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1

The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infusion of dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) stimulated in vitro the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. The utilization of oligofructans, glucose, fructose and total saccharides was determined by enzymatic and phenol-sulfuric methods. Dandelion oligofructans were important source of carbon and energy for bifidobacteria tested.

I. Trojanová; V. Rada; L. Kokoška; E. Vlková

2004-01-01

2

Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11?, 13-dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11 in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.

W Kisiel; B Barszcz

2000-01-01

3

Characterisation of Antimicrobial Extracts from Dandelion Root (Taraxacum officinale) Using LC-SPE-NMR.  

PubMed

Plant extracts have traditionally been used as sources of natural antimicrobial compounds, although in many cases, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial efficacy have not been identified. In this study, crude and dialysed extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The methanol hydrophobic crude extract (DRE3) demonstrated the strongest inhibition of microbial growth against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. Normal phase (NP) fractionation of DRE3 resulted in two fractions (NPF4 and NPF5) with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further NP fractionation of NPF4 resulted in two fractions (NPF403 and NPF406) with increased antimicrobial activity. Further isolation and characterisation of compounds in NPF406 using liquid chromatography solid phase extraction nuclear magnetic resonance LC-SPE-NMR resulted in the identification of 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, while the phenolic compounds vanillin, coniferaldehyde and p-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid were also identified respectively. The molecular mass of these compounds was confirmed by LC mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. In summary, the antimicrobial efficacy of dandelion root extracts demonstrated in this study support the use of dandelion root as a source of natural antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25644491

Kenny, O; Brunton, N P; Walsh, D; Hewage, C M; McLoughlin, P; Smyth, T J

2015-04-01

4

In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcoholic liver damage were investigated in HepG2\\/2E1 cells and ICR mice. When an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was induced by 300mM ethanol in vitro, cell viability was drastically decreased by 39%. However, in the presence of hot water extract (TOH) from T. officinale root, no hepatocytic damage

Yanghee You; Soonam Yoo; Ho-Geun Yoon; Yoo-Hyun Lee; Sunoh Kim; Kyung-Taek Oh; Jeongmin Lee; Hong-Yon Cho; Woojin Jun

2010-01-01

5

Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. Indeed, at high HM contents, leaf parenchyma is constituted of few roundish cells with large intercellular spaces, while palisade structure is lacking at all. Comparing the leaf morphology with their metal content, it appears that the poor structural organisation, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are strictly related to soil contamination. Similar observations have been recorded on cortex parenchyma of the roots, which presents a reduced thickness in comparison to the control, proportional to HM content in the soil. Moreover, all the samples examined do not present hairs on the root epidermis, but mycorrhizae, which are well developed in the control, and nearly lacking in the contaminated samples. Preliminary ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells of contaminated samples show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content, in comparison to the not-contaminated sample. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylacoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state strictly related to HM content. However, T. officinale, besides the recorded abnormalities, proved to be able to grow on moderately contaminated soils, and therefore may be utilized to colonize polluted sites.

Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

2013-04-01

6

Preliminary observations on organogenesis in Taraxacum officinale tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tissue cultures ofTaraxacum officinale have been isolated from the secondary thickened root. Callus development and leaf and root formation occur on a basal medium supplemented with coconut milk and IAA or NAA, and the addition of kinetin to these media enhances callus growth and organogenesis. Cultures grown on the basal medium with coconut milk and 2,4-D show only callus

B. G. Bowes

1970-01-01

7

Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing

Hye-Jin Jeon; Hyun-Jung Kang; Hyun-Joo Jung; Young-Sook Kang; Chang-Jin Lim; Young-Myeong Kim; Eun-Hee Park

2008-01-01

8

Endogenous gibberellin levels and senescence in Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in leaf tissue of Taraxacum officinale was high during leaf growth and expansion but declined progressively during leaf senescence. In the chromatographic system used, most of the GA from Taraxacum leaves moves with the Rf of GA3. However, several other GAs were also effective in retarding senescence in Taraxacum leaves. It is concluded that

R. A. Fletcher; T. Oegema; R. F. Horton

1969-01-01

9

Production of inulinase using tap roots of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various inulin containing vegetal substrates were evaluated for inulinase production by an indigenous isolate, Aspergillus niger NK-126. Highest inulinase activity was observed with dandelion tap root extract (52.3IU\\/ml). The enzyme activity was fourfold higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (12.3IU\\/ml). The fungus showed good growth on a medium containing 40% (v\\/v) of dandelion tap root extract

Naveen Kango

2008-01-01

10

The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers  

E-print Network

The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers S. M. Stewart-Wade1 officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82: 825­853. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex words: Taraxacum officinale, dandelion, weed biology, Canada. Stewart-Wade, S. M., Neumann, S., Collins

Boland, Greg J.

11

The dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) — A monitor for environmental pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum offcinale and show that it accumulates these elements. The accumulation corresponds to the extent of environmental pollution. Since Taraxacum officinale is widely distributed it may be successfully used for monitoring metal pollution.

I. Kuleff; R. Djingova

1984-01-01

12

Trace metal contents of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as a convenient environmental indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some vascular plants are known to concentrate trace metals and are regarded to be suitable indicators of atmospheric metal deposition. Among plant species used for biogeochemical studies dandelion (Taraxacum officinale.) is convenient for monitoring air\\/soil pollution. The plant commonly occurs in different ecosystems with relatively parallel stages of ontogenesis over a broad area of geographical regions. Its leaves and roots

Alina Kabata-Pendias; S. Dudka

1991-01-01

13

Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was

Wim Van den Ende; An Michiels; Dominik Van Wonterghem; Rudy Vergauwen; AndreVan Laere

14

4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.  

PubMed

The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives. PMID:24359632

Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

2014-02-01

15

Ecological Differentiation among Genotypes of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale)  

E-print Network

Ecological Differentiation among Genotypes of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) Mark Vellend, Emily B. M. Drummond, and Jennifer L. Muir* We tested for ecological differences among apomictic dandelion and seed dispersal or regeneration traits. Genetic variation in dandelion populations appears to have great

Vellend, Mark

16

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers Rosette-forming simple perennial.  

E-print Network

Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers Life cycle Rosette-forming simple perennial. Leaves. Asteraceae (Aster family) Dandelion plant. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Asteraceae (Aster family) Dandelion continued Flowers and fruit Bright yellow, solitary flower heads consisting of only ray

17

Photonastic and thermonastic opening of capitulum in dandelion, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capitula ofTaraxacum officinale andT. japonicum open in response to temperature rise at lower temperatures (thermonasty), and in response to light at higher temperatures\\u000a (photonasty), as was the case inT. albidum. The capitula ofT. officinale could respond to the same temperature rise more sensitively than those ofT. albidum orT. japonicum. The minimum temperature for photonastic opening is as low as

Osamu Tanaka; Yuuji Tanaka; Hiromitsu Wada

1988-01-01

18

Detecting small-scale genotypeenvironment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations  

E-print Network

Detecting small-scale genotype­environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum O L O G Y 1667 Keywords: apomictic; dandelion; disturbance; local adaptation; microsatellites species). Here, we tested for G · E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six

Vellend, Mark

19

Sesquiterpene Glucosides from Anti-leukotriene B4 Release Fraction of Taraxacum Officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical examination of the MeOH extract of the root of Taraxacum officinale, which exhibited inhibitory activity on the formation of leukotriene B4 from activated human neutrophils, has resulted in the isolation of 14-O-?-D-glucosyl-11,13-dihydro-taraxinic acid (1) and 14-O-?-D-glucosyl-taraxinic acid (2). The absolute stereostructure of 1 has been established by X-ray chrystallographic examination.

Yoshiki Kashiwada; Koichiro Takanaka; Harumi Tsukada; Yoshihisa Miwa; Toru Taga; Shigeo Tanaka; Yasumasa Ikeshiro

2001-01-01

20

Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale Web.) as phytoindicators of cadmium contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web.) were demonstrated to be potential indicator plants for heavy metal contaminated sites. Chicory, grown with 0.5–50 µM cadmium (Cd) in nutrient solution, accumulated 10–300 µM Cd g-1 in shoots and 10–890 µg Cd µg-1 in roots and rhizomes. With dandelion, 20–410 µg Cd µg-1 was found in shoots and 20–1360 µg

L. Simon; H. W. Martin; D. C. Adriano

1996-01-01

21

Difference in in vitro response and esculin content in two populations of Taraxacum officinale Weber.  

PubMed

In vitro micropropagation has been achieved in medicinally important plant, Taraxacum officinale collected from two different regions, Kashmir (J & K) and Garhwal (Uttarakhand). Leaf segments inoculated on MS supplemented with different combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Benzyladenine (BA) produced indirect regeneration. For root induction MS fortified with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was used. Taraxacum officinale collected from Garhwal responded two weeks earlier and showed shoot regeneration whereas in Kashmir population only callus proliferation occurred. Esculin content was also higher in the samples from Garhwal. The content was affected by both, the hormone concentration as well as age of the cultures. RAPD of the in vitro raised regenerants confirmed genetic stability. PMID:23572985

Jamshieed, Sumiya; Das, Sandip; Sharma, M P; Srivastava, P S

2010-12-01

22

A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic,

K. Vijverberg; R. G. M. Van der Hulst; P. Lindhout; P. J. Van Dijk

2004-01-01

23

Prezygotic barriers to gene flow between Taraxacum ceratophorum and the invasive Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Prezygotic reproductive barriers limit interspecific gene flow between congeners. Here, I examine the strength of floral isolation and interspecific pollen-pistil barriers between an invasive apomictic, Taraxacum officinale, and the indigenous sexual alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum. Experimental arrays of either native inflorescences or a mixture of native and exotic inflorescences were used to examine insect preference and to track movement of a pollen analog. Using hand-pollinations, conspecific and heterospecific pollen germination success on native stigmas was compared. To additionally test for interspecific pollen competition, T. ceratophorum plants received one of three possible hand-pollinations: control conspecific pollination, concomitant conspecific and heterospecific pollination (mixed), or conspecific pollen followed by heterospecific pollen 15 min later (staggered). Floral isolation was negligible as no insect preference was detected. On a presence/absence basis, florets on native inflorescences received slightly less pollen analog from heterospecific donors than from conspecific donors; however, the amount of dye particles transferred from either Taraxacum species to stigmas on recipient T. ceratophorum inflorescences was equivalent. In contrast to weak floral isolation, strong pollen germination and pollen competition barriers should reduce the potential for hybridization. Heterospecific T. officinale pollen exhibited reduced germination success on T. ceratophorum stigmas in comparison to conspecific pollen. Furthermore, a significant pollen-competition effect on the percentage of hybrid offspring was detected only when T. officinale preceded T. ceratophorum pollen by 15 min. This result indicates that conspecific pollen out-competes heterospecific pollen but further suggests that biotic and abiotic factors reducing pollen accrual rates may partially remove barriers to natural hybridization. PMID:19504127

Brock, Marcus T

2009-08-01

24

Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

2014-05-01

25

Attacchi di mal bianco su Bellis perennis e Taraxacum officinale in Liguria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Presence of powdery mildew on Bellis perennis L. and Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. aggr., in Italy Attacks of powdery mildew on Bellis perennis and Taraxa- cum officinale grown in open field and in greenhouse in Liguria (Northern Italy) are reported. The imperfect stage of the pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum on B. pe- rennis and the perfect stage of Podosphaera

PIETRO PENSA; ANDREA MINUTO; JACOPO ROSSI; DOMENICO BERTETTI; MARIA LODOVICA GULLINO; ANGELO GARIBALDI

26

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

1998-01-01

27

Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum officinale (TO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with TO after the treatment of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?) resulted in increased NO synthesis. TO had no effect on NO synthesis by itself. When TO was used in combination with rIFN-?, there was

Hyung-Min Kim; Chang-Hwan Oh; Cha-Kwon Chung

1999-01-01

28

Phytochrome involvement in the control of leaf shape of Taraxacum officinale L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  Sobre la base del efecto de irradiaciones de baja energía con luz rojo lejana, y la reversión del mismo por la luz roja, se postula la participación del fitocromo en el control de la forma de la hoja deTaraxacum officinale.

R. Sánchez

1971-01-01

29

Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-? and IL1? secretion in Hep G2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human

Hyun-Na Koo; Seung-Heon Hong; Bong-Keun Song; Cheorl-Ho Kim; Young-Hyun Yoo; Hyung-Min Kim

2004-01-01

30

Untersuchungen an Populationen des Taraxacum-officinale -Komplexes im Kontaktgebiet der diploiden und polyploiden Biotypen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung DerTaraxacum-officinale-Komplex enthält im Raume von Niederösterreich neben polyploiden auch zahlreiche diploide Biotypen. Bei Untersuchungen an 5 Populationen zu je 100 Pflanzen stellte sich heraus, daß sich die Populationen und deren Teilpopulationen in den meisten Fällen aus einem Gemisch von diploiden und polyploiden Pflanzen aufbauen. Rein diploide und rein polyploide Teilpopulationen sind selten. Wie in überwiegend polyploiden Populationen lassen sich

Dietrich Fürnkranz

1966-01-01

31

The occurrence of shoot teratomata in tissue cultures of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue cultures of Taraxacum officinale have been isolated showing either normal organogenesis, callus growth only, or teratological shoots. The latter are apparently stable and the teratomata range from tumerous outgrowths, to flattened thalloid forms and short shoots with strap shaped leaves. The proximal regions of such shoots are tumerous and no distinction between apex, leaf and bud primordia is possible.

B. G. Bowes

1971-01-01

32

Clonal variation in floral stage timing in the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the hypothesis that dandelion clones (Taraxacum officinaleWeber, sensu lato; Asteraceae) differ in their floral stage timing characteristics under a constant set of environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, plants representing nine different dandelion clones (identified by DNA fingerprinting) were grown in groups of five ( N 5 45) in a growth chamber for a period of 8 mo,

MATTHEW H. COLLIER; STEVEN H. ROGSTAD

2004-01-01

33

Attempt at demonstrating the effect of a weak magnetic field on Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure ofTaraxacum officinale L. at flowering time to a weak magnetic field resulted in (1) retarded opening and the closing of the inflorescence, (2)\\u000a wilting and death after prolonged exposure. Controls were unchanged. Plants exposed to the effect of magnetic fields were\\u000a degenerated in subsequent year.

Josef Novák; Ladislav Válek

1965-01-01

34

The influence of phytochrome in the water exchange of epidermal cells of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé La qualité de la lumière a modifié le passage de l'eau dans les cellules épidermiques des pétioles deTaraxacum officinale. L'irradiation par du rouge sombre a augmenté la rapidité avec laquelle l'eau entre dans la cellule et la lumière rouge clair a renversé cet effet.

M. S. Carceller; R. A. Sánchez

1972-01-01

35

Metal content of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) leaves in relation to soil contamination and airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this ‘species’ a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its value as a biological monitor of environmental metal contamination. To examine the metal content of dandelion leaves in relation to environmental metal levels, the

B Keane; M. H Collier; J. R Shann; S. H Rogstad

2001-01-01

36

METAL CONTENT OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES IN RELATION TO SOIL CONTAMINATION AND AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R826602)  

EPA Science Inventory

The global distribution of the common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato ; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this `species' a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its ...

37

Proteins in the roots of the perennial weeds chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale Weber) are associated with overwintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots are the overwintering structures of herbaceous perennial weeds growing in temperate climates. During the fall they accumulated\\u000a reserves which are remobilized when growth resumes in the spring. An 18kDa (kilodalton) protein increases in both chicory\\u000a and dandelion roots during the fall months. The proteins in both species are antigenically similar, and are recognized also\\u000a by an antibody to a

David R. Cyr; J. Derek Bewley

1990-01-01

38

Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

2014-08-01

39

Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale  

PubMed Central

Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

2014-01-01

40

Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract AIM: Taraxacum,officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy,for inflammatory,diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg\\/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 µg\\/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously,three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated

Sang-wan Seo; Hyun-na Koo; An Hyo-jin; Kang-beom Kwon; Byung-cheal Lim; Eun-a Seo; Do-gon Ryu; Goo Moon; Hong-yeoul Kim; Hyung-min Kim; Seung-heon Hong

2005-01-01

41

Kairomone from dandelion, Taraxacum officinale , attractant for scarab beetle Anomala octiescostata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attraction of the scarab beetleAnomala octiescostata to dandelion,Taraxacum officinale, was demonstrated to be chemically mediated by a mixture ofcis-3-hexenyl acetate, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, phenylacetonitrile, and benzyl benzoate, in the ratio 4:8:14:3:5:19:11. Combination of the synthetic kairomone and sex pheromone (buibuilactone + japonilure, 8:2), significantly increased the total catches ofA. octiescostata. Catches of male (but not female)

Walter Soares Leal; Mikio Ono; Makoto Hasegawa; Masaaki Sawada

1994-01-01

42

Productivity differences between dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ; Asteraceae) clones from pollution impacted versus non-impacted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae) introduced to North America form an assemblage of asexual (agamospermous), clonal lineages derived from Eurasian mixed sexual\\u000a and asexual populations. We investigated whether selection for more pollution tolerant clonal lineages occurs at polluted\\u000a sites and selection for more pollution intolerant lineages occurs at unpolluted sites. We tested the above hypothesis by performing

Matthew H. Collier; Brian Keane; Steven H. Rogstad

2010-01-01

43

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

44

The occurrence of phenotypically complementary apomixis-recombinants in crosses between sexual and apomictic dandelions ( Taraxacum officinale )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic seed development in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) involves (1) restitutional meiosis (diplospory), (2) egg cell parthenogenesis, and (3) autonomous endosperm development. The question is whether these elements of apomixis are controlled by one single gene or by several independent genes. Five triploid non-apomictic hybrids, obtained in diploid sexual × triploid apomict crosses were characterized using cyto-embryological and genetic methods.

Peter J. van Dijk; Peter van Baarlen; J. Hans de Jong

2003-01-01

45

Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution  

PubMed Central

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010–2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

Erofeeva, Elena A.

2014-01-01

46

Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.  

PubMed

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

Erofeeva, Elena A

2014-12-01

47

Metal contamination in urban street sediment in Pisa (Italy) can affect the production of antioxidant metabolites in Taraxacum officinale Weber.  

PubMed

Taraxacum officinale Weber (dandelion) is a very ubiquitous species, and it can grow in urban environments on metal-polluted sediments deposited in the gutters. This study represents a preliminary step to verify the presence of metals in sediments collected in urban streets in Pisa and to assess the alteration in dandelion metabolites in order to understand its adaptation to polluted environments. The soil and sediments were collected at three urban streets and analyzed for total and extractable Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The total values of Pb and Zn in street sediments exceeded the limits for residential areas of soils. Zn was the most mobile of the metals analyzed. Floating cultivations trials were set up with dandelion seedlings and street sediments. The metals were analyzed in roots and leaves. Antioxidant power, anthocyanins, polyphenols, non-protein thiols (NP-TH) and chlorophylls were measured in dandelion leaves. The first two parameters (anthocyanins and antioxidant power) were higher in the polluted samples compared to the control; chlorophyll content was lower in the treated samples, whereas NP-TH showed no differences. NP-TH groups determined in roots were associated with the root content of Zn and Pb. These results indicate that dandelion can tolerate plant stress by altering its metabolite content. PMID:24062063

Bretzel, Francesca; Benvenuti, Stefano; Pistelli, Laura

2014-02-01

48

The effects of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue in mice.  

PubMed

The study is to investigate the effect of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue based on the forced swimming capacity in mice. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., normal control (NC) and three doses of TOE treated group (High-dose, Middle-dose and Low-dose). Three TOE treated groups were treated by oral TOE with 10, 30 and 100mg/kg b.w respectively for a period of 42 days. The normal control group was given a corresponding volume of sterile distilled water. After 6 weeks, the forced swimming capacity and blood biochemical parameters in mice were measured, and the result showed that TOE had an anti- physical fatigue effect. It enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice, effectively delayed the lowering of glucose in the blood, and prevented the increase in lactate and triglyceride concentrations. PMID:22238492

Jinchun, Zhang; Jie, Chen

2011-01-01

49

Cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale. The extraction conditions, optimized for improving yield, were as follows: time, 46.11 min; temperature, 54.87 °C; pH, 4.51 and cellulase enzyme, 4000 U/g. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides from dandelion (PD) reached 20.67% (w/w). The sugar content of PD was 95.6% (w/w), and it displayed high antibacterial activity at a concentration of 100mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that PD may be a viable option for use as a food preservative. PMID:24528711

Wang, Hong-Bin

2014-03-15

50

Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

Yoshie, Fumio

2014-05-01

51

Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25270677

Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

2014-10-01

52

HPLC analysis of geometrical isomers of lutein epoxide isolated from dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutein epoxide has been isolated from petals of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica to be used for the accurate identification of this carotenoid in other sources. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C30 column, as a result of which six geometrical isomers were separated. The identification of

Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; George Britton; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia

2006-01-01

53

Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl

C. Hu; D. D. Kitts

2005-01-01

54

Reduction of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation by Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) extracts in 3T3L1 adipocytes: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

In this in vitro study, we have investigated the ability of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HPLC analysis of the three plant extracts used in this study-leaf and root extracts and a commercial root powder-identified caffeic and chlorogenic acids as the main phenolic constituents. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride levels analysis showed decreased lipid and triglyceride accumulation, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT assay showing non-toxic effect among the concentrations tested. DNA microarray analysis showed that the extracts regulated the expression of a number of genes and long non-coding RNAs that play a major role in the control of adipogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the dandelion extracts used in this study may play a significant role during adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, and thus, supporting their therapeutic interest as potential candidates for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23956107

González-Castejón, Marta; García-Carrasco, Belén; Fernández-Dacosta, Raquel; Dávalos, Alberto; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

2014-05-01

55

Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200?mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5?mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:22424457

Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

2012-06-01

56

Detecting small-scale genotype-environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations.  

PubMed

Studies of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) and local adaptation provide critical tests of natural selection's ability to counter opposing forces such as gene flow. Such studies may be greatly facilitated in asexual species, given the possibility for experimental replication at the level of true genotypes (rather than populations) and the possibility of using molecular markers to assess genotype-environment associations in the field (neither of which is possible for most sexual species). Here, we tested for G × E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six genotypes to experimental drought, mown and benign (control) conditions and subsequently using microsatellites to assess genotype-environment associations in the field. We found strong G × E, with genotypes that performed poorly under benign conditions showing the highest performance under stressful conditions (drought or mown). Our six focal genotypes comprise >?80% of plants in local populations. The most common genotype in the field showed its highest relative performance under mown conditions (the most common habitat in our study area), and almost all plants of this genotype in the field were found growing in mowed lawns. Genotypes performing best under benign experimental conditions were found most frequently in unmown conditions in the field. These results are strongly indicative of local adaptation at a very small scale, with unmown microsites of only a few square metres typically embedded within larger mown lawns. By studying an asexual species, we were able to map genotypes with known ecological characteristics to environments with high spatial precision. PMID:22694090

McLeod, K A; Scascitelli, M; Vellend, M

2012-08-01

57

Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.  

PubMed

We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas. PMID:22661315

Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

2012-10-01

58

Effective range of reproductive interference exerted by an alien dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, on a native congener.  

PubMed

Reproductive interference (RI), defined as the fitness cost of interspecific sexual interactions, such as interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) in plants, is ecologically important. Theoretically, RI could result in competitive exclusion, as it operates in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, IPT may have a greater range than resource competition, although information about the range of IPT is lacking. In the present study, we measured the range of IPT exerted by Taraxacum officinale (an alien species) on a native dandelion, T. japonicum. We used two approaches. In one, we analyzed the RI effect on a native seed set at three spatial scales. In the second, we tracked IPT from alien to native flower heads using fluorescent pigments as markers. We estimated that pollination distances were in the order of several meters. These distances exceeded the mean distance from each native plant to the nearest alien. As hypothesized, the effect of RI reached farther than neighboring individuals. These data indicate the spatial range from which alien dandelions should be removed to allow the conservation of natives. PMID:20676914

Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishida, Takayoshi; Nishida, Sachiko

2011-03-01

59

Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.  

PubMed

Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

2012-01-01

60

Effects of Taraxacum officinale on fatigue and immunological parameters in mice.  

PubMed

In Korean herbal medicine dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO) has been used to improve energy levels and health. However, the effects of TO in experimental models remain unclear. We examined the anti-fatigue and immune-enhancing effects of TO in mice by performing a forced swimming test (FST) and in vitro by using peritoneal macrophages, respectively. After daily oral administration of TO, blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue were measured after the FST. FST immobility time was significantly decreased in the TO-treated group (100 mg/kg) on the tenth day. TO (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased glucose levels, acting as an energy source. The level of lactic dehydrogenase, which is an accurate indicator of muscle damage, tended to decline after TO administration (10 and 100 mg/kg). When TO (100 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice, blood urea nitrogen levels decreased significantly. We also examined the effect of TO on the production of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. When TO was used in combination with recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-?), a noticeable cooperative induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-10 production was observed. Furthermore, in peritoneal macrophages, rIFN-? plus TO treatment significantly increased the production of NO through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction. Taken together, these results suggest that TO improves fatigue-related indicators and immunological parameters in mice. PMID:23135630

Lee, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jong-Hyun; An, Hyo-Jin

2012-01-01

61

Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 ?g/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated for 5 d. We determined the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of pancreatic HSP60 and HSP72, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in typical laboratory and morphological changes of experimentally-induced pancreatitis. RESULTS: TO significantly decreased the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio in CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis. TO also increased the pancreatic levels of HSP60 and HSP72. Additionally, the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? decreased in the animals treated with TO. CONCLUSION: TO may have a protective effect against CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:15641154

Seo, Sang-Wan; Koo, Hyun-Na; An, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lim, Byung-Cheal; Seo, Eun-A; Ryu, Do-Gon; Moon, Goo; Kim, Hong-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon

2005-01-01

62

The potential for genetic assimilation of a native dandelion species, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), by the exotic congener T. officinale.  

PubMed

Exotic plant species can threaten closely related native congeners through asymmetric hybridization and subsequent backcrossing, the process known as genetic assimilation. I explore the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion, and the invasive apomict T. officinale. In central Colorado, seven T. ceratophorum populations all occur in sympatry with T. officinale. In one large population on Pennsylvania Mountain, surveys further revealed that flowering phenologies and visiting insect taxa overlap almost completely for both Taraxacum species. Together these results indicated that heterospecific pollen transfer is likely. Crossing experiments showed that T. ceratophorum is an obligate outcrosser, and interspecific hand pollinations resulted in 37.3% seed set. However, molecular analysis of the F1 offspring indicated that only 33.2% of germinating seeds were hybrids; the remainder were selfed offspring produced from a breakdown in self-incompatibility (the mentor effect). Although the mentor effect helps reduce the production of hybrids, the asymmetrical direction of hybridization creates the potential for genetic assimilation of T. ceratophorum by T. officinale. PMID:21653420

Brock, Marcus T

2004-05-01

63

Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study.  

PubMed

Taraxacum officinale L is a medicinal plant, which has enormous medicinal values against various types of liver disorders and it has traditionally been used for the treatment of liver problems by people from the South East Asia. Previously we have screened the crude methanolic extract of T. officinale against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Present study was designed to compare the protective effect of ethanolic and n-hexane extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight) along with silymarin (100 mg/kg) a standard drug was administered to experimental animals. It was observed that ethanolic plant extract has significantly reduced the negative effect of CCl4 as compared to n-hexane extract and effect of extract was increased with increasing dose level. Although both leaf extracts decreased the concentration of TBARS, H2O2 and nitrite contents which enhance due to CCl4 toxicity but effect was higher in ethanolic extract. The results clearly indicated that Taraxacum officinale ethanolic leaves extract has better protective effect against CCl4 induced liver tissues toxicity. This claim was also supported by histopathological results obtained during this study and this might be due to presence of various polar phytochemicals that might be more prevent in this extract. PMID:25015447

Gulfraz, Muhammad; Ahamd, Dawood; Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz; Qureshi, Rehmatullah; Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Jabeen, Nyla; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz

2014-07-01

64

The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice.  

PubMed

Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C) mice weighing 30 ± 5?g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200?mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05). As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200?mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(P < 0.05). The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (P < 0.01). 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg and in 200?mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance. PMID:22844289

Modaresi, Mehrdad; Resalatpour, Narges

2012-01-01

65

Fertility gain and heavy metal accumulation in plants and soil, studied by means of a compost amended cultivation of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of compost, as an organic amendment, on biomass production and on total and available Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations in agricultural soils. The available fraction of metals in the soil was measured, both using the DTPA?TEA extraction procedure and determining metal accumulation in the indicator plant Taraxacum officinale (the

C. Bini; S. Casaril; B. Pavoni

2000-01-01

66

Determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in Taraxacum officinale near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR) by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method with Si\\/Li semiconductor detector and238Pu exciting source was used for the determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in plant samples (Taraxacum officinale) from various localities near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR).

J. Tölgyessy; M. Harangozó; P. Dillinger

1993-01-01

67

Formation of unreduced megaspores (Diplospory) in apomictic Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale, s.l.) is controlled by a sex-specific dominant locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This population was created by crossing a sexual diploid (2x = 16) with a tetraploid diplosporous pollen donor (4x

Dijk Van P. J; J. M. Tanja Bakx-Schotman

2004-01-01

68

Drought tolerance in the alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), its exotic congener T. officinale, and interspecific hybrids under natural and experimental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared water relations and adaptations to drought stress in native and invasive exotic dandelions, Taraxacum ceratophorum and T. officinale . Photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and water use efficiency (WUE; carbon gained\\/water lost) were measured for the two species under extreme drought in the alpine tundra of Colorado, USA. We also subjected both species and F1 hybrids to a dry-down

M. T. Brock; CANDACE GALEN

2005-01-01

69

Potential of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound currently added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. It has been suggested that the combustion of MMT containing Mn could cause various deleterious health effects in animals and humans at very high concentrations. This study evaluates the potential of dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) as bioindicators of Mn environmental comtamination. Samples were picked

L. Normandin; G. Kennedy; J. Zayed

1999-01-01

70

Drought tolerance in the alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), its exotic congener T. officinale, and interspecific hybrids under natural and experimental conditions.  

PubMed

We compared water relations and adaptations to drought stress in native and invasive exotic dandelions, Taraxacum ceratophorum and T. officinale. Photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and water use efficiency (WUE; carbon gained/water lost) were measured for the two species under extreme drought in the alpine tundra of Colorado, USA. We also subjected both species and F(1) hybrids to a dry-down experiment to determine how relative physiological performance varied with water availability. Photosynthesis and transpiration in the field were low and did not differ between Taraxacum congeners; however, native T. ceratophorum had higher WUE than T. officinale. After 6 days of greenhouse drought, photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced in T. officinale compared to T. ceratophorum. Taraxacum ceratophorum maintained high WUE under control and drought treatments. Conversely, WUE in T. officinale was highly plastic between watered (low WUE) and dry-down (high WUE) treatments. Hybrids did not exhibit heterosis; instead, they were similar to T. officinale in A and E and intermediate to the parental species in WUE. Overall, results suggest that native dandelions are more drought tolerant than invasive congeners or their hybrids, but have less plasticity in WUE. Arid habitats and occasional drought in mesic sites may provide native dandelions with refugia from negative interactions with invasives. PMID:21646151

Brock, Marcus T; Galen, Candace

2005-08-01

71

Seasonal Variations in the Metal Concentration of Taraxacum Officinale, Plantago Major and Plantago Lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal changes in the concentrations of aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the leaves of Taraxacum officianale, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major are investigated. the most convenient periods for sampling are established when the elemental concentrations have minimal variation and are independent on the development

R. Djingova; I. Kuleff

1999-01-01

72

Density-Independent Mortality and Increasing Plant Diversity Are Associated with Differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-Strategists  

PubMed Central

Background Differential selection between clones of apomictic species may result in ecological differentiation without mutation and recombination, thus offering a simple system to study adaptation and life-history evolution in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We caused density-independent mortality by weeding to colonizer populations of the largely apomictic Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) over a 5-year period in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We compared the offspring of colonizer populations with resident populations deliberately sown into similar communities. Plants raised from cuttings and seeds of colonizer and resident populations were grown under uniform conditions. Offspring from colonizer populations had higher reproductive output, which was in general agreement with predictions of r-selection theory. Offspring from resident populations had higher root and leaf biomass, fewer flower heads and higher individual seed mass as predicted under K-selection. Plants grown from cuttings and seeds differed to some degree in the strength, but not in the direction, of their response to the r- vs. K-selection regime. More diverse communities appeared to exert stronger K-selection on resident populations in plants grown from cuttings, while we did not find significant effects of increasing species richness on plants grown from seeds. Conclusions/Significance Differentiation into r- and K-strategists suggests that clones with characteristics of r-strategists were selected in regularly weeded plots through rapid colonization, while increasing plant diversity favoured the selection of clones with characteristics of K-strategists in resident populations. Our results show that different selection pressures may result in a rapid genetic differentiation within a largely apomictic species. Even under the assumption that colonizer and resident populations, respectively, happened to be r- vs. K-selected already at the start of the experiment, our results still indicate that the association of these strategies with the corresponding selection regimes was maintained during the 5-year experimental period. PMID:22253688

Lipowsky, Annett; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard

2012-01-01

73

Competition between two naturalized dandelions, Taraxacum officinale weber and Taraxacum laevigatum DC., in mixed cultures with different levels of soil moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum officinala andTaraxacum laevigatum were grown in mixed stands at various plant densities and mixing ratios with various levels of soil moisture to formulate\\u000a the effect of soil moisture on the competitive relationship between the species. In pure stands, the mean plant weight—plant\\u000a density relation for each level of soil moisture could be described by the reciprocal equation of the

Kiyokazu Suehiro; Husato Ogawa; Kazuo Hozumi

1986-01-01

74

Anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol extract and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of the methanol extract and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL). The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting. The methanol extract and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed production of NO, PGE(2), and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 microg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited production of the inflammatory molecules. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions of the methanol extract, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities. These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway. PMID:20673058

Koh, Yoon-Jeoung; Cha, Dong-Soo; Ko, Je-Sang; Park, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Hee-Don

2010-08-01

75

EDTA reduces lead accumulation in Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of EDTA in phytoextraction studies has been reported to increase heavy metal accumulation in above-ground parts or to have no negative impact on the overall (root\\/shoot) accumulation levels in terrestrial plants. At a purely quantitative level, this study assessed the phytoextraction potential of a previously untested high-biomass terrestrial plant, Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), in the presence of Pb

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

76

Taraxalisin – a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp

G. N. Rudenskaya; A. M. Bogacheva; A. Preusser; A. V. Kuznetsova; Ya. E. Dunaevsky; B. N. Golovkin; V. M. Stepanov

1998-01-01

77

Phthalides in the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

The composition of the phthalide mixture of the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale Koch was investigated. The phthalide mixture was analyzed by combining separation methods - GLC, LSC and TLC - and subsequently using spectroscopic methods - IR, MS and NMR. E- and Z-butylidenephthalide, E- and Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide and validene-4,5-dihydrophthalide were found to be present; isosenkyunolide and propylidenephthalide were tentatively identified. The influence of the isolation procedure on the composition of the phthalide mixture was tentatively studied by comparison of mixtures isolated by solvent extraction and hydrodistillation respectively. PMID:17402120

Gijbels, M J; Scheffer, J J; Baerheim Svendsen, A

1982-04-01

78

A bidesmosidic hederagenin hexasaccharide from the roots of Symphytum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bidesmosidic triterpenoidal saponin 3-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-l- -arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin-28-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d- glucopyranosyl] ester, was isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale. The structure was assigned by chemical methods and spectral analysis (1H, 13C, DEPT, NMR, EI-MS and FAB-MS) including 1H?1H COSY, 1H?13C COSY and HOHAHA. The prosapogenin of this saponin is also a new compound.

Faryal Vali Mohammad; Mushtaq Noorwala; Viqar Uddin Ahmad; Bilge Sener

1995-01-01

79

In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on ?-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25636882

Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

2015-01-15

80

Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.  

PubMed

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and ?-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PMID:22026646

Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

2012-02-01

81

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; ?repinšek, Zalika

2002-02-01

82

A new anthraquinone glycoside from the root of Rheum officinale Baill.  

PubMed

A new and a known anthraquinone glycosides were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Rheum officinale Baill. The extract was purified by various chromatographies, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatography and HPLC. Two compounds were identified by the spectroscopic techniques of NMR, MS, and chemical method. In addition, they were tested for their cytotoxic effects against HepG2 cell. Unfortunately, they showed no or weak activity. PMID:23227548

Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Tang, Zhong-Yan; An, Rui; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Yi-Zhu; Wang, Xin-Hong

2012-09-01

83

Sugar utilization and invertase activity in hairy-root and cell-suspension cultures of Symphytum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete consumption of sugars can lead to limited growth of hairy roots. To shed light on this phenomenon, growth, sugar\\u000a consumption, and invertase activity were examined in hairy-root batch cultures of Symphytum officinale L. and in reference cell-suspension cultures of the same species. Sucrose was supplied as sole carbon source. In the hairy-root\\u000a cultures, sucrose concentration decreased gradually during growth,

Nurit Shimon-Kerner; David Mills; Jose C. Merchuk

2000-01-01

84

Menthol and geraniol biotransformation and glycosylation capacity of Levisticum officinale hairy roots.  

PubMed

The biotransformation capacity of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch hairy root cultures was studied by evaluating the effect of the addition of 25 mg/L menthol or geraniol on morphology, growth, and volatiles production. L. officinale hairy root cultures were maintained for 7 weeks in SH medium, in darkness at 24 degrees C and 80 r.p.m., and the substrates were added 15 days after inoculation. Growth was evaluated by measuring fresh and dry weight and by using the dissimilation method. Volatiles composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Hairy roots morphology and growth were not influenced by substrate addition. No new volatiles were detected after menthol addition and, as was also the case with the control cultures, volatiles of these hairy roots were dominated by (Z)-falcarinol (1-45%), N-octanal (3-8%), palmitic acid (3-10%), and (Z)-ligustilide (2-9%). The addition of geraniol induced the production of six new volatiles: nerol/citronellol/neral (traces-15%), alpha-terpineol (0.2-3%), linalool (0.1-1.2%), and geranyl acetate (traces-2%). The relative amounts of the substrates and some of their biotransformation products decreased during the course of the experiment. Following the addition of beta-glycosidase to the remaining distillation water, analysis of the extracted volatiles showed that lovage hairy roots were able to convert both substrates and their biotransformation products into glycosidic forms. GC:gas chromatography GC-MS:gas chromatography-mass spectrometry SH:Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) culture medium. PMID:19156598

Nunes, Inês S; Faria, Jorge M S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

2009-03-01

85

TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

2014-04-01

86

Dose–response effects of Rheum officinale root and Frangula alnus bark on ruminal methane production in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous screening assay showed that, when used as additives in batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms, both Rheum officinale root (RH) and Frangula alnus bark (FR) decreased methane production and caused changes in several fermentation parameters. The work reported here aimed to identify optimum dose levels of these plants to decrease methane production without causing adverse changes in ruminal

R. García-González; S. López; M. Fernández; J. S. González

2008-01-01

87

Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.  

PubMed

A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs. PMID:25049500

Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

2012-10-01

88

The pattern of genetic variability in apomictic clones of Taraxacum officinale indicates the alternation of asexual and sexual histories of apomicts.  

PubMed

Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

Majeský, Luboš; Vašut, Radim J; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

2012-01-01

89

The Pattern of Genetic Variability in Apomictic Clones of Taraxacum officinale Indicates the Alternation of Asexual and Sexual Histories of Apomicts  

PubMed Central

Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

Majeský, ?uboš; Vašut, Radim J.; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

2012-01-01

90

Purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill.  

PubMed

A chromatographic method for isolation and purification of chemical constituents from the well-known traditional Chinese drug Da-huang (roots of Rheum officinale Baill.) was established by using 12% cross-linked agarose gel, Superose 12, as the separation media. A two-step separation procedure is employed. Sixty five percent methanol was used as the eluent for separation of cinnamic acid, rhein, physcion and emodin form Da-huang crude extract. The fraction containing aloe-emodin and chrysophanol was then separated by using 55% methanol containing 0.5% acetic acid as the eluent. As a result, cinnamic acid and five kinds of hydroxyanthraquinones including rhein, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and emodin were obtained. The retention behavior of hydroxyanthraquinones on Superose 12 was also studied. The retention of hydroxyanthraquinones on Superose 12 is based on a mixture of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between the hydroxyl groups of the hydroxyanthraquinones and the residues of the cross-linking reagents used in the manufacturing process of Superose 12. PMID:18183553

Huang, Yanyan; Sun, Ailing; Qi, Yuanying; Liu, Renmin

2008-02-01

91

Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

2014-10-01

92

Poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] from Symphytum officinale roots and its biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-molecular-weight (>1000 kDa) water-soluble biopolymers, the main component of which was poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric\\u000a acid] or poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene] according to IR and NMR spectroscopy, were isolated from roots\\u000a of Symphytum officinale. They exhibit antioxidant activity as expressed in a decrease of active oxygen species (AOS) by interfering\\u000a directly in their formation process by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and binding directly AOS.

V. Barbakadze; A. J. J. van den Berg; C. J. Beukelman; J. Kemmink; H. C. Quarles van Ufford

2009-01-01

93

Antioxidant phenolic constituents in roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia: structure-radical scavenging activity relationships.  

PubMed

The phenolic constituents in the roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia were identified with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by comparison with authentic standards. A total of 17 hydroxyanthraquinones, gallic acid, and tannins were separated, and 14 of them were identified, being the main phenolic constituents present. Their antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated using the improved 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt method. Hydroxyanthraquinones were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. cordifolia, and tannins and gallic acid were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. officinale. The structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of the tested hydroxyanthraquinones were systematically demonstrated as follows: Hydroxy groups on one benzene ring of the anthraquinone structure were essential for hydroxyanthraquinones to show activity, the ortho-dihydroxy structure in the hydroxyanthraquinone molecules could greatly enhance their radical scavenging effect, and glycosylation of the hydroxyanthraquinones reduced activity. PMID:15612771

Cai, Yizhong; Sun, Mei; Xing, Jie; Corke, Harold

2004-12-29

94

Differential effects of reproductive interference by an alien congener on native Taraxacum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive interference (RI) has been suggested to play a critical role in native plant displacement by alien congeners.\\u000a However, although co-existence of native and alien congeners may provide an opportunity to refute the RI hypothesis, few studies\\u000a have examined such a case. Using a native Japanese dandelion, Taraxacum longeappendiculatum, and a co-existing alien congener, Taraxacum officinale, we tested the hypothesis

Sachiko Nishida; Koh-Ichi Takakura; Takayoshi Nishida; Takashi Matsumoto; Masahiro M. Kanaoka

95

Activity of endophytic actinomycetes from roots of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga against phytopathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 59 endophytic actinomycetes, were isolated from the roots of Zingiber offici- nale and Alpinia galanga, and tested against Candida albicans and phytopathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium oxysporum, ten produced substances that inhibited both phytopathogens and nine had activity against Candida albicans. The strain identified as Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 was the most effective in antifungal activity amongst those investigated.

T. TAECHOWISAN; S. LUMYONG

2003-01-01

96

Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2013-01-01

97

Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale root extract and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against food pathogens.  

PubMed

In the present study, we synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles with a particle size of 10-20 nm, using Zingiber officinale root extract as a reducing and capping agent. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) were mixed with Z. officinale root extract for the production of silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surface plasmon absorbance spectra of AgNPs and AuNPs were observed at 436-531 nm, respectively. Optimum nanoparticle production was achieved at pH 8 and 9, 1 mM metal ion, a reaction temperature 50 °C and reaction time of 150-180 min for AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) study provides proof for the purity of AgNPs and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images show the diameter of well-dispersed AgNPs (10-20 nm) and AuNPs (5-20 nm). The nanocrystalline phase of Ag and Au with FCC crystal structures have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the respective peaks for the potential biomolecules in the ginger rhizome extract, which are responsible for the reduction in metal ions and synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs showed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial food pathogens. PMID:24668029

Velmurugan, Palanivel; Anbalagan, Krishnan; Manosathyadevan, Manoharan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Oh, Sae-Gang; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-10-01

98

Nitrogen stress induction on Levisticum officinale hairy roots grown in darkness and under photoperiod conditions: effect on growth and volatile components.  

PubMed

Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24 degrees C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness or in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Greater growth was attained in darkness with 10:90 (control, SH medium), 50:50 and 25:75 NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios, and also with SH control medium under the photoperiod condition, with a 10, 14, 12.5 and 12.5 fold increase of biomass in terms of dry weight, respectively, at the end of 42 days of growth. UPGMA cluster analysis of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots grown with different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios confirmed their chemical variability. Although no particular grouping was detected in relation to the NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios or light conditions studied, most of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots were either dominated by n-octanal, (Z)-falcarinol or both components in about the same relative amounts. PMID:18273553

Costa, Monya M; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Deans, Stanley G; Scheffer, Johannes J C

2008-07-01

99

Efficacy of Rheum officinale liquid formulation on cucumber powdery mildew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheum officinale liquid formulation, the ethanol extract from roots of R. officinale Baill., formulated as physcion 5gl?1 aqueous solution (AS), has been commercialized in China for controlling cucumber powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff). The efficacy of the product was evaluated in pot tests under controlled conditions and in open and protected fields in China over 2

Xiaojun Yang; Xingxia Ma; Lijun Yang; Dazhao Yu; Yixin Qian; Hanwen Ni

2009-01-01

100

Clonal diversity in taraxacum officinale (compositae), an apomict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme analysis, morphological characters, and histocompatibility relationships have revealed unexpected amounts of clonal diversity within and among populations of unisexual animals. Plant studies, likewise, have shown that genetic diversity exists in populations of plants that have restricted recombination. However, no work has been done which investigates the extent of genotypic diversity within and among populations of an obligate apomict.This study

Jennifer C Lyman; Norman C Ellstrand

1984-01-01

101

Characterization of a carlavirus from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carlavirus was isolated from leaves of a dandelion plant raised in the experimental garden of the Hugo de Vries Laboratory in Amsterdam. The virus was readily sap-transmissible and infected 24 out of the 52 plant species and cultivars tested, with visible symptoms in 18 of them.Myzus persicae andCuscuta subinclusa (dodder) did not transmit the virus. In addition the virus

Jeanne Dijkstra; Yvonne Clement; H. Lohuis

1985-01-01

102

TLC densitometric method for screening of lycopsamine in comfrey root (Symphytum officinale L.) extracts using retrorsine as a reference compound.  

PubMed

Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0.70 to 7.0 ?g of lycopsamine per application of 10 ?L of a solution. It has also been proven to be specific and precise (repeatability RSD 2-4 % within the plate). The method was successfully employed for quantification of lycopsamine in comfrey root and comfrey root medicinal products such as ointments. PMID:25531790

Janeš, Damjan; Kreft, Samo

2014-12-01

103

[Anti-herpes virus action of ethanol-extract from the root and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill].  

PubMed

The study has shown that the cytotoxity of ethanol-extract from the root and rhizome of Rheum of ficinale is very low. It shows no cytotoxity even at 20,000 micrograms/ml and on the contrary tends to promote cell growth. Obvious anti-viral action can be observed in cell culture. The minimum inhibition dose for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is 100 micrograms/ml. Also, the extract helps to prevent cells from viral infections and has some direct effect on viral particles. PMID:9388926

Wang, Z; Wang, G; Xu, H; Wang, P

1996-06-01

104

Biological feedstock development as part of the domestication and commercialization of Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a potential domestic source of natural rubber and inulin: progress and outlook  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild-collected F0 seed was found to contain a mixture Taraxacum species (i.e., highly variable seedling phenotypes), a likely drag on TKS germplasm enhancement. Also, roots of unselected, wild-collected Taraxacum genotypes were found to contain, on average, 1.4 and 56.4 percent rubber and inulin, re...

105

Polyphenoloxidase silencing affects latex coagulation in Taraxacum species.  

PubMed

Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

2009-09-01

106

Polyphenoloxidase Silencing Affects Latex Coagulation in Taraxacum Species1[W  

PubMed Central

Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

2009-01-01

107

Entwicklung und Kohlenhydrathaushalt der Wurzelstecklinge von Symphytum officinale L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In root-layers of Symphytum officinale development as well as storage and consumption of carbohydrates is determined by day length, in a manner similar to that in plants developed from seeds. Root-layers differ in the following points:1.Flowers are always formed after 16–19 leaves, even at a day length of 12 hours at which 26–29 leaves usually appear before flowers are formed.2.In

Karin Staesche

1967-01-01

108

The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack  

PubMed Central

Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

2013-01-01

109

The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.  

PubMed

Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

2013-01-01

110

Antimycobacterial polyacetylenes from Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

No conflicts of interest concerning financial matters or personal relationships exist between the authors and those who might bias this work. The present work is in part included the PhD thesis of A. Schinkovitz (University of Graz) but has not been published elsewhere previously. The dichloromethane extract of the roots of Levisticum officinale L. (Apiaceae) exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium aurum in a microtiter plate dilution assay and was further analysed following a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy. 3(R)-Falcarinol (3(R)-(-)-1,9-heptadecadien-4,6-diin-3-ol] and 3(R)-8(S)-falcarindiol [3(R)-8(S)-(+)-1,9-heptadecadien-4,6-diin-3,8-diol] could be identified as the active components in this extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3(R)-falcarinol against M. fortuitum and M. aurum was 16.4 microM while that of 3(R)-8(S)-falcarindiol was 30.7 microM against M. fortuitum and 61.4 microm against M. aurum, respectively. Previously, 3(R),8(R)-dehydrofalcarindiol was isolated from Artemisia monosperma and surprisingly this polyacetylene exhibited no antimycobacterial activity at 128 microg/mL. This indicates that the terminal methyl group is vital for retention of antimycobacterial activity. Reference antibiotics ethambutol and isoniazid exhibited an activity of 115.5 microM and 14.6 microM against M. fortuitum, and 3.4 microM and 29.2 microM against M. aurum, respectively. PMID:18350523

Schinkovitz, Andreas; Stavri, Michael; Gibbons, Simon; Bucar, Franz

2008-05-01

111

Hybridization between European and Asian dandelions ( Taraxacum section Ruderalia and section Mongolica)2. Natural hybrids in Japan detected by chloroplast DNA marker.  

PubMed

Natural hybridization in Taraxacum between native sexual diploids and introduced agamospermous triploids occurring in Japan was studied by means of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) marker. We first determined the nucleotide sequences between trnT (UGU) and trnF (GAA) of cpDNA for 22 plants obtained from Japan and Europe. The sequences analyzed were about 1,574 base pairs long. Among all accessions, the total numbers of polymorphic characters were 56 nucleotide substitutions, three insertions/deletions (ins/dels), and one repeat number polymorphism of mononucleotide motif. Of these polymorphic characters, four nucleotides and one ins/del were applicable in the discrimination between Japanese and European taxa of dandelions. We selected the ins/del in an intergenic region between trnL (UAA) 3' exon and trnF (GAA) as a cpDNA marker. Using a newly developed cpDNA marker, 225 plants of putative Taraxacum officinale collected from 11 populations in Niigata City were investigated. Eighty-two percent of them showed a Japanese haplotype of cpDNA, and they were regarded as hybrids. Compared with the previous studies, it is likely that the prevalence of the hybrid plants is a general phenomena at least in urban areas in Japan. The validity of the cpDNA marker for screening Taraxacum hybrids is discussed. PMID:12579356

Shibaike, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Haruka; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Kasai, Kaori; Morita, Tatsuyoshi

2002-10-01

112

Preferential States of Longitudinal Tension in the Outer Tissues of Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) Peduncles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested Wilhelm Hofmeister's hypothesis that the outer layers of herbaceous stem tissues are held in a preferential state of longitudinal tension by more internal stem tissues that are held in a reciprocal state of compression. We measured (1) the biaxial stiffness of dandelion peduncles that were barometrically inflated with a Scholander pressure bomb, and (2) the stiffness and mechanical

Karl J. Niklas; Dominick J. Paolillo

1998-01-01

113

Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three flavonoid glycosides: luteolin 7-glucoside and two luteolin 7-diglucosides were isolated from dandelion flowers and leaves together with free luteolin and chrysoeriol in the flower tissue. The hydroxycinnamic acids, chicoric acid, monocaffeyltartaric acid and chlorogenic acid were found throughout the plant and the coumarins, cichoriin and aesculin were identified in the leaf extracts. This represents the first report of free

Christine A. Williams; Fiona Goldstone; Jenny Greenham

1996-01-01

114

Acclimation to temperature of the response of photosynthesis to increased carbon dioxide concentration in Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide in C3 species normally increases strongly with increasing temperature. This results from the kinetic characteristics of Rubisco,\\u000a and has potentially important implications for responses of vegetation to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is often\\u000a assumed that because Rubisco characteristics are conservative, all C3 species have the same temperature dependence of the

James A. Bunce

2000-01-01

115

Sclerotinia minor avances fruiting and reduces germination in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is a promising biocontrol agent for dandelion in turfgrass. When a flowering dandelion population was treated with S. minor, flowering accelerated to the fruiting stage within 4 days. This developmental response was 4–5 days earlier than in the control, untreated plants and was not observed in herbicide-treated plants. Seeds obtained from the fungal-treated plants were smaller, lighter

Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh; Jerome Bernier; Alan K. Watson

2005-01-01

116

The Content of Heavy Metals in an Indicator Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) in Warsaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper studies the content of heavy metals: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd in the foliage of an indicator plant - dandelion - as collected from the lawns and parks of the Warsaw metroplitan area. The results suggest heavy accumulation of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd as a consequence of the impact of traffic-born pollution.

K. Czarnowska; A. Milewska

117

Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

118

Pollution and Genetic Structure of North American Populations of the Common Dandelion ( Taraxacum Officinale )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the genetic structure of natural populations differentially impacted by anthropogenic contaminants can be a useful tool for evaluating the population genetic consequences of exposure to pollution. In this study, measures of genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat loci in six dandelion populations (3 urban and 3 rural) showed patterns that may have been influenced by exposure to environmental contaminants. Mean genetic

Brian Keane; Matthew H. Collier; Steven H. Rogstad

2005-01-01

119

[Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

2013-02-01

120

[Comparision of contents of anthraquinones and phenolic acids compounds in different processed products from Rheum officinale by principal component analysis].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare the contents of five types of anthraquinones which mainly includes chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, rhein and physcion and phenolic acids in ten different processed products from Rheum officinale, and to investigate the effect of different initial processing method on the contents of anthraquinones and phenolic acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out by SPSS software to evaluate the quality of different processed products from Rh. officinale. In conclusion, the contents of anthraquinones in different processed products from Rh. officinale assume the certain regularity. Whether fresh-cut Rheum officinale Bail and how to dry it are derectly effect the contents of anthraquinones and phenolic compounds. The content of anthraquinones in rheum officinale of drying is obviously higher than smudging, and was more abundant in branch root than tap roots. Rh. officinale of drying which growed in Fengjie gained the highest score in PCA. Meanwhile, the procedure of wetting also help to increase the content of anthraquinones and decrease the content of phenolic acids. PMID:25204174

Fu, Shao-Zhi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Li, Xia

2014-03-01

121

[Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].  

PubMed

The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

2013-02-01

122

A new inositol triester from Taraxacum mongolicum.  

PubMed

One new inositol triester, 4,5,6-tri-O-p-hydroxyphenylacetyl-chiro-inositol (1), was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Taraxacum mongolicum, along with two known compounds, 11?,13-dihydrotaraxinic acid (2) and taraxinic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3). The isolates were tested for their anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities; 11?,13-dihydrotaraxinic acid (2) exhibited an IC50 value of 0.91 mM inhibiting the secretion of the HBV surface antigen and an IC50 value of 0.34 mM inhibiting the secretion of the HBV e antigen using HBV transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell line. PMID:24432736

Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Nenling; Liu, Mengqi

2014-01-01

123

Selection on apomictic lineages of Taraxacum at establishment in a mixed sexual-apomictic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

apomixis; asexuality; evolution; polyploidy; selection; Taraxacum. Abstract A species' mode of reproduction, sexual or asexual, will affect its ecology and evolution. In many species, asexuality is related to polyploidy. In Taraxacum, apomicts are triploid, and sexuals are diploid. To disentangle the effects of ploidy level and reproductive mode on life-history traits, we compared established apomictic Taraxacum genotypes with newly synthesized

De Kovel; De Jong

2000-01-01

124

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and  

E-print Network

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

125

Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. on bioassay plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts prepared from dried leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. (Spanish jasmine) inhibited seed germination and stunted both root and shoot length of the weeds Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Phaseolus lathyroides L. The main active compound was isolated and determined by spectral data as a secoiridoid glucoside named oleuropein. In addition, a decrease in allelopathic

Montinee Teerarak; Chamroon Laosinwattana; Patchanee Charoenying

2010-01-01

126

Die jahresperiodische Entwicklung des Wurzelund Sprossystems von Symphytum officinale L. und ihre Beziehung zu Speicherung und Verbrauch der Kohlenhydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the root and shoot system of Symphytum officinale always begins with the formation of a rape with 6–8 leaves on its epicotyl. After this stage development is determined by the length of the day. If the day is shorter than 15 hours, the subterraneous organs grow thicker. Flower formation needs a day length of at least 12

Karin Staesche

1966-01-01

127

Calorimetric investigation of the effect of hydroxyanthraquinones in Rheum officinale Baill on Staphylococcus aureus growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of five hydroxyanthraquinones (HAQs) from root and rhizoma of Rheum officinale Baill, a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herb, on Staphylococcus aureus growth were investigated by calorimetry. The power–time curves of S.aureus with and without HAQ were acquired and the extent and duration of inhibitory effects on the metabolism evaluated by growth rate constants (k1, k2), half inhibitory

Wu Yanwen; Gao Wenyuan; Xiao Xiaohe; Liu Yi

2005-01-01

128

Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative from Rheum officinale Baill, enhances cutaneous wound healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emodin (1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill, a Chinese herb widely and traditionally used for wound healing. Our objective was to determine whether topically applied emodin enhanced repair of rats' excisional wounds and its possible mechanism. Wounds were treated with either topical emodin (100, 200 and 400 ?g\\/ml), recombinant human epidermal growth factor

Tian Tang; Longwu Yin; Jing Yang; Guang Shan

2007-01-01

129

The influence of phytohormones on growth, organ differentiation and fructan production in callus of Symphytum officinale L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Callus derived from Symphytum officinale L. regenerants was cultured in the presence of various phytohormones. The growth rate of callus was stimulated by all phytohormones at various concentrations. With 1-naphthaleneacetic acid no organ differentiation could be observed. With indole-3-butyric acid at low concentrations only roots were formed, whereas 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and zeatin at various concentrations induced either root or shoot

D. Haaß; A. A. Abou-Mandour; W. Blaschek; G. Franz; F. C. Czygan

1991-01-01

130

Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum,

P. J. Van Dijk

2003-01-01

131

Constitutive knox1 gene expression in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale , Web.) changes leaf morphology from simple to compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed plants with compound leaves constitute a polyphyletic group, but studies of diverse taxa show that genes of the class 1 KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX1) family are often involved in compound leaf development. This suggests that knox1 genes have been recruited on multiple occasions during angiosperm evolution (Bharathan et al. in Science 296:1858–1860, 2002). In agreement with this, we demonstrate that

Kai J. Müller; Xinqiang He; Rainer Fischer; Dirk Prüfer

2006-01-01

132

Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.  

PubMed

To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195?mg?kg(-1) (ranging 47-487?mg?kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237?mg?kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196?mg?kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890?mg?kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298?mg?kg(-1)). Consumption of 100?g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce. PMID:24779737

Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cenci?, Avrelija

2012-01-01

133

Effect of Probiotic (Aspergillus niger) and Prebiotic (Taraxacum officinale) on Blood Picture and Biochemical Properties of Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty one day-old mixed sexes broiler (Arbor-Acres) were divided into three groups of 50 birds each and randomly assigned to three treatment diets. Group 1 controled with no added probiotic and prebiotic added, groups 2 and 3 with 10 g (An)\\/kg diet and 10 g (To)\\/kg diet were added, respectively. The results indicate that group 3 had

G. A. M. Al-Kassie; Y. M. F. Al-Jumaa; Y. J. Jameel

2008-01-01

134

Viability of Taraxacum officinale Wigg. in populations of the city of Moscow in relation to motor transport pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor transport is a major source of air pollution, automobiles playing the principal role. In many cities, the exhausts of motor vehicles prevail over industrial discharge, accounting for 60-80% of the total amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere (Gosudarstvennyi doklad .... 1994; Antonova and Tumanova, 1996). Exhausts of internal combustion engines contain approximately 280 components, and many of them

N. S. Stvolinskaya

2000-01-01

135

Structural diversity in the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) polyphenol oxidase family results in different responses to model substrates.  

PubMed

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are ubiquitous type-3 copper enzymes that catalyze the oxygen-dependent conversion of o-diphenols to the corresponding quinones. In most plants, PPOs are present as multiple isoenzymes that probably serve distinct functions, although the precise relationship between sequence, structure and function has not been addressed in detail. We therefore compared the characteristics and activities of recombinant dandelion PPOs to gain insight into the structure-function relationships within the plant PPO family. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the 11 isoenzymes of dandelion into two evolutionary groups. More detailed in silico and in vitro analyses of four representative PPOs covering both phylogenetic groups were performed. Molecular modeling and docking predicted differences in enzyme-substrate interactions, providing a structure-based explanation for grouping. One amino acid side chain positioned at the entrance to the active site (position HB2+1) potentially acts as a "selector" for substrate binding. In vitro activity measurements with the recombinant, purified enzymes also revealed group-specific differences in kinetic parameters when the selected PPOs were presented with five model substrates. The combination of our enzyme kinetic measurements and the in silico docking studies therefore indicate that the physiological functions of individual PPOs might be defined by their specific interactions with different natural substrates. PMID:24918587

Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; Singh, Ratna; Leufken, Christine M; Inlow, Jennifer K; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

2014-01-01

136

Chemotaxonomy of the Symphytum officinale agg. ( Boraginaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a chemotaxonomic study of the genusSymphytum pyrrolizidine alkaloids and triterpenes were used as chemotaxonomical markers. A micro-extraction methods was developed for screening compounds of very small pieces of herbarium material. The occurrence of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids symphytine and (acetyl-)lycopsamine is very general forSymphytum taxa. Echimidine is present in someS. officinale L. plants and inS. tanaicenseSteven. The triterpene isobauerenol is

Tea A. Jaarsma; Elisabeth Lohmanns; Theo W. J. Gadella; Theo M. Malingré

1989-01-01

137

American Journal of Botany 91(5): 656663. 2004. THE POTENTIAL FOR GENETIC ASSIMILATION OF A  

E-print Network

OF A NATIVE DANDELION SPECIES, TARAXACUM CERATOPHORUM (ASTERACEAE), BY THE EXOTIC CONGENER T. OFFICINALE1. officinale. Key words: Asteraceae; exotic species; genetic assimilation; hybridization; Taraxacum the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion

Cruzan, Mitchell B.

138

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

139

In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers.  

PubMed

The growing demand for flower extracts in perfume trade can primarily be met by increasing flower production and multiplying planting material. The major commercial aromatic flower yielding plants including Jasminum officinale L., a member of the Family Oleaceae have drawn the attention of a large section of the concerned sectors leading to a thrust upon developing advanced propagation technologies for these floral crops, in addition to conventional nature-dependent agro-techniques. This chapter describes concisely and critically, a protocol developed for in vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale by shoot regeneration from existing as well as newly developed adventitious axillary buds via proper phytohormonal stimulation. To start with nodal segments as explants, March-April is the most ideal time of the year when planting material suitable for in vitro multiplication is abundantly available. Prior to inoculation of explants in the culture medium, special care is needed to reduce microbial contamination by spraying on selected spots of the donor plant with anti-microbial agents 24 h prior to collection; treatment with antiseptic solution after final cleaning and surface sterilization by treating explants with mercuric chloride. Inoculated explants are free from brown leaching from cut ends by two consecutive subcultures within 48 h in MS basal medium. Multiplication of shoots, average 4-5 at each node, takes place in MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L NAA, and 40 g/L sucrose over a period of 8 weeks. For elongation of regenerated shoots, cultures are transferred to MS medium, supplemented with a single growth hormone, kinetin at 2.0 mg/L. Emergence and elongation of roots from shoot base is facilitated by placing on the notch of a filter paper bridge. The hardened in vitro propagated plants are able to grow normally in soil like other conventionally propagated Jasminum officinale. PMID:20099096

Bhattacharya, Sabita; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

2010-01-01

140

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

2014-11-01

141

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation  

PubMed Central

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l?1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

2014-01-01

142

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2013-06-01

143

[Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].  

PubMed

The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time. PMID:22242454

Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

2011-10-01

144

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

145

An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root density and depth in the soil. We drilled three holes for the plexiglass root-imaging tubes in December 2008 and installed the tubes post-thaw in May 2009, with the initial set of images taken in July 2009 on the day preceding the 4-week long CO2 injection. We collected images weekly thereafter until late August 2009 by inserted a rotating camera into the tube and photographing at 10 cm intervals from the surface to a depth of 75-80 cm. By August 2009, roots were visible at 80 cm below ground. The root-imaging tubes will remain in place so that we can track the roots through the upcoming years at the ZERT site. Each year, we anticipate gathering images in the fall, winter, before the beginning of root growth in the spring, as well as during the summer injections of CO2. The information gained from these images will be useful in linking above and belowground responses of plants to CO2.

Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

2009-12-01

146

Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma in Moravia (Czech Republic): Taxonomic notes and the distribution of previously described species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dandelions (Taraxacum) of the section Erythrosperma were studied in Moravia, Czech Republic, where both sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid species occur. Diploid species T. erythrospermum grows in the warmest part of southern Moravia and is confined to natural dry grasslands, whereas some apomictic species have ranges extending up to the submontane regions and prefer ruderal habits. Altogether, 21 apomictic types

R. Vasut

2003-01-01

147

Crosses between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum). I. The inheritance of apomixis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some dandelions, Taraxacum?, are diplosporous gametophytic apomicts. Crosses between closely related diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts were made to study the inheritance of apomixis. Seed-set was less than one-third of that in diploid x diploid crosses, probably because of the inviability of aneuploid pollen or zygotes. Almost 90% of the viable offspring were diploid and the result of selfing, as

Tas C. Q. I; Peter J Van Dijk

1999-01-01

148

Deposition of callose in young ovules of two Taraxacum species varying in the mode of reproduction.  

PubMed

Although callose occurs during megasporogenesis in most flowering plants, the knowledge about its general function and the mechanisms by which the callose layer is formed in particular places is still not sufficient. The results of previous studies suggest a total lack of callose in the ovules of diplosporous plants in which meiosis is omitted or disturbed. This report is the first documentation of callose events in dandelions ovules. We demonstrated the pattern of callose deposition during the formation of megaspores through diplospory of Taraxacum type and during normal meiotic megasporogenesis in apomictic triploid Taraxacum atricapillum and amphimictic diploid Taraxacum linearisquameum. We found the presence of callose in the megasporocyte wall of both diplosporous and sexual dandelions. However, in a diplosporous dandelion, callose predominated at the micropylar pole of megaspore mother cell (MMC) which may be correlated with abnormal asynaptic meiosis and may indicate diplospory of the Taraxacum type. After meiotic division, callose is mainly deposited in the walls between megaspores in tetrads and in diplodyads. In subsequent stages, callose gradually disappears around the chalazal functional megaspore. However, some variations in the pattern of callose deposition within tetrad may reflect variable positioning of the functional megaspore (FM) observed in the ovules of T. linearisquameum. PMID:24938673

Musia?, Krystyna; Ko?ci?ska-Paj?k, Maria; Antolec, Renata; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

2015-01-01

149

The role of tetraploids in the sexual–asexual cycle in dandelions (Taraxacum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic plants often produce pollen that can function in crosses with related sexuals. Moreover, facultative apomicts can produce some sexual offspring. In dandelions, Taraxacum, a sexual–asexual cycle between diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts, has been described, based on experimental crosses and population genetic studies. Little is known about the actual hybridization processes in nature. We therefore studied the sexual–asexual cycle

M. H. Verduijn; P J Van Dijk; J. M. M. Van Damme

2004-01-01

150

The genetic structure of populations of sexual and asexual Taraxacum (dandelions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure, as assessed by isozymes, is described for three populations of outbreeding sexuals, three populations of obligate agamosperms, and six accessions of inbreeding sexual Taraxacum. Fifteen loci in 10 isozyme systems were identified, and isozyme bands were previously shown to be allelic in sexual × sexual and were confirmed as allelic in sexual × agamosperm crosses. Sexual ×

Jane Hughes; A J Richards

1988-01-01

151

Facilitation of the non-native Taraxacum officinale by native nurse cushion species in the high Andes of central Chile: are there differences between nurses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Positive interactions between species are known to play an important role in the dynamics of native plant communities, particularly in stressful habitats. However, their role in plant invasions is less known, although recent studies have started to highlight the importance of positive interactions as a driver of invasion. It has been suggested that facilitative interactions during invasions are

L. A. CAVIERES; C. L. QUIROZ; M. A. MOLINA-MONTENEGRO

2007-01-01

152

Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous,component,of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean Andes

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-montenegro; Alejandro A. Mun Oz; Anibal Pauchard

2005-01-01

153

Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous component of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-Montenegro; Alejandro A. Muñoz; Anibal Pauchard

2005-01-01

154

EFFECTS OF THE FUNGAL PROTEIN NEP1 AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE ON GROWTH OF CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE), COMMON RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA), AND COMMON DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of the fungal protein Nep1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) applied separately or in combination on Canada thistle, common ragweed, and dandelion were examined in growth chamber experiments. Experiments examined five treatments: (1) untreated control, (2) Silwet L-77(0.3%,v/v) ...

155

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to

Klemen Bergant; Lu?ka Kajfež-Bogataj; Zalika ?repinšek

2002-01-01

156

EFFECT OF THE FUNGAL PROTEIN NEP1 AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. TAGETIS ON GROWTH OF CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE), COMMON RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA), AND DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nep1 is a 24 kDa protein produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli in liquid culture. Previous research demonstrated that foliar application of Nep1 causes ethylene production and necrosis of dicot leaves. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) has been investigated as a biocontrol agent for...

157

[Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time. PMID:18229614

Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

2007-10-01

158

Hybridization between European and Asian dandelions ( Taraxacum section Ruderalia and section Mongolica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Natural hybridization in Taraxacum between native sexual diploids and introduced agamospermous triploids occurring in Japan was studied by means of chloroplast\\u000a DNA (cpDNA) marker. We first determined the nucleotide sequences between trnT (UGU) and trnF (GAA) of cpDNA for 22 plants obtained from Japan and Europe. The sequences analyzed were about 1,574 base pairs long. Among\\u000a all accessions, the

Hiroyuki Shibaike; Haruka Akiyama; Satoshi Uchiyama; Kaori Kasai; Tatsuyoshi Morita

2002-01-01

159

Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol. PMID:19719054

Ozen, Tevfik

2009-01-01

160

Microscale Spatial Variation in Forest Litter Phytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variation (within a 100 × 100 m plot) in the pollution of forest litter with heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), its acidity, and phytotoxicity (measured by the results of the root test using seedlings from a genetically homogeneous sample of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) have been estimated. Forest litter has been sampled in three zones

E. L. Vorobeichik; V. N. Pozolotina

2003-01-01

161

Growth habits of dandelion, daisy, catsear, and hawkbit in some New Zealand grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

dGrowth habits of four basal rosette composites, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), catsear (Hypochaeris radicata L.), hawkbit (Leontodon taraxacoides Vill. Mérat), and daisy (Bellis perennis L.). were studied in two mowed, three heavily grazed, three lightly grazed, and two uncut grasslands near Palmerston North.With increasing degree of defoliation: (1) plant radius and longest leaf decreased, (2) root length generally decreased, (3)

G. J. Struik

1967-01-01

162

The effect of dandelion or a cover crop on mycorrhiza inoculum potential, soil aggregation and yield of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to observe the influence of a cover crop (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.), and a perennial weed (dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg.), on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculum potential, soil aggregation, and maize yield after one season. Mycorrhizal colonization of maize roots was higher following the autumn planting of either winter wheat or dandelion compared

Z. Kabir; R. T. Koide

2000-01-01

163

Concentration of Symphytum officinale extracts with cytostatic activity by tangential flow ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symphytum officinale L (Boraginaceae) species are currently used in the Romanian traditional medicine to treat different human and animal disease, being also active in certain cancer forms. This work's aim consists in obtaining of Symphytum officinale concentrated extracts by using performance membrane processes, aqueous extracts prepared were concentrated by tangential flow ultrafiltration with a Koch Laboratory Cell CF-1 membrane. The

ELENA NEAGU; VERONICA MOROEANU; GABRIEL LUCIAN RADU

2008-01-01

164

Optimization of chloroplast microsatellite PCR conditions and primer screening for endangered Rheum officinale, Rheum palmatum, and Rheum tanguticum.  

PubMed

Chloroplast microsatellite primers were developed in order to provide more population genetic information of endangered Rheum officinale, R. palmatum, and R. tanguticum for conservation. The dried roots and rhizomes of these plants are important in traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that the optimum concentrations of Mg(2+), Taq DNA polymerase, dNTPs, template DNA, and primers in a 25-?L reaction system were 2.0 mM, 1.0 U, 0.10 mM, 20 ng, and 0.8 ?M, respectively. Fourteen of 53 primer combinations were chosen for their high clarity and repetition in three species, and their annealing temperatures ranged from 56 to 58°C. These primers and the optimized polymerase chain reaction system may provide a tool for understanding the demography and genetic variation of these endangered plants. PMID:25117337

Zhou, Y; Guo, Z J; Han, L; Li, Y; Wang, X M

2014-01-01

165

Antihypercholesterolaemic effect of ginger rhizome ( Zingiber officinale ) in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Many herbal medicinal products have potential hypocholesterolaemic activity and encouraging safety profiles. However, only\\u000a a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the work  The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypercholesterolaemic effects of aqueous ginger (Zingiber officinale) infusion in hypercholesterolaemic rat models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  48 rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into six

El-Sayed M. ElRokh; Nemat A. Z. Yassin; Siham M. A. El-Shenawy; Bassant M. M. Ibrahim

2010-01-01

166

Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and its common adulterants by combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum), Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum), Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum). The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic "two hat-shaped" vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species. PMID:24662084

Chu, Chu; Yin, Huimin; Xia, Li; Cheng, Dongping; Yan, Jizhong; Zhu, Lin

2014-01-01

167

Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative from Rheum officinale Baill, enhances cutaneous wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

Emodin (1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill, a Chinese herb widely and traditionally used for wound healing. Our objective was to determine whether topically applied emodin enhanced repair of rats' excisional wounds and its possible mechanism. Wounds were treated with either topical emodin (100, 200 and 400 microg/ml), recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF, 10 microg/ml), or vehicle for 7 or 14 days consecutively. At day 5 postinjury, wounds receiving emodin (400 microg/ml) were significantly smaller than those treated with vehicle. Emodin treatments had markedly more hydroxyproline content in day 7 wounds and tensile strength in day 14 wounds than that of vehicle control. The level of transforming growth factor- beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) in wound tissues assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showed a dose-dependent increase in emodin-treated wounds compared with vehicle. Western immunoblotting analysis of wound tissues for Smad 2, 3, 4, 7 protein expression showed increase in Smad 2, 3 in the emodin-treated wounds compared with vehicle. In contrast, a reduction of Smad 7 was observed in emodin-treated wounds compared with vehicle and no change of Smad 4. In summary, our results showed that emodin promoted repair of rats' excisional wounds via a complex mechanism involving stimulation of tissue regeneration and regulating Smads-mediated TGF-beta(1) signaling pathway. PMID:17540366

Tang, Tian; Yin, Longwu; Yang, Jing; Shan, Guang

2007-07-19

168

[Review of pharmacological activities of Dendrobium officinale based on traditional functions].  

PubMed

This review firstly made a summary of ancient literature on traditional functions of Dendrobium, combined with literature of modern pharmacological research and clinical application of D. officinale from CNKI search system, it was summarized that D. officinale had broad bioactivities including immunomodulation, antifatigue activity, antioxidation, digest-promotion, stimulation of salivary secretion, lowering hyperglycemia, anti-hypertension, anti liver injury and antitumor activity, etc. Furthermore, public healty needs and present situation of cooperative product development were analyzed base on tradtional functions, pharmacological actions and related clinical applications of D. officinale, could provide a reference for the further industrial development. PMID:23713270

Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu; Chen, Su-Hong

2013-02-01

169

Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

An evolutionary trend to reduce "unnecessary costs" associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the female gametophyte have dealt with amphimictic angiosperms. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast to amphimictic plants, synergids in apomictic embryo sacs do not form a filiform apparatus. We compared the synergid structure in two dandelions from sect. Palustria: the amphimictic diploid Taraxacum tenuifolium and the apomictic tetraploid, male-sterile Taraxacum brandenburgicum. Synergids in both species possessed a filiform apparatus. In T. brandenburgicum, both synergids persisted for a long time without any degeneration, in spite of the presence of an embryo and endosperm. We propose that the persistent synergids in apomicts may play a role in the transport of nutrients to the embryo. PMID:23974526

P?achno, Bartosz J; Musia?, Krystyna; Swi?tek, Piotr; Tuleja, Monika; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

170

Antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus replication of oleuropein isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceJasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum (JOG) is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. Phytochemical studies showed that secoiridoid glycosides are the typical constituents of this plant.

Guiqin Zhao; Zhifeng Yin; Junxing Dong

2009-01-01

171

Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family, Zingiberaceae) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200mg\\/kg) fed orally for 20 days produced, significant antihyperglycaemic effect (P<0.01) in diabetic rats. Further, the extract treatment also lowered serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL-cholesterol levels when compared with

Uma Bhandari; Raman kanojia; K. K. Pillai

2005-01-01

172

The “Raison D'être” of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Cynoglossum officinale: Deterrent effects against generalist herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we tested whether pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) ofCynoglossum officinale serve as antifeedants against herbivores. Total PA N-oxide extracts of the leaves significantly deterred feeding by generalist herbivores. Specialist herbivores did not discriminate between food with high and low PA levels. Three PAs fromC. officinale, heliosupine, echinatine, and 3-acetylechinatine, equally deterred feeding by the polyphagous larvae ofSpodoptera exigua. Although

Nicole M. van Dam; Lucienne W. M. Vuister; Cora Bergshoeff; Helene de Vos; ED van Der Meijden

1995-01-01

173

Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

2014-01-01

174

Genetic fine-mapping of DIPLOSPOROUS in Taraxacum (dandelion; Asteraceae) indicates a duplicated DIP-gene  

PubMed Central

Background DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP) is the locus for diplospory in Taraxacum, associated to unreduced female gamete formation in apomicts. Apomicts reproduce clonally through seeds, including apomeiosis, parthenogenesis, and autonomous or pseudogamous endosperm formation. In Taraxacum, diplospory results in first division restitution (FDR) nuclei, and inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait, independent from the other apomixis elements. A preliminary genetic linkage map indicated that the DIP-locus lacks suppression of recombination, which is unique among all other map-based cloning efforts of apomeiosis to date. FDR as well as apomixis as a whole are of interest in plant breeding, allowing for polyploidization and fixation of hybrid vigor, respectively. No dominant FDR or apomixis genes have yet been isolated. Here, we zoom-in to the DIP-locus by largely extending our initial mapping population, and by analyzing (local) suppression of recombination and allele sequence divergence (ASD). Results We identified 24 recombinants between two most closely linked molecular markers to DIP in an F1-population of 2227 plants that segregates for diplospory and lacks parthenogenesis. Both markers segregated c. 1:1 in the entire population, indicating a 1:1 segregation rate of diplospory. Fine-mapping showed three amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) closest to DIP at 0.2 cM at one flank and a single AFLP at 0.4 cM at the other flank. Our data lacked strong evidence for ASD at marker regions close to DIP. An unexpected bias towards diplosporous plants among the recombinants (20 out of 24) was found. One third of these diplosporous recombinants showed incomplete penetrance of 50-85% diplospory. Conclusions Our data give interesting new insights into the structure of the diplospory locus in Taraxacum. We postulate a locus with a minimum of two DIP-genes and possibly including one or two enhancers or cis-regulatory elements on the basis of the bias towards diplosporous recombinants and incomplete penetrance of diplospory in some of them. We define the DIP-locus to 0.6 cM, which is estimated to cover ~200-300 Kb, with the closest marker at 0.2 cM. Our results confirm the minor role of suppression of recombination and ASD around DIP, making it an excellent candidate to isolate via a chromosome-walking approach. PMID:20659311

2010-01-01

175

Rapid and Sensitive Identification of the Herbal Tea Ingredient Taraxacum formosanum Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

2015-01-01

176

Rapid and sensitive identification of the herbal tea ingredient Taraxacum formosanum using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

2015-01-01

177

Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4°

B. V. S. Lakshmi; M. Sudhakar

2010-01-01

178

Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated in four-way olfactometer bioassays. Results showed that vacuum distilled A. melegueta and Z. officinale extracts were repellent towards adult S. zeamais both in the absence and the presence of maize, Zea mays, grains. Bioassay-guided liquid chromatographic fractionation

Donald A. Ukeh; Michael A. Birkett; John A. Pickett; Alan S. Bowman; A. Jennifer Mordue

2009-01-01

179

Laticifer-specific cis-prenyltransferase silencing affects the rubber, triterpene, and inulin content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

PubMed

Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis. PMID:22238421

Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-03-01

180

Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.  

PubMed

There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion. PMID:21874635

Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Taghiabadi, Yousef

2011-01-01

181

Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

2011-01-01

182

[A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time. PMID:18717340

Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

2008-05-01

183

Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination. PMID:25409244

Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

2015-01-01

184

Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

185

Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the protective effect of Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract (DLE) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of DLE, we fed C57BL/6 mice with normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 2g/kg DLE DLE (DL), and HFD supplemented with 5 g/kg DLE (DH). We found that the HFD supplemented by DLE dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to HFD alone. Body and liver weights of the DL and DH groups were significantly lesser than those of the HFD group, and DLE supplementation dramatically suppressed triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), insulin, fasting glucose level in serum, and Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) induced by HFD. In addition, DLE treatment significantly increased activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle protein. DLE significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver, reduced insulin resistance, and lipid in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice via the AMPK pathway. These results indicate that the DLE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23603008

Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Sung, Mi Jeong

2013-08-01

186

In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Curcurbita mexicana and Ficus religiosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts of some commonly used plant materials of ethnoveterinary importance in Pakistan were screened for their in vitro anthelmintic activity. Results revealed that Zingiber officinale killed all the test worms (Haemonchus contortus) within two hours post exposure being 100% effective. Allium sativum and Cucurbita mexicana extracts were equally effective at 2 and 4 h post exposure; by 6 h

ZAFAR IQBAL; QAZI KHALID NADEEM; M. N. KHAN; M. S. AKHTAR; FAISAL NOUMAN WARAICH

187

METODICA PER LO STUDIO DI ASPETTI BIORITMICI IN PIANTE DI INTERESSE OFFICINALE IN ITALIA NORD ORIENTALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO I1 presente lavoro si propone di fornire un contributo per un approc- cio metodologico a studi fito-fenologici. La ricerca ha preso in considera- zione il metodo di valutazione dei ritmi di crescita e di fioritura in nove specie di interesse officinale (Artemisia dracunculs, Althaea officinalis, Malva sylvestris, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula spica, Origanum majo- rana, Salvia sclarea, Thymus vulgaris, Tussilago

GIOVANNI CANIGLIA; ANDREA CAPPAI

188

An impression on current developments in technology, chemistry and biological activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely cultivated as a spice for its aromatic and pungent components. The essential oil and oleoresins from ginger are valuable products responsible for the characteristic flavor and pungency. Both are used in several food products such as soft beverages and also in many types of pharmaceutical formulations. More than 100 compounds have been reported

I. RAHATH KUBRA; L. JAGAN MOHAN RAO

2011-01-01

189

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. L.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under

Maria Fernanda; Pereira Lavieri Gomes; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco; JoseGuilherme Xavier; Leoni Villano Bonamin

2007-01-01

190

Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent  

PubMed Central

In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic ? cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E ? cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on ? cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in ? cells. PMID:24170976

Cupáková, Máriá; ?ažký, Anton; Mi?ová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

2013-01-01

191

Modeling individual leaf area of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) using leaf length and width  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area estimation is an important biometrical observation one has to do for comparing plant growth in field and pot experiments. In this study, a leaf area estimation model was developed for ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), using linear measurements of leaf length (L) and maximum width (W). Leaves from five ginger varieties (Varada, Rejatha, Mahima, Maran and Himachal) were used

K. Kandiannan; Utpala Parthasarathy; K. S. Krishnamurthy; C. K. Thankamani; V. Srinivasan

2009-01-01

192

ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale  

PubMed Central

Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

193

Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Republic of Macedonia Using a Plant Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species—Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)—were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd,\\u000a Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal

Darinka Gjorgieva; Tatjana Kadifkova-Panovska; Katerina Ba?eva; Traj?e Stafilov

2011-01-01

194

Some Host Relationships of the Potato-rot Nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

THORNE1 described Ditylenchus destructor from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Idaho, U.S.A., and recorded Taraxacum officinale Weber as a host. Baker2 identified D. destructor from potato tubers in Prince Edward Island. Baker4, working with a species of Ditylenchus infesting the roots of Mentha arvensis L. and conforming closely to Thorne's1 description of D. destructor, transferred this nematode from M. arvensis

V. E. Henderson

1951-01-01

195

Brown spot of Rheum officinale in indonesia with special reference to the variation in conidia of the causal fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown spot disease ofRheum officinale, a traditional medicinal plant in South East Asia, was newly recorded from the highland area of West Java Province. After\\u000a confirmation of its pathogenicity towardRheum officinale and comparison of its morphology with hitherto known species, the casual fungus was identified asAscochyta rhei. It produces widely varied conidia from unicellular and bacillar conidia (Phoma-type), 1-septate oblong

S. Retno Djiwanti; Takao Kobayashi; Masaomi Oniki

1994-01-01

196

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government; )

2004-10-30

197

AROMATHERAPY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): STERILE MALES EXPOSED TO GINGER ROOT OIL IN PRE-RELEASE, STORAGE BOXES DISPLAY INCREASED MATING COMPETITIVENESS IN FIELD CAGE TRIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small conta...

198

Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.  

PubMed

Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is discussed. PMID:25760668

Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

2014-11-01

199

Rapid multiplication of Jasminum officinale L. by in vitro culture of nodal explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jasminum officinale L. (Fam. - Oleaceae) a shrub, noted specially for its aroma, has been micropropagated successfully by\\u000a culturing nodal segments. MS basal media with 3% sucrose and supplemented with 6-benzyladenine, at 17.76 M and 1-naphthaleneacetic\\u000a acid at 0.53 M concentration was used for shoot proliferation. For elongation, BA and kinetin, individually and also in combination\\u000a with NAA were supplemented

Sabita Bhattacharya; Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya

1997-01-01

200

Potential for biparental cytoplasmic inheritance in Jasminum officinale and Jasminum nudiflorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature Jasminum officinale and J. nudiflorum pollen grains were stained with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The pollen\\u000a grains were found to be trinucleate, and the sperm cells in both species contained a large number of epifluorescent spots\\u000a that corresponded to cytoplasmic DNA aggregates (nucleoids). The nucleoids of J. nudiflorum were observed to be dimorphic under the epifluorescence

Sodmergen; H. H. Bai; J. X. He; H. Kuroiwa; S. Kawano; T. Kuroiwa

1998-01-01

201

Different Extracts of Zingiber officinale Decrease Enterococcus faecalis Infection in Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 ?L inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae. PMID:25831098

Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

2015-01-01

202

Chemotaxonomical investigations of the Symphytum officinale polyploid complex and S. asperum ( Boraginaceae ): Phytosterols and triterpenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a comparison of phytosterol and triterpenoid patterns of severalSymphytum officinale cytotypes,S. asperum and their interspecific hybrids,S. ×uplandicum, which were obtained from thin layer chromatography and gaschromatography (also in combination with mass spectrometry), the hybrid character of the latter taxon is clearly shown. The specific value of the triterpenoid isobauerenol as a chemotaxonomical marker within this group is discussed in

H. J. Huizing; Th. M. Malingré; Th. W. J. Gadella; E. Kliphuis

1983-01-01

203

A laboratory evaluation of comfrey ( Symphytum officinale L.) as a forage crop for ensilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m2 area of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) was chopped and ensiled in duplicate laboratory silos, either unwilted or following a 24h wilt, to test the hypothesis that the crop might be suitable for ensiling as animal feed. Concentrations of dry matter (DM) averaged 112 and 146g\\/kg for the unwilted and wilted crops. Both crops were very difficult to chop due

J. M Wilkinson

2003-01-01

204

Chemotaxonomical investigations of the Symphytum officinale polyploid complex and S. asperum ( Boraginaceae ): The pyrrolizidine alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry the pyrrolizidine alkaloid patterns derived fromSymphytum asperum, several cytotypes ofS. officinale agg. and the artificial hybrids of the former taxa, were compared. The obtained patterns were not essentially affected by\\u000a variation in cytotype, harvesting times and -location of plants. Lycopsamine, acetyl-lycopsamine and symphytine or their isomers\\u000a were generally found

H. J. Huizing; Th. W. J. Gadella; E. Kliphuis

1982-01-01

205

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

206

Free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. methanolic extracts  

PubMed Central

Background: Antioxidants from natural resources possess multifaceted and importance of the activities provides substantial scope in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale and Ligusticum chuanxiong, which are closely related species. Materials and Methods: The scavenging activities of plant materials were evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl (OH·), nitric oxide radical (NO·) and metal chelation. In addition, the cell viability and nitric oxide release were assayed using Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Results: The methanolic extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong showed scavenging activities of free radicals with an additional antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the efficacy on the cell viability and nitric oxide release in cell culture model has been established. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong have comparatively similar free radical scavenging activities in vitro and may have important health effects. PMID:21120037

Ramalingam, Mahesh; Yong-Ki, Park

2010-01-01

207

An Analysis of Soil and Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) Contamination with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In the Area of the Railway Junction I?awa G?ówna, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heavymetal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co, Cr, Mo) contentswere established in soil and plant samples collectedin different areas of the railway junction IlawaGlówna, Poland. Soil and plant samples werecollected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the loading ramp, platform area, rolling stockcleaning bay and the railway siding. It was found thatthe PAH

M. Malawska; B. Wio?komirski

2001-01-01

208

Organisation et nature de l'inclusion cristalline des organites du type «crystal-containing body» rencontrés dans les cellules de l'épithème des hydathodes de Cichorium intybus L. et Taraxacum officinale Weber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single-membrane-bounded organelles containing crystalline inclusions surrounded by a granular matrix are found abundantly in the cells of epithem. Special attention is devoted to changes which occured in the fine structure of these crystalline inclusions and variations in their morphology are described.

André Perrin

1972-01-01

209

ROOT WEEVILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous species of root weevil, Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infest hop. The black vine weevil, O. sulcatus (F.), is the dominant species infesting hop followed by the strawberry root weevil, O. ovatus (L.), rough strawberry root weevil, O. rugosostriatus Goeze, and O. meridional...

210

Pollination Diego P. Vzquez1, 2  

E-print Network

(Taraxacum officinale), a weed of European origin, reduces the pollination and reproductive success of native Taraxacum species in Japan. However, in central Chile it affects native highAndean species meadows in Colorado, USA, removal of T. officinale has not influenced the visitation and reproductive

Vazquez, Diego

211

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

212

Laticifer-Specific cis-Prenyltransferase Silencing Affects the Rubber, Triterpene, and Inulin Content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum12[C][W  

PubMed Central

Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis. PMID:22238421

Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M.; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

213

Potent inhibitors of tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis from Rheum officinale.  

PubMed

Thirty-three crude drug extracts were screened for their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Among them, the acetone extract of the rhizomes of Rheum officinale Baillon showed the strongest inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity-guided fractionation and chemical analysis led to the isolation of two potent compounds, 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-4'-O-beta-D-(2"-O-galloyl)glucopyr anoside (1) and 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-4'-O-beta-D-(6"-O-galloyl)glucopyr anoside (2). These compounds showed a competitive inhibition against tyrosinase and also inhibited the melanin biosynthesis. PMID:7480203

Iida, K; Hase, K; Shimomura, K; Sudo, S; Kadota, S; Namba, T

1995-10-01

214

Cynoglossum officinale (hound's-tongue)--a cause of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

The death of 10 horses was attributed to feeding dried grass hay containing hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum officinale. Affected horses developed weight loss, icterus, photosensitization, and hepatic encephalopathy. Histologic examination of the liver of 3 of the horses revealed megalocytosis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis characteristic of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning. Hound's-tongue was found to contain large quantities (0.6% to 2.1%, dry matter basis) of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which, when fed to a pony for 20 days, caused liver fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia. PMID:6490488

Knight, A P; Kimberling, C V; Stermitz, F R; Roby, M R

1984-09-15

215

Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10?M [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200?M [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-? and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal agents against H. nana. PMID:25063389

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

2014-12-01

216

[Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

217

An Impression on Current Developments in the Technology, Chemistry, and Biological Activities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely cultivated as a spice for its aromatic and pungent components. The essential oil and oleoresins from ginger are valuable products responsible for the characteristic flavor and pungency. Both are used in several food products such as soft beverages and also in many types of pharmaceutical formulations. More than 100 compounds have been reported

I. Rahath Kubra; L. Jagan Mohan Rao

2012-01-01

218

Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated in four-way olfactometer bioassays. Results showed that vacuum distilled A. melegueta and Z. officinale extracts were repellent towards adult S. zeamais both in the absence and the presence of maize, Zea mays, grains. Bioassay-guided liquid chromatographic fractionation of the distillates showed that fractions containing oxygenated compounds accounted for the repellent activity. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), followed by GC peak enhancement and enantioselective GC using authentic compounds, identified 3 major compounds in the behaviourally active fractions of A. melegueta and Z. officinale to be (S)-2-heptanol, (S)-2-heptyl acetate and (R)-linalool in a ratio of 1:6:3, and 1,8-cineole, neral and geranial in a ratio of 5.48:1:2.13, respectively. The identification of these behaviourally active compounds provides the scientific basis for the observed repellent properties of A. melegueta and Z. officinale, and demonstrates the potential for their use in stored-product protection at the small-scale farmer level in Africa. PMID:19394981

Ukeh, Donald A; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Bowman, Alan S; Luntz, A Jennifer Mordue

2009-04-01

219

Roots and Root Function: Introduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

220

Down-regulation of small rubber particle protein expression affects integrity of rubber particles and rubber content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1-5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40-50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

221

Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

222

Water extract of Rheum officinale Baill. induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and human breast cancer MCF7 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRheum officinale Baill. (Da Huang) is one of the herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine formulae against cancer. The traditional decoction is similar to the water extract used in the present study.

Wing-Yan Li; Shun-Wan Chan; De-Jian Guo; Mei-Kuen Chung; Tin-Yan Leung; Peter Hoi-Fu Yu

2009-01-01

223

Root canal  

MedlinePLUS

A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... is removed with special tools called files. The canals (tiny pathways inside the tooth) are cleaned. Medicines ...

224

Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale  

PubMed Central

Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry. PMID:21954327

Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

2011-01-01

225

Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo depigmenting activity of raspberry ketone from Rheum officinale.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry. PMID:21954327

Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

2011-01-01

226

Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

2012-01-01

227

Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98?ppm and 1.38?ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01?ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe?+?Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

2013-01-01

228

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

2012-04-01

229

INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PLANTAS DE CONFREI (Symphytum officinale L.)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição

FONSÊCA CASTRO; AMAURI ALVES DE ALVARENGA

230

Effects of Rheum officinale on the renal hypertrophy and hyperfiltration in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects ofRheum officinale (RO) on epidermal growth factor (EGF) in renal hypertrophy in the diabetic rats were induced by streptozotocin. The results\\u000a showed that renal hypertrophy occurred in the diabetic rats, but not in the RO-treated rats. Urine EGF was 38.2±16.6 ng\\/24\\u000a h at day 28 in the control, and it was significantly increased from day 7

Jun-wei Yang; Lei-shi Li

1995-01-01

231

Effects of anthraquinones extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth, non-specific immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anthraquinone extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on growth, some non-specific immunite parameters, and disease resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied in this experiment. M. rosenbergii were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treated groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extract for

Bo Liu; Xianping Ge; Yanhui He; Jun Xie; Pao Xu; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

2010-01-01

232

A novel C-S lyase from the latex-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum displays alanine aminotransferase and l-cystine lyase activity.  

PubMed

We isolated a novel pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent l-cystine lyase from the dandelion Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Real time qPCR analysis showed that C-S lyase from Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbCSL) mRNA is expressed in all plant tissues, although at relatively low levels in the latex and pedicel. The 1251 bp TbCSL cDNA encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 46,127 kDa. It is homologous to tyrosine and alanine aminotransferases (AlaATs) as well as to an Arabidopsis thaliana carbon-sulfur lyase (C-S lyase) (SUR1), which has a role in glucosinolate metabolism. TbCSL displayed in vitrol-cystine lyase and AlaAT activities of 4 and 19nkatmg(-1) protein, respectively. However, we detected no in vitro tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) activity and RNAi knockdown of the enzyme had no effect on phenotype, showing that TbCSL substrates might be channeled into redundant pathways. TbCSL is in vivo localized in the cytosol and functions as a C-S lyase or an aminotransferase in planta, but the purified enzyme converts at least two substrates specifically, and can thus be utilized for further in vitro applications. PMID:23073363

Munt, Oliver; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

2013-01-01

233

Abscisic acid-dependent regulation of small rubber particle protein gene expression in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is mediated by TbbZIP1.  

PubMed

Natural rubber is a high-molecular-mass biopolymer found in the latex of >2,500 plant species, including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Taraxacum spp. The active sites of rubber biosynthesis are rubber particles, which comprise a hydrophobic rubber core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane containing species-dependent lipids and associated proteins. Small rubber particle proteins are the most abundant rubber particle-associated proteins in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbSRPPs) and may promote rubber biosynthesis by stabilizing the rubber particle architecture. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding SRPPs and identified a bZIP transcription factor (TbbZIP.1) similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5-ABF-AREB subfamily, which is thought to include downstream targets of ABA and/or abiotic stress-inducible protein kinases. The TbbZIP.1 gene was predominantly expressed in laticifers and regulates the expression of TbSRPP genes in an ABA-dependent manner. The individual TbSRPP genes showed distinct induction profiles, suggesting diverse roles in rubber biosynthesis and stress adaptation. The potential involvement of TbSRPPs in the adaptation of T. brevicorniculatum plants to environmental stress is discussed based on our current knowledge of the stress-response roles of SRPPs and their homologs, and the protective function of latex and rubber against pathogens. Our data suggest that TbSRPPs contribute to stress tolerance in T. brevicorniculatum and that their effects are mediated by TbbZIP.1. PMID:23303876

Fricke, Julia; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

2013-04-01

234

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT  

E-print Network

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT INTRODUCTION A sometimes devastating root rot fungus. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation large indigenous trees In forestry situations, Armillaria root rot has been recorded on both pines

235

Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as Green Chemical on Yield and Sensorial Quality in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) Under Soilless Culture  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of peroxyacetic acid on the productivity of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) cultivated hydroponically using a constant nutritive solution. Green chemistry in protected horticulture seeks compatibility with the environment through the creation of biodegradable byproducts. In hydroponics, appropriate doses of peroxyacetic mixtures deliver these byproducts while also oxygenating the roots. Watercress producers who recirculate the nutritive solution can use these mixtures in order to increase oxygenation in the hydroponic system. The experiment took place between August and December 2009, beginning with the planting of the watercress seeds and concluding with the completion of the sensory panels. A completely random design was used, including three treatments and four repetitions, with applications of 0, 20 and 40 mg L?1 of the peroxyacetic mixture. Measured variables were growth (plant height, leaf length and stem diameter), yield (weight per plant and dry matter) and organoleptic quality (color and sensory panel). The application of 40 mg L?1 of the peroxyacetic mixture had a greater effect on the growth and development of the plants, which reached an average height of 29.3 cm, stem diameter of 3.3 mm and leaf length of 7.6 cm, whereas the control group reached an average height of only 20.2 cm, stem diameter of 1.9 mm and leaf length of 5.7 cm. The application of the peroxyacetic mixtures resulted in an improvement in growth parameters as well as in yield. Individual weights achieved using the 40 mg L?1 dose were 1.3 g plant?1 in the control group and 3.4 g plant?1 in the experimental group (62% yield increase). Sensory analysis revealed no differences in organoleptic quality. PMID:22272143

Carrasco, Gilda; Moggia, Claudia; Osses, Ingrid Jennifer; Álvaro, Juan Eugenio; Urrestarazu, Miguel

2011-01-01

236

Use of peroxyacetic acid as green chemical on yield and sensorial quality in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) under soilless culture.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of peroxyacetic acid on the productivity of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) cultivated hydroponically using a constant nutritive solution. Green chemistry in protected horticulture seeks compatibility with the environment through the creation of biodegradable byproducts. In hydroponics, appropriate doses of peroxyacetic mixtures deliver these byproducts while also oxygenating the roots. Watercress producers who recirculate the nutritive solution can use these mixtures in order to increase oxygenation in the hydroponic system. The experiment took place between August and December 2009, beginning with the planting of the watercress seeds and concluding with the completion of the sensory panels. A completely random design was used, including three treatments and four repetitions, with applications of 0, 20 and 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture. Measured variables were growth (plant height, leaf length and stem diameter), yield (weight per plant and dry matter) and organoleptic quality (color and sensory panel). The application of 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture had a greater effect on the growth and development of the plants, which reached an average height of 29.3 cm, stem diameter of 3.3 mm and leaf length of 7.6 cm, whereas the control group reached an average height of only 20.2 cm, stem diameter of 1.9 mm and leaf length of 5.7 cm. The application of the peroxyacetic mixtures resulted in an improvement in growth parameters as well as in yield. Individual weights achieved using the 40 mg L(-1) dose were 1.3 g plant(-1) in the control group and 3.4 g plant(-1) in the experimental group (62% yield increase). Sensory analysis revealed no differences in organoleptic quality. PMID:22272143

Carrasco, Gilda; Moggia, Claudia; Osses, Ingrid Jennifer; Alvaro, Juan Eugenio; Urrestarazu, Miguel

2011-01-01

237

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

238

Phenazine carboxylic acid production and rhizome protective effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is cultivated commercially in most parts of the world especially in India for its culinary and medicinal applications. One of the major challenges that limit the yield of ginger is rhizome rot disease caused by organisms including Pythium myriotylum. A feasible ecofriendly method is yet to be devised to prevent the plant from this threatening disease. Recent studies on plant microbiome show the possibility of having endophytic organisms with plant protective characteristics associated with the plants. Because of the uniquely evolved underground nature of the ginger rhizome and its peculiar survival in soil for a long time, many interesting endophytic microbes with plant protective characters can be well expected from it. In the current study, previously isolated endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ginger was investigated in detail for its effect on Pythium myriotylum. The rhizome protective effect of the organism was also studied by co-inoculation studies, which confirmed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has very potent inhibitory effect on Pythium myriotylum. On further studies, the active antifungal compound was identified as phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. PMID:24353040

Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Rohini, Sabu; Kurian, Jacob Manoj; Jyothis, Mathew; Radhakrishnan, E K

2014-05-01

239

[Field experiment of F1 generation and superior families selection of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Based on randomized block design of experiment, agronomic traits and yields of 14 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the differences in agronomic traits and yields among families were significant, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Families of 6b x 2a, 9 x 66 and 78 x 69 were selected with the remarkable superiority of yields, agronomic traits and product customization. Correlation analysis between agronomic traits and yields showed that plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, blade length and blade width were all significantly correlated with biological yields and economic yields. Among which, stem diameter, leaf number and blade length were the most significant, and an optimal linear regression model could be established. When the number of shoots was fewer than 4.5, both biological yields and economic yields increased with the increasing number of shoots, but it could not much affect yields when the number of shoots was larger than 4.5. Shoots number, stem diameter and leaf index were basic stability when compared biennial traits to annual, which could be used for early selection. PMID:24558865

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

240

In vitro propagation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through direct organogenesis: a review.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial herb. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and commercially cultivated in most tropical regions of the world. The underground rhizomes are the planting materials in a conventional propagation of ginger however it has a low multiplication rate. It is known that there are possible methods are available for rapid vegetative propagation of ginger through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions but it is necessary to find the best protocol for in vitro multiplication of ginger. Limited studies on the tissue culture technology of ginger are available in Sri Lanka. However, significant efforts have been made in the procedure for in vitro micropropagation in the other ginger growing countries. The available literature with respect to in vitro plant regeneration has been perused and this review mainly focused on the in vitro propagation via direct organogenesis from rhizome buds or shoot tips of ginger often used as explants. This review article may be an appropriate and effective guidance for establishing in vitro cultures and subsequent production of in vitro plantlets in clonal propagation of ginger. PMID:24516998

Seran, Thayamini H

2013-12-15

241

[Cloning and analysis of reverse transcriptase(RT) of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Using universal primer Ty1-copia retrotransposon RT,43 Ty1-copia like retrotransposon RT with high heterogeneity, stop codon mutation and frameshift mutation were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of Zhejiang Lin'an (C15) and Yunnan Guangnan (A39) of Dendrobium officinale. The length of these sequences varied from 260 to 266 bp, and was rich in AT and consistency ranged from 47.1% to 97.7%. Different c/s-acting regulatory elements induced by low temperature, heat, light, all kinds of plant growth regulating substances and the starting transcription signals, corresponding to CAAT box, TATA box conserved sequences and some other regulatory elements. When being translated into amino acids, ten sequences presented stop codon mutation, five sequences presented frameshift mutation, and thirty-seven sequences presented conserved sequence "SLYGKQ" mutation. Six categories were identified through phylogenic analysis after alignment analyses of their amino acid sequences, and with other plants (eg. Triticum aestivum, Eleocharis quinqueflora) having high homology, which indicated that horizontal transmission of retrotransposon occurred among the plants in the past. PMID:24761633

Li, Cong; Si, Jin-Ping; Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Yu-Qiu

2014-01-01

242

Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

243

Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate  

PubMed Central

The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 ?mol m?2s?1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 ?mol m?2s?1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

2010-01-01

244

Volatile (As and Hg) and non-volatile (Pb and Cd) toxic heavy metals analysis in rhizome of Zingiber officinale collected from different locations of North Western Himalayas by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Ginger is an important ingredient of spice and herbals. The monitoring of toxic heavy metals in the rhizome of ginger is important for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. The concentration of volatile and non-volatile metals (As, Hg, Pb and Cd), in the soil and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were analyzed using AAS. Soil analysis profile showed uniformity in the metal contents, in active root zone and subsoil, except mercury, which was present in higher quantity in one, out of the four sectors, of the field. The infield metal content in the soil in increasing order was, cadmium < arsenic < lead < mercury. In ginger rhizome the volatile toxic heavy metals arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) varied from not detected to 0.13 ?g/g and 0.01 to 0.42 ?g/g, respectively. The non-volatile metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) ranged from 0.06 to 0.64 ?g/g and 0.002 to 0.03 ?g/g, respectively(.) The results illustrated the findings that soil is the major but not the only source of metal accumulation in the plants. In our study, the volatile metal content (As, Hg) was found more in rhizomes collected from Himachal Pradesh while the non-volatile metals were predominant in samples from Uttarakhand. PMID:20732845

Gupta, S; Pandotra, P; Gupta, A P; Dhar, J K; Sharma, G; Ram, G; Husain, M K; Bedi, Y S

2010-10-01

245

Certain aspects of the ecology and life history of the poisonous plant, white pointloco (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.)  

E-print Network

_____________ Common name occurring indax Forbs (Cont.) Petalostemon occidentale Western prairie-clover 5 Taraxacum officinale Dandelion 5 0.3 Petalostemon purpureum Purple prairie-clover 5 Senecio canus Woolly groundsel 5 2.5 Artemisia ludoviciana Cudweed...

Payne, Gene F.

1957-01-01

246

Gliotoxin-Producing Endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale Found Antagonistic to Soft Rot Pathogen Pythium myriotylum.  

PubMed

Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M?+?H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

2015-04-01

247

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing underground—more than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2008-01-01

248

Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in compatible host–pathogen interaction in Jasminum officinale and Uromyces hobsoni: Insights into susceptibility of host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uromyces hobsoni Vize. is a rust fungus which infects Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The fungus is mainly observed on the stem and leaves in the form of raised galls at the site of infection. Healthy and infected progressive disease stages on stem and leaves were collected directly from the field and were analysed for the activity of defence enzymes like

A Kuvalekar; A Redkar; K Gandhe; A Harsulkar

2011-01-01

249

Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50?mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

2013-01-01

250

Regeneration of plants from tissue- and cell suspension cultures of Symphytum officinale L. and effect of in vitro culture on pyrrolizidine alkaloid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary calluses were induced from various organs of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) plants on solid MS and B5 medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. The callus was further subcultured on B5 medium. Cell suspension cultures were derived from B5 grown calluses by transfer to liquid B5 medium.

H. J. Huizing; E. C. Pfauth; Th. M. Malingré; J. H. Sietsma

1983-01-01

251

Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones from Rheum officinale Baill by high-speed counter-current chromatography using pH-modulated stepwise elution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones from Rheum officinale Baill (Dahuang) using pH-modulated stepwise elution. Four major components including chrysophanol, emodin, physcion and aloe-emodin were isolated each at over 98% purity.

Fuquan Yang; Tianyou Zhang; Guilian Tian; Haifeng Cao; Qinhui Liu; Yoichiro Ito

1999-01-01

252

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of Megalobrama amblycephala under Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from Rheum officinale Bail) on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala. The fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. We then challenged the fish

Bo Liu; Xianping Ge; Jun Xie; Pao Xu; Yijin He; Yanting Cui; Jianhua Ming; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan

253

Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones from Rheum officinale Baill by high-speed counter-current chromatography using pH-modulated stepwise elution.  

PubMed

Analytical and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones from Rheum officinale Baill (Dahuang) using pH-modulated stepwise elution. Four major components including chrysophanol, emodin, physcion and aloe-emodin were isolated each at over 98% purity. PMID:10544895

Yang, F; Zhang, T; Tian, G; Cao, H; Liu, Q; Ito, Y

1999-10-01

254

Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts of two plants including fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. have been studied with brine shrimp test. There is only one report about cytotoxicity of H. sphondylium in literature and so H. persicum has been used as second selection. At first

Mohammad Hassan Moshafi; Fariba Sharififar; Gholam-Reza Dehghan; Alieh Ameri

2009-01-01

255

Taraxacum mongolicum extract exhibits a protective effect on hepatocytes and an antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus in animal and human cells.  

PubMed

In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically-injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that TME at 50-100 µg/ml improved D-galactosamine (D-GalN), thioacetamide (TAA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-injured rat hepatocytes, and produced protection rates of 42.2, 34.6 and 43.8% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, TME at 1-100 µg/ml markedly inhibited DHBV DNA replication. Additionally, TME at 25-100 µg/ml reduced HBsAg and HBeAg levels and produced inhibition rates of 91.39 and 91.72% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. TME markedly inhibited HBV DNA replication at 25-100 µg/ml. The results demonstrate the potent antiviral effect of T. mongolicum against HBV effect. The protective of TME effect on hepatocytes may be achieved by its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antiviral properties of TME may contribute to blocking protein synthesis steps and DNA replication. Furthermore, major components of TME were quantificationally analyzed. These data provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of TME in the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:24481875

Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Guan, Rong-Fa; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhao, Yu

2014-04-01

256

The Root Pressure Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

Marsh, A. R.

1972-01-01

257

Using Square Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

Wilson, William Wynne

1976-01-01

258

Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese medicine) or [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors previously reported that an extract fromZingiber officinale, traditionally eaten along with raw fish and used in traditional Chinese medicine, effectively destroyedAnisakis larvae in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effective components of ginger rhizomes. Methanol extracts were fractionated after first being treated with HCl at pH 3, then with NaHCO3 at pH 10, and, finally, with NaOH

C. Goto; S. Kasuya; K. Koga; H. Ohtomo; N. Kagei

1990-01-01

259

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns

Bo Liu; Jun Xie; Xianping Ge; Pao Xu; Aiming Wang; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

2010-01-01

260

Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified

Renmin Liu; Aifeng Li; Ailing Sun

2004-01-01

261

Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified by 1H NMR. PMID:15527141

Liu, Renmin; Li, Aifeng; Sun, Ailing

2004-10-15

262

WHY ROOTING FAILS.  

SciTech Connect

I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

CREUTZ,M.

2007-07-30

263

Corky root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

264

BLACK ROOT ROT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

265

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata

Cheryl Lans; Nancy Turner

2011-01-01

266

Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions  

E-print Network

Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions Using Small with the computation of reciprocals, square roots, inverse square roots, and some elementary functions using small/number of multipliers and compare with other related methods. Index TermsÐReciprocal, square root, inverse square root

Muller, Jean-Michel

267

Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique  

PubMed Central

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 ?g/g to 10,870.4 ?g/g, and the latter from 9.9 ?g/g to 325.8 ?g/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

2012-01-01

268

Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

2015-01-01

269

Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.  

PubMed

Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 ?g/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 ?g/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 ?g/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 ?g/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation. PMID:22656126

Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

2012-06-20

270

Tooth Eruption without Roots  

PubMed Central

Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the difficulties in studying late stages of tooth development and tooth movement and the lack of good model systems. Transgenic mice with eruption problems and short or no roots can be used as a powerful model for further deciphering of the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying root formation and tooth eruption. Better understanding of these processes can provide hints on delivering more efficient dental therapies in the future. PMID:23345536

2013-01-01

271

Root canal irrigants  

PubMed Central

Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

2010-01-01

272

Plant root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Although the quantities of organic compounds exuding from roots is not large, seldom exceeding 0.4% of the carbon photosynthesized,\\u000a they do exert a very strong influence on the soil microorganisms and may be significant in affecting plant nutrient availability.\\u000a There is evidence that exudates from the roots of some plants are toxic to roots of neighboring plants and to the

Albert D. Rovira

1969-01-01

273

Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

2012-01-01

274

Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation.  

PubMed

Changes in the yields of the oleoresin and content of pungent bioactive principles: [6], [8], [10] gingerols and [6] shogaol of Jamaican ginger ( Zingiber officinale) were investigated during different stages of maturity (7-9 months). Ethanolic oleoresin extracts were prepared (95%, w/w) by cold maceration of dried ginger powder, and their percentage yields were calculated (w/w). The pungent bioactive principles in the ginger oleoresin were extracted with methanol and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ginger harvested at 8 months from Bourbon, Portland had the highest oleoresin yield (8.46 +/- 0.46%). [6] Gingerol was found to be the most abundant pungent bioactive principle in all the oleoresin samples investigated, with the 9 months sample from Bourbon, Portland containing the highest level (28.94 +/- 0.39%). The content of [6] gingerols was also found to be consistently high (7-9 months) in oleoresin samples from Johnson Mountain, St. Thomas (15.12 +/- 0.39 to 16.02 +/- 0.95%). The results suggest that Bourbon in Portland may be the most ideal location for cultivating ginger for high yields and quality, however, Johnson Mountain in St. Thomas could prove to be the least restrictive location, allowing for harvesting of good quality material throughout the maturity period (7-9 months). PMID:18564850

Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Junor, Grace-Ann O; Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Salmon, Colleen N A; Smith, Ann Marie

2008-07-23

275

Evaluation of Chloropicrin as a Soil Fumigant against Ralstonia solanacarum in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Production in China  

PubMed Central

Background Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg?1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m?2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. PMID:24618853

Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

2014-01-01

276

Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4-5 years age) were marinated with distilled water (control), 2% (w/w) powdered cucumis extract, 5% (w/v) ginger extract or 0.2% (w/w) papain for 48 h at 4 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical, histological and sensory evaluations. An increase (p<0.01) in collagen solubility, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility, and reduction (p<0.01) in shear force values were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins also revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in all treated samples. Improvement (p<0.01) in flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to controls. Ginger extract-treated meat samples received better scores for appearance, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that ginger and cucumis can be used as an effective alternative to papain. PMID:22062404

Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K; Anjaneyulu, A S R

2004-11-01

277

Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

2001-12-01

278

ROOT Statistical Software  

E-print Network

Advanced mathematical and statistical computational methods are required by the LHC experiments for analyzing their data. Some of these methods are provided by the ROOT project, a C++ Object Oriented framework for large scale data handling applications. We review the current mathematical and statistical classes present in ROOT, emphasizing the recent developments.

Moneta, Lorenzo; Brun, R; Kreshuk, Anna

2008-01-01

279

Irrational Square Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

Misiurewicz, Michal

2013-01-01

280

Seeds: Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this indepth hands-on activity, learners build a structure that allows them to observe the growth of roots and the correlation between root growth and stem extension. Because no dirt is used in this arrangement, a guiding question can be posed: What does the plant need to grow? The PDF includes activity rationale, procedure, background and follow-up discussion suggestions.

Education Development Center, Inc.

2010-01-01

281

ROOTING GUATEMALAN AVOCADO CUTTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A method is described which, although not considered commercially practical, proved to be very successful in rooting cuttings of Guatemalan avocado varieties. Essentially it consists of obtaining cuttings from stems, the bases of which have at no time been exposed to light or low humidity. In certain experimental work with the avocado, own rooted trees, that is trees propagated

E. F. Frolich

282

Effect of different light intensities on total phenolics and flavonoids synthesis and anti-oxidant activities in young ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 ?mol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 ?mol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ? 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 ?mol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 ?mol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

2010-01-01

283

Metabolic profiling of in vitro micropropagated and conventionally greenhouse grown ginger (Zingiber officinale).  

PubMed

Ginger is an important medicinal and culinary herb, known worldwide for its health promoting properties. Because ginger does not reproduce by seed, but is clonally propagated via rhizome division and replanting, it is susceptible to accumulation and transmittance of pathogens from generation to generation. In addition, such propagation techniques lead to slow multiplication of particularly useful stocks. We have developed an in vitro propagation method to alleviate these problems. Metabolic profiling, using GC/MS and LC-ESI-MS, was used to determine if chemical differences existed between greenhouse grown or in vitro micropropagation derived plants. Three different ginger lines were analyzed. The constituent gingerols and gingerol-related compounds, other diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of these compounds, as well as major mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chemical differences between lines (yellow ginger vs. white ginger and blue ring ginger) and tissues (rhizome, root, leaf and shoot). However, this analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between growth treatments (conventional greenhouse grown vs. in vitro propagation derived plants). Further statistical analyses (ANOVA) confirmed these results. These findings suggest that the biochemical mechanisms used to produce the large array of compounds found in ginger are not affected by in vitro propagation. PMID:16963091

Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

2006-10-01

284

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically

Raquel Iglesias-Fernandez; Angel Matilla

2009-01-01

285

Study on Dendrobium officinale O-acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan®): part II. Fine structures of O-acetylated residues.  

PubMed

Main objective of this study was to investigate the detailed structural information about O-acetylated sugar residues in Dendronan(®). A water solution (2%, w/w) of Dendronan(®) was treated with endo-?-mannanase to produce oligosaccharides rich in O-acetylated sugar residues. The oligosaccharides were partly recovered by ethanol precipitation (70%, w/w). The recovered sample (designated Hydrolyzed Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide, HDOP) had a yield of 24.7% based on the dry weight of Dendronan(®) and was highly O-acetylated. A D2O solution of HDOP (6%, w/w) generated strong signals in (1)H, (13)C, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY, 2D (1)H-(13)C HMQC, and 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC NMR spectra. Results of NMR analyses showed that the majority of O-acetylated mannoses were mono-substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 or O-3 position. There were small amounts of mannose residues with di-O-acetyl substitution at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Minor levels of mannoses with 6-O-acetyl, 2,6-di-O-acetyl, and 3,6-di-O-acetyl substitutions were also identified. Much information about sugar residue sequence was extracted from 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC and 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY spectra. (1)J(C-H) coupling constants of major sugar residues were obtained. Evidences for the existence of branches or O-acetylated glucoses in HDOP were not found. The major structure of Dendronan(®) is shown as follows: [Formula: see text] M: ?-D-mannopyranose; G: ?-D-glucopyranose; a: O-acetyl group. PMID:25498655

Xing, Xiaohui; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shaoping; Phillips, Glyn O; Goff, H Douglas; Wang, Qi

2015-03-01

286

ECOLOGY: How Do Roots Interact?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Roots actively forage for nutrient hot spots and avoid patches where root densities of competing neighbors are high. Several studies have shown that roots respond to neighboring roots in a very specific manner that depends on the identity of the neighbor. Root extension tends to be greater when roots grow into substrate containing "nonself " roots of a genetically different individual or a detached plant with the same genotype than when "self " roots of the same (physiological and genetic) individual are encountered.

Hans de Kroon (Radboud University; Department of Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research)

2007-12-07

287

Topics In Primitive Roots  

E-print Network

This monograph considers a few topics in the theory of primitive roots g(p) modulo a prime p>=2. A few estimates of the least primitive roots g(p) and the least prime primitive roots g^*(p) modulo p, a large prime, are determined. One of the estimate here seems to sharpen the Burgess estimate g(p) number 3 > 0, to the smaller estimate g(p) 2. The expected order of magnitude is g(p) 1 constant. The corresponding estimates for least prime primitive roots g^*(p) are slightly higher. Anotrher topic deals with an effective lower bound #{p > x/log x for the number of primes p number x >1. The current results in the literature claim the lower bound #{p > x/(log x)^2, and have restrictions on the minimal number of fixed integers to three or more.

N. A. Carella

2015-03-12

288

Corn root gravitropism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravitropism is the turning or growing in a different direction of a plant in response to gravity. This corn plant's root grows downward and exhibits positive gravitropism because it is growing toward gravity's pull.

Roger P. Hangarter (Indiana University; Department of Biology)

2000-01-01

289

Effects of Crude Extracts from Medicinal Herbs Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale on Growth and Proliferation of Human Brain Cancer Cell Line In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Hitherto, limited clinical impact has been achieved in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBMs). Although phytochemicals found in medicinal herbs can provide mankind with new therapeutic remedies, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials. Therefore, combinations of several agents at once are gaining increasing attractiveness. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crude alkaloid (CAERS) and flavonoid (CFEZO) extracts prepared from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale, respectively, on the growth of human GBM cell line, U251. R. stricta and Z. officinale are traditionally used in folkloric medicine and have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Combination of CAERS and CFEZO treatments synergistically suppressed proliferation and colony formation and effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis in U251 cells. Apoptosis induction was mediated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, increased Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio, enhanced activities of caspase-3 and -9, and PARP-1 cleavage. CAERS and CFEZO treatments decreased expression levels of nuclear NF-?Bp65, survivin, XIAP, and cyclin D1 and increased expression level of p53, p21, and Noxa. These results suggest that combination of CAERS and CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of GBM. PMID:25136570

Elkady, Ayman I.; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A.

2014-01-01

290

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of Megalobrama amblycephala under Aeromonas hydrophila infection.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from Rheum officinale Bail) on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala. The fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. We then challenged the fish with A. hydrophila and recorded mortality and changes in serum cortisol, lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the relative expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA for a period of 5 d. Supplementation with 0.1% anthraquinone extract significantly increased serum lysozyme activity before infection, serum ALP activity at 24 h after infection, serum total protein concentration 12 h after infection, hepatic CAT activity 12 h after infection, hepatic SOD activity before infection, and the relative expression of hepatic HSP70 mRNA both before infection and 6 h after infection. In addition, the supplemented group had decreased levels of serum cortisol 6 h after infection, serum AST and ALT activities 12 h after infection, and hepatic MDA content 12 h after infection. Mortality was significantly lower in the treatment group (86.67%) than the control (100%). Our results suggest that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract from R. officinale Bail can enhance resistance against pathogenic infections in M. amblycephala. PMID:21362482

Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; He, Yijin; Cui, Yanting; Ming, Jianhua; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun

2012-01-01

291

Genetic diversity of the endemic and medicinally important plant Rheum officinale as revealed by Inter-Simpe Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.  

PubMed

Rheum officinale Baill., an important but endangered medicinal herb, is endemic to China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 populations of R. officinale. Thirteen selected primers yielded 189 bright and discernible bands, with an average of 14.54 per primer. The genetic diversity was low at the population level, but pretty high at the species level (H = 0.1008, I = 0.1505, PPB = 28.95% vs. H = 0.3341, I = 0.5000, PPB = 95.24%, respectively) by POPGENE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation was found mainly among populations (74.38%), in line with the limited gene flow (N(m) = 0.2766) among populations. Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5381, P = 0.002), indicating the role of geographic isolation in shaping the present population genetic structure. Both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis demonstrated the similar results. Our results imply that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species, and cultivation is proposed in this study. PMID:22489188

Wang, Xu-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qu; Yang, Rui; Feng, Shi-Fang; Li, Yan; Ren, Yi

2012-01-01

292

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

293

Developmental Changes in Peanut Root Structure during Root Growth and Root-structure Modification by Nodulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule formation. Methods Peanut plants were grown in the field, in vermiculite or in filter paper. The taproot, first-order and second-order lateral roots and root nodules were analysed using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy with hand sections and resin sections. Key Results Three root categories were recognized. The primary seminal root was thick, exhibiting early and intensive secondary thickening mainly on its base. It was tetrarch and contained broad pith. First-order lateral roots were long and thin, with limited secondary thickening; they contained no pith. Particularly different were second- and higher-order lateral roots, which were anatomically simple and thin, with little or no secondary growth. Unusual wall ingrowths were visible in the cells of the central part of the cortex in the first-order and second-order lateral roots. The nodule body was formed at the junction of the primary and lateral roots by the activity of proliferating cells derived originally from the pericycle. Conclusions Two morphologically and anatomically distinct types of lateral roots were recognized: long, first-order lateral roots, forming the skeleton of the root system, and thin and short second- and higher-order lateral roots, with an incomplete second state of endodermal development, which might be classified as peanut ‘feeder roots’. Formation of root nodules at the base of the lateral roots was the result of proliferating cell divisions derived originally from the pericycle. PMID:18256023

Tajima, Ryosuke; Abe, Jun; Lee, O. New; Morita, Shigenori; Lux, Alexander

2008-01-01

294

Glutamate signalling in roots.  

PubMed

As a signalling molecule, glutamate is best known for its role as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system, a role that requires the activity of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). The unexpected discovery in 1998 that Arabidopsis thaliana L. possesses a family of iGluR-related (GLR) genes laid the foundations for an assessment of glutamate's potential role as a signalling molecule in plants that is still in progress. Recent advances in elucidating the function of Arabidopsis GLR receptors has revealed similarities with iGluRs in their channel properties, but marked differences in their ligand specificities. The ability of plant GLR receptors to act as amino-acid-gated Ca(2+) channels with a broad agonist profile, combined with their expression throughout the plant, makes them strong candidates for a multiplicity of amino acid signalling roles. Although root growth is inhibited in the presence of a number of amino acids, only glutamate elicits a specific sequence of changes in growth, root tip morphology, and root branching. The recent finding that the MEKK1 gene is a positive regulator of glutamate sensitivity at the root tip has provided genetic evidence for the existence in plants of a glutamate signalling pathway analogous to those found in animals. This short review will discuss the most recent advances in understanding glutamate signalling in roots, considering them in the context of previous work in plants and animals. PMID:24151303

Forde, Brian G

2014-03-01

295

Root architecture and root and tuber crop productivity.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly evident that optimization of root architecture for resource capture is vital for enabling the next green revolution. Although cereals provide half of the calories consumed by humans, root and tuber crops are the second major source of carbohydrates globally. Yet, knowledge of root architecture in root and tuber species is limited. In this opinion article, we highlight what is known about the root system in root and tuber crops, and mark new research directions towards a better understanding of the relation between root architecture and yield. We believe that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems. PMID:24630073

Villordon, Arthur Q; Ginzberg, Idit; Firon, Nurit

2014-07-01

296

Effect of CO2 Enrichment on Synthesis of Some Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

PubMed Central

The effect of two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 ?mol mol?1) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 ?mol mol?1 CO2. Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO2 concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly (P ? 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO2 (800 ?mol mol?1). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes > stems > leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO2. The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 ?mol mol?1) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 ?mol Fe (II)/g) and ?-tocopherol (953 ?mol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 ?mol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant biomass, primary and secondary metabolite synthesis, and following that, antioxidant activities of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced through controlled environment (CE) and CO2 enrichment. PMID:21541046

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

2011-01-01

297

Wired to the roots  

PubMed Central

Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don’t know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses. PMID:23073006

Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P.

2012-01-01

298

"GALVANOTROPISM" OF ROOTS  

PubMed Central

1. New experiments, made in such a way to eliminate as completely as possible products of polarization and the migration of such products when formed, have shown that the exhibition of galvanotropic curvature in roots is mainly dependent upon such products, since no curvature appears when they are excluded. 2. The polarization products injure the external layer of cells of the root; this allows these cells to act as electrodes directly applied on the internal tissues. The inner electrolysis produces such changes in the interior cells that they may be considered as becoming ionically different. This differential state is responsible for curvature. 3. "Galvanotropism" of roots, therefore, cannot be regarded as exactly comparable to the galvanotropic orientations of certain animals, but is essentially dependent upon injury. PMID:19872344

Navez, A. E.

1927-01-01

299

Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.  

PubMed

The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed) or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males (reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed. PMID:14503584

Shelly, Todd E; Rendon, Pedro; Hernandez, Emilio; Salgado, Sergio; McInnis, Donald; Villalobos, Ethel; Liedo, Pablo

2003-08-01

300

Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. RESULTS: Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 ?g/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 ?g/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 ?g/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and c-Myc. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a combination of CAERS and CFEZO is a promising treatment for the prevention of colon cancer. PMID:25386076

Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

2014-01-01

301

Violet root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

302

The Roots of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

2002-01-01

303

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

304

Root Beer Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity/demonstration about density, learners examine what happens when two cans of root beer--one diet and one regular--are placed in a large container of water. Do they sink or float? Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of density as well as the nutritional content of soft drinks.

Colorado State University

2009-01-01

305

Great Plains Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

Frey, Jennifer

2001-01-01

306

PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

307

Stachbotrys Root Rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

308

Invertase Activity in Root Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in plant biology and enzyme kinetics. Students microscopically observe corn root sections and determine by enzymatic assays, the intergrase enzyme activity in selected regions of the root.

Chris J. Perumalla (University of Toronto; )

1994-01-01

309

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

310

Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

311

Square Root SAM Frank Dellaert  

E-print Network

Square Root SAM Frank Dellaert College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Abstract information matrix or the measurement matrix into square root form. Such techniques have several significant that square root information smoothing (SRIS) is a fundamentally better approach to the problem of SLAM than

Dellaert, Frank

312

Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

Koltai, Hinanit

2012-07-01

313

Lesson 24: Roots and Radicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exponential notation for Nth roots and radicals is introduced. A short discussion about Nth roots and irrational numbers follows before symbolic manipulation of fractional exponents and solving equations is presented. Power functions and solving radical equations are presented before the lesson concludes with roots of negative numbers.

2011-01-01

314

Springback in root gravitropism.  

PubMed

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

1989-01-01

315

Springback in root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1989-01-01

316

Mathematica with ROOT  

E-print Network

We present an open-source Mathematica importer for CERN ROOT files. Taking advantage of Mathematica's import/export plug-in mechanism, the importer offers a simple, unified interface that cleanly wraps around its MathLink-based core that links the ROOT libraries with Mathematica. Among other tests for accuracy and efficiency, the importer has also been tested on a large (~5 Gbyte) file structure, D3PD, used by the ATLAS experiment for offline analysis without problems. In addition to describing the installation and usage of the importer, we discuss how the importer may be further improved and customized. A link to the package can be found at: http://library.wolfram.com/infocenter/Articles/7793/ and a related presentation is at: http://cd-docdb.fnal.gov/cgi-bin/DisplayMeeting?conferenceid=522

Ken Hsieh; Thomas G. Throwe; Sebastian White

2011-03-07

317

Diagravitropism in corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1988-01-01

318

A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.  

PubMed

Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

2014-01-01

319

Hydraulic conductivity of rice roots.  

PubMed

A pressure chamber and a root pressure probe technique have been used to measure hydraulic conductivities of rice roots (root Lp(r) per m(2) of root surface area). Young plants of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (an upland variety, cv. Azucena and a lowland variety, cv. IR64) were grown for 31-40 d in 12 h days with 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and day/night temperatures of 27 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Root Lp(r) was measured under conditions of steady-state and transient water flow. Different growth conditions (hydroponic and aeroponic culture) did not cause visible differences in root anatomy in either variety. Values of root Lp(r) obtained from hydraulic (hydrostatic) and osmotic water flow were of the order of 10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1) and were similar when using the different techniques. In comparison with other herbaceous species, rice roots tended to have a higher hydraulic resistance of the roots per unit root surface area. The data suggest that the low overall hydraulic conductivity of rice roots is caused by the existence of apoplastic barriers in the outer root parts (exodermis and sclerenchymatous (fibre) tissue) and by a strongly developed endodermis rather than by the existence of aerenchyma. According to the composite transport model of the root, the ability to adapt to higher transpirational demands from the shoot should be limited for rice because there were minimal changes in root Lp(r) depending on whether hydrostatic or osmotic forces were acting. It is concluded that this may be one of the reasons why rice suffers from water shortage in the shoot even in flooded fields. PMID:11520872

Miyamoto, N; Steudle, E; Hirasawa, T; Lafitte, R

2001-09-01

320

Matching roots to their environment  

PubMed Central

Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

2013-01-01

321

The Roots of Beowulf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

Fischer, James R.

2014-01-01

322

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

323

Open Access  

E-print Network

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

Cheryl Lans; Nancy Turner

324

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

2011-01-01

325

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

2011-01-01

326

Urolithiasis and phytotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of seven plants with suspected application to prevent and treat stone kidney formation (Verbena officinalis, Lithospermum officinale, Taraxacum officinale, Equisetum arvense. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctium lappa andSilene saxifraga) have been studied using female Wistar rats. Variations of the main urolithiasis risk factors (citraturia, calciuria, phosphaturia,\\u000a pH and diuresis) have been evaluated. It can be concluded that beneficial effects caused

F. Grases; G. Melero; A. Costa-Bauzá; R. Prieto; J. G. March

1994-01-01

327

Root Development in Aluminous Hawaiian Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and Melastoma malabathricum were excavated in three soil series from the bauxitic area of Kauai . Root systems of R. tomentosa and M. malabathricum in Kapaa and Halii soils were very shal­ low, with tap roots turning laterally at shallow depth and with long lateral roots very close to the soil surface. Deeper tap-root penetration of

J. C. MOOMAW; C. H. LAMOUREUX

328

Exogenous polyamines improve rooting of hazel microshoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong positive effect of polyamines on rooting of microshoots of adult hazel (Corylus avellana L., cv. Gironell) is described. The effect of polyamines, both in the root induction solution and in the actual rooting medium, was assessed in order to study the effect on the successive rooting phases. Polyamines improved rooting of indole-3-butyric acid-treated microshoots in a synergistic fashion,

Manuel Rey; Carmen Díaz-Sala; Roberto Rodríguez

1994-01-01

329

Theon's Ladder for Any Root  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theon's ladder is an ancient algorithm for calculating rational approximations for the square root of 2. It features two columns of integers (called a ladder), in which the ratio of the two numbers in each row is an approximation to the square root of 2. It is remarkable for its simplicity. This algorithm can easily be generalized to find rational…

Osler, Thomas J.; Wright, Marcus; Orchard, Michael

2005-01-01

330

Gut and Root Microbiota Commonalities  

PubMed Central

Animal guts and plant roots have absorption roles for nutrient uptake and converge in harboring large, complex, and dynamic groups of microbes that participate in degradation or modification of nutrients and other substances. Gut and root bacteria regulate host gene expression, provide metabolic capabilities, essential nutrients, and protection against pathogens, and seem to share evolutionary trends. PMID:23104406

Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Jiménez-Marín, Berenice; Bolaños, Luis M.; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez, Julio; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

331

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classroo

James Wandersee

2010-02-01

332

Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

De Pillis, L. G.

2005-01-01

333

The root as a drill  

PubMed Central

Plant roots forage the soil for water and nutrients and overcome the soil’s physical compactness. Roots are endowed with a mechanism that allows them to penetrate and grow in dense media such as soil. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. The nature of the media in which roots grow adds to the difficulty to in situ analyze the mechanisms underlying root penetration. Inhibition of ethylene perception by application of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) to tomato seedlings nearly abolished the root penetration in Soilrite. The reversal of this process by auxin indicated operation of an auxin-ethylene signaling pathway in the regulation of root penetration. The tomato pct1–2 mutant that exhibits an enhanced polar transport of auxin required higher doses of 1-MCP to inhibit root penetration, indicating a pivotal role of auxin transport in this process. In this update we provide a brief review of our current understanding of molecular processes underlying root penetration in higher plants. PMID:22415043

Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Ivanchenko, Maria; Sharma, Rameshwar

2012-01-01

334

Parameterizing complex root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However they suffer from a lack of information in important parameters, especially distribution of root hydraulic properties. In this paper we explore the role that arrangement of root hydraulic properties and root system topology play for modelled uptake dynamics. We apply microscopic models of single root structures to investigate the mechanisms shaping uptake dynamics and demonstrate the effects in a complex three dimensional root water uptake model. We introduce two efficiency indices, for (a) overall plant resistance and (b) water stress and show that an appropriate arrangement of root hydraulic properties can increase modelled efficiency of root water uptake in single roots, branched roots and entire root systems. The average uptake depth of the complete root system was not influenced by parameterization. However, other factors such as evolution of collar potential, which is related to the plant resistance, root bleeding and redistribution patterns were strongly affected by the parameterization. Root systems are more efficient when they are assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (short young) roots and transport (longer mature) roots. Results become similar, as soon as this composition is accounted for to some degree (between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). Overall resistance to root water uptake was decreased up to 40% and total transpiration was increased up to 25% in these composed root systems, compared to homogenous root systems. Also, one parameterization (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which was accompanied by lowest efficiency. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component of complex three dimensional uptake models. Efficiency measures together with information on critical xylem potentials may be useful in parameterizing root property distribution.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-01-01

335

Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.  

PubMed

Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases. PMID:23616336

Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

2013-01-01

336

Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

2015-01-01

337

Evaluation of root fungicides as root dips for the control of root rot in storage, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root rot in storage can lead to considerable sucrose losses in storage and adversely affect factory processing as well. The use of fungicide treatments applied to the root surface prior to storage were investigated to determine if they could reduce storage rots caused by Botrytis sp., Penicillium s...

338

A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed the lack of root hairs on mutant roots. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses

Tara S. Gahoonia; Niels Erik Nielsen; Priyavadan A. Joshi; Ahmed Jahoor

2001-01-01

339

Root and Root Collar Disease of Eucalyptus grandis Caused by Pythium splendens  

E-print Network

Root and Root Collar Disease of Eucalyptus grandis Caused by Pythium splendens 125 C. LINDE, M. J. H. J. 1994. Root and root collar disease of Eucalyptus gramlis caused by Pythium spJendens. Plant Dis. 78:1006-1009. A serious root and root collar disease of Eucal}ptus grandis occurred

340

Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging  

E-print Network

Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging-uptake fraction, nitrogen-uptake model, nitrogen-use efficiency, optimal foraging by roots, optimal rooting depth, root distributions, root strategies. Correspondence Ross E. McMurtrie, School of Biological, Earth

341

Random root movements in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

1996-01-01

342

Root cooperation in a clonal plant: connected strawberries segregate roots.  

PubMed

The ability to selectively avoid competition with members of the same clone should be highly advantageous but has not been demonstrated in plants. We found that physical connection between plants in a clone of the wild strawberry Fragaria chiloensis induced them to segregate their roots, significantly increasing clonal performance. Such increase in performance was not found when plants were grown in containers that artificially divided their rooting zones. There was no effect of connection in a different clone of F. chiloensis with a lower degree of carbon transport between connected plants, suggesting that the mechanism for root segregation depended upon transport of a signal through the strawberry runners. We suggest that clonal integration allows some clones to coordinate below-ground resource foraging with other clone members, thus exhibiting a type of root cooperation. PMID:12647182

Holzapfel, Claus; Alpert, Peter

2003-01-01

343

Root Words- Greek and Latin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Greek and Latin are parts of many of the words you use every day. Using the links provided create 10 new words. Also figure out what the 5 words below mean. Check out these links for help in creating your new words. Sometimes you will need to scroll down to find the information. Latin and Greek Word Elements Greek and Latin Root Words List Latin Greek Roots Index Take Our Word For It Word Translation 1. Chromophobe 2. Loqumal 3. Rogospath 4. Hypnoliver 5. Aquaport Root Words Quiz Select one of the sections one-six and see how well you do now that you have become better acquainted with Greek and ...

Miss B

2007-06-21

344

Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development  

PubMed Central

Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR induction. PMID:25324849

Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

2014-01-01

345

Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.  

PubMed

Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

2013-09-01

346

IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap  

SciTech Connect

In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing {sup 3}H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 {mu}1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 {mu}1 of sorbitol or the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap.

Hasenstein, K.H. (Univ. of SW Louisiana, Lafayette (USA))

1989-04-01

347

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.  

PubMed

Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg?¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD <0.1 mg kg?¹) except for R. pseudoacacia flowers and T. officinale roots. The maximum Cd concentration was 7.97 ± 0.15 mg kg?¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers from the Veles area. Nickel concentrations were in the range from 1.90 ± 0.04 to 5.74 ± 0.03 mg kg?¹. For U. dioica leaves and R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled near a lead-smelting plant, concentrations of 465.0 ± 0.55 and 403.56 ± 0.34 mg kg?¹ Zn were detected, respectively. In all control samples, results for Zn were low, ranging from 10.2 ± 0.05 to 38.70 ± 0.18 mg kg?¹. In this study, it was found that the flower of R. pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that T. officinale, U. dioica, and R. pseudoacacia were better metal accumulators and M. recutita was a metal avoider. PMID:20508923

Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Ba?eva, Katerina; Stafilov, Traj?e

2011-02-01

348

Root systems and generalized associahedra  

Microsoft Academic Search

These lecture notes for the IAS\\/Park City Graduate Summer School in Geometric Combinatorics (July 2004) provide an overview of root systems, generalized associahedra, and the combinatorics of clusters. Lectures 1-2 cover classical material: root systems, finite reflection groups, and the Cartan-Killing classification. Lectures 3-4 provide an introduction to cluster algebras from a combinatorial perspective. Lecture 5 is devoted to related

Sergey Fomin; Nathan Reading

2005-01-01

349

Drying of Echinacea angustifolia Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia roots were dried at 23, 30, 40, 50, and 60°C to determine the effect of drying on chemical constituency. During drying, the concentrations of the alkamides, cis or trans undeca-2-en 8, 10-diyonic acid isobutylamide and cis or trans dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, did not decrease at any of the drying temperatures as compared with roots dried

R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; S. Sokansanj

2003-01-01

350

Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

351

Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-10-01

352

Appendix 4. Supplementary Electronic Material -A list of all of the plant species from each community included in the analyses, together with the predicted pollinator [Euclidean distances to  

E-print Network

Aster occidentalis bee butterfly X Calyptridium umbellatum fly butterfly fly Castilleja miniata bird longipes fly X Symphoricarpos rotundifolius fly butterfly X Taraxacum officinale bee butterfly X Tragopogon alpinus butterfly X Castilleja miniata bird bird X Castilleja occidentalis bee bird X Castilleja

Northampton, University of

353

Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects

Qian-ru ZHANG; Qi-xing ZHOU; Li-ping REN; Yong-guan ZHU; Shu-lan SUN

2006-01-01

354

A Virus Attacking Lettuce and Dandelion  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the last three years lettuces have been seen in different parts of Britain suffering from a severe disease, the symptoms suggesting infection with a virus. The cause has now been found to be a virus that is also responsible for the chlorotic rings and spots so commonly seen in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).

B. Kassanis

1944-01-01

355

Elevated COâ and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) COâ levels. Leaves of elevated COâ plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient COâ plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf

S. C. Thomas; F. A. Bazzaz

1996-01-01

356

Biological Weed Control via Nutrient Competition: Potassium Limitation of Dandelions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weedy plants are often controlled by the application of herbicides. Here we explore an alternative method of control. We suggest that the abundance of an undesired plant species (here dandelions: Taraxacum officinale ) may be controlled by modifying interspecific competition via changes in resource supply rates. This hypothesis is supported by several lines of evidence. First, analyses of effects of

Elizabeth A. Tilman; David Tilman; Michael J. Crawley; A. E. Johnston

1999-01-01

357

Selected cultural and environmental parameters influence disease severity of dandelion caused by the potential bioherbicidal fungi, Phoma herbarum and Phoma exigua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected cultural and environmental variables were investigated for their influence on the efficacy of Phoma herbarum and Phoma exigua to cause disease on dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) under growth room conditions. In both species, mycelial fragments caused significantly greater disease severity on dandelion than spore suspensions. Mycelial age was not an important factor in disease severity caused by P. herbarum, with

S. M. Stewart-wade; G. J. Boland

2004-01-01

358

Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study was confined to pollen morphology and pollen fertility estimation used an aid in taxonomic description of 7 species of family Asteraceae from flora of Rawalpindi. The species are Ageratum conyzoides L., Calendula arvensis L., Cousinia minuta Boiss., Diagn., Eclipta alba (L.) Hasskl, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Saussuria heteromala (D. Don) Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Polleniferous material and complete

MUHAMMAD ZAFAR; MUSHTAQ AHMAD; MIR AJAB KHAN

359

Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Three-rooted Mandibular First Molars: Part II—Measurement of Root Canal Curvatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe distolingual (DL) roots of three-rooted mandibular molars often challenge clinicians during root canal therapy. This study investigated canal curvatures in permanent three-rooted mandibular first molars by using micro–computed tomography (micro-CT) scans.

Yongchun Gu; Qun Lu; Ping Wang; Longxing Ni

2010-01-01

360

Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardio toxicity in which reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of three medicinal plants, Nigella sativa (N), Glycyrrhiza glabra (G) and Zingiber officinale (Z), and their combination (NGZ), against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9c2 cells. Materials and Methods: The cells were incubated with different concentrations of each extract or NGZ for 4 hr which continued in the presence or absence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hr. Cell viability and the apoptotic rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. The level of ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods. Results: Treatment with doxorubicin increased ROS generation, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of the cells with each herb extract increased viability of cells dose-dependently with a maximum protection effect of about 30%, and their potencies were N>G>Z. The combination of the threshold dose of each extract (NGZ) produced a similar effect, which was increased dose-dependently to a maximum protection of 70%. These effects were correlated with the effects of NGZ on ROS and MDA. Conclusion: All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.

Hosseini, Azar; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

2014-01-01

361

Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sterile males exposed to ginger root oil in prerelease storage boxes display increased mating competitiveness in field-cage trials.  

PubMed

Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release (approximately = 36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later (i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d (i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the effectiveness of sterile insect release programs. PMID:15279263

Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Pahio, Elaine; Edu, James

2004-06-01

362

[Application of minirhizotron in fine root studies].  

PubMed

Due to the production, death, and decomposition of fine root, its turnover plays an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Some methods such as sequential root coring, compartmental flow model, and ingrowth core have been widely used in collecting root biomass data and estimating fine root turnover, but failed in monitoring the dynamics of fine root due to its simultaneous production and death. Minirhizotron is a nondestructive in situ method for studying the dynamics of fine root, which allows the simultaneous measurement of fine root growth and mortality. This paper reviewed the application of minirhizotron in fine root studies, with the focus on minirhizotron tube installation, image collection, data extraction, and calculation parameters. In a case study, the total fine root length, fine root length density per unit volume, fine root length density per unit area, fine root biomass density, and fine root production and mortality of Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelini were calculated, and the results showed that minirhizotron method was feasible in studying the processes of fine root development, eclipse, death, and decomposition. The factors affecting fine root measurement and its precision mainly included the quality and quantity of tube installation, sampling interval and quantity, and analysis technique of images, etc. Soil texture, tube material, and disturbance of light on root were also the factors affecting the precision of the method. How to improve the measurement precision of minirhizotron would be the critical problem in future study. PMID:16836108

Shi, Jianwei; Yu, Lizhong; Yu, Shuiqiang; Han, Youzhi; Wang, Zhengquan; Guo, Dali

2006-04-01

363

Aortic root dilation after the Ross procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated changes in neoaortic root geometry in patients who underwent the Ross procedure. Serial postoperative echocardiographic measurements of the neoaortic root indexed to the square root of body surface area (centimeters divided by meters) were obtained from 30 patients (age range 3.1 to 31.4 years) and compared with paired preoperative and immediate postoperative values. Normal aortic root diameter

M. Victoria T Tantengco; Richard A Humes; Sandra K Clapp; Kevin W Lobdell; Henry L Walters; Mehdi Hakimi; Michael L Epstein

1999-01-01

364

A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach  

E-print Network

A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach June 9, 1998 Abstract This is a quick guide to root programming, but has no experience with root or C++. Its goal is to get the user up and running quickly? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Basic Questions 4 2.1 What is root

Gilfoyle, Jerry

365

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

366

Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

Hasenstein, Karl H.

1997-01-01

367

Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster  

PubMed Central

Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately. PMID:24167506

Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

2013-01-01

368

Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating RWU of three dimensional root architectures unveiled that the same effects can be observed at the single plant scale. Total transpiration is almost independent of root hydraulic properties. On the other hand, the arrangement of hydraulic properties significantly influences RWU efficiency. Furthermore the vertical root water uptake profiles are governed by the different root properties. They result from two combined re-distribution patterns over time: One within a rooting branch similar to the results mentioned above, and a second one between the different rooting branches within the root system. This leads to complex vertical uptake profiles, which cannot be predicted from a combination of root abundance and soil moisture, and depend strongly on the individual morphology.

Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

2013-04-01

369

Root cooperation in a clonal plant: connected strawberries segregate roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to selectively avoid competition with members of the same clone should be highly advantageous but has not been demonstrated in plants. We found that physical connection between plants in a clone of the wild strawberry Fragaria chiloensis induced them to segregate their roots, significantly increasing clonal performance. Such increase in performance was not found when plants were grown

Claus Holzapfel; Peter Alpert

2003-01-01

370

Rhizobial infection in Adesmia bicolor (Fabaceae) roots.  

PubMed

The native legume Adesmia bicolor shows nitrogen fixation efficiency via symbiosis with soil rhizobia. The infection mechanism by means of which rhizobia infect their roots has not been fully elucidated to date. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to identify the infection mechanism in Adesmia bicolor roots. To this end, inoculated roots were processed following conventional methods as part of our root anatomy study, and the shape and distribution of root nodules were analyzed as well. Neither root hairs nor infection threads were observed in the root system, whereas infection sites-later forming nodules-were observed in the longitudinal sections. Nodules were found to form between the main root and the lateral roots. It can be concluded that in Adesmia bicolor, a bacterial crack entry infection mechanism prevails and that such mechanism could be an adaptive strategy of this species which is typical of arid environments. PMID:24938768

Bianco, Luciana

2014-09-01

371

Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

372

Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

1989-01-01

373

Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control.  

E-print Network

-rot is caused by a fungus, Phynztctotrichum omnivorum, which attacks the roots of susceptible plants and causes them, to decay. The vegetative strands of the fungus are found on the diseased roots, and the spore-mat stage is formed on the surface of the soil... above the affected roots. Resting bodies, or sclerotia, are formed in the soil near the diseased roots, and aid in the survival of the fungus. Root-rot spreads from plant to plant chiefly along the roots rather than by independent growth for long...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

1931-01-01

374

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

PubMed Central

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically decreased the SoACS7 transcript. At the onset of imbibition, AR inhibited SoACS7 and SoACO2 expression and stimulated that of SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6, demonstrating that the participation of ethylene (ET) and gibberellins (GAs) differs in after-ripened and non-after-ripened seeds. The inhibition of SoACO2 expression in the presence of GA4+7, paclobutrazol (PB), inhibitors of ET synthesis and signalling (IESS), and notably ET+GA4+7 indicated ET–GA cross-talk in non-after-ripened seeds. A positive effect of AR in reversing this inhibition was found. The idea of ET–GA cross-talk is also supported by the effect of ET on SoGA3ox2 expression, notably induced by the AR process. In contrast, SoGA20ox2 expression did not appear to be susceptible to AR. SoGA2ox6 expression, poorly known in seeds, suggests that AR prompted an up-regulation under all treatments studied, whereas in non-after-ripened seeds expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the ?-mannanase (MAN) activity dramatically increased in dry after-ripened seed, being significantly boosted by ET. The absence of MAN inhibition by IESS suggests that although ET seems to be one of the factors controlling MAN, its presence did not appear to be essential. GA4+7 only increased MAN in seeds wich were after-ripened. Here, it is proposed that ET and GAs participate actively in establishing the AR process. PMID:19246594

Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Matilla, Angel

2009-01-01

375

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.  

PubMed

In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The artificial infection with Vibrio anguillarum also showed the cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extracts were about 57-80%. The present study suggested that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1-0.20% anthraquinone extracts could prevent high temperature stress and promote the growth of prawns. PMID:20219682

Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

2010-07-01

376

Disease notes - Bacterial root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

377

The Roots of Organized Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hierarchy of organized crime is a new economically powerful and politically influential class in American society. Once the servant of politics, business, and labor in social struggles, organized crime now reaches out to become the master: an economy behind the economy, a government behind govern ment. Its roots lie deep within the American culture, drawing nourishment from the traditional

Gus Tyler

1962-01-01

378

Diseases with rooted staggered quarks  

E-print Network

Calculations using staggered quarks augmented with a root of the fermion determinant to reduce doubling give a qualitatively incorrect behavior in the small quark mass region. Attempts to circumvent this problem for the continuum limit involve an unproven combination of unphysical states, a loss of unitarity, and a rather peculiar non-commutation of limits.

Michael Creutz

2006-08-28

379

Image analysis from root system pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

2009-04-01

380

Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve the issue and give valuable insight for the next generation of VEGGIE.

Subbiah, Arun M.

2013-01-01

381

Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract ( Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee.

Doug B. Smith; Bert H. Jacobson

2011-01-01

382

Micropropagation Splitting of Malus microcuttings enhances rooting  

E-print Network

Micropropagation Splitting of Malus microcuttings enhances rooting J Puente, JA Marín* CSIC shoots. Malus x domestica / splitting / rooting / in vitro / micropropagation Résumé — La fente des microbouture. Malus x domestica / fente / enracinement/ in vitro / micropropagation INTRODUCTION Jork 9 (J9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

MedlinePLUS

Illustrations: Root Canal Treatment From Start to Finish 1. A Deep Infection Root canal treatment is needed when an injury or ... the canals and remove debris. 4. Filling the Canals The canals are filled with a permanent material. ...

384

Splints of root systems on Lie Superalgebras  

E-print Network

This paper classifies the splints of the root system of classical Lie superalgebras as a superalgebraic conversion of the splints of classical root systems. It can be used to derive branching rules, which have potential physical application in theoretical physics.

B. Ransingh; K. C. Pati

2014-04-29

385

Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation  

PubMed Central

Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species. PMID:22580687

Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

2012-01-01

386

Development and function of Azospirillum -inoculated roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The surface distribution ofAzospirillum on inoculated roots of maize and wheat is generally similar to that of other members of the rhizoplane microflora. During the first three days, colonization takes place mainly on the root elongation zone, on the base of root hairs and, to a lesser extent, on the surface of young root hairs.Azospirillum has been found in cortical

Y. Okon; Y. Kapulnik

1986-01-01

387

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

2011-01-01

388

Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

McKee, K.L.

2001-01-01

389

How Roots Perceive and Respond to Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses graviperception and gravitropism by plant roots. Indicates that graviperception occurs via sedimentation of amyloplasts in columella cells of the root cap and that the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots may be due to the intensity of their caps to establish a concentration gradient of inhibitor(s) sufficient to affect…

Moore, Randy

1984-01-01

390

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone alters root growth and root processes by first reducing photosynthesis and altering foliar metabolic pathways. The alteration in foliar metabolism is reflected in lowered carbohydrate levels in the roots. This can reduce key metabolic processes such as mineral uptake and sy...

391

Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard  

E-print Network

Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard Department of Computer Science Columbia University New caused by finite numerical precision. We adapt square root algo- rithms, popular in Kalman filtering that involve the square root of precision matrices. Combining this with the machinery of the junction tree

Jebara, Tony

392

Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard  

E-print Network

Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard Department of Computer Science Columbia University New caused by finite numerical precision. We adapt square root algo­ rithms, popular in Kalman filtering that involve the square root of precision matrices. Combining this with the machinery of the junction tree

393

Cultivar selection for sugarbeet root rot resistance.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

394

Vascular permeability of spinal nerve roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of blood vessels in rat spinal nerve roots was investigated with Evans blue-albumin as an in vivo macromolecular tracer and lanthanum as tracers as an electron microscopic ionic marker added to a fixative. Rats injected intravenously with Evans blue, showed macroscopic distinct staining of dorsal root ganglia, whereas spinal nerve roots remained unstained. Fluorescence microscopy, however, revealed clear

C. Å. V. Pettersson; H. S. Sharma; Y. Olsson

1990-01-01

395

Healthy Roots By: Shelly Van Landingham, Forester  

E-print Network

the absorbing roots to the tree. The large woody transport roots also store water, and store sugar starches: They anchor the tree, absorb water, and wrest vital nutrients from the soil. Tree root systems consist do not "seek out" water with a large taproot (a large taproot only persists in very few species

396

Bell pepper responses to root restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various container sizes were used to induce root restriction on ‘Jupiter’ bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). There was little or no effect of container size on plant growth up to 23 days after transplanting (DAT). By 45 DAT, leaf area and plant dry weight was diminished proportional to container volume. Root?to?shoot ratio was constant among the various root restricting conditions

D. S. NeSmith; D. C. Bridges; J. C. Barbour

1992-01-01

397

ROOT — An object oriented data analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROOT system in an Object Oriented framework for large scale data analysis. ROOT written in C++, contains, among others, an efficient hierarchical OO database, a C++ interpreter, advanced statistical analysis (multi-dimensional histogramming, fitting, minimization, cluster finding algorithms) and visualization tools. The user interacts with ROOT via a graphical user interface, the command line or batch scripts. The command and

Rene Brun; Fons Rademakers

1997-01-01

398

Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber  

E-print Network

Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber IST (Institute of Science and Technology) Austria real roots of a square- free polynomial f . Given isolating intervals, our algorithm refines each of them to a width at most 2-L, that is, each of the roots is approximated to L bits after the binary

399

Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber  

E-print Network

Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber IST (Institute of Science and Technology) Austria real roots of a square- free polynomial f. Given isolating intervals, our algorithm refines each of them to a certain width 2-L, that is, each of the roots is approximated to L bits after the binary

400

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases  

E-print Network

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley Diseases caused by root rots figure prominently amongst the most-studied pathologies of forest trees. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than

California at Berkeley, University of

401

Estimation of cadmium availability using transformed roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored cultures of roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes to test the availability of cadmium in sewage sludges. The toxic effects of Cd and the kinetics of Cd accumulation were examined for three species of transformed roots, grown for 2 weeks in nutrient media, containing Cd as a salt. Roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) were highly sensitive,

Lionel Metzger; Isabelle Fouchault; Christine Glad; René Prost; David Tepfer

1992-01-01

402

Auxin Transport Promotes Arabidopsis Lateral Root Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral root development in Arabidopsis provides a model for the study of hormonal signals that regulate postembry- onic organogenesis in higher plants. Lateral roots originate from pairs of pericycle cells, in several cell files positioned opposite the xylem pole, that initiate a series of asymmetric, transverse divisions. The auxin transport inhibitor N -1-naph- thylphthalamic acid (NPA) arrests lateral root development

Ilda Casimiro; Alan Marchant; Rishikesh P. Bhalerao; Tom Beeckman; Sandra Dhooge; Ranjan Swarup; Neil Graham; Dirk Inzé; Goran Sandberg; Pedro J. Casero; Malcolm Bennett

2001-01-01

403

The ROOTS Constraint Christian Bessiere1  

E-print Network

nature of the Roots constraint as in many situations met in practice, it prunes all possible values primitives: the Range constraint, which computes the range of values used by a sequence of variables, and the Roots constraint, which computes the variables mapping onto a set of values. We focus here on the Roots

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Effect of scapling on root respiration rate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scalping improves root quality at harvest since impurities such as potassium, sodium, amino nitrogen and invert sugars that hinder sugarbeet processing are concentrated in the upper root crown. The effect of scalping on root storage properties, however, is less clear. A small study was conducted t...

405

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

406

Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

2015-01-01

407

Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition.  

PubMed

Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

2015-04-01

408

Modeling root reinforcement using a root-failure Weibull survival function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root networks contribute to slope stability through complex interactions with soil that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamics of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slopes is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability also. Although considerable progress has been made, some important aspects of root mechanics remain neglected. In this study we address specifically the role of root-strength variability on the mechanical behavior of a root bundle. Many factors contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even within a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field data sets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the equations of the tensile force, the elasticity of the roots, and the root distribution are the most important steps. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for tensile, shear and compression behavior allows for the consideration of the stabilization effects of root networks on steep slopes and the influence that this has on the triggering of shallow landslides.

Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

2013-11-01

409

Root growth response to defoliation in two Agropyron bunchgrasses: field observations with an improved root periscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root growth responses to defoliation were observed in the field with an improved root periscope technique, which is described. The grazing tolerant, Eurasian bunchgrass, Agropyron desertorum, was compared with the very similar but grazing sensitive, North American bunchgrass, A. spicatum. Root length growth of clipped A. desertorum was about 50% of that of intact plants, while root elongation of clipped

J. H. Richards

1984-01-01

410

Simulation of Impacts of Annosus Root Disease with the Western Root Disease Model1  

E-print Network

Simulation of Impacts of Annosus Root Disease with the Western Root Disease Model1 Charles G. Shaw, III Donald J. Goheen Bov B. Eav 2 Abstract: The Western Root Disease Model as it currently exists. These simulations indicate that with no action, or with continued improper management, annosus root disease

Standiford, Richard B.

411

Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves  

E-print Network

on the same plant. One aspect of understanding plants is to be able to figure out what is root, stem, and leaf of the stem between the nodes (Figure 1). Figure 1. Shoot structure. #12;Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 86 meristem, the differentiating cells produce the root cap, a structure that protects the root apical

Koptur, Suzanne

412

Hydraulic lift: water efflux from upper roots improves effectiveness of water uptake by deep roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterated water absorbed by deep roots of Artemisia tridentata appeared in the stem water of neighboring Agropyron desertorum tussocks. This supports the hypothesis that water absorbed by deep roots in moist soil moves through the roots, is released in the upper soil profile at night, and is stored there until it is resorbed by roots the following day. This phenomenon

M. M. Caldwell; J. H. Richards

1989-01-01

413

Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1  

E-print Network

Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1 Arjeh M. Cohen a, G Academy of Sciences, Kende u. 13-17, 1111 Budapest, Hungary Abstract Both Timmesfeld's abstract root subgroups and simple Lie algebras generated by extremal elements lead to root filtration spaces

Cohen, Arjeh M.

414

Update on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying  

E-print Network

Update on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying Plant and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853­2701 Interest in root biology research (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, along with a sequenced genome, has led to valuable insights into root

Agrawal, Anurag

415

Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2  

E-print Network

1 Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2 Running title: Co-regulation of root gravitropism and branching by auxin3 transport4 Lucas, M.1,2 , Godin, C.2 and root5 gravitropism, two processes that are regulated by auxin, are co-regulated in6 Arabidopsis. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching  

E-print Network

Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero-rootedAccumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average salinitysustained crop production. Irrigation, even with moderately saline water, pushes accumulated salts deeper

Smith, Steven E.

417

Comparative proteomic profiles of the soybean (Glycine max) root apex and differentiated root zone.  

PubMed

The root apical meristem (RAM) is responsible for the growth of the plant root system. Because of the importance of root architecture in the performance of crop plants, we established a proteome reference map of the soybean root apex and compared this with the proteome of the differentiated root zone. The root apex samples contained the apical 1?mm of the root, comprising the RAM, quiescent center and root cap. We identified 342 protein spots from 550 excised proteins (?62%) of root apex samples by MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis. All these proteins were also present in the differentiated root, but differed in abundance. Functional classification showed that the most numerous protein categories represented in the root were those of stress response, glycolysis, redox homeostasis and protein processing. Using DIGE, we identified 73 differentially accumulated proteins between root apex and differentiated root. Proteins overrepresented in the root apex belonged primarily to the pathways for protein synthesis and processing, cell redox homeostasis and flavonoid biosynthesis. Proteins underrepresented in the root apex were those of glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid metabolism and stress response. Our results highlight the importance of stress and defense response, redox control and flavonoid metabolism in the root apex. PMID:21438152

Mathesius, Ulrike; Djordjevic, Michael A; Oakes, Marie; Goffard, Nicolas; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Weiller, Georg F; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

2011-05-01

418

Springback in Root Gravitropism 1  

PubMed Central

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as `springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalmaic acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a `memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

Leopold, A. Carl; Wettlaufer, Scott H.

1989-01-01

419

Quantum Roots in Geometry: I  

E-print Network

In the present work, it is shown that the geometerization philosophy has not been exhausted. Some quantum roots are already built in non-symmetric geometries. Path equations in such geometries give rise to spin-gravity interaction. Some experimental evidences (the results of the COW-experiment) indicate the existence of this interaction. It is shown that the new quantum path equations could account for the results of the COW-experiment. Large scale applications, of the new path equations, admitted by such geometries, give rise to tests for the existence of this interaction on the astrophysical and cosmological scales. As a byproduct, it is shown that the quantum roots appeared explicitly, in the path equations, can be diffused in the whole geometry using a parameterization scheme.

M. I. Wanas

2005-06-14

420

8.NS Estimating Square Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Without using the square root button on your calculator, estimate $\\sqrt{800}$ as accurately as possible to $2$ decimal places. (Hint: It is worth noti...

421

Archimedes' calculations of square roots  

E-print Network

We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

Davies, E B

2011-01-01

422

On the Hopf Algebra of Rooted Trees  

E-print Network

We find a formula to compute the number of the generators, which generate the $n$-filtered space of Hopf algebra of rooted trees, i.e. the number of equivalent classes of rooted trees with weight $n$. Applying Hopf algebra of rooted trees, we show that the analogue of Andruskiewitsch and Schneider's Conjecture is not true. The Hopf algebra of rooted trees and the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of rooted trees are two important examples of Hopf algebras. We give their representation and show that they have not any nonzero integrals. We structure their graded Drinfeld doubles and show that they are local quasitriangular Hopf algebras.

Shouchuan Zhang; Jieqiong He; Peng Wang

2007-11-20

423

Changes in nuclear and nucleolar protein content during the growth and differentiation of root parenchyma cells in plant species with different DNA-endoreplication dynamics.  

PubMed

Using cytophotometric procedures, we measured the nuclear and nucleolar protein content of successive zones of growth and differentiation in consecutive (1-7 mm) root segments obtained from eight species of the Angiospermae after staining the preparations with Feulgen-Naphthol Yellow S (F-NYS). In meristematic cells the nuclear and nucleolar protein content was found to double during the cell cycle. In species in which differentiation occurs at the same time as nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Vicia faba subsp. minor, V. faba subsp. major, Pisum sativum, Hordeum vulgare and Amaryllis belladonna, the pool of nuclear proteins observed during the G2 phase of the cell cycle was seen in the differentiated zone in nuclei containing 8C DNA. Species in which differentiation is not accompanied by the process of nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Levisticum officinale, Tulipa kaufmanniana and Haemanthus katharinae, exhibited the highest nuclear proteins content during the G2 phase of the cell cycle; comparably high values were not found in the differentiated zone. A decrease in nucleolar protein content was observed during the process of differentiation, this tendency being more evident in the studied species that do not exhibit endoreplication. PMID:3733472

Marciniak, K; Bilecka, A

1986-01-01

424

Root traits and yield in sugar beet: identification of AFLP markers associated with root elongation rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morpho-physiological and molecular analysis were conducted to identify useful root indexes of sugar beet nutrient uptake capacity\\u000a and productivity. Root architectural parameters, root elongation rate, sulfate uptake rate and glucose and fructose content\\u000a in the root apex, traits involved in the plant response to sulfate stress, were evaluated in 18 sugar beet genotypes characterized\\u000a by different root yield. Morpho-physiological traits,

Piergiorgio Stevanato; Daniele Trebbi; Massimo Saccomani

2010-01-01

425

Linking root morphology, longevity and function to root branch order: a case study in three shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching order supports a powerful approach to understanding complex root systems; however, how the pattern of root\\u000a morphological characteristics, tissue carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and root lifespan are related to anatomical\\u000a features of variable root orders for mature shrubs (?19 years old) in sandy habitats is still unclear. In this study, these\\u000a relationships were investigated for three typical

Gang Huang; Xue-yong Zhao; Ha-lin Zhao; Ying-xin Huang; Xiao-an Zuo

2010-01-01

426

Induction of branch roots by cutting method in t Hyoscyamus niger root culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root tips of Hyoscyamus niger were cultivated on agar or in liquid medium, and patterns of elongation and branching were investigated.\\u000a The elongation of roots compared to branching, particularly tertiary root branching, was more effective in liquid medium than\\u000a on agar medium. The number (0.06 per cm) of tertiary roots which branched out from secondary roots was far less than

Seung Han Woo; Jong Moon Park; Ji-Won Yang

1997-01-01

427

Plant responsiveness to root–root communication of stress cues  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios. PMID:22408186

Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

428

NAME: Chedella In patients with a nonvital asymptomatic tooth, will a singlevisit root canal therapy, as compared to multiplevisit root  

E-print Network

canal therapy, as compared to multiplevisit root canal therapy provide better healing and longevity) P: nonvital asymptomatic tooth I: singlevisit root canal therapy C: multiplevisit root canal therapy O: healing and longevity QUESTION TYPE: Treatment SEARCH STRATEGY: root canal therapy

Goldman, Steven A.

429

Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.  

PubMed

Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes. PMID:6989799

Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

1980-04-01

430

Complex Square Root with Operand Prescaling Milos D. Ercegovac  

E-print Network

Complex Square Root with Operand Prescaling Milos D. Ercegovac Computer Science Department, 3732-recurrence algorithm for complex square-root. The operand is prescaled to allow the selection of square-root digits routines for complex square root. 1 Introduction 1.1 Complex square-root Complex square-root appears

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

PATTERNS IN SOIL FERTILITY AND ROOT HERBIVORY INTERACT TO INFLUENCE FINE-ROOT DYNAMICS.  

SciTech Connect

Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8–9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (,1.0 mm diameter), which comprised well over half of all root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P , 0.0001), with maximum biomass found where the treatments were combined (interaction term significant, P , 0.001). These results suggest that root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

Stevens, Glen, N.; Jones, Robert, H.

2006-03-01

432

Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

1998-01-01

433

Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.  

PubMed

Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

2013-09-01

434

The formation of adventitious roots on root axes is a widespread occurrence in field-grown dicotyledonous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of adventitious branch roots in the secondary tissues of parental root axes is a widespread and frequent occurrence under field conditions. Anatomical features diagnostic for the recognition of adventitious roots were utilized to confirm the occurrence of adventitious roots on roots of 22 species from 12 families in nine orders of dicotyledonous plants. Adventitious roots may play an

DOMINICK J. PAOLILLO; R. W. Zobel

2002-01-01

435

A statistical approach to root system classification  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

436

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots and root tips and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) colonized root pieces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It's fairly well established that a functional ethylene response path is important to root knot and cyst nematode colonization of plant roots. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and the role of ethylene in nematode colonization of roots may be indirect, e.g. lateral root initiati...

437

Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

1999-01-01

438

High resolution modeling of water and nutrient uptake by plant roots: at a scale from single root to root system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of nutrients by plant roots is a multiscale problem. At the small scale, nutrient fluxes towards single roots lead to strong gradients in nutrient concentrations around single roots. At the scale of the root system and soil profile, nutrient fluxes are generated by water fluxes and variations in nutrient uptake due to spatially varying root density, nutrient concentrations and water contents. In this contribution, we present a numerical simulation model that describes the processes at the scale of a single root and the scale of the entire root system simultaneously. Water flow and nutrient transport in the soil are described by the 3-D Richards and advection-dispersion equations, respectively. Water uptake by a root segment is simulated based on the difference between the soil water potential at the soil root interface and in the xylem tissue. The xylem water potential is derived from solving a set of flow equations that describe flow in the root network (Javaux et al., 2008). Nutrient uptake by a segment is simulated as a function of the nutrient concentration at the soil-root interface using a nonlinear Michaelis-Menten equation. An accurate description of the nutrient concentrations gradients around single roots requires a spatial resolution in the sub mm scale and is therefore not feasible for simulations of the entire root system or soil profile. In order to address this problem, a 1-D axisymmetric model (Barber and Cushman, 1981) was used to describe nutrient transport towards a single root segment. The network of connected cylindrical models was coupled to a 3-D regular grid that was used to solve the flow and transport equations at the root system scale. The coupling was done by matching the fluxes across the interfaces of the voxels of the 3-D grid that contain root segments with the fluxes at the outer boundaries of the cylindrical domains and by matching the sink terms in these voxels with uptake by the root segments. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, we compared cumulative nutrient uptake by the coupled (3D-1D) with results obtained at the single root scale using a high resolution model and the approximate analytical solution of Roose et al., (2001). The good agreement between the fine mesh 3-D and a coupled (3D-1D) model makes this coupling approach capable to simulate a root system scale models without a high computational cost. Furthermore, the coupling allows to account for the effect of water uptake and soil drying on nutrient uptake and to account for spatial variations in root density and nutrient concentrations. These effects cannot be represented by a simple upscaling of single root scale models since they require the description of water and nutrient fluxes within the entire root zone.

Abesha, Betiglu; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Schnepf, Andrea; Vereecken, Harry

2014-05-01

439

Antioxidant tannins from Rosaceae plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols were analyzed by HPLC after thioacidolysis of proanthocyanidins polymers and acid hydrolysis of phenolic acid esters. The predominant constitutive units of the procyanidins of Aruncus Silvester and Potentilla alba roots were (?)epicatechin, and Geum rivale and Waldsteinia geoides roots (+)catechin. The highest proanthocyanidin concentrations were found in Potentilla alba roots (close to 80g\\/kg) and W. geoides (64g\\/kg). Ellagic acid

Jan Oszmianski; Aneta Wojdylo; Eliza Lamer-Zarawska; Katarzyna Swiader

2007-01-01

440

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed Central

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-01-01

441

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-06-01

442

Cluster Roots: A Curiosity in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster roots are an adaptation for nutrient acquisition from nutrient-poor soils. They develop on root systems of a range\\u000a of species belonging to a number of different families (e.g., Proteaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae) and are\\u000a also found on root systems of some crop species (e.g., albus, Macadamia integrifoliaandCucurbita pepo). Their morphology is variable but typically, large numbers of determinate

Michael W. Shane; Hans Lambers

2005-01-01

443

Hairy Root Cultures for Secondary Metabolites Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hairy roots (HRs) are differentiated cultures of transformed roots generated by the infection of wounded higher plants with\\u000a Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This pathogen causes the HR disease leading to the neoplastic growth of roots that are characterized by high growth rate\\u000a in hormone free media and genetic stability. HRs produce the same phytochemicals pattern of the corresponding wild type organ.\\u000a High

Laura Pistelli; Annalisa Giovannini; Barbara Ruffoni; Alessandra Bertoli; Luisa Pistelli

444

Dynamic deadspace-gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) at eight growing stages.  

PubMed

Volatiles of five different parts of lovage (leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots) were isolated by dynamic headspace (DHS) method and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques. In total, 98 compounds were identified in the samples, of which 41 are reported as lovage volatiles for the first time. Qualitative differences in the composition of DHS constituents of various anatomical parts of the plants were not significant, whereas the amounts of a number of identified volatile compounds were different in leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. Seasonal variations in the composition of headspace volatiles were also determined. Except for roots, beta-phellandrene was found to be the most abundant headspace component in all anatomical parts of lovage constituting from 36.50% to 79.28% of the total GC peak area. The sniffing panel characterized effluents from the GC column, and odor descriptors were attributed to the recognized constituents. alpha-Pinene and alpha-phellandrene/myrcene were the most frequently recognized constituents among 11 GC effluents constituting 12 identified compounds and 1 unknown compound, which were detected by the members of the sniffing panel. None of the detected constituents was recognized as a lovage character impact aroma compound. PMID:11312790

Bylaite, E; Roozen, J P; Legger, A; Venskutonis, R P; Posthumus, M A

2000-12-01

445

Self-similar continued root approximants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

2012-12-01

446

Root grooves on sandstone bedrock, Ouachita Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents findings demonstrating the existence of root grooves on siliceous sandstone. It is clear from biochemical studies that weathering in ecosystems with vigorous plant growth is more rapid than in non-vegetated areas, and previous studies of the interactions between tree roots and bedrock have demonstrated the importance of trees in breaking down bedrock through biophysical and biomechanical processes, including treethrow. However, the development of root grooves has rarely been reported on bedrock other than limestone or calcareous substrate. This poster will show the existence of tree root grooves on siliceous sandstone in the Ouachita Mountains, and will discuss the processes that have led to their genesis and development.

Turkington, A. T.

2010-12-01

447

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S

2014-01-01

448

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.  

PubMed

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

2014-03-01

449

OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

450

Detection of tree roots and determination of root diameters by ground penetrating radar under optimal conditions.  

PubMed

A tree's root system accounts for between 10 and 65% of its total biomass, yet our understanding of the factors that cause this proportion to vary is limited because of the difficulty encountered when studying tree root systems. There is a need to develop new sampling and measuring techniques for tree root systems. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) offers the potential for direct nondestructive measurements of tree root biomass and root distributions to be made. We tested the ability of GPR, with 500 MHz, 800 MHz and 1 GHz antennas, to detect tree roots and determine root size by burying roots in a 32 m3 pit containing damp sand. Within this test bed, tree roots were buried in two configurations: (1) roots of various diameters (1-10 cm) were buried at a single depth (50 cm); and (2) roots of similar diameter (about 5 cm) were buried at various depths (15-155 cm). Radar antennas were drawn along transects perpendicular to the buried roots. Radar profile normalization, filtration and migration were undertaken based on standard algorithms. All antennas produced characteristic reflection hyperbolas on the radar profiles allowing visual identification of most root locations. The 800 MHz antenna resulted in the clearest radar profiles. An unsupervised, maximum-convexity migration algorithm was used to focus information contained in the hyperbolas back to a point. This resulted in a significant gain in clarity with roots appearing as discrete shapes, thereby reducing confusion due to overlapping of hyperbolas when many roots are detected. More importantly, parameters extracted from the resultant waveform through the center of a root correlated well with root diameter for the 500 MHz antenna, but not for the other two antennas. A multiple regression model based on the extracted parameters was calibrated on half of the data (R2 = 0.89) and produced good predictions when tested on the remaining data. Root diameters were predicted with a root mean squared error of 0.6 cm, allowing detection and quantification of roots as small as 1 cm in diameter. An advantage of this processing technique is that it produces results independently of signal strength. These waveform parameters represent a major advance in the processing of GPR profiles for estimating root diameters. We conclude that enhanced data analysis routines combined with improvements in GPR hardware design could make GPR a valuable tool for studying tree root systems. PMID:15465695

Barton, Craig V M; Montagu, Kelvin D

2004-12-01

451

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

1999-01-01

452

ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUE 325 7.6.2 DiscreteTime Root Locus Experiment  

E-print Network

ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUE 325 7.6.2 Discrete­Time Root Locus Experiment Part 1. Give interpretation of the root locus rules from Table 7.1 in the context of discrete­time systems. Note that the imaginary axis(A,B,C,D,K) to draw the root locus for a fifth­order discrete­time model of a steam power control system considered

Gajic, Zoran

453

Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with\\/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development.

Ataru Higa; Erika Miyamoto; Laiq ur Rahman; Yoshie Kitamura

2008-01-01

454

Root-Gel Interactions and the Root Waving Behavior of Arabidopsis1[w  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis roots grown on inclined agarose gels exhibit a sinusoidal growth pattern known as root waving. While root waving has been attributed to both intrinsic factors (e.g. circumnutation) and growth responses to external signals such as gravity, the potential for physical interactions between the root and its substrate to influence the development of this complex phenotype has been generally ignored. Using a rotating stage microscope and time-lapse digital imaging, we show that (1) root tip mobility is impeded by the gel surface, (2) this impedance causes root tip deflections by amplifying curvature in the elongation zone in a way that is distinctly nontropic, and (3) root tip impedance is augmented by normal gravitropic pressure applied by the root tip against the gel surface. Thus, both lateral corrective bending near the root apex and root tip impedance could be due to different vector components of the same graviresponse. Furthermore, we speculate that coupling between root twisting and bending is a mechanical effect resulting from root tip impedance. PMID:15247406

Thompson, Matthew V.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2004-01-01

455

Shoot-root defense signaling and activation of root defense by leaf damage in poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot-root systemic defense signaling of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray Populus del- toides Bartr. ex Marsh.) was investigated with molecular techniques to extend existing knowledge of poplar defense. Treat- ment of roots with methyl jasmonate demonstrated that transcripts of PtdTI3, a poplar trypsin inhibitor and marker of poplar defense responses, can be induced in poplar roots as

Ian T. Major; C. Peter Constabel

2007-01-01

456

Root diversity in alpine plants: root length, tensile strength and plant age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high diversity of plant species and functional groups is hypothesised to increase the diversity of root types and their subsequent effects for soil stability. However, even basic data on root characteristics of alpine plants are very scarce. Therefore, we determined important root characteristics of 13 plant species from different functional groups, i.e. grasses, herbs and shrubs. We excavated the whole root systems of 62 plants from a machine-graded ski slope at 2625 m a.s.l. and analysed the rooting depth, the horizontal root extension, root length and diameter. Single roots of plant species were tested for tensile strength. The age of herbs and shrubs was determined by growth-ring analysis. Root characteristics varied considerably between both plant species and functional groups. The rooting depth of different species ranged from 7.2 ± 0.97 cm to 20.5 ± 2.33 cm, but was significantly larger in the herb Geum reptans (70.8 ± 10.75 cm). The woody species Salix breviserrata reached the highest horizontal root extensions (96.8 ± 25.5 cm). Most plants had their longest roots in fine diameter classes (0.5

Pohl, M.; Stroude, R.; Körner, C.; Buttler, A.; Rixen, C.

2009-04-01

457

RootScan: Software for high-throughput analysis of root anatomical traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RootScan is a program for semi-automated image analysis of anatomical phenes in root cross-sections. RootScan uses pixel value thresholds to separate the cross-section from its background and to visually dissect it into tissue regions. Area measurements and object counts are performed within various...

458

Relations between Roots and Coefficients of Cubic Equations with One Root Negative the Reciprocal of Another  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under predetermined conditions on the roots and coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions relating the coefficients of a given cubic equation x[cubed] + ax[squared] + bx + c = 0 can be established so that the roots possess desired properties. In this note, the condition for one root of a cubic equation to be "the negative reciprocal of…

Asiru, M. A.

2007-01-01

459

Inhibition of Auxin Movement from the Shoot into the Root Inhibits Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been re- ported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and trans- ported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at

Robyn C. Reed; Shari R. Brady; Gloria K. Muda

1998-01-01

460

Kinetics of short-term root-carbon mineralization in roots of biofuel crops in soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To better understand and document the rates of root decomposition in biofuel cropping systems, we compared the evolution of CO2 from roots incubated with samples of two Iowa Mollisols. Root samples were collected from experimental plots for four cropping systems: a multispecies reconstructed prairie...

461

Human Root Caries: Microbiota in Plaque Covering Sound, Carious and Arrested Carious Root Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plaque microbiota covering sound or carious root surfaces were studied and compared with that covering arrested root caries lesions. From each of these categories five extracted teeth were examined. The experimental design of the study allowed us to relate the qualitative and quantitative microbial composition to the degree of integrity of the root surface. Plaque was sampled by a

P. Schüpbach; V. Osterwalder; B. Guggenheim

1995-01-01

462

Regulation of shoot\\/root ratio by cytokinins from roots in Urtica dioica : Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to current knowledge, cytokinins are predominantly root-born phytohormones which are transported into the shoot by the transpiration stream. In the “hormone message concept” they are considered the root signals, which mediate the flux of the photosynthates to the various sinks of the plant. In this review, experiments are assessed, in which changes of the shoot to root ratio of

Erwin H. Beck

1996-01-01

463

Simulating root carbon storage with a coupled carbon — Water cycle root model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to estimate carbon allocation to fine roots from the water demands of the vegetation? We assess this question by applying a root model which is based on optimisation principles. The model uses a new formulation of water uptake by fine roots, which is necessary to explicitly take into account the highly dynamic and non-steady process of water

A. Kleidon; M. Heimann

1996-01-01

464

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-05-02

465

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

1993-01-26

466

Effect of Root System Morphology on Root-sprouting and Shoot-rooting Abilities in 123 Plant Species from Eroded Lands in North-east Spain  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The objective of this study was to test whether the mean values of several root morphological variables were related to the ability to develop root-borne shoots and/or shoot-borne roots in a wide range of vascular plants. • Methods A comparative study was carried out on the 123 most common plant species from eroded lands in north-east Spain. After careful excavations in the field, measurements were taken of the maximum root depth, absolute and relative basal root diameter, specific root length (SRL), and the root depth/root lateral spread ratio on at least three individuals per species. Shoot-rooting and root-sprouting were observed in a large number of individuals in many eroded and sedimentary environments. The effect of life history and phylogeny on shoot-rooting and root-sprouting abilities was also analysed. • Key Results The species with coarse and deep tap-roots tended to be root-sprouting and those with fine, fasciculate and long main roots (which generally spread laterally), tended to be shoot-rooting. Phylogeny had an important influence on root system morphology and shoot-rooting and root-sprouting capacities. However, the above relations stood after applying analyses based on phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs). • Conclusions The main morphological features of the root system of the study species are related to their ability to sprout from their roots and form roots from their shoots. According to the results, such abilities might only be functionally viable in restricted root system morphologies and ecological strategies. PMID:16790468

GUERRERO-CAMPO, JOAQUÍN; PALACIO, SARA; PÉREZ-RONTOMÉ, CARMEN; MONTSERRAT-MARTÍ, GABRIEL

2006-01-01

467

Plant root research: the past, the present and the future  

PubMed Central

This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function and structure. We have organized the papers into three topic categories: (1) root ecology, interactions with microbes, root architecture and the rhizosphere; (2) experimental root biology, root structure and physiology; and (3) applications of new technology to study root biology. Finally, we will speculate on root research for the future. PMID:22966495

Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

2012-01-01