinogenicity of Symphytum officinale L., Russian comfrey, used as a green vegetable or tonic, was studied in inbred ACI rats. Three groups of 19--28 rats each were fed comfrey leaves for 480--600 days; four additional groups of 15--24 rats were fed comfrey roots for varying lengths of time. A control group was given a normal diet. Hepatocellular adenomas were induced in all experimental groups that received the diets containing comfrey roots and leaves. Hemangioendothelial sarcoma of the liver was infrequently induced. PMID:278864

Hirono, I; Mori, H; Haga, M

1978-09-01

39

Comparative effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on the production of inflammatory mediators in normal and osteoarthrotic sow chondrocytes.  

PubMed

Ginger root was previously demonstrated to exert anti-arthritic effects in sow cartilage explants. This study further investigated the comparative effects of ginger root extract (GRE) on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in normal chondrocytes (NC) and osteoarthrotic chondrocytes (OC) isolated from sow cartilage explants. The sow chondrocyte cells were isolated and grown in Ham's F-12/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. GRE was then added at different concentrations (0-2,000 microg/mL), and the cells were allowed to grow for 24 hours in the presence of cytokine inducer. The culture media were collected and assayed for NO by the Griess reaction and for PGE2 by radioimmunoassay. When GRE was not used, the NC had lower PGE2 and NO than the OC. With GRE treatment, both PGE2 and NO decreased linearly in both the NC and the OC. As GRE concentrations increased, the rate of PGE(2) decrease was the same in the NC and the OC, whereas the rate of NO decrease was greater for the OC than for the NC. Collectively, OC produce more inflammatory mediators than do NC, and the production of inflammatory mediators was reduced when GRE was added to both the OC and the NC. The inhibitory effects of GRE on NO and PGE2 production by sow OC observed in this study suggest an important role for GRE as an anti-arthritic agent. PMID:16117605

Shen, Chwan-Li; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kim, Sung Woo

2005-01-01

40

The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack  

PubMed Central

Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.

Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

2013-01-01

41

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Taraxacum coreanum and Their Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaf and root samples of Taraxacum coreanum. Of the 72 isolates recovered, 39 were from leaves and 33 from roots with an isolation frequency of 54% and 46%, respectively. Based on ITS sequence analysis, 72 isolates were classified into 19 genera of which 17 were under the phylum Ascomycota and 2 were under Basidiomycota. Diverse genera were found and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Phoma were dominant. Out of 19 genera, Apodus, Ceriporia, Dothideales, Leptodontidium, Nemania, Neoplaconema, Phaeosphaeria, Plectosphaerella and Terfezia were new to Korea. Seventy two isolates were screened for antifungal activity, of which 10 isolates (14%) were found active at least against one of the tested fungi. Isolate 050603 had the widest antifungal spectra of activity, and isolates 050592 and 050611 were active against three plant pathogenic fungi.

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Kim, Won Ki; Woo, Sung Kyoon; Park, Myung Soo

2006-01-01

42

Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Forty-three male and female subjects (45-83 years old) with diagnosed primary osteoarthritis of the knee who met the inclusion criteria were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 10% or 20% comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) or a placebo cream. Outcomes of pain, stiffness, and functioning were done on the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants applied the cream 3× a day for 6 weeks and were evaluated every 2 weeks during the treatment. Results Repeated-measures analyses of variance yielded significant differences in all of the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index categories (pain P < .01, stiffness P < .01, daily function P < .01), confirming that the 10% and 20% comfrey-based creams were superior to the reference cream. The active groups each had 2 participants who had temporary and minor adverse reactions of skin rash and itching, which were rapidly resolved by modifying applications. Conclusion Both active topical comfrey formulations were effective in relieving pain and stiffness and in improving physical functioning and were superior to placebo in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee without serious adverse effects.

Smith, Doug B.; Jacobson, Bert H.

2011-01-01

43

Entwicklung und Kohlenhydrathaushalt der Wurzelstecklinge von Symphytum officinale L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In root-layers of Symphytum officinale development as well as storage and consumption of carbohydrates is determined by day length, in a manner similar to that in plants developed from seeds. Root-layers differ in the following points:1.Flowers are always formed after 16–19 leaves, even at a day length of 12 hours at which 26–29 leaves usually appear before flowers are formed.2.In

Karin Staesche

1967-01-01

44

Genetic fine-mapping of DIPLOSPOROUS in Taraxacum (dandelion; Asteraceae) indicates a duplicated DIP-gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP) is the locus for diplospory in Taraxacum, associated to unreduced female gamete formation in apomicts. Apomicts reproduce clonally through seeds, including apomeiosis, parthenogenesis, and autonomous or pseudogamous endosperm formation. In Taraxacum, diplospory results in first division restitution (FDR) nuclei, and inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait, independent from the other apomixis elements. A preliminary genetic linkage map

Kitty Vijverberg; Slavica Milanovic-Ivanovic; Tanja Bakx-Schotman; Peter J van Dijk

2010-01-01

45

Larvicidal activities of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous

Rong-Jyh Lin; Chung-Yi Chen; Li-Yu Chung; Chuan-Min Yen

2010-01-01

46

Antimycobacterial polyacetylenes from Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

No conflicts of interest concerning financial matters or personal relationships exist between the authors and those who might bias this work. The present work is in part included the PhD thesis of A. Schinkovitz (University of Graz) but has not been published elsewhere previously. The dichloromethane extract of the roots of Levisticum officinale L. (Apiaceae) exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium aurum in a microtiter plate dilution assay and was further analysed following a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy. 3(R)-Falcarinol (3(R)-(-)-1,9-heptadecadien-4,6-diin-3-ol] and 3(R)-8(S)-falcarindiol [3(R)-8(S)-(+)-1,9-heptadecadien-4,6-diin-3,8-diol] could be identified as the active components in this extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3(R)-falcarinol against M. fortuitum and M. aurum was 16.4 microM while that of 3(R)-8(S)-falcarindiol was 30.7 microM against M. fortuitum and 61.4 microm against M. aurum, respectively. Previously, 3(R),8(R)-dehydrofalcarindiol was isolated from Artemisia monosperma and surprisingly this polyacetylene exhibited no antimycobacterial activity at 128 microg/mL. This indicates that the terminal methyl group is vital for retention of antimycobacterial activity. Reference antibiotics ethambutol and isoniazid exhibited an activity of 115.5 microM and 14.6 microM against M. fortuitum, and 3.4 microM and 29.2 microM against M. aurum, respectively. PMID:18350523

Schinkovitz, Andreas; Stavri, Michael; Gibbons, Simon; Bucar, Franz

2008-05-01

47

Structural Diversity in the Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Polyphenol Oxidase Family Results in Different Responses to Model Substrates  

PubMed Central

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are ubiquitous type-3 copper enzymes that catalyze the oxygen-dependent conversion of o-diphenols to the corresponding quinones. In most plants, PPOs are present as multiple isoenzymes that probably serve distinct functions, although the precise relationship between sequence, structure and function has not been addressed in detail. We therefore compared the characteristics and activities of recombinant dandelion PPOs to gain insight into the structure–function relationships within the plant PPO family. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the 11 isoenzymes of dandelion into two evolutionary groups. More detailed in silico and in vitro analyses of four representative PPOs covering both phylogenetic groups were performed. Molecular modeling and docking predicted differences in enzyme-substrate interactions, providing a structure-based explanation for grouping. One amino acid side chain positioned at the entrance to the active site (position HB2+1) potentially acts as a “selector” for substrate binding. In vitro activity measurements with the recombinant, purified enzymes also revealed group-specific differences in kinetic parameters when the selected PPOs were presented with five model substrates. The combination of our enzyme kinetic measurements and the in silico docking studies therefore indicate that the physiological functions of individual PPOs might be defined by their specific interactions with different natural substrates.

Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E.; Singh, Ratna; Leufken, Christine M.; Inlow, Jennifer K.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

2014-01-01

48

[Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

2013-02-01

49

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2013-06-01

50

[Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].  

PubMed

The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

2013-02-01

51

Genetic variation in agamospermous microspecies of Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma and sect. Obliqua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agamospermous microspecies of Taraxacum have been studied at the isozyme level. T. tortilobum and T. rubicundum (sect. Erythrosperma), both of a fairly broad ecological amplitude, consisted of several clones. In Holland only a few clones occur compared with the situation in Central Europe. By contrast, in T. obliquum (sect. Obliqua), restricted to the outer dune habitat, no genetic variation could

H Van Oostrum; A A Sterk; H J W Wijsman

1985-01-01

52

Mutagenic effects of aqueous extracts of Symphytum officinale L. and of its alkaloidal fractions.  

PubMed

Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in therapy. It roots, described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia as Radix symphyti, are recommended as expectorants, especially for children. Aqueous solutions of three alkaloid fractions obtained from infusions of Symphytum officinale L. root were tested for their antimitotic and mutagenic activity in meristematic cells of the lateral roots of Vicia faba L., var minor. Lasiocarpine, a proven carcinogen, served as a positive control. Mutagenic effects were induced by lasiocarpine, by the alkaloidal fraction I and by diluted infusions from Radix symphyti. Fraction III had only antimitotic effect. The biological activity of the tested solutions is discussed in relation to the relevant literature. PMID:6619497

Furmanowa, M; Guzewska, J; Be?dowska, B

1983-06-01

53

Die jahresperiodische Entwicklung des Wurzelund Sprossystems von Symphytum officinale L. und ihre Beziehung zu Speicherung und Verbrauch der Kohlenhydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the root and shoot system of Symphytum officinale always begins with the formation of a rape with 6–8 leaves on its epicotyl. After this stage development is determined by the length of the day. If the day is shorter than 15 hours, the subterraneous organs grow thicker. Flower formation needs a day length of at least 12

Karin Staesche

1966-01-01

54

The influence of phytohormones on growth, organ differentiation and fructan production in callus of Symphytum officinale L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Callus derived from Symphytum officinale L. regenerants was cultured in the presence of various phytohormones. The growth rate of callus was stimulated by all phytohormones at various concentrations. With 1-naphthaleneacetic acid no organ differentiation could be observed. With indole-3-butyric acid at low concentrations only roots were formed, whereas 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and zeatin at various concentrations induced either root or shoot

D. Haaß; A. A. Abou-Mandour; W. Blaschek; G. Franz; F. C. Czygan

1991-01-01

55

Roots.  

PubMed

Many unicellular eukaryotic organisms possess complex fiber systems that organize and anchor the flagellar basal apparatus in the cell [20, 24]. In 1978 we first published the observation that one of these fiber systems, the striated flagellar root of the quadriflagellate green alga Tetraselmis subcordiformis (= Platymonas subcordiformis), is a contractile organelle [31]. We subsequently found that striated flagellar roots are composed, in part, of the Ca(2+)-binding protein centrin [30]. Since that time, centrin has been found to be a ubiquitous component of the flagellar basal apparatus, basal bodies and centrioles, and centrosomes and mitotic spindle poles of eukaryotic cells (for general reviews see [28, 34]). While we have learned a great deal about centrin from other organisms, our earliest success in understanding the biology of centrin was in large part due to the extraordinary extent to which Tetraselmis cells have elaborated their centrin-based organelles. In this paper, I will return attention to several unanswered questions concerning Tetraselmis striated flagellar root behavior and I will suggest several new directions that students may wish to pursue in order to tease fresh insights from this fascinating organism. PMID:9495031

Salisbury, J L

1998-01-01

56

[Some worries about Dendrobium officinale industry].  

PubMed

In recent years, with the continuous development of the industry of Dendrobium officinale, the technological alliance on CEEUSRO has been established. However, many problems also exposed with the rapid expansion of the industry, such as weak basic research, single species of the product, lack of in-depth studies and difficult to guarantee the quality. Industrial foam was gradually formed. To guard against the D. officinale becoming another "Puer Tea" , the authors believe that the key to sustainable development of the industry is enterprises and research institutes should strengthen basic research, speed up development of application of integrated innovations, government should strengthen guidance, regulate the operation of the market, then protect the quality of D. officinale in the market. PMID:23713266

Li, Guang; Lu, Juan; Chen, Xi

2013-02-01

57

Larvicidal activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement of [10]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin at various concentrations was reached from 24 to 72 h, respectively. Further investigation to determine minimal effective doses of [10]-gingerol and hexahydrocurcumin revealed [10]-gingerol to have a greater maximum larvicidal effect and loss of spontaneous movements than hexahydrocurcumin, mebendazole and albendazole. These constituents of ginger showed effects against DPPH and peroxyl radical under larvicidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as larvicidal agents against A. cantonensis. PMID:20045669

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

2010-01-01

58

Kinetic studies on Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the isolation, purification and characterization of gingerol, the major pungent constituent of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and its kinetic of extraction using a number of organic solvents. The characterization was carried out through GC and GC-MS. Gingerol has been assayed in the plant material during extraction with various solvents by a HPLC method. In order to develop a relationship between solvent characteristics such as viscosity and dielectric constant and the rates of extraction, the kinetics of extraction of gingerol has been studied by using twelve different solvents in order to evaluate the solvent efficacy in the extraction processes. It has been observed that both solvent viscosity (1/v) and dielectric constant (epsilon) show a linear relationship with the rates of extraction (k). An increase in solvent viscosity leads to a decrease in the rates of extraction, similarly an increase in dielectric constant also leads to a decrease in the rates of extraction. This appears to be largely due to an unionizable character of gingerol which does not interact with polar solvents. Thus solvent viscosity and dielectric constant both play an important role in the choice of solvents for the extraction of gingerol. Solvents with relatively low viscosity and dielectric constant are more suitable for the extraction of gingerol from plant material. PMID:16414586

Shadmani, Amir; Azhar, Iqbal; Mazhar, Farah; Hassan, M Mohtasheemul; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Ahmad, Iqbal; Usmanghani, Khan; Shamim, Sumbul

2004-01-01

59

Altered levels of the Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion) small rubber particle protein, TkSRPP3, result in qualitative and quantitative changes in rubber metabolism.  

PubMed

Several proteins have been identified and implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis, one of which, the small rubber particle protein (SRPP), was originally identified in Hevea brasiliensis as an abundant protein associated with cytosolic vesicles known as rubber particles. While previous in vitro studies suggest that SRPP plays a role in rubber biosynthesis, in vivo evidence is lacking to support this hypothesis. To address this issue, a transgene approach was taken in Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion or Tk) to determine if altered SRPP levels would influence rubber biosynthesis. Three dandelion SRPPs were found to be highly abundant on dandelion rubber particles. The most abundant particle associated SRPP, TkSRPP3, showed temporal and spatial patterns of expression consistent with patterns of natural rubber accumulation in dandelion. To confirm its role in rubber biosynthesis, TkSRPP3 expression was altered in Russian dandelion using over-expression and RNAi methods. While TkSRPP3 over-expressing lines had slightly higher levels of rubber in their roots, relative to the control, TkSRPP3 RNAi lines showed significant decreases in root rubber content and produced dramatically lower molecular weight rubber than the control line. Not only do results here provide in vivo evidence of TkSRPP proteins affecting the amount of rubber in dandelion root, but they also suggest a function in regulating the molecular weight of the cis-1, 4-polyisoprene polymer. PMID:22609069

Collins-Silva, Jillian; Nural, Aise Taban; Skaggs, Amanda; Scott, Deborah; Hathwaik, Upul; Woolsey, Rebekah; Schegg, Kathleen; McMahan, Colleen; Whalen, Maureen; Cornish, Katrina; Shintani, David

2012-07-01

60

[Effects of light quality and germplasm on growth and effective ingredients of Dendrobium officinale germchit].  

PubMed

Effects of light quality and germplasm on the growth and effective ingredients of Dendrobium officinale germchit were studied. Under 8 light qualities (red, blue, yellow, green and three different red blue mix light), test-tube plantlets of different families (9 x 66, 17 x 30, 78 x 68) were used in the experiment to measure economical character and determine the content of chlorophyll, polysaccharides and total alkaloids. The results showed that light quality, germplasm and their interaction had a significant effect on the growth of D. officinale germchit. The maximal root length and height of seedling were obtained under red light, under blue light, the stem diameter was thickest and the content of total alkaloids were highest, the content of chlorophyll and polysaccharides of test-tube plantlets under red blue mix light were higher than that of other treatments. This work has laid a foundation for the high quality, low carbon and efficient production of D. officinale, and gives useful tips on production of high quality ingredients. PMID:22737850

Gao, Tingting; Si, Jinping; Zhu, Yuqiu; Huang, Huahong

2012-01-01

61

Chemotaxonomy of the Symphytum officinale agg. ( Boraginaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a chemotaxonomic study of the genusSymphytum pyrrolizidine alkaloids and triterpenes were used as chemotaxonomical markers. A micro-extraction methods was developed for screening compounds of very small pieces of herbarium material. The occurrence of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids symphytine and (acetyl-)lycopsamine is very general forSymphytum taxa. Echimidine is present in someS. officinale L. plants and inS. tanaicenseSteven. The triterpene isobauerenol is

Tea A. Jaarsma; Elisabeth Lohmanns; Theo W. J. Gadella; Theo M. Malingré

1989-01-01

62

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to

Klemen Bergant; Lu?ka Kajfež-Bogataj; Zalika ?repinšek

2002-01-01

63

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

64

Distribution of diploid sexual plants of Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia in east-Central Europe, with special reference to Czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbarium specimens (c. 1 000) and population samples (76) have been screened for the occurrence of diploid representatives ofTaraxacum sect.Ruderalia (T. sect.Vulgaria, nom. illeg.). The area studied comprises German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and parts of Austria, Yugoslavia, and Rumania. Diploids are common from the Valley of the Moravia river on southwards. Isolated outpost localities are found in S.

J. C. M. DEN NIJS; J. Kirschner; J. Št?pánek; A. Hulst

1990-01-01

65

Design and application of specific 16S rDNA-targeted primers for assessing endophytic diversity in Dendrobium officinale using nested PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

Novel specific 16S rDNA-targeted primers were successfully designed and applied to the characterization of endophytic diversity in Dendrobium officinale. Using the popular universal bacterial primers 27f/1492r, the fragments of chloroplast and mitochondrion 16S/18S rDNA were amplified from D. officinale. They shared high nucleotide identity with the chloroplast 16S rDNAs (99-100 %) and with the mitochondrion 18S rDNAs (93-100 %) from various plants, respectively, and both shared 73-86 % identities with the bacterial 16S rDNA sequences in GenBank. The current bacterial universal primers, including 27f/1492r, match well with the chloroplast and mitochondrion 16S/18S rDNAs, which accordingly renders these primers not useful for endophytic diversity analysis. Novel 16S rDNA-targeted primers fM1 (5'-CCGCGTGNRBGAHGAAGGYYYT-3') and rC5 (5'-TAATCCTGTTTGCTCC CCAC-3') were designed, which show good specificity compared to the 16S/18S rDNAs of D. officinale, and perfect universality within bacteria except for Cyanobacteria. The primers fM1/rC5, together with 515f-GC/rC5, which overlaps the whole V4 region of 16S rDNA, were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to analyze the diversity of endophytic bacteria in D. officinale from three different sources in China. The results showed diversities in roots and stems of the plants from all three locations. Altogether, 29 bands were identified as bacteria, with the dominant group being Proteobacteria and the dominant genus being Burkholderia, some of which commonly has the function of nitrogen fixation and thus may play potentially important roles in D. officinale. Therefore, the nested PCR-DGGE method based on the novel primers provides a good alternative for investigating the communities and roles of endophytes in D. officinale. PMID:24127138

Yu, Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Sui-Juan; Liu, Wen-Hong; Hu, Xiu-Fang

2013-11-01

66

In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers.  

PubMed

The growing demand for flower extracts in perfume trade can primarily be met by increasing flower production and multiplying planting material. The major commercial aromatic flower yielding plants including Jasminum officinale L., a member of the Family Oleaceae have drawn the attention of a large section of the concerned sectors leading to a thrust upon developing advanced propagation technologies for these floral crops, in addition to conventional nature-dependent agro-techniques. This chapter describes concisely and critically, a protocol developed for in vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale by shoot regeneration from existing as well as newly developed adventitious axillary buds via proper phytohormonal stimulation. To start with nodal segments as explants, March-April is the most ideal time of the year when planting material suitable for in vitro multiplication is abundantly available. Prior to inoculation of explants in the culture medium, special care is needed to reduce microbial contamination by spraying on selected spots of the donor plant with anti-microbial agents 24 h prior to collection; treatment with antiseptic solution after final cleaning and surface sterilization by treating explants with mercuric chloride. Inoculated explants are free from brown leaching from cut ends by two consecutive subcultures within 48 h in MS basal medium. Multiplication of shoots, average 4-5 at each node, takes place in MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L NAA, and 40 g/L sucrose over a period of 8 weeks. For elongation of regenerated shoots, cultures are transferred to MS medium, supplemented with a single growth hormone, kinetin at 2.0 mg/L. Emergence and elongation of roots from shoot base is facilitated by placing on the notch of a filter paper bridge. The hardened in vitro propagated plants are able to grow normally in soil like other conventionally propagated Jasminum officinale. PMID:20099096

Bhattacharya, Sabita; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

2010-01-01

67

Generation of autotetraploid plant of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its quality evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Zingiber officinale Rosc. is not only an important medical plant in China, but also one of the most commonly used plant spices around the world. Early researches in Z. officinale Rosc. were focused on rapid propagation, germplasm preservation, and somatic embryogenesis, only a few reports focused on the generation of tetraploid ginger plants with colchicines treatment in vitro. Materials and Methods: The adventitious buds were submerged into different concentrations of colchicine water solution for different time to induce polyploid plants, and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Eighteen selected tetraploid lines were transferred to the field, and the leaf characteristics, rhizome yield, contents of volatile oil and gingerol were respectively evaluated to provide evidence of high-yield and good qualities of tetraploid ginger. Results: The induction rate reached as high as 33.3% of treated buds. More than 48 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploidy characteristics. All of the 18 selected tetraploid lines possessed higher rhizome yield and overall productivity of volatile oil and gingerol than those of the control. Conclusion: Five elite lines have been selected for further selection and breeding new varieties for commercial production in agricultural production.

Kun-Hua, Wei; Jian-Hua, Miao; He-Ping, Huang; Shan-Lin, Gao

2011-01-01

68

Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Seven new diarylheptanoids, i.e., (3S,5S)-3,5-diacetoxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane, (3R,5S)-3-acetoxy-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane, (3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane, (5S)-5-acetoxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptan-3-one, 5-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptan-3-one, 5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-phenyl)heptan-3-one and 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane were isolated from the rhizomes of Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), along with 25 known compounds, i.e., 8 diarylheptanoids, 14 gingerol analogs, a diterpene and 2 steroids. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:15110695

Ma, Jianping; Jin, Xiaoling; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhong-Li

2004-04-01

69

Characterization of rubber particles and rubber chain elongation in Taraxacum koksaghyz  

PubMed Central

Background Natural rubber is a biopolymer with exceptional qualities that cannot be completely replaced using synthetic alternatives. Although several key enzymes in the rubber biosynthetic pathway have been isolated, mainly from plants such as Hevea brasiliensis, Ficus spec. and the desert shrub Parthenium argentatum, there have been no in planta functional studies, e.g. by RNA interference, due to the absence of efficient and reproducible protocols for genetic engineering. In contrast, the Russian dandelion Taraxacum koksaghyz, which has long been considered as a potential alternative source of low-cost natural rubber, has a rapid life cycle and can be genetically transformed using a simple and reliable procedure. However, there is very little molecular data available for either the rubber polymer itself or its biosynthesis in T. koksaghyz. Results We established a method for the purification of rubber particles - the active sites of rubber biosynthesis - from T. koksaghyz latex. Photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed an average particle size of 320 nm, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that isolated rubber particles contain poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) with a purity >95%. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the weight average molecular mass (w) of T. koksaghyz natural rubber is 4,000-5,000 kDa. Rubber particles showed rubber transferase activity of 0.2 pmol min-1 mg-1. Ex vivo rubber biosynthesis experiments resulted in a skewed unimodal distribution of [1-14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) incorporation at a w of 2,500 kDa. Characterization of recently isolated cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) from T. koksaghyz revealed that these enzymes are associated with rubber particles and are able to produce long-chain polyprenols in yeast. Conclusions T. koksaghyz rubber particles are similar to those described for H. brasiliensis. They contain very pure, high molecular mass poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and the chain elongation process can be studied ex vivo. Because of their localization on rubber particles and their activity in yeast, we propose that the recently described T. koksaghyz CPTs are the major rubber chain elongating enzymes in this species. T. koksaghyz is amenable to genetic analysis and modification, and therefore could be used as a model species for the investigation and comparison of rubber biosynthesis.

2010-01-01

70

Cyclooxygenase2 inhibitors in ginger ( Zingiber officinale)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX). Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen a chloroform partition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and

Richard B. van Breemen; Yi Tao; Wenkui Li

2011-01-01

71

The influence of phytohormones on growth, organ differentiation and fructan production in callus of Symphytum officinale L.  

PubMed

Callus derived from Symphytum officinale L. regenerants was cultured in the presence of various phytohormones. The growth rate of callus was stimulated by all phytohormones at various concentrations. With 1-naphthaleneacetic acid no organ differentiation could be observed. With indole-3-butyric acid at low concentrations only roots were formed, whereas 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and zeatin at various concentrations induced either root or shoot formation or the simultaneous regeneration of both. Minor amounts of fructans were formed at high 6-benzylaminopurine-, zeatin- and at all indole-3-acetic acid-concentrations. The concentration of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid had no influence on the fructan content. Highest rates of fructan synthesis occurred at low zeatin-concentrations up to 1.5 mg/l. Only zeatin at all concentrations induced the synthesis of polyfructans, whereas appreciable amounts of oligofructans were formed under the influence of all other phytohormones. PMID:24221738

Haaß, D; Abou-Mandour, A A; Blaschek, W; Franz, G; Czygan, F C

1991-10-01

72

Fructan Synthesis in Tissue Cultures of Symphytum officinale; L. Initiation, Differentiation, and Metabolic Activity.  

PubMed

Tissue cultures originating from different organs i.e. leaves, leaf-stalks, ovaries, anthers, and roots of SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE were initiated under various growth conditions and subcultured several times to give the first callus generation. From all these calli, whole plants could be regenerated which again were used for the preparation of tissue cultures resulting in the formation of the second callus generation. The different calli and the regenerated plants were analyzed with respect to the fructan-synthesizing capacity. Only calli derived from the leaves of the original plant synthesized fructan whereas calli derived from ovaries, anthers, and roots, which are known to contain large amounts of fructan, were not capable of synthesizing fructan. The regenerated plants obtained from the first callus generation showed ability for fructan synthesis only if the originating callus synthesized fructan. The calli of the second generation, which were prepared from fructan-containing leaves and roots of regenerated plants, showed the capacity for fructan formation. The calli of the second generation obtained from leaves and roots of regenerated, fructan-free plants were not able to synthesize this specific reserve polysaccharide. From these data it can be concluded that the calli of the first generation prepared from roots, ovaries, and anthers have lost their ability for fructan synthesis. Calli initiated from leaves and leaf-stalks preserved the capacity for fructan formation even after many calli generations and regeneration to entire plants. Different phytohormones used in the tissue cultures had only a slight effect upon the fructan formation. An influence of light on fructan synthesis could not be detected. PMID:17269073

Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F C; Haaß, D; Franz, G

1987-10-01

73

[Molecular characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene DoMPK1 in Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, composed of MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAPK kinase (MAP2K), and MAPK, is abundantly conserved in all eukaryotes. MAPK along with MAPK cascade plays a vital regulatory role in the plant-arbuscular mycorrhiza/rhizobium nodule symbioses. However, the biological function of MAPK in orchid mycorrhiza (OM) symbiosis remains elusive. In the present study, a MAPK gene, designated as DoMPK1 (GenBank accession No. JX297594), was identified from D. officinale roots infected by an OM fungus-Mycena sp. using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full length cDNA of DoMPK1 was 1 263 bp and encoded a 372 aa protein with a molecular weight of 42.61 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.07. The deduced DoMPK1 protein contained the conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic domain (39-325) and MAP kinase signature (77-177). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that DoMPK1 was highly homologous (71%-85%) to MAPK genes from various plant species and was closely related to those from monocots. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoMPK1 was constitutively expressed in leaves, stems, roots and seeds, and the transcript abundance was not significantly different in the four included tissues. Furthermore, DoMPK1 transcript was markedly induced in roots at 30 d after fungal infection, with 7.91 fold compared to that of the mock inoculated roots, suggesting implication of DoMPK1 in the early D. officinale and Mycena sp. interaction and an essential role in the symbiosis. Our study characterized a MAPK gene associated with OM symbiosis for the first time, and will be helpful for further functional elucidation of DoMPK1 involving in D. officinale and Mycena sp. symbiotic interaction. PMID:23460979

Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Song, Chao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Biao; Guo, Shun-Xing

2012-12-01

74

Cloning and characterization of a novel gene that encodes (S)-beta-bisabolene synthase from ginger, Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, contains a fragrant oil mainly composed of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. We isolated a cDNA that codes for a sesquiterpene synthase from young rhizomes of ginger, Z. officinale Roscoe, Japanese cultivar "Kintoki". The cDNA, designated ZoTps1, potentially encoded a protein that comprised 550 amino acid residues and exhibited 49-53% identity with those of the sesquiterpene synthases already isolated from the genus Zingiber. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells, in which ZoTps1 was coexpressed along with genes for D-mevalonate utilization, resulted in the production of a sesquiterpene (S)-beta-bisabolene exclusively with a D-mevalonolactone supplement. This result indicated that ZoTps1 was the (S)-beta-bisabolene synthase gene in ginger. ZoTPS1 was suggested to catalyze (S)-beta-bisabolene formation with the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to nerolidyl diphosphate followed by the cyclization between position 1 and 6 carbons. The ZoTps1 transcript was detected in young rhizomes, but not in leaves, roots and mature rhizomes of the ginger "Kintoki". PMID:20229191

Fujisawa, Masaki; Harada, Hisashi; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Mizutani, Satoru; Misawa, Norihiko

2010-06-01

75

Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five compounds were isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) through repeated column chromatography. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols,\\u000a and 6-shogaol using spectroscopic analysis. Among the five isolated compounds, 6-shogaol exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity\\u000a against human A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 tumor cells.

Ju Sin Kim; Sa Im Lee; Hye Won Park; Jae Heon Yang; Tae-Yong Shin; Youn-Chul Kim; Nam-In Baek; Sung-Hoon Kim; Sang Un Choi; Byoung-Mog Kwon; Kang-Hyun Leem; Mun Yhung Jung; Dae Keun Kim

2008-01-01

76

Laticifer-Specific cis-Prenyltransferase Silencing Affects the Rubber, Triterpene, and Inulin Content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum12[C][W  

PubMed Central

Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis.

Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M.; Prufer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

77

Effect of extract of Monodora myristica and Zingiber officinale on the growth of fungi in sweet potato juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of Monodora myristica and Zingiber officinale were assayed for their antifungal effect on Fusarium nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating sweet potatoes. Aqueous extracts of M. myristica and Z. officinale showed inhibitory effect against F. nivale, R. stolonifer and A. fumigatus in sweet potato juice. 3% (v\\/v) aqueous extract of M. myristica or Z. officinale

Aderotimi Banso

78

Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol. PMID:19719054

Ozen, Tevfik

2009-01-01

79

Absence of mutagenic effects of a particular Symphytum officinale L. liquid extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. PMID:19827020

Benedek, Birgit; Ziegler, Andreas; Ottersbach, Peter

2010-03-01

80

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale)  

PubMed Central

Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX). Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen a chloroform partition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibited COX-2 with IC50 values of 32 ?M, 17.5 ?M and 7.5 ?M, respectively. No inhibition of COX-1 was detected. Therefore, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1, which can explain, in part, anti-inflammatory properties of ginger.

van Breemen, Richard B.; Tao, Yi; Li, Wenkui

2010-01-01

81

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale).  

PubMed

Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX). Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen a chloroform partition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibited COX-2 with IC(50) values of 32 ?M, 17.5 ?M and 7.5 ?M, respectively. No inhibition of COX-1 was detected. Therefore, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1, which can explain, in part, the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger. PMID:20837112

van Breemen, Richard B; Tao, Yi; Li, Wenkui

2011-01-01

82

The effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood chemical parameter in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is used as a cooking spice in the diet in many parts of the world. Recent research has found ginger to have various pharmacological properties due to a variety of active constituents, including shogaols and gingerols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of alcohol extract of Zingiber officinale on the fractions of

Mehrdad Modaresi; Manouchehr Mesri Pour; Dina Zohrabi

2010-01-01

83

Concentration of Symphytum officinale extracts with cytostatic activity by tangential flow ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symphytum officinale L (Boraginaceae) species are currently used in the Romanian traditional medicine to treat different human and animal disease, being also active in certain cancer forms. This work's aim consists in obtaining of Symphytum officinale concentrated extracts by using performance membrane processes, aqueous extracts prepared were concentrated by tangential flow ultrafiltration with a Koch Laboratory Cell CF-1 membrane. The

ELENA NEAGU; VERONICA MOROEANU; GABRIEL LUCIAN RADU

2008-01-01

84

Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage.

Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prufer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

85

Determination of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and preparation by column chromatography.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the variety and content of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum, a traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activities, by developing an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS method and a preparative column chromatographic method for carotenoid isolation. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 66 min by employing a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (79:14:7, v/v/v) and methylene chloride (100%) with flow rate at 1.0 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. All-trans-canthaxanthin was shown to be an appropriate internal standard for quantitation, with all-trans-?-carotene and its cis isomers present in largest amount (413.6 ?g/g), followed by all-trans-violoxanthin and its cis isomers (209.5 ?g/g), all-trans-lutein and its cis isomers (212.4 ?g/g), all-trans-neoxanthin and its cis isomers (134.6 ?g/g), antheraxanthin (16.5 ?g/g), all-trans-?-cryptoxanthin and its cis isomers (5.8 ?g/g), all-trans-zeaxanthin (3.6 ?g/g) and neochrome (0.1 ?g/g). For preparative chromatography, with a glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) as adsorbent, the carotenoid fraction was eluted with 300 mL of ethyl acetate with flow rate at 10 mL/min. Some more epoxides and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated during preparative column chromatography. Nevertheless, the carotenoids isolated from T. formosanum may be used as raw material for possible production of health food in the future. PMID:22502907

Kao, T H; Loh, C H; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

2012-07-01

86

[Investigation on wild resources of Dendrobium officinale distribution and ecological envirment in Anhui].  

PubMed

The wild resources of Dendrobium officinale in Anhui province were studied by textural research, data collection, interview survey and regional survey, in order to investigate the resources distribution and ecological characters and provide the reference for Anhui Dendrobium industry. In this paper, a part of producing areas of wild D. officinale in Anhui province was selected to analyze the ecological characters. As a result, we find that the wild resources of D. officinale in Anhui distributed only sporadic and the conditions of growth environment were harsh. Our findings may provide some suggestions on wild resources protection and artificial cultivation in suitable environments because the wild resources of D. officinale in Anhui are decreasing rapidly and facing an endangered situation. PMID:24791481

Jin, Yan-Yan; Fang, Cheng-Wu; Yang, Qi-Qing; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Chuan-Biao; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Wang, Wu; Wang, Lin

2013-12-01

87

Anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus by using cultured glomerular capillary endothelial cells (GECs), chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rat cornea. Treatment of GECs with several concentrations (5–50 ?g\\/ml) of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus extracts for 24 h inhibited angiotensin II (10?8 M)-induced increases of [3H]thymidine uptake and cell numbers in a

Dong Hoon Kwak; Jin Kyeoung Kim; Ji Yeoun Kim; Heun Young Jeong; Kyung Soo Keum; Sun Hee Han; Young Il Rho; Won Hong Woo; Kyu Yong Jung; Bong Kyu Choi; Young Kug Choo

2002-01-01

88

Genetic variation and conservation of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Dendrobium officinale based on SRAP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is used for traditional medicine and is critically endangered in China. To investigate the genetic structure\\u000a of this species and to offer some advice on conservation strategies, 84 individuals from nine wild populations of D. officinale were analyzed using the method of sequence-related amplified polymorphism. A high level of genetic diversity was detected\\u000a (PPB = 88.07%, H

Ge Ding; Daizhen Zhang; Xiaoyu Ding; Qi Zhou; Weichao Zhang; Xuexia Li

2008-01-01

89

[Cloning and expression analysis of a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene in Dendrobium officinale in response to mycorrhizal fungal infection].  

PubMed

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play an important regulatory role in the plantarbuscular mycorrhiza/rhizobium nodule symbiosis. However, the biological action of CDPKs in orchid mycorrhiza (OM) symbiosis remains unclear. In the present study, a CDPK encoding gene, designated as DoCPK1 (GenBank accession No. JX193703), was identified from D. officinale roots infected by an OM fungus-Mycena sp. using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods, for the first time. The full length cDNA of DoCPK1 was 2137 bp in length and encoded a 534 aa protein with a molecular weight of 59.61 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.03. The deduced DoCPK1 protein contained the conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic domain and four Ca2+ binding EF hand motifs. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that DoCPK1 was highly homologous (85%) to the Panax ginseng PgCPK1 (ACY78680), followed by CDPKs genes from wheat, rice, and Arabidopsis (ABD98803, ADM14342, Q9ZSA2, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that DoCPK1 was closely related to CDPKs genes from monocots, such as wheat, maize and rice. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoCPK1 was constitutively expressed in the included tissues and the transcript levels were in the order of roots > stems > seeds > leaves. Furthermore, DoCPK1 transcripts were significantly accumulated in roots 30 d after fungal infection, with 5.16 fold compared to that of the mock roots, indicating involvement of DoCPK1 during the early interaction between D. officinale and Mycena sp., and a possible role in the symbiosis process. This study firstly provided important clues of a CDPK gene associated with OM symbiosis, and will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in D. officinale and Mycena sp. symbiosis. PMID:23387091

Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Li, Biao; Song, Chao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

2012-11-01

90

Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger.

Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

2014-01-01

91

Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe.  

PubMed

Five compounds were isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) through repeated column chromatography. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol using spectroscopic analysis. Among the five isolated compounds, 6-shogaol exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against human A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 tumor cells. 6-shogaol inhibited proliferation of the transgenic mouse ovarian cancer cell lines, C1 (genotype: p53(-/-), c-myc, K-ras) and C2 (genotype: p53(-/-), c-myc, Akt), with ED(50) values of 0.58 microM (C1) and 10.7 microM (C2). PMID:18449496

Kim, Ju Sin; Lee, Sa Im; Park, Hye Won; Yang, Jae Heon; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Sang Un; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Leem, Kang-Hyun; Jung, Mun Yhung; Kim, Dae Keun

2008-04-01

92

Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

93

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the Gingerols Inhibit the Growth of Cag A+ Strains of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Background Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments such as motion sickness, dyspepsia and hyperemesis gravidarum, and is also reported to have chemopreventative activity in animal models. The gingerols are a group of structurally related polyphenolic compounds isolated from ginger and known to be the active constituents. Since Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the primary etiological agent associated with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric and colon cancer, the anti-HP effects of ginger and its constituents were tested in vitro. Materials and Methods A methanol extract of the dried powdered ginger rhizome, fractions of the extract and the isolated constituents, 6-,8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogoal, were tested against 19 strains of HP, including 5 CagA+ strains. Results The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25–50 µg/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 µg/ml and with significant activity against the CagA+ strains. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ginger root extracts containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventative effects.

Mahady, Gail B.; Pendland, Susan L.; Yun, Gina S.; Lu, Zhi-Zhen; Stoia, Adina

2013-01-01

94

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

95

Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity.

2011-01-01

96

Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme. PMID:24498820

Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

2013-06-01

97

Gingerol content of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a monocotyledonous, sterile cultigen, is widely used as a spice, flavoring agent, and herbal medicine. The pungency of fresh ginger is due to a series of homologous phenolic ketones of which [6]-gingerol is the major one. The gingerols are thermally unstable and can be converted to their corresponding shogaols, which are present in dried ginger. Fresh

Hans Wohlmuth; David N. Leach; Mike K. Smith; Stephen P. Myers

2005-01-01

98

Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: An efficient and sustainable approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol\\/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time\\/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet

Jiajin Hu; Zheng Guo; Marianne Glasius; Kasper Kristensen; Langtao Xiao; Xuebing Xu

2011-01-01

99

Steamed ginger ( Zingiber officinale): Changed chemical profile and increased anticancer potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger, from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosco (Zingiberaceae), is a common condiment for foods and beverages. In this work, we tested a hypothesis that a steaming process affects the chemical profile and anticancer potential of ginger. An HPLC method with TOF\\/MS and DAD was developed to analyse the chemical constituents in ginger. The antiproliferative effect of fresh, dried and

Xiao-Lan Cheng; Qun Liu; Yong-Bo Peng; Lian-Wen Qi; Ping Li

2011-01-01

100

Commercially processed dry ginger ( Zingiber officinale): Composition and effects on LPS-stimulated PGE 2 production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using techniques previously employed to identify ginger constituents in fresh organically grown Hawaiian white and yellow ginger varieties, partially purified fractions derived from the silica gel column chromatography and HPLC of a methylene chloride extract of commercially processed dry ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, which demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all, 115 compounds were

Shivanand D. Jolad; R. Clark Lantz; Guan Jie Chen; Robert B. Bates; Barbara N. Timmermann

2005-01-01

101

Fresh organically grown ginger ( Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE 2 production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry, a technique previously employed to analyze non-volatile pungent components of ginger extracts modified to trimethylsilyl derivatives, was applied successfully for the first time to analyze unmodified partially purified fractions from the dichloromethane extracts of organically grown samples of fresh Chinese white and Japanese yellow varieties of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). This analysis

Shivanand D. Jolad; R. Clark Lantz; Aniko M. Solyom; Guan Jie Chen; Robert B. Bates; Barbara N. Timmermann

2004-01-01

102

Faecal microbial contamination of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) gathered by a Maori protocol in New Zealand streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the food safety status of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) harvested from rural streams under Maori protocol. Sixty?five sample bunches (c. 500 g) were collected from four streams in the Waikato region of New Zealand each summer from 2005 to 2007. Two streams, Southern Enclosure and Te Waihou, were within reserves and the other two,

A. Donnison; C. Ross; L. Dixon

2009-01-01

103

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. L.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under

Maria Fernanda; Pereira Lavieri Gomes; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco; JoseGuilherme Xavier; Leoni Villano Bonamin

2007-01-01

104

Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.  

PubMed

In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic ? cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E ? cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on ? cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in ? cells. PMID:24170976

Ra?ková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mi?ová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

2013-03-01

105

Effect of gamma Radiation and Temperature on Ginger (Zingiber Officinale L.) Sprout and Weight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32 +- 3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows...

S. Sirikulvadhana C. Prompubesara

1979-01-01

106

COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) EXTRACT AND IBUPROFEN ON PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract supplementation has been shown to improve the severity of symptoms and decrease the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) requirements in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To assess the effects of ginger extract as an alternative to NSAIDs and as a supplement drug in the symptomatic treatment of OA. Methods: Between April and October 2002, 120 outpatients

Masoud Haghighi; Ali Khalvat; Tayebeh Toliat; Shohreh Jallaei

2005-01-01

107

Comfrey root: from tradition to modern clinical trials.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) has been used over many centuries as a medicinal plant. In particular, the use of the root has a longstanding tradition. Today, several randomised controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety. Comfrey root extract has been used for the topical treatment of painful muscle and joint complaints. It is clinically proven to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling of muscles and joints in the case of degenerative arthritis, acute myalgia in the back, sprains, contusions and strains after sports injuries and accidents, also in children aged 3 years and older. This paper provides information on clinical trials, non-interventional studies and further literature published on comfrey root till date. PMID:23224633

Staiger, Christiane

2013-02-01

108

Anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus by using cultured glomerular capillary endothelial cells (GECs), chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rat cornea. Treatment of GECs with several concentrations (5-50 microg/ml) of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus extracts for 24 h inhibited angiotensin II (10(-8) M)-induced increases of [3H]thymidine uptake and cell numbers in a concentration-dependent manner. The extent of inhibitory rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation by C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus at 50 microg/ml was a similar to that by 10(-5) M of retinoic acid. Herbal extracts also conspicuously inhibited the neovascularization. In contrast to the normal branching of vascular vessels, blood vessel patterns in CAMs treated with extracts (50 microg per egg) of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus were ran parallel to each other without much branching. Moreover, oral administration of herbal extracts (20 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks significantly inhibited the rat corneal neovascularization induced by suture, and the length of blood vessels in herbal medicine-treated rat cornea was conspicuously lower than that in control animals. A similar inhibitory effect to these was also observed in the rat cornea treated with thalidomide (200 mg/kg per day). These findings indicate that the anti-angiogenic properties of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus may be one of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of herbal extracts tested in this study. PMID:12127239

Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Kyeoung; Kim, Ji Yeoun; Jeong, Heun Young; Keum, Kyung Soo; Han, Sun Hee; Rho, Young Il; Woo, Won Hong; Jung, Kyu Yong; Choi, Bong Kyu; Choo, Young Kug

2002-08-01

109

ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale  

PubMed Central

Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

110

The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Leaf-Harvest on the Root and Leaf Yield of Lovage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various amounts of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 15, 30, 45, 75, 120 kg\\/ha N) and the number of leaf harvests on the quality and quantity of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch) was studied in a two-year-old stand in Puumala, South-Finland in 1987. As nitrogen fertilization increased fresh root yield increased from 115 to 213 kg\\/100 m. The optimum N-level,

B. Galambosi; Zs. Szebeni-Galambosi

1992-01-01

111

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology.

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

112

Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The larvicidal activity of a petroleum ether extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera). Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 4-gingerol (1), (6)-dehydrogingerdione (2) and (6)-dihydrogingerdione (3); the latter has not previously been reported from Z. officinale. The structures were established from infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data. Following a 24 h exposure, compounds 1-3 exhibited larvicidal activities against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 4.25, 9.80, 18.20 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 5.52, 7.66, 27.24 ppm), respectively. The results show that the most effective compound was 4-gingerol. PMID:18618523

Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan; Bagavan, A

2008-08-01

113

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? Cytotoxicity of crude extracts from Allamanda cathartica, Guaiacum officinale, and Artabotrys siamensis to cancer cells ????? ?????????, ????? ??????  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is mainly focused on the cytotoxicity test of hexane extracts from Banbureeleung (Allamanda cathartica), Kaowjowjom (Guaiacum officinale) and Karawek (Artabotrys siamensis). The MTT assay was performed in three cancer cell types, colorectal carcinoma (COLO-205), cervical carcinoma (Hela) and hepatoma (HepG2). Banbureeleung leaves had highest cytotoxic efficiency with IC50 at 41.3, 227.6 and 600 µg\\/ml in COLO-205, Hela and

Wanlaya Uthaisang; Paisarn Khawsak

114

Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.  

PubMed

Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs. PMID:8134409

Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

1994-02-01

115

Solar drying of West Indian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire basket dryer (1.8 m × 0.9 × 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m?3 and a specific drying rate

D. A. Balladin; I. Chang Yen; D. R. McGaw; O. Headley

1996-01-01

116

Pharmacokinetics of [6]-shogaol, a pungent ingredient of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Part I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the pharmacokinetics of [6]-shogaol, a pungent ingredient of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by using 14C-[6]-shogaol (labeled compound) and [6]-shogaol (non-labeled compound). When the labeled compound was orally administered\\u000a to rats, the maximum plasma concentration (C\\u000a max) and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma radioactivity concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner. When the

Akitoshi Asami; Tsutomu Shimada; Yasuharu Mizuhara; Takayuki Asano; Shuichi Takeda; Takashi Aburada; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Masaki Aburada

2010-01-01

117

Inhibitory effects of zingerone, a pungent component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on colonic motility in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including constipation and diarrhea. Zingerone\\u000a is a likely active constituent responsible for the antidiarrheal activity of ginger. The current study was designed to characterize\\u000a pharmacological actions of zingerone on colonic motility. To evaluate pharmacological effects of zingerone on colonic motility,\\u000a we used isolated colonic

Momoe Iwami; Takahiko Shiina; Haruko Hirayama; Takeshi Shima; Tadashi Takewaki; Yasutake Shimizu

2011-01-01

118

A laboratory evaluation of comfrey ( Symphytum officinale L.) as a forage crop for ensilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m2 area of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) was chopped and ensiled in duplicate laboratory silos, either unwilted or following a 24h wilt, to test the hypothesis that the crop might be suitable for ensiling as animal feed. Concentrations of dry matter (DM) averaged 112 and 146g\\/kg for the unwilted and wilted crops. Both crops were very difficult to chop due

J. M Wilkinson

2003-01-01

119

Chemotaxonomical investigations of the Symphytum officinale polyploid complex and S. asperum ( Boraginaceae ): The pyrrolizidine alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry the pyrrolizidine alkaloid patterns derived fromSymphytum asperum, several cytotypes ofS. officinale agg. and the artificial hybrids of the former taxa, were compared. The obtained patterns were not essentially affected by\\u000a variation in cytotype, harvesting times and -location of plants. Lycopsamine, acetyl-lycopsamine and symphytine or their isomers\\u000a were generally found

H. J. Huizing; Th. W. J. Gadella; E. Kliphuis

1982-01-01

120

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

121

Chemotaxonomical investigations of the Symphytum officinale polyploid complex and S. asperum ( Boraginaceae ): Phytosterols and triterpenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a comparison of phytosterol and triterpenoid patterns of severalSymphytum officinale cytotypes,S. asperum and their interspecific hybrids,S. ×uplandicum, which were obtained from thin layer chromatography and gaschromatography (also in combination with mass spectrometry), the hybrid character of the latter taxon is clearly shown. The specific value of the triterpenoid isobauerenol as a chemotaxonomical marker within this group is discussed in

H. J. Huizing; Th. M. Malingré; Th. W. J. Gadella; E. Kliphuis

1983-01-01

122

Stability of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizome with Different Drying Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of drying methods on the stability of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were assessed. The rhizomes were collected at 9 and 12 months after planting and sun-dried, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 40°, 50°, 60°, or 70° C. Oven drying at 60° C resulted in significant gains of phenolics (441.85 mg.100g d.w), antioxidant activities (78.45 ± 2.04%

Theeraphan Chumroenphat; Intha Khanprom; Luchai Butkhup

2011-01-01

123

Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger) is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500?mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n?=?46, ginger n?=?56). The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P?=?0.015) and protocol two (P?=?0.029). There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P?=?0.017) but not for protocol two (P?=?0.210). Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5?days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

2012-01-01

124

Free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. methanolic extracts  

PubMed Central

Background: Antioxidants from natural resources possess multifaceted and importance of the activities provides substantial scope in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale and Ligusticum chuanxiong, which are closely related species. Materials and Methods: The scavenging activities of plant materials were evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl (OH·), nitric oxide radical (NO·) and metal chelation. In addition, the cell viability and nitric oxide release were assayed using Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Results: The methanolic extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong showed scavenging activities of free radicals with an additional antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the efficacy on the cell viability and nitric oxide release in cell culture model has been established. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong have comparatively similar free radical scavenging activities in vitro and may have important health effects.

Ramalingam, Mahesh; Yong-Ki, Park

2010-01-01

125

Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique  

PubMed Central

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 ?g/g to 10,870.4 ?g/g, and the latter from 9.9 ?g/g to 325.8 ?g/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

2012-01-01

126

Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.  

PubMed

Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 ?g/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 ?g/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 ?g/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 ?g/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation. PMID:22656126

Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

2012-06-20

127

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

2012-04-01

128

Genes involved in ethylene and gibberellins metabolism are required for endosperm-limited germination of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds: germination in Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds.  

PubMed

The rupture of the seed coat and that of the endosperm were found to be two sequential events in the germination of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds, and radicle protrusion did not occur exactly in the micropylar area but in the neighboring zone. The germination patterns were similar both in the presence of gibberellins (GA(4+7)) and in presence of ethrel. The analysis of genes involved in GAs synthesis and breakdown demonstrated that (1) SoGA2ox6 expression peaked just prior to radicle protrusion (20-22 h), while SoGA3ox2 and SoGA20ox2 expression was high at early imbibition (6 h) diminishing sharply thereafter; (2) the accumulation of SoGA20ox2 transcript was strongly inhibited by paclobutrazol (PB) as well as by inhibitors of ET synthesis and signaling (IESS) early after imbibition (6 h), while SoGA3ox2 and SoGA2ox6 expression was slowly depressed as germination progressed; (3) ethrel and GA(4+7) positively or negatively affected expression of SoGA3ox2, SoGA20ox2, and SoGA2ox6, depending on the germination period studied. Regarding genes involved in ET synthesis, our results showed that SoACS7 was expressed, just prior to radicle emergence while SoACO2 expression slowly increased as germination progressed. Both genes were strongly inhibited by PB but were almost unaffected by externally added ethrel or GA(4+7). These results suggest that GAs are more important than ET during the early stages of imbibition, while ET is more important at the late phases of germination of S. officinale L. seeds. PMID:20012087

Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Matilla, Angel J

2010-02-01

129

Anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing effects of the constituents of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol inhibited the Ca²?-dependent contractions in high K? medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism. PMID:22836212

Liao, Yu-Ren; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chan, Yu-Yi; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, Tian-Shung

2012-01-01

130

[Studies on the effect of an alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale on human lymphocyte cultures].  

PubMed

An alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale was investigated for its chromosome-damaging effect in human lymphocytes in vitro. In concentrations of 1.4 micrograms/ml and 14 micrograms/ml the alkaloids had no effect, in concentrations of 140 micrograms/ml and 1400 micrograms/ml the alkaloids induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) as well as chromosome aberrations. Additionally, the influence of rat liver enzymes (S9) was tested. The SCE-inducing capacity and the clastogenic effect of Symphytum alkaloids was increased by simultaneous application of S9-Mix. PMID:2616671

Behninger, C; Abel, G; Röder, E; Neuberger, V; Göggelmann, W

1989-12-01

131

Mycotoxin production and postharvest storage rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by Penicillium brevicompactum.  

PubMed

Twenty naturally infected ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes displaying visible mold growth were examined to identify the fungi and to evaluate the presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Penicillium brevicompactum was the predominant species isolated from 85% of the samples. Mycophenolic acid was identified from corresponding tissue extracts. Because mycophenolic acid is a potent immunosuppressant and synergistic mycotoxicosis studies involving human consumption have not been carried out on this metabolite, spoilage of commercially marketed produce caused by P. brevicompactum is a concern. This is the first reported occurrence of mycophenolic acid in commercially sold plant food products. PMID:15771190

Overy, D P; Frisvad, J C

2005-03-01

132

Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated in four-way olfactometer bioassays. Results showed that vacuum distilled A. melegueta and Z. officinale extracts were repellent towards adult S. zeamais both in the absence and the presence of maize, Zea mays, grains. Bioassay-guided liquid chromatographic fractionation of the distillates showed that fractions containing oxygenated compounds accounted for the repellent activity. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), followed by GC peak enhancement and enantioselective GC using authentic compounds, identified 3 major compounds in the behaviourally active fractions of A. melegueta and Z. officinale to be (S)-2-heptanol, (S)-2-heptyl acetate and (R)-linalool in a ratio of 1:6:3, and 1,8-cineole, neral and geranial in a ratio of 5.48:1:2.13, respectively. The identification of these behaviourally active compounds provides the scientific basis for the observed repellent properties of A. melegueta and Z. officinale, and demonstrates the potential for their use in stored-product protection at the small-scale farmer level in Africa. PMID:19394981

Ukeh, Donald A; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Bowman, Alan S; Luntz, A Jennifer Mordue

2009-04-01

133

(6)-gingerol Content and Bioactive Properties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe ) Extracts from Supercritical CO 2 Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is one of the most widely used herbs that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. (6)-gingerol, a major pungent ingredien t of ginger, also has great potent antioxidant activity. Monitoring of (6)-gingerol co ntent during drying process, ginger extraction with supercritical CO 2 and bioactive properties analyses of extracts were performed. Fresh

Chairat Puengphian; Anchalee Sirichote

134

Extraction and evaluation of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pungent principles (gingerols and shogaols) were extracted after the sliced dried ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) had been either solar dried or solar dried\\/steam distilled using acetone or ethanol separately as the extraction solvent. These pungent principles were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography. Based on 100 g (dry weight basis) of the ginger rhizomes, the percentages very between

D. McGaw

1997-01-01

135

Metabolic profiling and phylogenetic analysis of medicinal Zingiber species: Tools for authentication of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis and metabolic profiling were used to investigate the diversity of plant material within the ginger species and between ginger and closely related species in the genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae). In addition, anti-inflammatory data were obtained for the investigated species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all Zingiber officinale samples from different geographical origins were genetically indistinguishable. In contrast, other Zingiber species

Hongliang Jiang; Zhengzhi Xie; Hyun Jo Koo; Steven P. McLaughlin; Barbara N. Timmermann; David R. Gang

2006-01-01

136

Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger singly did not inhibit any

2004-01-01

137

Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry, a technique previously employed to analyze non-volatile pungent components of ginger extracts modified to trimethylsilyl derivatives, was applied successfully for the first time to analyze unmodified partially purified fractions from the dichloromethane extracts of organically grown samples of fresh Chinese white and Japanese yellow varieties of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). This analysis resulted in the detection of 20 hitherto unknown natural products and 31 compounds previously reported as ginger constituents. These include paradols, dihydroparadols, gingerols, acetyl derivatives of gingerols, shogaols, 3-dihydroshogaols, gingerdiols, mono- and diacetyl derivatives of gingerdiols, 1-dehydrogingerdiones, diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of some of these compounds. The thermal degradation of gingerols to gingerone, shogaols, and related compounds was demonstrated. The major constituent in the two varieties was [6]-gingerol, a chemical marker for Z. officinale. Mass spectral fragmentation patterns for all the compounds are described and interpreted. Anti-inflammatory activities of silica gel chromatography fractions were tested using an in vitro PGE2 assay. Most of the fractions containing gingerols and/or gingerol derivatives showed excellent inhibition of LPS-induced PGE2 production. PMID:15280001

Jolad, Shivanand D; Lantz, R Clark; Solyom, Aniko M; Chen, Guan Jie; Bates, Robert B; Timmermann, Barbara N

2004-07-01

138

[Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

139

Discrimination of the rare medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale based on naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish a method for discriminating Dendrobium officinale from four of its close relatives Dendrobium chrysanthum, Dendrobium crystallinum, Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium devonianum based on chemical composition analysis. We analyzed 62 samples of 24 Dendrobium species. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that the four low molecular weight compounds 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin), 3,4-dihydroxy-4',5-dime-thoxybibenzyl (DDB-2), 3',4-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxybibenzyl (gigantol), and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzy (moscatilin), were common in the genus. The phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to quantify polysaccharides, and the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides was determined by gas chromatography. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to differentiate among the five closely related species based on the chemical composition analysis. This proved to be a simple and accurate approach for discriminating among these species. The results also showed that the polysaccharide content, the amounts of the four low molecular weight compounds, and the mannose to glucose ratio, were important factors for species discriminant. Therefore, we propose that a chemical analysis based on quantification of naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides is effective for identifying D. officinale. PMID:23233224

Chen, Xiaomei; Wang, Fangfei; Wang, Yunqiang; Li, Xuelan; Wang, Airong; Wang, Chunlan; Guo, Shunxing

2012-12-01

140

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.  

PubMed

This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation. PMID:24784510

Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

2014-01-01

141

Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale  

PubMed Central

Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry.

Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

2011-01-01

142

Phenylpropanoid ester from Zingiber officinale and their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A new phenylpropanoid ester mixture, (E)-geranylferulic acid (1a) and (Z)-geranylferulic acid (1b), along with 13 known compounds, [6]-gingerol (2), [8]-gingerol (3), [10]-gingerdione (4), 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione (5), 1-dehydro-[8]-gingerdione (6), [6]-paradol (7), [8]-paradol (8), [6]-gingeroldiacetate (9), 6-hydroxy-[6]-shogaol (10), galanolactone (11), trans-®-sesquiphellandrol (12), trans-sesquipiperitol (13), and 4?,5?-dihydroxybisabola-2,10-diene (14) were isolated from ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale. Their structures were determined based on the spectroscopic (1D, 2D-NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All of the isolates were evaluated for their potential to inhibit LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC(50) values ranging from 5.5 to 28.5 ?M. PMID:22370785

Hong, Seong Su; Oh, Joa Sub

2012-02-01

143

Action of some proteic and carbohydrate components of Symphytum officinale upon normal and neoplastic cells.  

PubMed

The crude watery extract of Symphytum officinale and certain proteic and carbohydrate components isolated from it were studied for their effect upon the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of Ehrlich ascites cells, EL-4 cell line and of human T lymphocytes and upon the respiratory burst of human PMN granulocytes stimulated via Fc receptors. The results indicate that the crude extract and its proteic fraction stimulate the in vivo proliferation of the studied neoplastic cells and exert an antimitotic effect on human T lymphocytes in vitro stimulated with PHA. The vegetal preparations have remarkable effects on the respiratory burst of the granulocytes non-stimulated and stimulated via Fc receptors. The data underline the necessity to study thoroughly the effects of different phyto compounds through both pharmacological and immunological methods. PMID:8186457

Olinescu, A; Manda, G; Neagu, M; Hristescu, S; Da?anu, C

1993-01-01

144

Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract. PMID:8887946

Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

1996-01-01

145

10-Shogaol, an Antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for Skin Cell Proliferation and Migration Enhancer  

PubMed Central

In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), platelet derived growth factor-?? (PDGF-??) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent.

Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

2012-01-01

146

Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program.

Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd.; Mallick, N.

2013-01-01

147

Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard's similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program. PMID:24600309

Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd; Mallick, N

2014-04-01

148

Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98?ppm and 1.38?ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01?ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe?+?Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements.

Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

2013-01-01

149

Technical note Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70–230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60–80°C) : diethyl ether (3 : 7 v?v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in

D. A Balladin; O Headley

1999-01-01

150

High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried\\/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20:1:2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried\\/steam distilled ginger

D. R. Mcgaw

1998-01-01

151

INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PLANTAS DE CONFREI (Symphytum officinale L.)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição

FONSÊCA CASTRO; AMAURI ALVES DE ALVARENGA

152

Extended Ane Root Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two notions of the extended ane root systems in the literature which both are introduced axiomatically. One, extended ane root system (SAERS for short), consists only of nonisotropic roots, while the other, extended ane root system (EARS for short), contains certain isotropic roots too. We show that there is a one to one correspondence between (reduced) SEARSs and

Saeid Azam

2002-01-01

153

Antioxidant activity in essential oils of Cnidium officinale makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong hort and their inhibitory effects on DNA damage and apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B in mammalian cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Owing to their high volatile aroma, the dried rhizomes of Cnidium officinale (C. officinale) and Ligusticum chuanxiong (L. chuanxiong) are used as herbal drugs to treat blood pressure depressant, a deficiency disease of antivitamin, inhibition of small intestine sympathetic nerve and as cosmetics for skin care. However, little has been known about the protective effect of their essential oils

Jin Boo Jeong; So Yeong Ju; Jae Ho Park; Jeong Rak Lee; Kyeong Won Yun; Soon Tae Kwon; Jae-Hwan Lim; Gyu Young Chung; Hyung Jin. Jeong

2009-01-01

154

Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.  

PubMed

Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. PMID:23889539

Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

2014-08-01

155

Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.  

PubMed

To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). PMID:21782193

Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

2011-08-26

156

Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia.

Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta; Tongun, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

2011-01-01

157

Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis1  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies based on ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger’s antiarthritic effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.

Funk, Janet L.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Oyarzo, Janice N.; Timmermann, Barbara N.

2009-01-01

158

Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as controls and they received normal rat chow and olive oil respectively. Group 3 was fed with ginger oleoresin dissolved in olive oil at 100 mg/kg body wt. Group 4 was fed with choline deficient diet and 0.1% ethionine in drinking water (CDE diet), and group 5 received ginger with CDE diet. Blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus at 0 and 8 weeks of experiment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA). Rats were also killed at 8 weeks for the observation of liver tumor formation. CDE diet induced the formation of liver nodules in rats and increased SOD activity. However, it had no effect on catalase, GPx and MDA levels when compared to both controls at 8 weeks of experiment. When CDE rats were treated with ginger, the formation of liver tumour, SOD activity and MDA level reduced, catalase activity was increased but no change was observed for GPx activity when compared to CDE group. In conclusion, ginger supplementation suppressed liver carcinogenesis by scavenging the free radical formation, and by reducing lipid peroxidation. PMID:20162046

Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Ahmad, Norliza; Das, Srijit; Sulaiman, Suhaniza; Murad, Nor Azian

2008-01-01

159

In vivo wound healing effects of Symphytum officinale L. leaves extract in different topical formulations.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates wound healing activity of leaves extracts of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) incorporated in three pharmaceutical formulations. Wound healing activity of comfrey was determined by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound in rat model, using allantoin as positive control. Three topical formulations, carbomer gel, glycero-alcoholic solution and O/W emulsion (soft lotion) were compared. The histological analysis of the healing process shows significant differences in treatment, particularly on its intensity and rate. The results indicate that emulsion containing both extracts, commercial and prepared, induced the largest and furthest repair of damaged tissue. This could be evidenced from day 3 to 28 by increase in collagen deposition from 40% to 240% and reduction on cellular inflammatory infiltrate from 3% to 46%. However, 8% prepared extract in emulsion presented the best efficacy. This work clearly demonstrates that comfrey leaves have a wound healing activity. The O/W emulsion showed to be the vehicle most effective to induce healing activity, particularly with extracts obtained from comfrey leaves collected in Minas Gerais state in Brazil. It shows the best efficacy to control the inflammatory process and to induce collagen deposition at 8% concentration. PMID:22570943

Araújo, L U; Reis, P G; Barbosa, L C O; Saúde-Guimarães, D A; Grabe-Guimarães, A; Mosqueira, V C F; Carneiro, C M; Silva-Barcellos, N M

2012-04-01

160

A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans. PMID:23612703

Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-06-01

161

[Field experiment of F1 generation and superior families selection of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Based on randomized block design of experiment, agronomic traits and yields of 14 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the differences in agronomic traits and yields among families were significant, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Families of 6b x 2a, 9 x 66 and 78 x 69 were selected with the remarkable superiority of yields, agronomic traits and product customization. Correlation analysis between agronomic traits and yields showed that plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, blade length and blade width were all significantly correlated with biological yields and economic yields. Among which, stem diameter, leaf number and blade length were the most significant, and an optimal linear regression model could be established. When the number of shoots was fewer than 4.5, both biological yields and economic yields increased with the increasing number of shoots, but it could not much affect yields when the number of shoots was larger than 4.5. Shoots number, stem diameter and leaf index were basic stability when compared biennial traits to annual, which could be used for early selection. PMID:24558865

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

162

Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P?

Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

2014-05-01

163

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:23550785

Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

2013-04-01

164

Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used in various foods and beverages. 6-Gingerol is the major bioactive constituent responsible for the antiinflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant activities of ginger. The effect of application of ?-amylase, viscozyme, cellulase, protease and pectinase enzymes to ginger on the oleoresin yield and 6-gingerol content has been investigated. Pre-treatment of ginger with ?-amylase or viscozyme followed by extraction with acetone afforded higher yield of oleoresin (20%±0.5) and gingerol (12.2%±0.4) compared to control (15%±0.6 oleoresin, 6.4%±0.4 gingerol). Extraction of ginger pre-treated with enzymes followed by extraction with ethanol provided higher yield of gingerol (6.2-6.3%) than the control (5.5%) with comparable yields of the oleoresin (31-32%). Also, ethanol extract of cellulase pre-treated ginger had the maximum polyphenol content (37.5 mg/g). Apart from 6-gingerol, 6-paradol along with 6- and 8-methyl shogaols were the other important bio-active constituents in the oleoresin from cellulase-treated ginger. PMID:23561138

Nagendra chari, K L; Manasa, D; Srinivas, P; Sowbhagya, H B

2013-08-15

165

Effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin production.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of ginger essential oil (GEO; Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was evaluated against Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEO was determined by micro-broth dilution. The effects of GEO on fumonisin and ergosterol production were evaluated at concentrations of 500-5000 ?g/mL in liquid medium with a 5mm diameter mycelial disc of F. verticillioides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the predominant components of GEO were ?-zingiberene (23.9%) and citral (21.7%). GEO exhibited inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2500 ?g/mL, and 4000 and 5000 ?g/mL reduced ergosterol biosynthesis by 57% and 100%, respectively. The inhibitory effect on fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) production was significant at GEO concentrations of 4000 and 2000 ?g/mL, respectively. Thus, the inhibition of fungal biomass and fumonisin production was dependent on the concentration of GEO. These results suggest that GEO was able to control the growth of F. verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin production. PMID:23871071

Yamamoto-Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi Garcia; Grespan, Renata; Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Filho, Benicio Alves de Abreu; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

2013-12-01

166

Phenazine carboxylic acid production and rhizome protective effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is cultivated commercially in most parts of the world especially in India for its culinary and medicinal applications. One of the major challenges that limit the yield of ginger is rhizome rot disease caused by organisms including Pythium myriotylum. A feasible ecofriendly method is yet to be devised to prevent the plant from this threatening disease. Recent studies on plant microbiome show the possibility of having endophytic organisms with plant protective characteristics associated with the plants. Because of the uniquely evolved underground nature of the ginger rhizome and its peculiar survival in soil for a long time, many interesting endophytic microbes with plant protective characters can be well expected from it. In the current study, previously isolated endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ginger was investigated in detail for its effect on Pythium myriotylum. The rhizome protective effect of the organism was also studied by co-inoculation studies, which confirmed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has very potent inhibitory effect on Pythium myriotylum. On further studies, the active antifungal compound was identified as phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. PMID:24353040

Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Rohini, Sabu; Kurian, Jacob Manoj; Jyothis, Mathew; Radhakrishnan, E K

2014-05-01

167

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

168

The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent.  

PubMed

The effect of an aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as platelet thromboxane-B(2) and prostaglandin-E(2) production was examined. A raw aqueous extract of ginger was administered daily for a period of 4 weeks, either orally or intraperitoneally (IP) to rats. Fasting blood serum was investigated for thromboxane-B(2), prostaglandin-E(2), cholesterol and triglycerides. A low dose of ginger (50 mg/kg) administered either orally or IP did not produce any significant reduction in the serum thromboxane-B(2) levels when compared to saline-treated animals. However, ginger administered orally caused significant changes in the serum PGE(2) at this dose. High doses of ginger (500 mg/kg) were significantly effective in lowering serum PGE(2) when given either orally or IP. However, TXB(2) levels were significantly lower in rats given 500 mg/kg ginger orally but not IP. A significant reduction in serum cholesterol was observed when a higher dose of ginger (500 mg/kg) was administered. At a low dose of ginger (50 mg/kg), a significant reduction in the serum cholesterol was observed only when ginger was administered IP. No significant changes in serum triglyceride levels were observed upon administration of either the low or high dose of ginger. These results suggest that ginger could be used as an cholesterol-lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:12468270

Thomson, M; Al-Qattan, K K; Al-Sawan, S M; Alnaqeeb, M A; Khan, I; Ali, M

2002-12-01

169

Transgenic hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes causes hairy root disease in plants. The neoplastic roots produced by A. rhizogenes infection is characterized by high growth rate and genetic stability. These genetically transformed root cultures can produce higher levels of secondary metabolites or amounts comparable to that of intact plants. Hairy root cultures offer promise for production of valuable secondary metabolites in many plants. The

Archana Giri; M. Lakshmi Narasu

2000-01-01

170

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata

Cheryl Lans; Nancy Turner

2011-01-01

171

Preparative separation of gingerols from Zingiber officinale by high-speed counter-current chromatography using stepwise elution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an initial clean-up step on silica column, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to purify gingerols from an extract of the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale. The sample was separated with petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.2:0.5:0.7, v\\/v) and petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.2:0.7:0.5, v\\/v) in a stepwise elution and yielded 132mg of 6-gingerol, 31mg of 8-gingerol and 61mg of 10-gingerol from

Xiao Wang; Zhenjia Zheng; Xingfeng Guo; Jinpeng Yuan; Chengchao Zheng

2011-01-01

172

Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: a review.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances and development of novel anti-emetics, nausea and vomiting (emesis) is a major side-effect of cancer chemotherapy. At times, severe nausea and vomiting may also lead to reduction in adherence to the treatment regimen, and this will concomitantly affect the patient's survival. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, is globally an important spice. It has been used for centuries in the Indian, Chinese, Arabic, Tibetan, Unani, and Siddha systems of traditional medicine to treat nausea and vomiting induced by different stimuli. Preclinical studies with experimental animals (dogs and rats) have shown that the various extracts of ginger and the ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Gingerol, the active principle, is also shown to possess anti-emetic effects in minks. However, with regard to humans, while most studies have been supportive of the preclinical observations, a few have been contradictory. The exact mechanism responsible for the anti-emetic effects of ginger is unknown; however, the ginger phytochemicals, especially 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol, may function as a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) antagonist, NK1 antagonist, antihistaminic, and possess prokinetic effects. The present review for the first time attempts to address the anti-emetic observations and the variability in response of the anti-emetic effects of ginger in cancer chemotherapy. An attempt is also made to address the lacunae in the published studies and emphasize aspects that need further investigations for ginger to be of use in clinics as an anti-emetic agent in the future. PMID:22540971

Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rajeev, Antappa Govindaraju; Palatty, Princy L; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar S

2012-05-01

173

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

PubMed Central

6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry.

Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

2012-01-01

174

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry. PMID:24471079

Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

2012-06-01

175

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study.  

PubMed

Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the 'resistant hepatocyte model' (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1-2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann-Whitney and ?(2)) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ? 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ? 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

2010-06-01

176

Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate  

PubMed Central

The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 ?mol m?2s?1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 ?mol m?2s?1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

2010-01-01

177

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Low-grade inflammation, a common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2), causes some chronic complications in these patients. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in DM2 patients as a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: A total of 64 DM2 patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups and received 2 tablets/day of each for 2 months. The concentrations of IL-6, TNF-? and hs-CRP in blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-? (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.02) and hs-CRP (P = 0.012) in ginger group in comparison to baseline. Moreover, the analysis of covariance showed that the group received ginger supplementation significantly lowered TNF- ? (15.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.6 ± 5.2; P = 0.005) and hs-CRP (2.42 ± 1.7 vs. 2.56 ± 2.18; P = .016) concentrations in comparison to control group. While there were no significant changes in IL-6 (7.9 ± 2.1 vs. 7.8 ± 2.9; P > .05). Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger supplementation in oral administration reduced inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may be a good remedy to diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

Mahluji, Sepide; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mobasseri, Majid; Ebrahimzade Attari, Vahide; Payahoo, Laleh

2013-01-01

178

Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric ( Curcuma longa) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale): Identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Zingiberaceae such as turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) accumulate at high levels in their rhizomes important pharmacologically active metabolites that appear to be derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. In ginger, these compounds are the gingerols; in turmeric these are the curcuminoids. Despite their importance, little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds.

Maria del Carmen Ramirez-Ahumada; Barbara N. Timmermann; David R. Gang

2006-01-01

179

Regeneration of plants from tissue- and cell suspension cultures of Symphytum officinale L. and effect of in vitro culture on pyrrolizidine alkaloid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary calluses were induced from various organs of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) plants on solid MS and B5 medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. The callus was further subcultured on B5 medium. Cell suspension cultures were derived from B5 grown calluses by transfer to liquid B5 medium.

H. J. Huizing; E. C. Pfauth; Th. M. Malingré; J. H. Sietsma

1983-01-01

180

Effect of fast CO 2 pressure changes on the yield of lovage ( Levisticum officinale Koch.) and celery ( Apium graveolens L.) extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pressure alterations on the yield of CO2 extracts from different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) was studied. It was found that by applying frequent pressure changes in the extraction vessel it is possible to increase the rate of the isolation of CO2 soluble materials from lovage seeds and leaves, lovage

Egidijus Daukšas; Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Björn Sivik; Tobias Nillson

2002-01-01

181

Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

2013-08-01

182

The Root Pressure Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

Marsh, A. R.

1972-01-01

183

Short root anomaly.  

PubMed

A case of generalised short root anomaly is described. All permanent teeth had abnormally short roots, associated with microdontia, hypodontia and a dens invaginatus. Members of the patient's family were similarly affected. PMID:2261278

Edwards, D M; Roberts, G J

1990-11-10

184

Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.  

PubMed

Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260). PMID:22593551

Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

2012-01-01

185

Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting  

PubMed Central

Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260).

Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

2012-01-01

186

Cytotoxicity, toxicity, and anticancer activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an uncommon adenocarcinoma which arises from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts. The aim of the study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, toxicity, and anticancer activity of a crude ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) against CCA. Cytotoxic activity against a CCA cell line (CL-6) was assessed by calcein-AM and Hoechst 33342 assays and anti-oxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay. Investigation of apoptotic activity was performed by DNA fragmentation assay and induction of genes that may be involved in the resistance of CCA to anticancer drugs (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3) was examined by real-time PCR. To investigate anti-CCA activity in vivo, a total of 80 OV and nitrosamine (OV/ DMN)-induced CCA hamsters were fed with the ginger extract at doses of 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight daily or every alternate day for 30 days. Control groups consisting of 10 hamsters for each group were fed with 5-fluorouracil (positive control) or distilled water (untreated control). Median IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) values for cytotoxicity and anti-oxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extract of ginger were 10.95, 53.15, and 27.86 ?g/ml, respectively. More than ten DNA fragments were visualized and up to 7-9 fold up-regulation of MDR1 and MRP3 genes was observed following exposure to the ethanolic extract of ginger. Acute and subacute toxicity tests indicated absence of any significant toxicity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight given by intragastric gavage. The survival time and survival rate of the CCA-bearing hamsters were significantly prolonged compared to the control group (median of 54 vs 17 weeks). Results from these in vitro and in vivo studies thus indicate promising anticancer activity of the crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA with the absence of any significant toxicity. Moreover, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in conferring resistance of CCA to the ginger extract. PMID:23167387

Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Viyanant, Vithoon; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Tesana, Smarn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Itharat, Arunporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2012-01-01

187

[Molecular cloning and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (DoSAMDC1) in Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme in the polyamines biosynthesis, thus is essential for basic physiological and biochemical processes in plant. In the present study, a full length cDNA of DoSAMDC1 gene was obtained from symbiotic germinated seeds of an endangered medicinal orchid species Dendrobium officinale, using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR technique for the first time. The full length cDNA was 1 979 bp, with three open reading frames, i.e. tiny-uORF, small-uORF and main ORF (mORF). The mORF was deduced to encode a 368 amino acid (aa) protein with a molecular mass of 40.7 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.2. The deduced DoSAMDC1 protein, without signal peptide, had two highly conserved function domains (proenzyme cleavage site and PEST domain) and a 22-aa transmembrane domain (89-110). Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic relationship analyses revealed DoSAMDC1 had a higher level of sequence similarity to monocot SAMDCs than those of dicot. Expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses showed that DoSAMDC1 transcripts were expressed constitutively without significant change in the five tissues (not infected with fungi). While in the symbiotic germinated seeds, the expression level was enhanced by 2.74 fold over that in the none-germinated seeds, indicating possible involvement of the gene in symbiotic seed germination of D. officinale. PMID:23984533

Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-06-01

188

The root endodermis  

PubMed Central

The root endodermis is the cylindrical boundary that separates the inner vascular tissue from the outer cortex and functions as an apoplasmic barrier for selective nutrient uptake. Recent developmental and cell biological studies have started to reveal the mechanisms by which this single cell layer serves as a key regulatory module of root growth, tissue patterning and nutrient flow, which in concert support the plant’s ability to survive in a terrestrial habitat. This review provides an overview of the key factors that contribute to the functioning of the root endodermis and discusses how this single cell layer dictates root growth and tissue patterning.

Miyashima, Shunsuke

2011-01-01

189

ROOTING GUATEMALAN AVOCADO CUTTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A method is described which, although not considered commercially practical, proved to be very successful in rooting cuttings of Guatemalan avocado varieties. Essentially it consists of obtaining cuttings from stems, the bases of which have at no time been exposed to light or low humidity. In certain experimental work with the avocado, own rooted trees, that is trees propagated

E. F. Frolich

190

Irrational Square Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

Misiurewicz, Michal

2013-01-01

191

Seeds: Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this indepth hands-on activity, learners build a structure that allows them to observe the growth of roots and the correlation between root growth and stem extension. Because no dirt is used in this arrangement, a guiding question can be posed: What does the plant need to grow? The PDF includes activity rationale, procedure, background and follow-up discussion suggestions.

Education Development Center, Inc.

2010-01-01

192

Inhibitory effects of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus fulvus Meigan on the high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a potent activity of Cnidium officinale Makino (Cnidii rhizoma) and Tabanus fulvus Meigan (Tabanus) as an inhibitor of high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration from 5.6 to 25mM for 24h caused a dramatic increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and these increases were attenuated by treatment of GMCs with the extracts of

S. I. Jeong; D. H. Kwak; S. Lee; Y. K. Choo; W. H. Woo; K. S. Keum; B. K. Choi; K. Y. Jung

2005-01-01

193

Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese medicine) or [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors previously reported that an extract fromZingiber officinale, traditionally eaten along with raw fish and used in traditional Chinese medicine, effectively destroyedAnisakis larvae in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effective components of ginger rhizomes. Methanol extracts were fractionated after first being treated with HCl at pH 3, then with NaHCO3 at pH 10, and, finally, with NaOH

C. Goto; S. Kasuya; K. Koga; H. Ohtomo; N. Kagei

1990-01-01

194

Effect of methanol extracts of Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris on the apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris are used as traditional herbs with diverse medicinal effects, including the inhibition of inflammation, reduction of blood pressure and as diuretics, however, the anti-cancer effects of C. officinale Makino and C. bursa-pastoris are poorly defined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of methanol extracts of C. officinale Makino (MECO) and methanol extracts of C. bursa-pastoris (MECB) on the cell growth and apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells. MECO and MECB caused growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in HSC-2 cells. A marked reduction in specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression following treatment with MECO or MECB was also observed. The downregulation of Sp1 by siRNA resulted in growth inhibition and a reduction of total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression. In addition, MECO significantly increased Bax expression levels and MECB increased Bak expression levels and decreased Mcl-1 expression levels. These results suggest that MECO and MECB inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis via the Sp1 protein, indicating that MECO and MECB are useful bioactive materials and attractive drug candidates for oral cancer.

LEE, KYUNG-EUN; SHIN, JI-AE; HONG, IN-SUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2013-01-01

195

Root hydrotropism: an update.  

PubMed

While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance. PMID:23258371

Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

2013-01-01

196

Corn root gravitropism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravitropism is the turning or growing in a different direction of a plant in response to gravity. This corn plant's root grows downward and exhibits positive gravitropism because it is growing toward gravity's pull.

Roger P. Hangarter (Indiana University;Department of Biology)

2000-01-01

197

Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for tensile, shear and compression behavior allows the consideration of the stabilization effects of root networks on steep slopes and the influence that this has on the triggering of shallow landslides.

Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

2013-03-01

198

Aflatoxins in ginseng roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol–water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed

Kathleen D’Ovidio; Mary Trucksess; Carol Weaver; Erin Horn; Marla Mcintosh; George Bean

2006-01-01

199

Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.  

PubMed

Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g. PMID:16449060

D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

2006-02-01

200

Soil-root mechanical interactions within bundles of roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-soil mechanical interactions play an important role in strength and force redistribution in rooted soil. Recent advances in root reinforcement modeling implement detailed representation of root geometry and mechanical properties as well as root-soil mechanical interactions. Nevertheless, root-soil mechanical interactions are often considered at the single root scale ignoring interactions between neighboring roots and root bundles known to play important role in similar applications such as engineered composite material reinforcement. The objective was to quantify mechanical interactions among neighboring roots or roots network using pullout laboratory experiments and modeling. We focus on the on effects of such interactions on global pull out force of a bundle of roots via better understanding of transmission of radial stresses to soil matrix due to the friction at the interface soil-root. Additionally, we wish to predict how cumulative friction changes along a single root axis with and without branching points during the slipping out. Analytical models of fiber reinforced materials show the magnitude of bonded friction depends on three key parameters: bond modulus, maximal bond strength and difference between the Young moduli of fiber and Young moduli of matrix. Debonded friction is calculated assuming failure follows Coulomb failure that includes apparent cohesion, effective normal stress and residual root soil friction angle. We used a pullout device to measure displacement and force of individual roots and for the bundle of roots. Additionally, we monitored and detected activation of root-soil friction by six acoustic emission sensors placed on waveguide in contact with the soil matrix. Results from experiments with parallel and crossing roots demonstrated the importance of considering factors such as distance of root axis, branching points, crossing of roots and roots diameter for the behavior of bundle of roots and inclined roots during pullout. Acoustic emission measurements provided interesting insights into progressive activation of root-soil friction. These results enhance understanding of root reinforcement mechanism and enable more realistic implementation of root reinforcement modeling for stability calculation of vegetated slopes.

Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Preti, Federico; Or, Dani

2010-05-01

201

Gingerols of Zingiber officinale enhance glucose uptake by increasing cell surface GLUT4 in cultured L6 myotubes.  

PubMed

In this study we investigate the active constituents of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe (ginger) and determine their activity on glucose uptake in cultured L6 myotubes and the molecular mechanism underlying this action. Freeze-dried ginger powder was extracted with ethyl acetate (1?kg/3?L) to give the total ginger extract, which was then separated into seven fractions, consisting of nonpolar to moderately polar compounds, using a short-column vacuum chromatographic method. The most active fraction (F7) was further purified for identification of its active components. The effect of the extract, fractions, and purified compounds on glucose uptake was evaluated using radioactive labelled 2-[1,2-³H]-deoxy-D-glucose in L6 myotubes. The pungent phenolic gingerol constituents were identified as the major active compounds in the ginger extract enhancing glucose uptake. (S)-[6]-Gingerol was the most abundant component among the gingerols, however, (S)-[8]-gingerol was the most potent on glucose uptake. The activity of (S)-[8]-gingerol was found to be associated primarily with an increase in surface distribution of GLUT4 protein on the L6 myotube plasma membrane, as detected by expression of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged GLUT4 in L6 muscle cells. The enhancement of glucose uptake in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells by the gingerol pungent principles of the ginger extract supports the potential of ginger and its pungent components for the prevention and management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22828920

Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

2012-09-01

202

Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation.  

PubMed

Changes in the yields of the oleoresin and content of pungent bioactive principles: [6], [8], [10] gingerols and [6] shogaol of Jamaican ginger ( Zingiber officinale) were investigated during different stages of maturity (7-9 months). Ethanolic oleoresin extracts were prepared (95%, w/w) by cold maceration of dried ginger powder, and their percentage yields were calculated (w/w). The pungent bioactive principles in the ginger oleoresin were extracted with methanol and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ginger harvested at 8 months from Bourbon, Portland had the highest oleoresin yield (8.46 +/- 0.46%). [6] Gingerol was found to be the most abundant pungent bioactive principle in all the oleoresin samples investigated, with the 9 months sample from Bourbon, Portland containing the highest level (28.94 +/- 0.39%). The content of [6] gingerols was also found to be consistently high (7-9 months) in oleoresin samples from Johnson Mountain, St. Thomas (15.12 +/- 0.39 to 16.02 +/- 0.95%). The results suggest that Bourbon in Portland may be the most ideal location for cultivating ginger for high yields and quality, however, Johnson Mountain in St. Thomas could prove to be the least restrictive location, allowing for harvesting of good quality material throughout the maturity period (7-9 months). PMID:18564850

Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Junor, Grace-Ann O; Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Salmon, Colleen N A; Smith, Ann Marie

2008-07-23

203

Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1). PMID:11455660

Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

2001-03-01

204

Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.).  

PubMed

Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

2009-01-01

205

Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean ?-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. PMID:23510578

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

2013-11-01

206

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

207

Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H.; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

2012-01-01

208

Synthesis of analogues of gingerol and shogaol, the active pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and evaluation of their anti-platelet aggregation effects.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

2014-01-01

209

Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

2014-01-01

210

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically

Raquel Iglesias-Fernandez; Angel Matilla

2009-01-01

211

Root lattices and quasicrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right\\u000apool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All\\u000anon-periodic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with\\u000amaximal symmetry.

M. Baake; D. Joseph; P. Kramer; M. Schlottmann

2000-01-01

212

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

213

PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

214

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

215

Root Beer Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity/demonstration about density, learners examine what happens when two cans of root beer--one diet and one regular--are placed in a large container of water. Do they sink or float? Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of density as well as the nutritional content of soft drinks.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

216

Metabolic profiling of in vitro micropropagated and conventionally greenhouse grown ginger (Zingiber officinale).  

PubMed

Ginger is an important medicinal and culinary herb, known worldwide for its health promoting properties. Because ginger does not reproduce by seed, but is clonally propagated via rhizome division and replanting, it is susceptible to accumulation and transmittance of pathogens from generation to generation. In addition, such propagation techniques lead to slow multiplication of particularly useful stocks. We have developed an in vitro propagation method to alleviate these problems. Metabolic profiling, using GC/MS and LC-ESI-MS, was used to determine if chemical differences existed between greenhouse grown or in vitro micropropagation derived plants. Three different ginger lines were analyzed. The constituent gingerols and gingerol-related compounds, other diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of these compounds, as well as major mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chemical differences between lines (yellow ginger vs. white ginger and blue ring ginger) and tissues (rhizome, root, leaf and shoot). However, this analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between growth treatments (conventional greenhouse grown vs. in vitro propagation derived plants). Further statistical analyses (ANOVA) confirmed these results. These findings suggest that the biochemical mechanisms used to produce the large array of compounds found in ginger are not affected by in vitro propagation. PMID:16963091

Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

2006-10-01

217

A Root Isolation Method for Testing Root-Active Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for isolating roots of a growing plant was devised. The technique allows treatment of an isolated portion of the root system without disturbance or injury to the untreated root mass. A specially designed planter-box was used to induce natural sep...

S. L. Duffy

1975-01-01

218

Optimized microwave-assisted extraction of 6-gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoeand evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Background. 6-Gingerol is one of the most pharmacologically active and abundant components in ginger, which has a wide array of biochemical and pharmacologic activities. In recent years, the application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for obtaining bioactive compounds from plant materials has shown tremendous research interest and potential. In this study, an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was developed to extract 6-gingerol from ginger. The extraction efficiency of MAE was also compared with conventional extraction techniques. Material and methods. Fresh gingers (Zingiber officinale Rose.) were harvested at commercial maturity (originally from Shandong, laiwu, China). In single-factor experiments for the recovery of 6-gingerol, proper ranges of ratio of liquid to solid, ethanol proportion, microwave power, extraction time were determined. Based on the values obtained in single-factor experiments, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to determine the best combination of extraction variables on the yield of 6-gingerol. Results. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: microwave power 528 W, ratio of liquid to solid 26 mL g1, extraction time 31s and ethanol proportion 78%. Furthermore, more 6-gingerol and total polyphenols contents were extracted by MAE than conventional methods including Maceration (MAC), Stirring Extraction (SE), Heat reflux extraction (HRE), Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), as well as the antioxidant capacity. Conclusion. Microwave-assisted extraction showed obvious advantages in terms of high extraction efficiency and antioxidant activity of extract within shortest extraction time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of ginger powder materials after different extractions were obtained to provide visual evidence of the disruption effect. To our best knowledge, this is the first report about usage of MAE of 6-gingerol extraction from ginger, which could be referenced for the extraction of other active compounds from herbal plants. PMID:24876311

Liu, Wei; Zhou, Chun-Li; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Dong; Li, Quan-Hong

2014-04-01

219

A comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum).  

PubMed

Spices are the building blocks of flavor in foods. This research work was focused on two important spices, i.e., ginger and cumin. Ginger and cumin both are recognized for their antioxidant properties. So, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). The highest yield for volatile oil was obtained by the cumin sample, which was 2.52 +/- 0.11%, while the fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.31 +/- 0.08%). The analysis of volatile oils of fresh and dried ginger showed camphene, p-cineole, alpha-terpineol, zingiberene and pentadecanoic acid as major components, while the major components in cumin volatile oil were cuminal, gamma-terpinene and pinocarveol. In nonvolatile extracts the highest yield was obtained by the methanol extract of cumin (4.08 +/- 0.17% w/w), while the n-hexane extract of fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.52 +/- 0.03% w/w). Maximum total phenolic contents were observed in the methanol extract of fresh ginger (95.2 mg/g dry extract) followed by the hexane extract of fresh ginger (87.5 mg/g dry extract). The hexane extract of cumin showed the lowest total phenolic content (10.6 mg/g dry extract). The DPPH method showed the highest antioxidant activity for cumin essential oil (85.44 +/- 0.50%) followed by dried ginger essential oil (83.87 +/- 0.50%) and fresh ginger essential oil (83.03 +/- 0.54%). The FRAP of essential oils showed almost comparative results with DPPH. Cumin essential oil was found best in reducing Fe(3+) ions, followed by dried and fresh ginger. Our results suggest that both ginger and cumin can be used as potential sources of natural antioxidants in foods. PMID:20590154

El-Ghorab, Ahmed Hassan; Nauman, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Hussain, Shahzad; Nadeem, Muhammad

2010-07-28

220

Advances in root reinforcement experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root reinforcement is considered in many situations an important effect of vegetation for slope stability. In the past 20 years many studies analyzed root reinforcement in laboratory and field experiments, as well as through modeling frameworks. Nearby the important contribution of roots to shear strength, roots are recognized to impart stabilization also through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. Lateral root reinforcement under tensile solicitations (such as in the upper part of a shallow landslide) was documented and discussed by some studies. The most common method adopted to measure lateral root reinforcement are pullout tests where roots (single or as bundle) are pulled out from a soil matrix. These conditions are indeed representative for the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope (such in a tension crack). However, there is also the situation where roots anchored at the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding soil mass. In this last case it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study discussed this mechanism so far. The main objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of roots considering the two presented cases of lateral root reinforcement discussed above - roots slipping out from stable soil profile or sliding soil matrix from anchored roots-, and discuss the implication of the results for slope stability modeling. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments for both roots pullout and soil sliding mechanisms using a tilting box with a bundle of 15 roots. Both Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots and soil were collected from the study area in Sardinia (Italy), and reconstructed in laboratory, filling the root and soil layer by layer up to 0.4 meter thickness. The results show that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil sliding range from 0.5 to 1. This results indicate that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral root reinforcement activated in situations where soil slide from anchored roots. That result implies a comparison and calibration of the models used for the calculation of root reinforcement.

Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Niedda, Marcello

2013-04-01

221

Angles of multivariable root loci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

1982-01-01

222

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

2011-01-01

223

Urolithiasis and phytotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seven plants with suspected application to prevent and treat stone kidney formation (Verbena officinalis, Lithospermum officinale, Taraxacum officinale, Equisetum arvense. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctium lappa andSilene saxifraga) have been studied using female Wistar rats. Variations of the main urolithiasis risk factors (citraturia, calciuria, phosphaturia,\\u000a pH and diuresis) have been evaluated. It can be concluded that beneficial effects caused

F. Grases; G. Melero; A. Costa-Bauzá; R. Prieto; J. G. March

1994-01-01

224

A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.  

PubMed

Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods. PMID:15493660

Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

2004-01-01

225

Comparison of the histology of (I) Fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) Solar dried\\/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) , has revealed some information about the cells design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles—gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar

D. A Balladin; O Headley; I Chang-yen; E. J Duncan; D. R McGaw

1999-01-01

226

Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

Koltai, Hinanit

2012-07-01

227

Genetic Diversity of the Endemic and Medicinally Important Plant Rheum officinale as Revealed by Inter-Simpe Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers  

PubMed Central

Rheum officinale Baill., an important but endangered medicinal herb, is endemic to China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 populations of R. officinale. Thirteen selected primers yielded 189 bright and discernible bands, with an average of 14.54 per primer. The genetic diversity was low at the population level, but pretty high at the species level (H = 0.1008, I = 0.1505, PPB = 28.95% vs. H = 0.3341, I = 0.5000, PPB = 95.24%, respectively) by POPGENE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation was found mainly among populations (74.38%), in line with the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.2766) among populations. Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5381, P = 0.002), indicating the role of geographic isolation in shaping the present population genetic structure. Both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis demonstrated the similar results. Our results imply that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species, and cultivation is proposed in this study.

Wang, Xu-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qu; Yang, Rui; Feng, Shi-Fang; Li, Yan; Ren, Yi

2012-01-01

228

Springback in root gravitropism.  

PubMed

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

1989-01-01

229

Springback in root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1989-01-01

230

Diagravitropism in corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1988-01-01

231

The root extraction problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nth root extraction problem for germs of diffeomorphisms f :(C,0)?(C,0) is the problem of finding a germ of diffeomorphism g :(C,0)?(C,0) such that g=f, where g is the Nth iterate of g under composition. Depending on f and on the multiplier of g at the origin there can be formal and analytic obstructions to a solution of the problem. By considering an unfolding of f we explain these obstructions. Indeed each analytic obstruction corresponds to an accumulation of periodic points which, in turn, are an obstruction to taking an Nth root of the unfolding. We apply this to the problem of the section of a curvilinear angle in N equal parts in conformal geometry.

Rousseau, C.

232

Prevention of root caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

DesignRandomised controlled trialInterventionElders having at least five teeth with exposed roots, no serious medical problems and basic self-care ability (including oral hygiene practices) were randomly allocated into one of four prevention groups. Individualised oral hygiene instruction was provided to each participant, focusing on effective brushing with a manual toothbrush, and use of fluoride toothpaste was recommended. Before applications of the

Patrick Sequeira-Byron; Adrian Lussi

2011-01-01

233

Root tips moving through soil  

PubMed Central

Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations.

Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

2011-01-01

234

Control of Arabidopsis Root Development  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis root has been the subject of intense research over the past decades. This research has led to significantly improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying root development. Key insights into the specification of individual cell types, cell patterning, growth and differentiation, branching of the primary root, and responses of the root to the environment have been achieved. Transcription factors and plant hormones play key regulatory roles. Recently, mechanisms involving protein movement and the oscillation of gene expression have also been uncovered. Root gene regulatory networks controlling root development have been reconstructed from genome-wide profiling experiments, revealing novel molecular connections and models. Future refinement of these models will lead to a more complete description of the complex molecular interactions that give rise to a simple growing root.

Petricka, Jalean J.; Winter, Cara M.; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

235

Matching roots to their environment  

PubMed Central

Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

2013-01-01

236

Effect of CO2 Enrichment on Synthesis of Some Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

PubMed Central

The effect of two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 ?mol mol?1) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 ?mol mol?1 CO2. Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO2 concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly (P ? 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO2 (800 ?mol mol?1). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes > stems > leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO2. The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 ?mol mol?1) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 ?mol Fe (II)/g) and ?-tocopherol (953 ?mol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 ?mol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant biomass, primary and secondary metabolite synthesis, and following that, antioxidant activities of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced through controlled environment (CE) and CO2 enrichment.

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

2011-01-01

237

Hairy roots — a short cut to transgenic root nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate molecular studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation a procedure for rapid production of transgenic root nodules was established on the legumeLotus corniculatus (Bird'sfoot trefoil). Regeneration of transgenic plants is not required as transgenic nodules are formed onAgrobacterium rhizogenes incited roots inoculated withRhizobium. Easy identification of transformed roots is possible using a set ofA. rhizogenes acceptor strains carrying assayable marker

Jørgen Hansen; Jan-Elo Jørgensen; Jens Stougaard; Kjeld A. Marcker

1989-01-01

238

RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.  

PubMed

We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation. PMID:23766367

Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

2013-08-01

239

Auxin Control of Root Development  

PubMed Central

A plant's roots system determines both the capacity of a sessile organism to acquire nutrients and water, as well as providing a means to monitor the soil for a range of environmental conditions. Since auxins were first described, there has been a tight connection between this class of hormones and root development. Here we review some of the latest genetic, molecular, and cellular experiments that demonstrate the importance of generating and maintaining auxin gradients during root development. Refinements in the ability to monitor and measure auxin levels in root cells coupled with advances in our understanding of the sources of auxin that contribute to these pools represent important contributions to our understanding of how this class of hormones participates in the control of root development. In addition, we review the role of identified molecular components that convert auxin gradients into local differentiation events, which ultimately defines the root architecture.

Overvoorde, Paul; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom

2010-01-01

240

Traffic control in the root: keeping root branching in check.  

PubMed

While the importance of intercellular communication in plants is well documented, the role of symplastic transport during the formation of new meristems in roots has remained unexplored. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Benitez-Alfonso et al. (2013) show that callose-dependent cell-to-cell connectivity determines root branching in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23906059

Vanstraelen, Marleen; Beeckman, Tom

2013-07-29

241

Anti-Candida and radical scavenging activities of essential oils and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and essential oils of other plants belonging to the family Zingiberaceae.  

PubMed

Essential oils of young and mature rhizomes, air-dried and steamed rhizomes, and seed rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) were prepared, and their inhibition of filamentation by Candida albicans was examined. Ginger essential oils, and particularly those from seed and air-dried rhizomes, had potent inhibitory activity compared to ginger oleoresins obtained by ethanol and hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction and essential oils of 5 other plants in the family Zingiberaceae. Of the constituents, [6]-shogaol was most active against filament formation and growth of C. albicans, followed by citral and [6]-gingerol. Ginger oleoresin, and especially that obtained by ethanol extraction, with a high [6]-gingerol content exhibited potent scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals in comparison to essential oils of ginger and other Zingiberaceae plants. PMID:22466370

Takahashi, M; Inouye, S; Abe, S

2011-10-01

242

Increased Growth Inhibitory Effects on Human Cancer Cells and Anti-Inflammatory Potency of Shogaols from Zingiber officinale Relative to Gingerols  

PubMed Central

Ginger, the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, has received extensive attention due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Most researchers have considered gingerols as the active principles and have paid little attention to shogaols, the dehydration products of corresponding gingerols during storage or thermal processing. In this study, we have purified and identified eight major components including three major gingerols and corresponding shogaols from ginger extract and compared their anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Our results showed that shogaols ([6]-, [8]-, and [10]-) had much stronger growth inhibitory effects than gingerols ([6]-, [8]-, and [10]-) on H-1299 human lung cancer cells and HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, especially when comparing [6]-shogaol with [6]-gingerol (IC50: ~8 µM vs. ~150 µM). In addition, we found that [6]-shogaol had much stronger inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid release and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis than [6]-gingerol.

Sang, Shengmin; Hong, Jungil; Wu, Hou; Liu, Jing; Yang, Chung S.; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Badmaev, Vadimir; Ho, Chi-Tang

2009-01-01

243

Consumption of poisonous plants (Senecio jacobaea, Symphytum officinale, Pteridium aquilinum, Hypericum perforatum) by rats: chronic toxicity, mineral metabolism, and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Effect of dietary tancy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats were measured. Tansy ragwort and bracken increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase. Comfrey and alfalfa increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase. Feeding bracken or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in conjunction with tansy ragwort did not influence chronic toxicity of tansy ragwort as assessed by rat survival time. Dietary tansy ragwort resulted in increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic copper levels; the other plants did not affect copper levels. The results do not suggest any major interaction in the toxicity of tansy ragwort with bracken or St. John's wort. PMID:7080084

Garrett, B J; Cheeke, P R; Miranda, C L; Goeger, D E; Buhler, D R

1982-02-01

244

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae.

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

245

Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24433069

Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

2014-03-01

246

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

247

Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster  

PubMed Central

Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

Danjon, Frederic; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Celine

2013-01-01

248

Gut and Root Microbiota Commonalities  

PubMed Central

Animal guts and plant roots have absorption roles for nutrient uptake and converge in harboring large, complex, and dynamic groups of microbes that participate in degradation or modification of nutrients and other substances. Gut and root bacteria regulate host gene expression, provide metabolic capabilities, essential nutrients, and protection against pathogens, and seem to share evolutionary trends.

Ramirez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Servin-Garciduenas, Luis E.; Jimenez-Marin, Berenice; Bolanos, Luis M.; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martinez, Julio; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeno-Orrillo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

249

Rooting Purple Sage Stem Cuttings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rooting of semihardwood cuttings of purple sage Salvia dorrii with and without mist, bottom heat, root inducing substance (naphthalene-acetic acid/indolebutyric acid (NAA/BA)), and fungicides (dichlone and captan) was evaluated. More than 75 percent of th...

R. L. Everett C. R. Gautier

1981-01-01

250

Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

De Pillis, L. G.

2005-01-01

251

The root as a drill  

PubMed Central

Plant roots forage the soil for water and nutrients and overcome the soil’s physical compactness. Roots are endowed with a mechanism that allows them to penetrate and grow in dense media such as soil. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. The nature of the media in which roots grow adds to the difficulty to in situ analyze the mechanisms underlying root penetration. Inhibition of ethylene perception by application of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) to tomato seedlings nearly abolished the root penetration in Soilrite. The reversal of this process by auxin indicated operation of an auxin-ethylene signaling pathway in the regulation of root penetration. The tomato pct1–2 mutant that exhibits an enhanced polar transport of auxin required higher doses of 1-MCP to inhibit root penetration, indicating a pivotal role of auxin transport in this process. In this update we provide a brief review of our current understanding of molecular processes underlying root penetration in higher plants.

Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Ivanchenko, Maria; Sharma, Rameshwar

2012-01-01

252

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classroo

Wandersee, James; Clary, Renee

2010-02-01

253

Vetiver Root System : Search for the Ideotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver roots have a tufted vertically growing root structure. The roots are one of the most important organizational systems that make vetiver a miracle grass for its multifarious applications in soil and water conservation, soil health, and raw material for vetiver root handicrafts, environmental and perfumery products. A lot of diversity is found in vetiver root system in nature, and

Seshu Lavania

254

A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.  

PubMed

Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

2014-01-01

255

Effect of Main Root Decapitation on Root Branching in Flax Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching patterns in intact and decapitated flax (Linum usitatissimumL.) roots were compared. The number of initiated primordia in the control and decapitated roots was similar, but decapitated roots produced an increased number of lateral roots owing to an increase in the number of primordia developed into the laterals. It is suggested that the apical meristem influences lateral root development

M. E. Ploshchinskaya

2001-01-01

256

Root knot of Gomphrena globosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A root knot disease ofGomphrena globosa has been described. The disease exhibits typical symptoms, hypertrophy, formation of galls and club foot appearance of root\\u000a system and stunted growth of shoot.\\u000a \\u000a Histopathology of the diseased roots was studied which showed the presence of the nematode in various stages of egg formation\\u000a and the presence of adult in the extra-stellar region.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

Audrey Mackenzie

1961-01-01

257

Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.  

PubMed

Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

2013-09-01

258

Root Absorption and Xylem Translocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: Herbicides must be absorbed into plants inorder to be effective. Plant roots and below ground shoots have fewbarriers to herbicide absorption; however, interactions with soilparticles and soil organic matter have significant impacts on theamount of herbicide available for plant absorption. Plant roots andbelow ground shoots (hypocotyls or coleoptiles) are lipophilic bynature and do not have thick, waxy cuticles like leaves. Lipophilic andhydrophilic herbicides reach the root surface by bulk transport in soilwater; however, there are a few examples of herbicides that reach theroot as a vapor or gas. Soil-applied herbicides can translocate to theshoot or remain in the root system. Soil-applied herbicides translocateto the shoot in the xylem and tend to accumulate in mature leaves thattranspire the most water. The lipophilic/hydrophilic nature of theherbicide will determine if the herbicide translocates to the shoot.Absorption and translocation of phloem-mobile herbicides will bediscussed in another lesson.

259

Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

2011-11-01

260

Root Patterns in Heterogeneous Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous water availability is a typical characteristic of soils in which plant roots grow. Despite the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil-plant water relations, we know little about the ways how plants respond to local environmental quality. Furthermore, increasing use of soil amendments as partial water reservoirs in agriculture calls for a better understanding of plant response to soil heterogeneity. Neutron radiography is a non-invasive imaging that is highly sensitive to water and root distribution and that has high capability for monitoring spatial and temporal soil-plant water relations in heterogeneous systems. Maize plants were grown in 25 x 30 x 1 cm aluminum slabs filled with sandy soil. On the right side of the compartments a commercial water absorbent (Geohumus) was mixed with the soil. Geohumus was distributed with two patterns: mixed homogeneously with the soil, and arranged as 1-cm diameter aggregates (Fig. 1). Two irrigation treatments were applied: sufficient water irrigation and moderate water stress. Neutron radiography started 10 days after planting and has been performed twice a day for one week. At the end of the experiment, the containers were opened, the root were removed and dry root weight in different soil segments were measured. Neutron radiography showed root growth tendency towards Geohumus treated parts and preferential water uptake from Geohumus aggregates. Number and length of fine lateral roots were lower in treated areas compared to the non-treated zone and to control soil. Although corn plants showed an overall high proliferation towards the soil water sources, they decreased production of branches and fine root when water was more available near the main root parts. However there was 50% higher C allocation in roots grown in Geohumus compartments, as derived by the relative dry weight of root. The preferential C allocation in treated regions was higher when plants grew under water stress. We conclude that in addition to the inherent effect of water absorbent materials on increasing soil water availability, the distribution pattern of the soil amendments had an important role on root growth strategy and plant water uptake. Neutron radiography of the top, right corner of one sample. The Geohumus is arranged as aggregates.

Dara, A.; Moradi, A. B.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S. E.

2010-12-01

261

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has\\u000a a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n???1 and g???3, let G3(n,g){\\\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner

Bingbing Zhuang; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

262

Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

263

Effects of root diameter and root nitrogen concentration on in situ root respiration among different seasons and tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of root respiration is a prerequisite for a better understanding of ecosystem carbon budget and carbon allocation.\\u000a However, there are not many relevant data in the literature on direct measurements of in situ root respiration by root chamber\\u000a method. Furthermore, few studies have been focused on the effects of root diameter (D\\u000a r) and root nitrogen concentration (N\\u000a r)

Dima Chen; Lixia Zhou; Xingquan Rao; Yongbiao Lin; Shenglei Fu

2010-01-01

264

Anatomy of the aortic and pulmonary roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the pulmonary autograft for aortic root replacement has renewed interest in the morphology of the arterial roots. In this article the basic construction of the roots, their anchorage, and their support from surrounding structures are reviewed. The arterial roots manifest a complex anatomy, with an intricate relation between the anulus and its adjacent structures, which span the

Margot M. Bartelings; Ad J. J. C. Bogers; Mark E. Galantowicz; Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot

1998-01-01

265

Adventitious root mass distribution in progeny of four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) groups selected for root shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of one cycle of selection for adventitious root system shape (i.e. percentage of total root mass in successive depth increments) were investigated in progeny of four perennial ryegrass pools with contrasting rooting patterns: (1) low surface (0–10 cm) root mass and roots to 1 m; (2) high surface root mass and roots to 1 m; (3) high root

JR Crush; SN Nichols; L. Ouyang

2010-01-01

266

Anatomical characteristics of roots of citrus rootstocks that vary in specific root length  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Among citrus rootstocks, higher specific root length (SRL, root length}d. wt) has been linked to several specific morphological and physiological traits, including smaller average root diameter, higher root hydraulic conductivity and higher rates of root proliferation. In this study, thickness of the outer tangential exodermal (hypodermal) wall and its suberin layer, number of passage cells, presence of epidermis, and

D. M. E ISSENSTAT; D. S. A CHOR

1999-01-01

267

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

268

Root status and future developments  

SciTech Connect

In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project.

Rene Brun et al.

2003-10-01

269

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2013-03-01

270

Preventative Effect of Zingiber officinale on Insulin Resistance in a High-Fat High-Carbohydrate Diet-Fed Rat Model and its Mechanism of Action.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p < 0.01). An in vitro mechanistic study showed that (S)-[6]-gingerol, the major pungent phenolic principle in ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 ?M) increased AMPK ?-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1? mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol. PMID:24428842

Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

2014-08-01

271

Inhibitory effects of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus fulvus Meigan on the high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells.  

PubMed

This study describes a potent activity of Cnidium officinale Makino (Cnidii rhizoma) and Tabanus fulvus Meigan (Tabanus) as an inhibitor of high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration from 5.6 to 25 mM for 24 h caused a dramatic increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and these increases were attenuated by treatment of GMCs with the extracts of Cnidii rhizoma and Tabanus (2.5-20 microg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, extracts of Cnidii rhizoma or Tabanus (20 microg/ml) did not change the growth of GMCs cultured under normal glucose condition. To clarify the mechanism involved in anti-proliferative activity of these medicines, this study examined the effects of Cnidii rhizoma and Tabanus on high glucose-stimulated extracellular matrix (ECM) protein accumulation and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) production. Exposure of GMCs to high glucose significantly stimulated the ECM protein, collagen and fibronectin, accumulation and TGF-beta1 secretion, and these changes were dramatically diminished by treatment of GMCs with extracts of Cnidii rhizoma or Tabanus (10 microg/ml). Taken together, these results indicate that Cnidii rhizoma and Tabanus inhibit the high glucose-induced GMC proliferation partially through suppressing the ECM accumulation and TGF-beta1 production, suggesting that these medicines may be a promising agent for treating the development and progression of diabetic glomerulopathy. PMID:16194052

Jeong, S I; Kwak, D H; Lee, S; Choo, Y K; Woo, W H; Keum, K S; Choi, B K; Jung, K Y

2005-09-01

272

Liquid chromatographic determination of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger (Zingiber officinale) as the raw herb and dried aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The determination of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in dried ginger (Zingiber officinale) and in the dried aqueous extract of ginger is reported. This is the first study to report a validated method for the determination of these 4 analytes. Several extraction solvents and methods were examined, and the optimum combination was determined. The samples were extracted at room temperature by sonication with methanol, and the extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A C18 column was used with a water-acetonitrile gradient mobile phase. Quantification was at 200 nm. The levels of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in the raw herb were 9.3, 1.6, 2.3, and 2.3 mglg, respectively. The levels of gingerols found in the dried aqueous extract were between 5 and 16 times lower than those in the raw herb, but the level of 6-shogaol was higher. Analyte identity was confirmed by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, in which 2 daughter ions were obtained for each analyte. The average recovery was 97% with a relative standard deviation of <8%. The limits of detection for 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in the raw herb were 0.22, 0.04, 0.09, and 0.07 mglg, respectively, and in the dried aqueous extract, 0.11, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.14 mg/g, respectively. PMID:17955965

Lee, Samiuela; Khoo, Cheang; Halstead, Clynton Wade; Huynh, Thuy; Bensoussan, Alan

2007-01-01

273

Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms. PMID:22484860

Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

2012-08-01

274

Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale) on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-?B, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4). On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

Elkady, Ayman I.; Abuzinadah, Osama A.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; Rahmy, Tarek R.

2012-01-01

275

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n ? 1 and g ? 3, let {\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner face is at most g. In this paper, we give an algorithm that enumerates all plane graphs in {\\cal G}_3(n,g). The algorithm runs in constant time per each by outputting the difference from the previous output.

Zhuang, Bingbing; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

276

Phosphate sensing in root development.  

PubMed

Phosphate (Pi) and its anhydrides constitute major nodes in metabolism. Thus, plant performance depends directly on Pi nutrition. Inadequate Pi availability in the rhizosphere is a common challenge to plants, which activate metabolic and developmental responses to maximize Pi usage and acquisition. The sensory mechanisms that monitor environmental Pi and transmit the nutritional signal to adjust root development have increasingly come into focus. Recent transcriptomic analyses and genetic approaches have highlighted complex antagonistic interactions between external Pi and Fe bioavailability and have implicated the stem cell niche as a target of Pi sensing to regulate root meristem activity. PMID:21571579

Abel, Steffen

2011-06-01

277

Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

278

Strigolactones fine-tune the root system.  

PubMed

Strigolactones were originally discovered to be involved in parasitic weed germination, in mycorrhizal association and in the control of shoot architecture. Despite their clear role in rhizosphere signaling, comparatively less attention has been given to the belowground function of strigolactones on plant development. However, research has revealed that strigolactones play a key role in the regulation of the root system including adventitious roots, primary root length, lateral roots, root hairs and nodulation. Here, we review the recent progress regarding strigolactone regulation of the root system and the antagonism and interplay with other hormones. PMID:23801297

Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Goormachtig, Sofie; Geelen, Danny

2013-10-01

279

The FairRoot framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FairRoot framework is an object oriented simulation, reconstruction and data analysis framework based on ROOT. It includes core services for detector simulation and offline analysis. The framework delivers base classes which enable the users to easily construct their experimental setup in a fast and convenient way. By using the Virtual Monte Carlo concept it is possible to perform the simulations using either Geant3 or Geant4 without changing the user code or the geometry description. Using and extending the task mechanism of ROOT it is possible to implement complex analysis tasks in a convenient way. Moreover, using the FairCuda interface of the framework it is possible to run some of these tasks also on GPU. Data IO, as well as parameter handling and data base connections are also handled by the framework. Since some of the experiments will not have an experimental setup with a conventional trigger system, the framework can handle also free flowing input streams of detector data. For this mode of operation the framework provides classes to create the needed time sorted input streams of detector data out of the event based simulation data. There are also tools to do radiation studies and to visualize the simulated data. A CMake-CDash based building and monitoring system is also part of the FairRoot services which helps to build and test the framework on many different platforms in an automatic way, including also Continuous Integration.

Al-Turany, M.; Bertini, D.; Karabowicz, R.; Kresan, D.; Malzacher, P.; Stockmanns, T.; Uhlig, F.

2012-12-01

280

Image analysis from root system pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

2009-04-01

281

Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve the issue and give valuable insight for the next generation of VEGGIE.

Subbiah, Arun M.

2013-01-01

282

Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.  

PubMed

The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. PMID:23913002

Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-09-01

283

Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes. PMID:21628158

Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

2008-12-01

284

Imaging Tree Roots with Borehole Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-penetrating radar has been used to de- tect and map tree roots using surface-based antennas in reflection mode. On amenable soils these methods can accurately detect lateral tree roots. In some tree species (e.g. Pinus taeda, Pinus palustris), vertically orientated tap roots directly beneath the tree, comprise most of the root mass. It is difficult if not impossible to vertically

John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Per Wikström; Tomas Lundmark; Sune Linder

2006-01-01

285

Root-squaring with DPR1 matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in polynomial root-finding relies on employing the associated companion and generalized companion DPR1 matrices.\\u000a (“DPR1” stands for “diagonal plus rank-one.”) We propose an algorithm that uses nearly linear arithmetic time to square a\\u000a DPR1 matrix. Consequently, the algorithm squares the roots of the associated characteristic polynomial. This incorporates\\u000a the classical techniques of polynomial root-finding by means of root-squaring

V. Y. Pan

2010-01-01

286

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

2011-01-01

287

Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

McKee, K. L.

2001-01-01

288

Involvement of polyamines in root development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root development is under the control of hormonal, metabolic, and environmental cues that can act on genetically-controlled developmental programmes and thus affect the plasticity of root architecture. These processes involve not only the five `classical' plant hormones, but also other growth regulators, such as polyamines. The present review emphasises the importance of polyamines in the different aspects of root development:

Ivan Couée; Irène Hummel; Cécile Sulmon; Gwenola Gouesbet; Abdelhak El Amrani

2004-01-01

289

Distribution of roots of random polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider polynomials of high degree with random coefficients which appear in the context of ``quantum chaotic'' dynamics and investigate various conditions under which their roots tend to concentrate near the unit circle in the complex plane. Correlation functions of roots are computed analytically. We also investigate a certain class of random polynomials whose roots cover, in a uniform way,

E. Bogomolny; O. Bohigas; P. Leboeuf

1992-01-01

290

Bell pepper responses to root restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various container sizes were used to induce root restriction on ‘Jupiter’ bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). There was little or no effect of container size on plant growth up to 23 days after transplanting (DAT). By 45 DAT, leaf area and plant dry weight was diminished proportional to container volume. Root?to?shoot ratio was constant among the various root restricting conditions

D. S. NeSmith; D. C. Bridges; J. C. Barbour

1992-01-01

291

Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were found using carbon (C) isotope methods (either 14C dating or continuous 13C-labelling), resulting in root longevities of several years. Stable C isotope tracer experiments, are argued to overestimate fine root longevities, mainly because the smallest roots with the highest turn over, are easily missed during sampling. The goal of the present study was therefore to carry out a C-labelling experiment, and specifically focus on the finest roots, namely root tips. In addition we sampled whole fine roots (<1 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter), as in other studies. We pulse labelled 14-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Pine) trees in the field for only three hours with highly 13C-enriched CO2 (24 atom percent). The mean residence time (MRT) of recently assimilated C in root tips was determined, as a measure for root longevity. Already two days after labelling, recent C had been translocated from the crowns to fine roots indicating rapid belowground C allocation. 13C signals in root tips were stronger than in whole roots, which shows that they are the most active part of the root system. MRT of C calculated using first order exponential decay functions of C in bulk roots were around 20 days in both <1mm and 1-3mm roots and 29 days in root tips. A rapid decline in 13C signals was observed which could be explained by a rapid decrease in the signal of the sucrose pool, which had a MRT of 5 days. However, part of the labelled C had been allocated to a pool with a slower turnover rate (most likely structural compounds such as cellulose) as indicated by persisting 13C signals measured 120 days after labelling. MRT of C in those slow turnover pools will be estimated by continuously monitoring the remaining 13C signals. Those MRTs are expected to offer more realistic fine root turnover estimates and could possibly end the root longevity debate.

Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

2008-12-01

292

Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased.

Nakamura, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

293

Root-soil mechanical interactions during pullout and failure of root bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots play a major role in reinforcing and stabilizing steep hillslopes. Most studies in slope stability implement root reinforcement as an apparent cohesion by upscaling the behavior of static individual roots. Recent studies, however, have shown that much better predictions of slope stability can be made if the progressive failure of bundles of roots are considered. The characteristics of progressive

M. Schwarz; D. Cohen; D. Or

2010-01-01

294

Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases.  

PubMed

Members of the Zingiberaceae such as turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) accumulate at high levels in their rhizomes important pharmacologically active metabolites that appear to be derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. In ginger, these compounds are the gingerols; in turmeric these are the curcuminoids. Despite their importance, little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds. This investigation describes the identification of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of these bioactive natural products. Assays for enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway identified the corresponding enzyme activities in protein crude extracts from leaf, shoot and rhizome tissues from ginger and turmeric. These enzymes included phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyketide synthases, p-coumaroyl shikimate transferase, p-coumaroyl quinate transferase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, which were evaluated because of their potential roles in controlling production of certain classes of gingerols and curcuminoids. All crude extracts possessed activity for all of these enzymes, with the exception of polyketide synthases. The results of polyketide synthase assays showed detectable curcuminoid synthase activity in the extracts from turmeric with the highest activity found in extracts from leaves. However, no gingerol synthase activity could be identified. This result was explained by the identification of thioesterase activities that cleaved phenylpropanoid pathway CoA esters, and which were found to be present at high levels in all tissues, especially in ginger tissues. These activities may shunt phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates away from the production of curcuminoids and gingerols, thereby potentially playing a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of these compounds. PMID:16890967

Ramirez-Ahumada, Maria del Carmen; Timmermann, Barbara N; Gang, David R

2006-09-01

295

Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale on some biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, 64 patients with DM2 were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2?g/d of each). A 3?d diet record, anthropometric measurements and concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FPG), HbA1c, lipid profile (including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein) and also the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were determined before and after 2 months of intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly lowered the levels of insulin (11.0?±?2.3 versus 12.1?±?3.3; p?=?0.001), LDL-C (67.8?±?27.2 versus 89.2?±?24.9; p?=?0.04), TG (127.7?±?43.7 versus 128.2?±?37.7; p?=?0.03) and the HOMA index (3.9?±?1.09 versus 4.5?±?1.8; p?=?0.002) and increased the QUICKI index (0.313?±?0.012 versus 0.308?±?0.012; p?=?0.005) in comparison to the control group; while, there were no significant changes in FPG, TC, HDL-C and HbA1c (p?>?0.05). In summary, ginger supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile in DM2 patients. Therefore it may be considered as a useful remedy to reduce the secondary complications of DM2. PMID:23496212

Mahluji, Sepide; Attari, Vahide Ebrahimzade; Mobasseri, Majid; Payahoo, Laleh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Golzari, Samad E J

2013-09-01

296

Springback in Root Gravitropism 1  

PubMed Central

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as `springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalmaic acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a `memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. Carl; Wettlaufer, Scott H.

1989-01-01

297

The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge.

Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corne M. J.

2013-01-01

298

The age of continental roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the age of the mantle part of continental roots is essential to our understanding of the evolution and stability of continents. Dating the rocks that comprise the mantle root beneath the continents has proven difficult because of their high equilibration temperatures and open-system geochemical behaviour. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years that allows us to see how continental roots have evolved in different areas. The first indication of the antiquity of continental roots beneath cratons came from the enriched Nd and Sr isotopic signatures shown by both peridotite xenoliths and inclusions in diamonds, requiring isolation of cratonic roots from the convecting mantle for billions of years. The enriched Nd and Sr isotopic signatures result from mantle metasomatic events post-dating the depletion events that led to the formation and isolation of the peridotite from convecting mantle. These signatures document a history of melt- and fluid-rock interaction within the lithospheric mantle. In some suites of cratonic rocks, such as eclogites, Nd and Pb isotopes have been able to trace probable formation ages. The Re-Os isotope system is well suited to dating lithospheric peridotites because of the compatible nature of Os and its relative immunity to post-crystallisation disturbance compared with highly incompatible element isotope systems. Os isotopic compositions of lithospheric peridotites are overwhelmingly unradiogenic and indicate long-term evolution in low Re/Os environments, probably as melt residues. Peridotite xenoliths from kimberlites can show some disturbed Re/Os systematics but analyses of representative suites show that beneath cratons the oldest Re depletion model ages are Archean and broadly similar to major crust-forming events. Some locations, such as Premier in southern Africa, and Lashaine in Tanzania, indicate more recent addition of lithospheric material to the craton, in the Proterozoic, or later. Of the cratons studies so far (Kaapvaal, Siberia, Wyoming and Tanzania), all indicate Archean formation of their lithospheric mantle roots. Few localities studied show any clear variation of age with depth of derivation, indicating that >150 km of lithosphere may have formed relatively rapidly. In circum-cratonic areas where the crustal basement is Proterozoic in age kimberlite-derived xenoliths give Proterozoic model ages, matching the age of the overlying crust. This behaviour shows how the crust and mantle parts of continental lithospheric roots have remained coupled since formation in these areas, for billions of years, despite continental drift. Orogenic massifs show more systematic behaviour of Re-Os isotopes, where correlations between Os isotopic composition and S or Re content yield initial Os isotopic ratios that define Re depletion model ages for the massifs. Ongoing Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-Os isotopic studies of massif peridotites and new kimberlite- and basalt-borne xenolith suites from new areas, will soon enable a global understanding of the age of continental roots and their subsequent evolution.

Pearson, D. G.

1999-09-01

299

Root canal treatment of a maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots: A case report  

PubMed Central

Anatomical variations in root canal morphology are an enigma and it is this variability, which is often a complicating factor in a successful root canal treatment. To achieve success in endodontic therapy it is imperative that all the canals are located, cleaned and shaped and obturated three dimensionally. Maxillary first premolar having three separate roots has an incidence of 0.5-6%. Even rarer are reported clinical case reports of maxillary second premolar with three separate roots and three canals. This case report describes the endodontic management of maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots and one buccal root having three root canals

George, Gingu Koshy; Varghese, Anju Mary; Devadathan, Aravindan

2014-01-01

300

Historical roots of gauge invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Gauge invariance is the basis of the modern,theory of electroweak and strong interactions (the so called Standard Model). The roots of gauge invariance go back to the year 1820 when electromagnetismwas,discovered and the first electrodynamic,theory was proposed. Subsequent developments,led to the discovery that different forms of the vector potential result in the same observable forces. The partial arbitrariness of

J. D. Jackson; L. B. Okun

1965-01-01

301

Root functioning modifies seasonal climate  

PubMed Central

Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the nocturnal vertical transfer of soil water from moister to drier regions in the soil profile by roots, has now been observed in Amazonian trees. We have incorporated HR into an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model Version 2) to estimate its impact on climate over the Amazon and other parts of the globe where plants displaying HR occur. Model results show that photosynthesis and evapotranspiration increase significantly in the Amazon during the dry season when plants are allowed to redistribute soil water. Plants draw water up and deposit it into the surface layers, and this water subsidy sustains transpiration at rates that deep roots alone cannot accomplish. The water used for dry season transpiration is from the deep storage layers in the soil, recharged during the previous wet season. We estimate that HR increases dry season (July to November) transpiration by ?40% over the Amazon. Our model also indicates that such an increase in transpiration over the Amazon and other drought-stressed regions affects the seasonal cycles of temperature through changes in latent heat, thereby establishing a direct link between plant root functioning and climate.

Lee, Jung-Eun; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fung, Inez

2005-01-01

302

Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics  

PubMed Central

The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots (LRs) are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation. Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how LRs and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

Cuesta, Candela; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Benkova, Eva

2013-01-01

303

Root-soil mechanical interactions during pullout and failure of root bundles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots play a major role in reinforcing and stabilizing steep hillslopes. Most studies in slope stability implement root reinforcement as an apparent cohesion by upscaling the behavior of static individual roots. Recent studies, however, have shown that much better predictions of slope stability can be made if the progressive failure of bundles of roots are considered. The characteristics of progressive failure depend on interactions between soil deformation and root bundle geometric and mechanical properties. We present a detailed model for the quantitative description of the mechanical behavior of a bundle of roots under strain-controlled mechanical forcing. The Root Bundle Model explicitly considers typical values of root-size spatial distribution (number and dimension of roots), geometric factors (diameter-length proportion, tortuosity, and branching characteristics), and mechanical characteristics (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and interactions under various soil conditions (soil type, confining pressure, and soil moisture). We provide systematic analyses of the roles of these factors on the mechanical response of the bundle and explore the relative importance of various parameters to the macroscopic root-soil mechanical response. We distinguish between increased strength imparted by small roots at small deformations and the resilience imparted by larger roots to the growth of large tensile cracks, showing that the maximal reinforcement of fine roots is reached within the first 5 cm of displacement whereas a root of 20 mm diameter may reach its maximal pullout force after 10 cm displacement. The model reproduces the gradual straining and ultimate residual failure behavior of root systems often observed in hillslopes, with progressive growth of tension cracks improving estimations of root reinforcement when considering the effects of root distribution and the variation of the pullout force as a function of displacement. These results enhance understanding of root reinforcement mechanisms and enable more realistic implementation of root reinforcement modeling for stability calculations of vegetated slopes and for guiding ongoing experimental efforts to gather critical root-soil mechanical information.

Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.

2010-12-01

304

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

305

Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

306

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether geomorphically controlled variations in ecology affect the spatial distribution of root cohesion by measuring the distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of 15 native trees in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, United States. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses (areas of divergent topography) relative to those in hollows (unchanneled, convergent topography) coincident with the variability in cellulose content. This cellulose variability is likely related to topographic differences in soil water potential. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with roots in hollows being more evenly distributed in the soil column than those on noses. Trees located on noses had higher mean root cohesion than those in hollows because of a higher root tensile force. R. maximum had the shallowest, weakest roots suggesting that recent expansion of this species due to fire suppression has likely lowered the root cohesion of some hollows. Quantification of this feedback between physiologic controls on root growth and slope hydrology has allowed us to create a curvature-based model of root cohesion that is a significant improvement on current models that assume a spatially averaged value.

Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J. M.; Band, L. E.

2009-09-01

307

Sites and Regulation of Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative

Karin Ljung; Anna K. Hull; John Celenza; Masashi Yamada; Mark Estelle; Jennifer Normanly; Goran Sandberga

2005-01-01

308

Infection of turnip and radish storage roots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within about 10 days after inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, the vascular bundles of storage root disks of turnip or radish developed small outgrowths with numerous root hairs. Thereafter, adventitious roots (hairy roots) emerged extensively from these outgrowths. The hairy roots which emerged fully supported the growth of host plants, though they lacked geotropism. An excised hairy root could be subcultured

Nobukazu Tanaka; Mitsutoshi Hayakawa; Yoshihiro Mano; Hideo Ohkawa; Chiaki Matsui

1985-01-01

309

Distribution of Pb, Cd and Ba in soils and plants of two contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Evaluation of metal accumulation in soils and plants is of environmental importance due to their health effects on humans and other biota. Soil material and plant tissue were collected along transects in two heavily contaminated facilities, a Superfund site and a lead-acid battery dump, and analyzed for metal content. Soil lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba) concentrations for the Superfund site averaged 55,480, 8.5 and 132.3 mg/kg, respectively. Soil Pb occurred primarily in the carbonate, sulfide/residual and organic chemical fractions (41.6, 28.6 and 16.7%, respectively). Soil Pb, Cd and Ba concentrations for the dump site averaged 29,400, 3.9 and 1130 mg/kg, respectively. Soil Pb occurred mostly in the organic and carbonate fractions as 48.5 and 42.5%, respectively. Pb uptake in the two sites ranged from non-detectable (Agrostemma githago, Plantago rugelii, Alliaria officinalis shoots), to 1800 mg/kg (Agrostemma githago root). Cd uptake was maximal in Taraxacum officinale at 15.4 mg/kg (Superfund site). In the majority > or =65%) of the plants studied, root Pb and Cd content was higher than that for the shoots. Tissue Pb correlated slightly with exchangeable and soluble soil Pb; however, tissue Cd was poorly correlated with soil Cd species. None of the sampled plants accumulated measurable amounts of Ba. Those plants that removed most Pb and Cd were predominantly herbaceous species, some of which produce sufficient biomass to be practical for phytoremediation technologies. Growth chamber studies demonstrated the ability of T. officinale and Ambrosia artemisiifolia to successfully remove soil Pb and Cd during repeated croppings. Tissue Pb was correlated with exchangeable soil Pb at r(2)=0.68 in Ambrosia artemisiifolia. PMID:15092867

Pichtel, J; Kuroiwa, K; Sawyerr, H T

2000-10-01

310

Changes in nuclear and nucleolar protein content during the growth and differentiation of root parenchyma cells in plant species with different DNA-endoreplication dynamics.  

PubMed

Using cytophotometric procedures, we measured the nuclear and nucleolar protein content of successive zones of growth and differentiation in consecutive (1-7 mm) root segments obtained from eight species of the Angiospermae after staining the preparations with Feulgen-Naphthol Yellow S (F-NYS). In meristematic cells the nuclear and nucleolar protein content was found to double during the cell cycle. In species in which differentiation occurs at the same time as nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Vicia faba subsp. minor, V. faba subsp. major, Pisum sativum, Hordeum vulgare and Amaryllis belladonna, the pool of nuclear proteins observed during the G2 phase of the cell cycle was seen in the differentiated zone in nuclei containing 8C DNA. Species in which differentiation is not accompanied by the process of nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Levisticum officinale, Tulipa kaufmanniana and Haemanthus katharinae, exhibited the highest nuclear proteins content during the G2 phase of the cell cycle; comparably high values were not found in the differentiated zone. A decrease in nucleolar protein content was observed during the process of differentiation, this tendency being more evident in the studied species that do not exhibit endoreplication. PMID:3733472

Marciniak, K; Bilecka, A

1986-01-01

311

Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA  

PubMed Central

Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

2012-01-01

312

Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

1998-01-01

313

A statistical approach to root system classification  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

314

A statistical approach to root system classification.  

PubMed

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

315

?-Glucosidase Activity in Corn Roots  

PubMed Central

Preliminary results from differential centrifugation experiments, washing treatments, and enrichment in linear sucrose gradients at a density of 1.09 grams per cubic centimeter all indicated that ?-glucosidase activity in corn root homogenates was associated with a membrane such as tonoplast. A subsequent sucrose density gradient centrifugation time course showed that the ?-glucosidase was actually a soluble enzyme which moved into the gradients. The problem of soluble enzymes contaminating light density membranes in sucrose gradients and the question of centrifugation time necessary for membrane vesicles to reach isopycnic conditions are addressed.

Nagahashi, Gerald; Baker, Amy F.

1984-01-01

316

Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus latifolius roots.  

PubMed

From the petrol extract of Lonchocarpus latifolius roots, 10 flavonoids were isolated. These included: 3,5-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':8,7)-flavone, 3-methoxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavanone, 3',4'-methylenedioxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavanone, and (2,3-trans-3,4-trans)-3,4-dimethoxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavan, as well as the previously known karanjachromene, karanjin, lanceolatin B, pongachromene, pongaglabrone and ponganpin. Only nine flavonoids could be quantified through HPLC analysis. PMID:11190397

Magalhães, A F; Tozzi, A M; Magalhães, E G; Nogueira, M A; Queiroz, S C

2000-12-01

317

Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract ( Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee.

Doug B. Smith; Bert H. Jacobson

2011-01-01

318

A Rooted Net of Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko.

2011-01-01

319

[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].  

PubMed

Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration. PMID:24066535

Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

2013-06-01

320

Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

1999-01-01

321

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

PubMed Central

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically decreased the SoACS7 transcript. At the onset of imbibition, AR inhibited SoACS7 and SoACO2 expression and stimulated that of SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6, demonstrating that the participation of ethylene (ET) and gibberellins (GAs) differs in after-ripened and non-after-ripened seeds. The inhibition of SoACO2 expression in the presence of GA4+7, paclobutrazol (PB), inhibitors of ET synthesis and signalling (IESS), and notably ET+GA4+7 indicated ET–GA cross-talk in non-after-ripened seeds. A positive effect of AR in reversing this inhibition was found. The idea of ET–GA cross-talk is also supported by the effect of ET on SoGA3ox2 expression, notably induced by the AR process. In contrast, SoGA20ox2 expression did not appear to be susceptible to AR. SoGA2ox6 expression, poorly known in seeds, suggests that AR prompted an up-regulation under all treatments studied, whereas in non-after-ripened seeds expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the ?-mannanase (MAN) activity dramatically increased in dry after-ripened seed, being significantly boosted by ET. The absence of MAN inhibition by IESS suggests that although ET seems to be one of the factors controlling MAN, its presence did not appear to be essential. GA4+7 only increased MAN in seeds wich were after-ripened. Here, it is proposed that ET and GAs participate actively in establishing the AR process.

Iglesias-Fernandez, Raquel; Matilla, Angel

2009-01-01

322

Maxillary canine with two root canals  

PubMed Central

To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an additional canal in this permanent maxillary canine.

Bolla, Nagesh; Kavuri, Sarath Raj

2011-01-01

323

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-06-01

324

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed Central

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-01-01

325

Lumbosacral intrathecal nerve roots: an anatomical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The lumbosacral intrathecal anatomy is complex because of the density of nerve roots in the cauda equina. Space-occupying\\u000a lesions, including disc herniation, trauma and tumor, within the spinal canal may compromise the nerve roots, causing severe\\u000a clinical syndromes. The goal of this study is to provide spinal surgeons with a detailed anatomical description of the intrathecal\\u000a nerve roots and to

Mehmet Arslan; Ayhan Cömert; Halil ?brahim Açar; Mevci Özdemir; Alaittin Elhan; ?brahim Tekdemir; Shane R. Tubbs; Ayhan Attar; Hasan Ça?lar U?ur

2011-01-01

326

Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

Poff, K. L.

1990-01-01

327

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

1992-01-01

328

Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

2013-01-01

329

The ROOT C++ Framework for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROOT {http://root.cern.ch/} is a C++ framework developed at CERN, Geneva. It was designed for high energy physics to handle and analyze large amounts of data in a very efficient way. Its main features are a C++ - interpreter, graphical tools and an object I/O - system. The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC) {http://isdc.unige.ch} is using ROOT as a graphical tool and as a scripting language in the off-line analysis. To use the full capability of ROOT for astronomical data analysis a link is required. Therefore we complete this system with a library called AstroROOT. With AstroROOT we can store astronomical data organized in tables and images in ROOT - files using the efficient I/O system of ROOT. Furthermore we are developing a new astronomical image display for the ROOT framework. Finally we can use the buildin C++ interpreter as a scripting language in an interactive session to analyze and display astronomical data.

Rohlfs, R.

2004-07-01

330

Self-similar continued root approximants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

2012-12-01

331

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.  

PubMed

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

2014-03-01

332

OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

333

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

1999-01-01

334

Piriformospora indica Root Colonization Triggers Local and Systemic Root Responses and Inhibits Secondary Colonization of Distal Roots  

PubMed Central

Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J.; Waller, Frank

2013-01-01

335

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

1993-01-26

336

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

337

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-05-02

338

Root-gel interactions and the root waving behavior of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis roots grown on inclined agarose gels exhibit a sinusoidal growth pattern known as root waving. While root waving has been attributed to both intrinsic factors (e.g. circumnutation) and growth responses to external signals such as gravity, the potential for physical interactions between the root and its substrate to influence the development of this complex phenotype has been generally ignored. Using a rotating stage microscope and time-lapse digital imaging, we show that (1) root tip mobility is impeded by the gel surface, (2) this impedance causes root tip deflections by amplifying curvature in the elongation zone in a way that is distinctly nontropic, and (3) root tip impedance is augmented by normal gravitropic pressure applied by the root tip against the gel surface. Thus, both lateral corrective bending near the root apex and root tip impedance could be due to different vector components of the same graviresponse. Furthermore, we speculate that coupling between root twisting and bending is a mechanical effect resulting from root tip impedance. PMID:15247406

Thompson, Matthew V; Holbrook, N Michele

2004-07-01

339

Lectin Binding to the Root and Root Hair Tips of the Tropical Legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb  

PubMed Central

Ten fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins were tested on the roots of the tropical legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb. Four of these (concanavalin A, peanut agglutinin, Ricinis communis agglutinin I [RCA-I], wheat germ agglutinin) were found to bind to the exterior of root cap cells, the root cap slime, and the channels between epidermal cells in the root elongation zone. One of these lectins, RCA-I, bound to the root hair tips in the mature and emerging hair zones and also to sites at which root hairs were only just emerging. There was no RCA-I binding to immature trichoblasts. Preincubation of these lectins with their hapten sugars eliminated all types of root cell binding. By using a microinoculation technique, preincubation of the root surface with RCA-I lectin was found to inhibit infection and nodulation by Rhizobium spp. Preincubation of the root surface with the RCA-I hapten ?-d-galactose or a mixture of RCA-I lectin and its hapten failed to inhibit nodulation. Application of RCA-I lectin to the root surface caused no apparent detrimental effects to the root hair cells and did not prevent the growth of root hairs. The lectin did not prevent Rhizobium sp. motility or viability even after 24 h of incubation. It was concluded that the RCA-I lectin-specific sugar ?-d-galactose may be involved in the recognition or early infection stages, or both, in the Rhizobium sp. infection of M. atropurpureum. Images

Ridge, R. W.; Rolfe, B. G.

1986-01-01

340

Coupling root architecture and pore network modeling - an attempt towards better understanding root-soil interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding root-soil interactions is of high importance for environmental and agricultural management. Root uptake is an essential component in water and solute transport modeling. The amount of groundwater recharge and solute leaching significantly depends on the demand based plant extraction via its root system. Plant uptake however not only responds to the potential demand, but in most situations is limited by supply form the soil. The ability of the plant to access water and solutes in the soil is governed mainly by root distribution. Particularly under conditions of heterogeneous distribution of water and solutes in the soil, it is essential to capture the interaction between soil and roots. Root architecture models allow studying plant uptake from soil by describing growth and branching of root axes in the soil. Currently root architecture models are able to respond dynamically to water and nutrient distribution in the soil by directed growth (tropism), modified branching and enhanced exudation. The porous soil medium as rooting environment in these models is generally described by classical macroscopic water retention and sorption models, average over the pore scale. In our opinion this simplified description of the root growth medium implies several shortcomings for better understanding root-soil interactions: (i) It is well known that roots grow preferentially in preexisting pores, particularly in more rigid/dry soil. Thus the pore network contributes to the architectural form of the root system; (ii) roots themselves can influence the pore network by creating preferential flow paths (biopores) which are an essential element of structural porosity with strong impact on transport processes; (iii) plant uptake depend on both the spatial location of water/solutes in the pore network as well as the spatial distribution of roots. We therefore consider that for advancing our understanding in root-soil interactions, we need not only to extend our root models, but also improve the description of the rooting environment. Until now there have been no attempts to couple root architecture and pore network models. In our work we present a first attempt to join both types of models using the root architecture model of Leitner et al., (2010) and a pore network model presented by Raoof et al. (2010). The two main objectives of coupling both models are: (i) Representing the effect of root induced biopores on flow and transport processes: For this purpose a fixed root architecture created by the root model is superimposed as a secondary root induced pore network to the primary soil network, thus influencing the final pore topology in the network generation. (ii) Representing the influence of pre-existing pores on root branching: Using a given network of (rigid) pores, the root architecture model allocates its root axes into these preexisting pores as preferential growth paths with thereby shape the final root architecture. The main objective of our study is to reveal the potential of using a pore scale description of the plant growth medium for an improved representation of interaction processes at the interface of root and soil. References Raoof, A., Hassanizadeh, S.M. 2010. A New Method for Generating Pore-Network Models. Transp. Porous Med. 81, 391-407. Leitner, D, Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, S. 2010. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Tropisms and coupling to nutrient uptake from soil. Plant Soil 332, 177-192.

Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Raoof, Amir

2013-04-01

341

A Method for Nonlinear Equation's Simple Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the convergence behavior of a modified Newton's method based on Simpson integral rule. The convergence properties of this method for solving equations which have simple roots have been discussed and it has been shown that it converges cubically to simple roots. The values of the corresponding asymptotic error constants of convergence are determined. Theoretical results

Feng Gao

2010-01-01

342

Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes unit root tests for dynamic heterogeneous panels based on the mean of individual unit root statistics. In particular it proposes a standardized t-bar test statistic based on the (augmented) Dickey–Fuller statistics averaged across the groups. Under a general setting this statistic is shown to converge in probability to a standard normal variate sequentially with T (the time

Kyung So Im; M. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

2003-01-01

343

Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

1990-01-01

344

Localised ABA signalling mediates root growth plasticity  

PubMed Central

Two recent reports show that cellular abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, together with other phytohormone signalling pathways, is crucial for salt-regulated root growth dynamics. Here we discuss these findings and place them in a broader framework on how cellular hormone signalling regulates root growth plasticity in response to environmental cues.

Ding, Zhaojun; De Smet, Ive

2013-01-01

345

Iron deficiency responses in roots of kiwi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dicotyledonous species respond to iron (Fe) deficiency by morphological and physiological changes at root level, which are usually defined as Strategy I. Particularly, these latter modifications include a higher acidification of the external medium and the induction of a high root Fe reductase activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the response of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv.

Giannina Vizzotto; Ivica Matosevic; Roberto Pinton; Zeno Varanini; Guglielmo Costa

1997-01-01

346

Root-L Geneaology Discussion List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ROOTS-L is a mailing list for genealogical researchers. Topics include surname queries, discussions of methodology and interesting genealogical web sites, etc. send email to: LISTSERV@MAIL.EWORLD.COM in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE ROOTS-L yourfirstname yourlastname

1987-01-01

347

Rational Roots of Polynomials with Integer Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note the authors investigate ways to shorten the amount of work involved in using the Rational Roots Theorem to find the rational roots of a polynomial with integral coefficients. The first result is a proof of a fact that we had long suspected, but were never able to find the statement of in any of the college algebra textbooks we had…

Combs, Randel; Walls, Gary L.

2004-01-01

348

ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

349

Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina.  

PubMed

The authors have critically reviewed 8 cases which have come under their observation of a lumbosciatic syndrome due to redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina. Some of the clinical and myeloradiculographic features appear to be characteristic of this rare syndrome. Surgical intervention by decompressing the nerve roots of the cauda equina offers a very favourable prognosis. PMID:6234260

Pau, A; Sehrbundt Viale, E; Turtas, S; Zirattu, G

1984-03-01

350

CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

HOWARD T. BONNETT

1969-01-01

351

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years). Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU) in root canals was (0.5 ± 1.1) × 106 (range 8.0 × 101–3.1 × 106), and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%). The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%), Mogibacterium (17.7%), Pseudoramibacter (17.7%), Propionibacterium (11.9%) and Parvimonas (5.9%). Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

Sato, Takuichi; Yamaki, Keiko; Ishida, Naoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhisa; Shoji, Megumi; Sato, Emika; Matsuyama, Junko; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2012-01-01

352

Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

1984-01-01

353

Sheaths of the spinal nerve roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the permeability of normal spinal nerve root sheaths around dorsal and ventral roots in the rat. In vivo studies were performed using Evans bluealbumin and lanthanum chloride as tracers. The Evans blue-albumin complex is macromolecular in size and lanthanum ions are small and easily visible in the electron microscope. Both tracers were

C. Å. V. Pettersson

1993-01-01

354

Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes unit root tests for dynamic heterogeneous panels based on the mean of individual unit root statistics. In particular it proposes a standardized t-bar test statistic based on the (augmented) Dickey-Fuller statistics averaged across the groups. Under a general setting this statistic is shown to converge in probability to a standard normal variate sequentially with T (the time

Kyung So Im; M. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

1997-01-01

355

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether

T. C. Hales; C. R. Ford; T. Hwang; J. M. Vose; L. E. Band

2009-01-01

356

Root canal sealers induce cytotoxicity and necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three types of the root canal sealers commonly used in clinical applications. They are calcium hydroxide base (Sealapex), zinc oxide–eugenol base (Canals), and epoxy-resin base (AH Plus). Elutable substances and degradation products from root canal sealers may gain access to periodontal tissue in a number of ways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biologic

Tsui-Hsien Huang; Shinn-Jyh Ding; Ting-Zen Hsu; Zen-Dar Lee; Chia-Tze Kao

2004-01-01

357

Direct analysis of root zone data in a microculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a whole plant microculture system coupled with image analysis to observe and quantify elusive root growth phenomena was demonstrated. Subtle differences in root initiation and growth rate for maple microcuttings inserted into three distinct rooting media were recurrently registered over the span of the rooting phase in terms of root length, number, and weighted density (equivalent

M. A. L. Smith; L. A. Spomer; M. T. McClelland

1990-01-01

358

Symplastic intercellular connectivity regulates lateral root patterning.  

PubMed

Cell-to-cell communication coordinates the behavior of individual cells to establish organ patterning and development. Although mobile signals are known to be important in lateral root development, the role of plasmodesmata (PD)-mediated transport in this process has not been investigated. Here, we show that changes in symplastic connectivity accompany and regulate lateral root organogenesis in Arabidopsis. This connectivity is dependent upon callose deposition around PD affecting molecular flux through the channel. Two plasmodesmal-localized ?-1,3 glucanases (PdBGs) were identified that regulate callose accumulation and the number and distribution of lateral roots. The fundamental role of PD-associated callose in this process was illustrated by the induction of similar phenotypes in lines with altered callose turnover. Our results show that regulation of callose and cell-to-cell connectivity is critical in determining the pattern of lateral root formation, which influences root architecture and optimal plant performance. PMID:23850190

Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Faulkner, Christine; Pendle, Ali; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Helariutta, Ykä; Maule, Andrew

2013-07-29

359

Electrical resistances of corn root segments.  

PubMed

Longitudinal electrical resistances have been measured on 2-centimeter segments of corn (Zea mays L.) roots, cut at varying distances from the root apex. The segment resistances vary from 400 to 100 kilohms per centimeter along the root length (apex to 18 cm), with the maximum occurring in the 2- to 4-centimeter segment, and decreasing thereafter toward the root base. Measurements of isolated root cortical sleeves and steles show that the pathway of least resistance is in the cortex, which has a greater cross-sectional area; the specific resistance of the older stele is less than that of the cortex. The anatomical state of the xylem cannot be inferred from electrical resistance determinations. PMID:16659437

Anderson, W P; Higinbotham, N

1976-02-01

360

Regulation of symbiotic root nodule development.  

PubMed

Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. The interaction of rhizobia and plants shows a high degree of host specificity based on the exchange of chemical signals between the symbiotic partners. The plant signals, flavonoids exuded by the roots, activate the expression of nodulation genes, resulting in the production of the rhizobial lipochitooligosaccharide signals (Nod factors). Nod factors act as morphogens that, under conditions of nitrogen limitation, induce cells within the root cortex to divide and to develop into nodule primordia. This review focuses on how the production of Nod factors is regulated, how these signals are perceived and transduced by the plant root, and the physiological conditions and plant factors that control the early events leading to root nodule development. PMID:9928474

Schultze, M; Kondorosi, A

1998-01-01

361

Alfalfa Root Flavonoid Production Is Nitrogen Regulated.  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids produced by legume roots are signal molecules acting both as chemoattractants and nod gene inducers for the symbiotic Rhizobium partner. Combined nitrogen inhibits the establishment of the symbiosis. To know whether nitrogen nutrition could act at the level of signal production, we have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes as well as the production of flavonoids in the roots of plants grown under nitrogen-limiting or nonlimiting conditions. We show here that growth of the plant under nitrogen-limiting conditions results in the enhancement of expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes chalcone synthase and isoflavone reductase and in an increase of root flavonoid and isoflavonoid production as well as in the Rhizobium meliloti nod gene-inducing activity of the root extract. These results indicate that in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots, the production of flavonoids can be influenced by the nitrogen nutrition of the plant.

Coronado, C.; Zuanazzi, JAS.; Sallaud, C.; Quirion, J. C.; Esnault, R.; Husson, H. P.; Kondorosi, A.; Ratet, P.

1995-01-01

362

Plant Root Growth In Granular Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots grow in a variety of granular substrates. However, the substrates are often treated in ways which minimize or neglect the inhomogeneities arising from the influence of inter-particle forces. Experiments are often run using gels or average stress measurements. This presentation discusses the effect of the local structure of the particulate environment on the root's direction. Using photoelastic particles and particles with a variety of Young's Moduli, we investigate the influence of inter-particle forces and particle stiffness on a pinto bean root's ability to grow through a fully-saturated granular medium. The level of particle contact force through which the roots successfully grow is determined and the influence of particle stiffness on root direction is investigated.

Wendell, Dawn; Hosoi, Peko

2010-03-01

363

Aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme, iron(II), and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat heart in vitro.  

PubMed

Ginger has reportedly been used in folk medicine for the management and prevention of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger on a key enzyme linked to hypertension (angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE]), and on pro-oxidants [Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] which have been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in the rat's isolated heart in vitro. Aqueous extracts (0.05 mg/mL) of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were prepared and the ability of the extracts to inhibit ACE along with Fe(2+)- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation was determined in rat's heart in vitro. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited ACE in a dose-dependent manner (25-125 ?g/mL). However, red ginger extract (EC50=27.5 ?g/mL) had a significantly (P<.05) higher inhibitory effect on ACE than white ginger extract (EC50=87.0 ?g/mL). Furthermore, incubation of the rat's heart in the presence of Fe(2+) and SNP caused a significant increase (P<.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the heart homogenates, while the introduction of the ginger extracts (78-313 ?g/mL) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the stressed heart homogenates. This suggests that the possible mechanism through which ginger exerts its antihypertensive properties may be through inhibition of ACE activity and prevention of lipid peroxidation in the heart. Furthermore, red ginger showed stronger inhibition of ACE than white ginger. Additionally, it should be noted that these protective properties of the ginger varieties could be attributed to their polyphenol contents. PMID:23875904

Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2013-07-01

364

Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. Material and methods Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10), according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control): non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (?=0.05). Results Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. Conclusion The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

ZOGHEIB, Lucas Villaca; SAAVEDRA, Guilherme de Siqueira Ferreira Anzaloni; CARDOSO, Paula Elaine; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de ARAUJO, Maria Amelia Maximo

2011-01-01

365

Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, p<0.0001). This decline in offset with increasing temperature may reflect greater year-round coupling between air and soil temperature in warm biomes. Growth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

2013-12-01

366

10. PHOTOCOPY OF 'P. H. & F. M. ROOTS FOUNDARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. PHOTOCOPY OF 'P. H. & F. M. ROOTS FOUNDARY MANUFACTURERS OF ROOTS BLOWERS' FROM INDIANAPOLIS STAR, June 13, 1926, Gravure Section, p. 2 - P. H. & F. M. Roots Company, Eastern Avenue, Connersville, Fayette County, IN

367

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2010-04-01

368

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2014-04-01

369

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2011-04-01

370

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2012-04-01

371

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

372

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

373

Quantitative determination of callose in tree roots.  

PubMed

The formation of callose in tree roots has been suggested as a physiological indicator of aluminum (Al) toxicity. Quantifying callose in the roots in forest soils, however, is hampered by the presence of autofluorescent materials in the roots that disturb the measurement of callose by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tannins in the roots cause these measurement problems. Here we report on the measurement of callose in the root apices of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) seedlings collected in an acidified forest soil. The callose was quantified with a modified protocol which included three washing steps with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) before the callose was extracted. This procedure reduced the autofluorescence by about 50%. With the use of water or ethanol alone, callose could be measured in only about 15% of the root samples, whereas with the use of PVPP callose could be determined in 95% of the samples. This improved method could help to evaluate the effects of Al toxicity on tree roots grown in forest soils, where callose is detected as a physiological indicator. PMID:17126734

Hirano, Yasuhiro; Brunner, Ivano

2006-12-01

374

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

2012-01-01

375

Root Hypoxia Reduces Leaf Growth 1  

PubMed Central

This study examined the potential role of restricted phloem export, or import of substances from the roots in the leaf growth response to root hypoxia. In addition, the effects of root hypoxia on abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) levels were measured and their effects on in vitro growth determined. Imposition of root hypoxia in the dark when transpirational water flux was minimal delayed the reduction in leaf growth until the following light period. Restriction of phloem transport by stem girdling did not eliminate the hypoxia-induced reduction in leaf growth. In vitro growth of leaf discs was inhibited in the presence of xylem sap collected from hypoxic roots, and also by millimolar ABA. Disc growth was promoted by sap from aerated roots and by 0.1 micromolar ZR. The flux of both ABA and ZR was reduced in xylem sap from hypoxic roots. Leaf ABA transiently increased twofold after 24 hours of hypoxia exposure but there were no changes in leaf cytokinin levels. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Smit, Barbara A.; Neuman, Dawn S.; Stachowiak, Matthew L.

1990-01-01

376

Cytokinins in Seedling Roots of Pea  

PubMed Central

The natural occurrence of cytokinins existing both in a free form and as a constituent of transfer RNA was examined in serial segments of young seedling roots of pea. Purified ethanol extracts of root apices were resolved into four factors capable of inducing soybean callus tissue proliferation. The most active factor was identified as zeatin or some closely related compound; it produced polyploid divisions and tracheary element differentiation when tested on cultured pea root segments. The terminal 0- to 1-millimeter root tip contained 43 to 44 times more free cytokinin on a fresh weight or a per cell basis than the next 1- to 5-millimeter root segment. Extracts of more proximal segments behind the tip contained no measurable free cytokinin. Acid hydrolysates of transfer RNA exhibited reproducible cytokinin activity. Bioassays revealed that the predominant amounts of free cytokinin and that present in transfer RNA were restricted to the extreme root tip. There was approximately 27 times more free cytokinin than the amount detected in transfer RNA in root apices.

Short, Keith C.; Torrey, John G.

1972-01-01

377

Rice develop wavy seminal roots in response to light stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seminal roots are the primary roots to emerge from germinated seeds. Here, we demonstrate that the photomorphology of\\u000a the seminal roots was diverse among rice varieties, and the light-induced wavy roots were found mostly in indica-type rice\\u000a varieties. The light-induced wavy morphology in rice seminal roots has been different with curling or coiling roots in some

Shu-Jen Wang; Chia-Hsun Ho; Hsiang-Wen Chen

378

Pullout tests of root analogs and natural root bundles in soil: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-soil mechanical interactions are key to soil stability on steep hillslopes. Motivated by new advances and applications of the Root Bundle Model (RBM), we conducted a series of experiments in the laboratory and in the field to study the mechanical response of pulled roots. We systematically quantified the influence of different factors such as root geometry and configuration, soil type, and soil water content considering individual roots and root bundles. We developed a novel pullout apparatus for strain-controlled field and laboratory tests of up to 13 parallel roots measured individually and as a bundle. Results highlight the importance of root tortuosity and root branching points for prediction of individual root pullout behavior. Results also confirm the critical role of root diameter distribution for realistic prediction of global pullout behavior of a root bundle. Friction between root and soil matrix varied with soil type and water content and affected the force-displacement behavior. Friction in sand varied from 1 to 17 kPa, with low values obtained in wet sand at a confining pressure of 2 kPa and high values obtained in dry sand with 4.5 kPa confining pressure. In a silty soil matrix, friction ranged between 3 kPa under wet and low confining pressure (2 kPa) and 6 kPa in dry and higher confining pressure (4.5 kPa). Displacement at maximum pullout force increased with increasing root diameter and with tortuosity. Laboratory experiments were used to calibrate the RBM that was later validated using six field measurements with natural root bundles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). These tests demonstrate the progressive nature of root bundle failure under strain-controlled pullout force and provide new insights regarding force-displacement behavior of root reinforcement, highlighting the importance of considering displacement in slope stability models. Results show that the magnitude of maximum root pullout forces (1-5 kPa) are important for slope stability. The force-displacement relations characterized in this study are fundamental inputs for quantifying the resistive force redistribution on vegetated slopes and may provide explanation for abrupt loss of strength during landslide initiation and deformation.

Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.

2011-06-01

379

Selenium absorption by excised Astragalus roots.  

PubMed

Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl(2) and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator. PMID:5638040

Ulrich, J M; Shrift, A

1968-01-01

380

Uptake of bromacil by isolated barley roots.  

PubMed

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg l(-1)) of 0.64 ?g bromacil g(-1) fresh root hr(-1). A Q10 for the process was determined to be 1.5 and living roots were required for bromacil uptake. This procedure was judged to be a quick and inexpensive method to screen plant uptake of toxic chemicals. PMID:24259145

Wickliff, C; McFarlane, J C; Ratsch, H

1984-03-01

381

BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

382

Selenium Absorption by Excised Astragalus Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl2 and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator.

Ulrich, Jane M.; Shrift, Alex

1968-01-01

383

Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture  

PubMed Central

Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants.

Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

2013-01-01

384

Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

1984-11-01

385

Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.  

PubMed

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and PIN-FORMED 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

2014-06-24

386

Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water  

PubMed Central

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and PIN-FORMED 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E.; Sturrock, Craig J.; Thompson, Mark C.; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Dinneny, Jose R.

2014-01-01

387

Estimating root respiration, microbial respiration in the rhizosphere, and root-free soil respiration in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that respiration measurements made using both the basal and excised-root respiration methods would allow us to quantify three important components of soil respiration: root respiration (Rroot), microbial respiration in the rhizosphere (Rrhizo), and root-free soil respiration (Rrfs). Root respiration determined by the basal method was approximately one-third greater than root respiration determined by the excised-root method (52 versus

Daniel L Kelting; James A Burger; Gerry S Edwards

1998-01-01

388

Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system.  

PubMed

The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (A(L):A(R)). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (A(R)) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (k(r)) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (?(L)) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (-0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (-1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately -0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by -0.15 MPa (-1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at -1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, g(s) of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35-20 mmol vine(-1) s(-1) during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (k(r)) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa(-1) s(-1) during that same time period. The changes in k(r) could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root segments. Thus, the manner in which drought tolerance was conveyed to the drought-sensitive clone appeared to arise from deep root proliferation during the hottest and driest part of the season, rather than through changes in xylem structure, xylem density or stomatal regulation. This information can be useful to growers on a site-specific basis in selecting rootstocks for grape clonal material (scions) grafted to them. PMID:20851906

Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

2011-01-01

389

Coumarins from the roots of Ligusticum multivittatum.  

PubMed

Five new coumarins, (+)-peujaponisin (1) and multivittans A-D (2-5), were isolated from the roots of Ligusticum multivittatum Franch., and their structures were established by spectral means. PMID:18404350

Kondo, Taro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shibano, Makio; Wang, Nian-He; Baba, Kimiye

2008-01-01

390

Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

Evans, Michael L.

1993-01-01

391

LCD ROOT Simulation and Analysis Tools  

SciTech Connect

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

Iwasaki, Masako

2001-02-08

392

Leishmanicidal activity of Maytenus illicifolia roots.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of leishmanicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Maytenus illicifolia against three species of Leishmania. The root extracts showed differential activity against parasites, whereas the aerial part of the extracts was inactive. PMID:18504075

Alvarenga, Nelson; Canela, N; Gómez, R; Yaluff, G; Maldonado, M

2008-07-01

393

Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

1983-01-01

394

Roots and Tubers: A Postharvest Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Idaho University's Information Center of the Postharvest Institute for Perishables (ICPIP) was created in 1980 to globally disseminate up-to-date information on reducing postharvest losses. This bibliography on roots and tubers is the first in a semiannua...

1981-01-01

395

LCD Root Simulation and Analysis Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

M. Iwasaki

2001-01-01

396

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

397

Sequential rooting media and rooting capacity of Sequoiadendron giganteum in vitro. Peroxidase activity as a marker.  

PubMed

The rooting capacities of tips of seedling, juvenile and mature shoots of Sequoiadendron giganteum were compared on different rooting media (inductive and expressive media) after passage on an elongating medium. None of the cuttings rooted when continuously kept on medium containing the auxin NAA and vitamin D2. Peroxidase activity of all those cuttings on NAA+D2 first increased during the 7-9 first days and decreased in the days after. Rooting was obtained by transfer of the cuttings after periods longer than 7-9 days from the NAA+D2 inductive medium to a basal medium supplemented or not with rutin (expressive medium). The rooting capacity was emphasized by rutin treatment and was in correlation with the peroxidase peak reached on the NAA+D2 medium. Seedlings, characterised by the highest peroxidase activity, were most performing in rooting. PMID:24248840

Berthon, J Y; Boyer, N; Gaspar, T

1987-10-01

398

[Measurement of mesiodistal root angulation for panoramic images and the effect of buccolingual root angulation].  

PubMed

Panoramic images were taken from an anatomically correct phantom with three different buccolingual angulations for each tooth (Original, 10 degrees buccal root torque, and 10 degrees lingual root torque). The true mesiodistal angulation of each tooth was determined with a three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine. Each tooth had at least one angle measurement that was statistically different from the other mesiodistal angles with different buccolingual orientations. Roots with buccal root orientations were projected more distally than they were in reality; and the roots lingually positioned were projected more mesially. The canine and premolars in both arches were most affected and the phenomenon was more pronounced in the maxilla than the mandible. Buccolingual orientation changes did not affect the root angulation expression on the incisor area. PMID:20303900

Garcia-Figueroa, Mariano A; Raboud, Donald W; Lam, Ernest W; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

2009-03-01

399

Purine Phosphoribosyl Transferases in Human Hair Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the two enzymes involved in purine salvage in human hair roots. Km values of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HG-PRT) for hypoxanthine and 5?-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (A-PRT) for adenine and PRPP in human hair roots were similar to values reported for human erythrocytes. No differences were observed between hair

C. H. M. M. de Bruyn; T. L. Oei

1974-01-01

400

New Results on Optimizing Rooted Triplets Consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of phylogenetic trees with overlapping leaf sets is con- sistent if it can be merged without conflicts into a supertree. In this paper, we study the polynomial-time approximability of two related op- timization problems called the maximum rooted triplets consistency prob- lem (MaxRTC) and the minimum rooted triplets inconsistency prob- lem (MinRTI) in which the input is a

Jaroslaw Byrka; Sylvain Guillemot; Jesper Jansson

2008-01-01

401

Iterated square root unscented Kalman particle filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve tracking estimation accuracy of square-root unscented Kalman particle filter (SRUKFPF), a new particle filter algorithm of update SRUKF based on iterated measurements is proposed. The algorithm produces the important density function of particle filter using maximum posteriori estimate of iterated square-root unscented Kalman filter, and amends the state covariance using Levenberg-Marquardt method, so that the observed

Guohui Li; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

402

Laser-Fluoride Effect on Root Demineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the individual cariostatic effects of laser and fluoride have been shown, the combined effect of CO2 laser and fluoride on root demineralization remains uncertain and was the main aim of this study. By using a pH-cycling system and Polarized Light Microscopy, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of fluoride combined with CO2 laser treatment on reducing root demineralization. The mean

X.-L. Gao; J.-S. Pan; C.-Y. Hsu

2006-01-01

403

Idiopathic root resorption: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption in a 26-yr-old female patient is presented. A review of the literature revealed that extensive idiopathic root resorption is unusual. Neither local nor systemic etiological factors were found in our case. Examination of parents and siblings did not reveal a familiar tendency. Radiographs and clinical evaluation showed a very poor prognosis for most of the teeth present in the mouth of our patient. PMID:11199741

Di Domizio, P; Orsini, G; Scarano, A; Piattelli, A

2000-05-01

404

Mapping gene activity of Arabidopsis root hairs  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative information on gene activity at single cell-type resolution is essential for the understanding of how cells work and interact. Root hairs, or trichoblasts, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specialized cells in the epidermis, represent an ideal model for cell fate acquisition and differentiation in plants. Results Here, we provide an atlas of gene and protein expression in Arabidopsis root hair cells, generated by paired-end RNA sequencing and LC/MS-MS analysis of protoplasts from plants containing a pEXP7-GFP reporter construct. In total, transcripts of 23,034 genes were detected in root hairs. High-resolution proteome analysis led to the reliable identification of 2,447 proteins, 129 of which were differentially expressed between root hairs and non-root hair tissue. Dissection of pre-mRNA splicing patterns showed that all types of alternative splicing were cell type-dependent, and less complex in EXP7-expressing cells when compared to non-root hair cells. Intron retention was repressed in several transcripts functionally related to root hair morphogenesis, indicative of a cell type-specific control of gene expression by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Concordance between mRNA and protein expression was generally high, but in many cases mRNA expression was not predictive for protein abundance. Conclusions The integrated analysis shows that gene activity in root hairs is dictated by orchestrated, multilayered regulatory mechanisms that allow for a cell type-specific composition of functional components.

2013-01-01

405

Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the Nymphaeales are strongly structurally associated with the monocots, especially the Acorales.

Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

2013-01-01

406

Exploiting Catharanthus roseus roots: Source of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catharanthus roseus is among the most important medicinal plants, mainly due to its anticancer alkaloids.Phenolics and organic acids were studied in this plant’s roots, using HPLC–MS and HPLC–UV, respectively. Neither phenolic acids nor flavonoids could be identified, but an organic acid profile composed of oxalic, cis-aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic and fumaric acids was found. Roots proved to be much richer

David M. Pereira; Joana Faria; Luís Gaspar; Federico Ferreres; Patrícia Valentão; Mariana Sottomayor; Paula B. Andrade

2010-01-01

407

Adventitious root formation in Anacardium occidentale L. in response to phytohormones and removal of roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in tissue culture techniques, propagation by leafy, softwood cuttings is the preferred, practical system for vegetative reproduction of many tree and shrub species. Species are frequently defined as ‘difficult’- or ‘easy-to-root’ when propagated by conventional cuttings. Speed of rooting is often linked with ease of propagation, and slow-to-root species may be ‘difficult’ precisely because tissues deteriorate prior to

Juliano Saranga; Ross Cameron

2007-01-01

408

Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1992-01-01

409

Root Canal Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Canals - An Anatomic Variation  

PubMed Central

Dental anatomical variations play a significant role in the diagnosis and a successful treatment outcome in endodontics. It is essential for the clinician to have a clear picture and understanding of the pulpal anatomy and its variations. In a mandibular second premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals. The aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis, and clinical management of a three-rooted mandibular second premolar with three independent roots and canals.

Gandhi, Bhavana; Patil, Anand C

2013-01-01

410

Control of willow?tree shelter root systems in kiwifruit orchards by root pruning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root systems of willow?tree shelter root systems and adjacent kiwifruit root systems, and measurements of gravimetric soil water content, were mapped in three orchards on deep Te Puke soils, in the North Island of New Zealand. Fruit yields were also obtained from the first (5–6 m from the shelter) and middle (4th or 5th row, 19–24 m from the

K. A. Hughes; W. R. N. Edwards; A. M. Snowball

1994-01-01

411

Primary Root Growth and the Pattern of Root Apical Meristem Organization are Coupled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root apical meristems (RAMs) in dicotyledonous plants have two organizational schemes; closed (with highly organized tiers)\\u000a and open (tiers lacking or disorganized). These schemes are commonly believed to remain unchanged during the growth of the\\u000a root axis. Individual roots are commonly thought to have indeterminate growth. We challenge these two generalizations through\\u000a the study of five species with closed apical

K. Chapman; E. P. Groot; S. A. Nichol; T. L. Rost

2002-01-01

412

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from fruits and roots of Pimpinella anisum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures of Pimpinella anisum were established following inoculation of aseptically grown plantlets with an A4 pRiA4 70 GUS strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The essential oils from the hairy roots, maintained in four different media, and from the fruits and roots of the parent plant were analysed and their compositions compared by GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The major components

Paula M. Santos; A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Margarida Oliveira; José G. Barroso; Luis G. Pedro; Stanley G. Deans; A. K. M. Younus; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1998-01-01

413

Root specific elicitation and antimicrobial activity of rosmarinic acid in hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a multifunctional caffeic acid ester present in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Untransformed normal roots of O. basilicum harbored the maximum titers (0.98% g fresh weight basis) of RA compared to leaves and shoots. Hairy root cultures of O. basilicum transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes (ATCC-15834) showed three-fold increases in growth and RA production compared to the untransformed normal roots.

Harsh Pal Bais; Travis S. Walker; Herbert P. Schweizer; Jorge M. Vivanco

2002-01-01

414

Strigolactones affect lateral root formation and root-hair elongation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strigolactones (SLs) have been proposed as a new group of plant hormones, inhibiting shoot branching, and as signaling molecules\\u000a for plant interactions. Here, we present evidence for effects of SLs on root development. The analysis of mutants flawed in\\u000a SLs synthesis or signaling suggested that the absence of SLs enhances lateral root formation. In accordance, roots grown in\\u000a the presence

Yoram Kapulnik; Pierre-Marc Delaux; Natalie Resnick; Einav Mayzlish-Gati; Smadar Wininger; Chaitali Bhattacharya; Nathalie Séjalon-Delmas; Jean-Philippe Combier; Guillaume Bécard; Eduard Belausov; Tom Beeckman; Evgenia Dor; Joseph Hershenhorn; Hinanit Koltai

2011-01-01

415

Dynamic deadspace-gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) at eight growing stages.  

PubMed

Volatiles of five different parts of lovage (leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots) were isolated by dynamic headspace (DHS) method and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques. In total, 98 compounds were identified in the samples, of which 41 are reported as lovage volatiles for the first time. Qualitative differences in the composition of DHS constituents of various anatomical parts of the plants were not significant, whereas the amounts of a number of identified volatile compounds were different in leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. Seasonal variations in the composition of headspace volatiles were also determined. Except for roots, beta-phellandrene was found to be the most abundant headspace component in all anatomical parts of lovage constituting from 36.50% to 79.28% of the total GC peak area. The sniffing panel characterized effluents from the GC column, and odor descriptors were attributed to the recognized constituents. alpha-Pinene and alpha-phellandrene/myrcene were the most frequently recognized constituents among 11 GC effluents constituting 12 identified compounds and 1 unknown compound, which were detected by the members of the sniffing panel. None of the detected constituents was recognized as a lovage character impact aroma compound. PMID:11312790

Bylaite, E; Roozen, J P; Legger, A; Venskutonis, R P; Posthumus, M A

2000-12-01

416

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

SciTech Connect

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

417

Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome  

PubMed Central

Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities.

Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

2014-01-01

418

Brassinosteroids promote root growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth. PMID:14526105

Müssig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-11-01

419

Brassinosteroids Promote Root Growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth.

Mussig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-01-01

420

ASTROCULTURE (TM) root metabolism and cytochemical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture (TM) plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure.

Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

2000-01-01

421

Enzymatic Digestion of Roots for Recovery of Root-knot Nematode Developmental Stages.  

PubMed

Developmental stages of Meloidogyne javanica were successfully released from roots by treatment with commercially available cellulase and pectinase. The average percentage recovery of nematode developmental stages from Dolichos lablab, Elymus glaucus, and Lycopersicon esculentum were as follows: eggs = 526%, J2 = 272%, J3 = 783%, J4 = 549%, adult females = 285%, and total = 425%, expressed as percentages of the counts obtained from stained roots spread on glass plates. Root digestion was more accurate and sensitive in detecting low numbers of nematodes in roots than was the glass plate method. No simple linear, quadratic, or cubic relationship was found between the two methods that would allow a conversion factor to be developed. PMID:19279814

Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

1993-12-01

422

Natural H+ Currents Traverse Growing Roots and Root Hairs of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

With the aid of an extracellular vibrating electrode, natural electric fields were detected and measured in the medium near growing roots and root hairs of barley seedlings. An exploration of these fields indicates that both the root as a whole, as well as individual root hairs, drive large steady currents through themselves. Current consistently enters both the main elongation zone of the root as well as the growing tips of elongating root hairs; it leaves the surface of the root beneath the root hairs. These currents enter with a density of about 2 microamperes per square centimeter, leave with a density of about 0.5 to 1 microampere per square centimeter, and total about 30 nanoamperes. Responses of the natural fields to changes in the ionic composition of the medium as well as observations of the pH pattern in the medium near the roots (made with bromocresol purple) together indicate that much of the current consists of hydrogen ions. Altogether, H+ ions seem to leak into growing cells or cell parts and to be pumped out of nongrowing ones. Images

Weisenseel, Manfred H.; Dorn, Alfred; Jaffe, Lionel F.

1979-01-01

423

Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.  

PubMed

The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 ?M melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

2012-11-01

424

Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging.  

PubMed

CO(2)-enrichment experiments consistently show that rooting depth increases when trees are grown at elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)), leading in some experiments to increased capture of available soil nitrogen (N) from deeper soil. However, the link between N uptake and root distributions remains poorly represented in forest ecosystem and global land-surface models. Here, this link is modeled and analyzed using a new optimization hypothesis (MaxNup) for root foraging in relation to the spatial variability of soil N, according to which a given total root mass is distributed vertically in order to maximize annual N uptake. MaxNup leads to analytical predictions for the optimal vertical profile of root biomass, maximum rooting depth, and N-uptake fraction (i.e., the proportion of plant-available soil N taken up annually by roots). We use these predictions to gain new insight into the behavior of the N-uptake fraction in trees growing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory free-air CO(2)-enrichment experiment. We also compare MaxNup with empirical equations previously fitted to root-distribution data from all the world's plant biomes, and find that the empirical equations underestimate the capacity of root systems to take up N. PMID:22833797

McMurtrie, Ross E; Iversen, Colleen M; Dewar, Roderick C; Medlyn, Belinda E; Näsholm, Torgny; Pepper, David A; Norby, Richard J

2012-06-01

425

Strigolactones affect lateral root formation and root-hair elongation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) have been proposed as a new group of plant hormones, inhibiting shoot branching, and as signaling molecules for plant interactions. Here, we present evidence for effects of SLs on root development. The analysis of mutants flawed in SLs synthesis or signaling suggested that the absence of SLs enhances lateral root formation. In accordance, roots grown in the presence of GR24, a synthetic bioactive SL, showed reduced number of lateral roots in WT and in max3-11 and max4-1 mutants, deficient in SL synthesis. The GR24-induced reduction in lateral roots was not apparent in the SL signaling mutant max2-1. Moreover, GR24 led to increased root-hair length in WT and in max3-11 and max4-1 mutants, but not in max2-1. SLs effect on lateral root formation and root-hair elongation may suggest a role for SLs in the regulation of root development; perhaps, as a response to growth conditions. PMID:21080198

Kapulnik, Yoram; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Resnick, Natalie; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Wininger, Smadar; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Belausov, Eduard; Beeckman, Tom; Dor, Evgenia; Hershenhorn, Joseph; Koltai, Hinanit