Sample records for taraxacum officinale root

  1. The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Trojanová; V. Rada; L. Kokoška; E. Vlková

    2004-01-01

    The infusion of dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) stimulated in vitro the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. The utilization of oligofructans, glucose, fructose and total saccharides was determined by enzymatic and phenol-sulfuric methods. Dandelion oligofructans were important source of carbon and energy for bifidobacteria tested.

  2. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root induction in Taraxacum officinale and analysis of sesquiterpene lactones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mahesh; R. Jeyachandran

    2011-01-01

    Hairy roots were efficiently induced from leaf and petiole explants of Taraxacum officinale after infection with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The highest frequency of hairy root initiation was observed after transformation of leaf explants with the A4 strain. Hairy roots developed from leaf tissue produced more biomass than non-transformed roots. A quantitative study of sesquiterpene lactones

  3. Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Kisiel; B Barszcz

    2000-01-01

    Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11?, 13-dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11 in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.

  4. Ecological Differentiation among Genotypes of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale)

    E-print Network

    Vellend, Mark

    Ecological Differentiation among Genotypes of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) Mark Vellend, Emily potential for influencing their invasive success. Nomenclature: Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber

  5. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanghee You; Soonam Yoo; Ho-Geun Yoon; Yoo-Hyun Lee; Sunoh Kim; Kyung-Taek Oh; Jeongmin Lee; Hong-Yon Cho; Woojin Jun

    2010-01-01

    The protective effects of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcoholic liver damage were investigated in HepG2\\/2E1 cells and ICR mice. When an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was induced by 300mM ethanol in vitro, cell viability was drastically decreased by 39%. However, in the presence of hot water extract (TOH) from T. officinale root, no hepatocytic damage

  6. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. Indeed, at high HM contents, leaf parenchyma is constituted of few roundish cells with large intercellular spaces, while palisade structure is lacking at all. Comparing the leaf morphology with their metal content, it appears that the poor structural organisation, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are strictly related to soil contamination. Similar observations have been recorded on cortex parenchyma of the roots, which presents a reduced thickness in comparison to the control, proportional to HM content in the soil. Moreover, all the samples examined do not present hairs on the root epidermis, but mycorrhizae, which are well developed in the control, and nearly lacking in the contaminated samples. Preliminary ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells of contaminated samples show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content, in comparison to the not-contaminated sample. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylacoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state strictly related to HM content. However, T. officinale, besides the recorded abnormalities, proved to be able to grow on moderately contaminated soils, and therefore may be utilized to colonize polluted sites.

  7. Preliminary observations on organogenesis in Taraxacum officinale tissue cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Bowes

    1970-01-01

    Summary Tissue cultures ofTaraxacum officinale have been isolated from the secondary thickened root. Callus development and leaf and root formation occur on a basal medium supplemented with coconut milk and IAA or NAA, and the addition of kinetin to these media enhances callus growth and organogenesis. Cultures grown on the basal medium with coconut milk and 2,4-D show only callus

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Jin Jeon; Hyun-Jung Kang; Hyun-Joo Jung; Young-Sook Kang; Chang-Jin Lim; Young-Myeong Kim; Eun-Hee Park

    2008-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing

  9. Endogenous gibberellin levels and senescence in Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Fletcher; T. Oegema; R. F. Horton

    1969-01-01

    The level of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in leaf tissue of Taraxacum officinale was high during leaf growth and expansion but declined progressively during leaf senescence. In the chromatographic system used, most of the GA from Taraxacum leaves moves with the Rf of GA3. However, several other GAs were also effective in retarding senescence in Taraxacum leaves. It is concluded that

  10. Production of inulinase using tap roots of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveen Kango

    2008-01-01

    Various inulin containing vegetal substrates were evaluated for inulinase production by an indigenous isolate, Aspergillus niger NK-126. Highest inulinase activity was observed with dandelion tap root extract (52.3IU\\/ml). The enzyme activity was fourfold higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (12.3IU\\/ml). The fungus showed good growth on a medium containing 40% (v\\/v) of dandelion tap root extract

  11. The dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) — A monitor for environmental pollution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kuleff; R. Djingova

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum offcinale and show that it accumulates these elements. The accumulation corresponds to the extent of environmental pollution. Since Taraxacum officinale is widely distributed it may be successfully used for monitoring metal pollution.

  12. Trace metal contents of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as a convenient environmental indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Kabata-Pendias; S. Dudka

    1991-01-01

    Some vascular plants are known to concentrate trace metals and are regarded to be suitable indicators of atmospheric metal deposition. Among plant species used for biogeochemical studies dandelion (Taraxacum officinale.) is convenient for monitoring air\\/soil pollution. The plant commonly occurs in different ecosystems with relatively parallel stages of ontogenesis over a broad area of geographical regions. Its leaves and roots

  13. Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Van den Ende; An Michiels; Dominik Van Wonterghem; Rudy Vergauwen; AndreVan Laere

    Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was

  14. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

    2014-02-01

    The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives. PMID:24359632

  15. Photonastic and thermonastic opening of capitulum in dandelion, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum japonicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Tanaka; Yuuji Tanaka; Hiromitsu Wada

    1988-01-01

    The capitula ofTaraxacum officinale andT. japonicum open in response to temperature rise at lower temperatures (thermonasty), and in response to light at higher temperatures\\u000a (photonasty), as was the case inT. albidum. The capitula ofT. officinale could respond to the same temperature rise more sensitively than those ofT. albidum orT. japonicum. The minimum temperature for photonastic opening is as low as

  16. Sesquiterpene Glucosides from Anti-leukotriene B4 Release Fraction of Taraxacum Officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Kashiwada; Koichiro Takanaka; Harumi Tsukada; Yoshihisa Miwa; Toru Taga; Shigeo Tanaka; Yasumasa Ikeshiro

    2001-01-01

    Chemical examination of the MeOH extract of the root of Taraxacum officinale, which exhibited inhibitory activity on the formation of leukotriene B4 from activated human neutrophils, has resulted in the isolation of 14-O-?-D-glucosyl-11,13-dihydro-taraxinic acid (1) and 14-O-?-D-glucosyl-taraxinic acid (2). The absolute stereostructure of 1 has been established by X-ray chrystallographic examination.

  17. Difference in in vitro response and esculin content in two populations of Taraxacum officinale Weber.

    PubMed

    Jamshieed, Sumiya; Das, Sandip; Sharma, M P; Srivastava, P S

    2010-12-01

    In vitro micropropagation has been achieved in medicinally important plant, Taraxacum officinale collected from two different regions, Kashmir (J & K) and Garhwal (Uttarakhand). Leaf segments inoculated on MS supplemented with different combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Benzyladenine (BA) produced indirect regeneration. For root induction MS fortified with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was used. Taraxacum officinale collected from Garhwal responded two weeks earlier and showed shoot regeneration whereas in Kashmir population only callus proliferation occurred. Esculin content was also higher in the samples from Garhwal. The content was affected by both, the hormone concentration as well as age of the cultures. RAPD of the in vitro raised regenerants confirmed genetic stability. PMID:23572985

  18. Detecting small-scale genotypeenvironment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations

    E-print Network

    Vellend, Mark

    species). Here, we tested for G · E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting sixDetecting small-scale genotype­environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations K. A. MCLEOD* , M. SCASCITELLI* & M. VELLEND*à *Departments of Botany and Zoology

  19. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vijverberg; R. G. M. Van der Hulst; P. Lindhout; P. J. Van Dijk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic,

  20. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

  1. Attacchi di mal bianco su Bellis perennis e Taraxacum officinale in Liguria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIETRO PENSA; ANDREA MINUTO; JACOPO ROSSI; DOMENICO BERTETTI; MARIA LODOVICA GULLINO; ANGELO GARIBALDI

    SUMMARY Presence of powdery mildew on Bellis perennis L. and Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. aggr., in Italy Attacks of powdery mildew on Bellis perennis and Taraxa- cum officinale grown in open field and in greenhouse in Liguria (Northern Italy) are reported. The imperfect stage of the pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum on B. pe- rennis and the perfect stage of Podosphaera

  2. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

  3. The influence of phytochrome in the water exchange of epidermal cells of Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Carceller; R. A. Sánchez

    1972-01-01

    Résumé La qualité de la lumière a modifié le passage de l'eau dans les cellules épidermiques des pétioles deTaraxacum officinale. L'irradiation par du rouge sombre a augmenté la rapidité avec laquelle l'eau entre dans la cellule et la lumière rouge clair a renversé cet effet.

  4. Attempt at demonstrating the effect of a weak magnetic field on Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Novák; Ladislav Válek

    1965-01-01

    The exposure ofTaraxacum officinale L. at flowering time to a weak magnetic field resulted in (1) retarded opening and the closing of the inflorescence, (2)\\u000a wilting and death after prolonged exposure. Controls were unchanged. Plants exposed to the effect of magnetic fields were\\u000a degenerated in subsequent year.

  5. Phytochrome involvement in the control of leaf shape of Taraxacum officinale L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sánchez

    1971-01-01

    Resumen  Sobre la base del efecto de irradiaciones de baja energía con luz rojo lejana, y la reversión del mismo por la luz roja, se postula la participación del fitocromo en el control de la forma de la hoja deTaraxacum officinale.

  6. The occurrence of shoot teratomata in tissue cultures of Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Bowes

    1971-01-01

    Tissue cultures of Taraxacum officinale have been isolated showing either normal organogenesis, callus growth only, or teratological shoots. The latter are apparently stable and the teratomata range from tumerous outgrowths, to flattened thalloid forms and short shoots with strap shaped leaves. The proximal regions of such shoots are tumerous and no distinction between apex, leaf and bud primordia is possible.

  7. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Min Kim; Chang-Hwan Oh; Cha-Kwon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum officinale (TO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with TO after the treatment of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?) resulted in increased NO synthesis. TO had no effect on NO synthesis by itself. When TO was used in combination with rIFN-?, there was

  8. Metal content of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) leaves in relation to soil contamination and airborne particulate matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Keane; M. H Collier; J. R Shann; S. H Rogstad

    2001-01-01

    The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this ‘species’ a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its value as a biological monitor of environmental metal contamination. To examine the metal content of dandelion leaves in relation to environmental metal levels, the

  9. Clonal variation in floral stage timing in the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW H. COLLIER; STEVEN H. ROGSTAD

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that dandelion clones (Taraxacum officinaleWeber, sensu lato; Asteraceae) differ in their floral stage timing characteristics under a constant set of environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, plants representing nine different dandelion clones (identified by DNA fingerprinting) were grown in groups of five ( N 5 45) in a growth chamber for a period of 8 mo,

  10. Untersuchungen an Populationen des Taraxacum-officinale -Komplexes im Kontaktgebiet der diploiden und polyploiden Biotypen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Fürnkranz

    1966-01-01

    Zusammenfassung DerTaraxacum-officinale-Komplex enthält im Raume von Niederösterreich neben polyploiden auch zahlreiche diploide Biotypen. Bei Untersuchungen an 5 Populationen zu je 100 Pflanzen stellte sich heraus, daß sich die Populationen und deren Teilpopulationen in den meisten Fällen aus einem Gemisch von diploiden und polyploiden Pflanzen aufbauen. Rein diploide und rein polyploide Teilpopulationen sind selten. Wie in überwiegend polyploiden Populationen lassen sich

  11. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-? and IL1? secretion in Hep G2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Na Koo; Seung-Heon Hong; Bong-Keun Song; Cheorl-Ho Kim; Young-Hyun Yoo; Hyung-Min Kim

    2004-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human

  12. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-08-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

  13. Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-wan Seo; Hyun-na Koo; An Hyo-jin; Kang-beom Kwon; Byung-cheal Lim; Eun-a Seo; Do-gon Ryu; Goo Moon; Hong-yeoul Kim; Hyung-min Kim; Seung-heon Hong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract AIM: Taraxacum,officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy,for inflammatory,diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg\\/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 µg\\/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously,three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated

  14. Kairomone from dandelion, Taraxacum officinale , attractant for scarab beetle Anomala octiescostata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Soares Leal; Mikio Ono; Makoto Hasegawa; Masaaki Sawada

    1994-01-01

    The attraction of the scarab beetleAnomala octiescostata to dandelion,Taraxacum officinale, was demonstrated to be chemically mediated by a mixture ofcis-3-hexenyl acetate, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, phenylacetonitrile, and benzyl benzoate, in the ratio 4:8:14:3:5:19:11. Combination of the synthetic kairomone and sex pheromone (buibuilactone + japonilure, 8:2), significantly increased the total catches ofA. octiescostata. Catches of male (but not female)

  15. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  16. The occurrence of phenotypically complementary apomixis-recombinants in crosses between sexual and apomictic dandelions ( Taraxacum officinale )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. van Dijk; Peter van Baarlen; J. Hans de Jong

    2003-01-01

    Apomictic seed development in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) involves (1) restitutional meiosis (diplospory), (2) egg cell parthenogenesis, and (3) autonomous endosperm development. The question is whether these elements of apomixis are controlled by one single gene or by several independent genes. Five triploid non-apomictic hybrids, obtained in diploid sexual × triploid apomict crosses were characterized using cyto-embryological and genetic methods.

  17. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Erofeeva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010–2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  18. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  19. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. PMID:25682510

  20. Metal contamination in urban street sediment in Pisa (Italy) can affect the production of antioxidant metabolites in Taraxacum officinale Weber.

    PubMed

    Bretzel, Francesca; Benvenuti, Stefano; Pistelli, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (dandelion) is a very ubiquitous species, and it can grow in urban environments on metal-polluted sediments deposited in the gutters. This study represents a preliminary step to verify the presence of metals in sediments collected in urban streets in Pisa and to assess the alteration in dandelion metabolites in order to understand its adaptation to polluted environments. The soil and sediments were collected at three urban streets and analyzed for total and extractable Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The total values of Pb and Zn in street sediments exceeded the limits for residential areas of soils. Zn was the most mobile of the metals analyzed. Floating cultivations trials were set up with dandelion seedlings and street sediments. The metals were analyzed in roots and leaves. Antioxidant power, anthocyanins, polyphenols, non-protein thiols (NP-TH) and chlorophylls were measured in dandelion leaves. The first two parameters (anthocyanins and antioxidant power) were higher in the polluted samples compared to the control; chlorophyll content was lower in the treated samples, whereas NP-TH showed no differences. NP-TH groups determined in roots were associated with the root content of Zn and Pb. These results indicate that dandelion can tolerate plant stress by altering its metabolite content. PMID:24062063

  1. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin

    2014-03-15

    In the present study, we investigated the cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale. The extraction conditions, optimized for improving yield, were as follows: time, 46.11 min; temperature, 54.87 °C; pH, 4.51 and cellulase enzyme, 4000 U/g. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides from dandelion (PD) reached 20.67% (w/w). The sugar content of PD was 95.6% (w/w), and it displayed high antibacterial activity at a concentration of 100mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that PD may be a viable option for use as a food preservative. PMID:24528711

  2. The effects of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Jinchun, Zhang; Jie, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The study is to investigate the effect of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue based on the forced swimming capacity in mice. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., normal control (NC) and three doses of TOE treated group (High-dose, Middle-dose and Low-dose). Three TOE treated groups were treated by oral TOE with 10, 30 and 100mg/kg b.w respectively for a period of 42 days. The normal control group was given a corresponding volume of sterile distilled water. After 6 weeks, the forced swimming capacity and blood biochemical parameters in mice were measured, and the result showed that TOE had an anti- physical fatigue effect. It enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice, effectively delayed the lowering of glucose in the blood, and prevented the increase in lactate and triglyceride concentrations. PMID:22238492

  3. Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. PMID:22640720

  4. Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hu; D. D. Kitts

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl

  5. HPLC analysis of geometrical isomers of lutein epoxide isolated from dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; George Britton; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia

    2006-01-01

    Lutein epoxide has been isolated from petals of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica to be used for the accurate identification of this carotenoid in other sources. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C30 column, as a result of which six geometrical isomers were separated. The identification of

  6. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-10-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25270677

  8. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.

    PubMed

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200?mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5?mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:22424457

  9. Genotypic Diversity Effects on the Performance of Taraxacum officinale Populations Increase with Time and Environmental Favorability

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Emily B. M.; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  10. Comparison of different methodologies for detailed screening of Taraxacum officinale honey volatiles.

    PubMed

    Jerkovi?, Igor; Marijanovi?, Zvonimir; Kranjac, Marina; Radoni?, Ani

    2015-02-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by GC-FID/MS were used for screening of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) honey headspace, volatiles and semi-volatiles. The obtained results constitute a breakthrough towards screening of dandelion honey since dominant compounds identified in the extracts were not previously reported for this honey type. Nitriles dominated in the headspace, particularly 3-methylpentanenitrile (up to 29.9%) and phenylacetonitrile (up to 20.9%). Lower methyl branched aliphatic acids and norisoprenoids were relevant minor constituents of the headspace. The extracts contained phenylacetic acid (up to 24.0%) and dehydrovomifoliol (up to 19.3%) as predominant compounds, while 3-methylpentanenitrile and phenylacetonitrile were detected in the extracts in minor abundance. Dehydrovomifoliol can be considered more characteristic for dandelion honey in distinction from phenylacetic acid. Low molecular aliphatic acids, benzene derivatives and an array of higher aliphatic compounds were also found in the extracts. The results of SPE/GC-FID/MS were very similar to USE/GC-FID/MS with the solvent dichloromethane. The use of all applied methodologies was relevant for the comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of dandelion honey volatiles. PMID:25920283

  11. Effects of Taraxacum officinale on fatigue and immunological parameters in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jong-Hyun; An, Hyo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    In Korean herbal medicine dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO) has been used to improve energy levels and health. However, the effects of TO in experimental models remain unclear. We examined the anti-fatigue and immune-enhancing effects of TO in mice by performing a forced swimming test (FST) and in vitro by using peritoneal macrophages, respectively. After daily oral administration of TO, blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue were measured after the FST. FST immobility time was significantly decreased in the TO-treated group (100 mg/kg) on the tenth day. TO (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased glucose levels, acting as an energy source. The level of lactic dehydrogenase, which is an accurate indicator of muscle damage, tended to decline after TO administration (10 and 100 mg/kg). When TO (100 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice, blood urea nitrogen levels decreased significantly. We also examined the effect of TO on the production of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. When TO was used in combination with recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-?), a noticeable cooperative induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-10 production was observed. Furthermore, in peritoneal macrophages, rIFN-? plus TO treatment significantly increased the production of NO through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction. Taken together, these results suggest that TO improves fatigue-related indicators and immunological parameters in mice. PMID:23135630

  12. Effective range of reproductive interference exerted by an alien dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, on a native congener.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishida, Takayoshi; Nishida, Sachiko

    2011-03-01

    Reproductive interference (RI), defined as the fitness cost of interspecific sexual interactions, such as interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) in plants, is ecologically important. Theoretically, RI could result in competitive exclusion, as it operates in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, IPT may have a greater range than resource competition, although information about the range of IPT is lacking. In the present study, we measured the range of IPT exerted by Taraxacum officinale (an alien species) on a native dandelion, T. japonicum. We used two approaches. In one, we analyzed the RI effect on a native seed set at three spatial scales. In the second, we tracked IPT from alien to native flower heads using fluorescent pigments as markers. We estimated that pollination distances were in the order of several meters. These distances exceeded the mean distance from each native plant to the nearest alien. As hypothesized, the effect of RI reached farther than neighboring individuals. These data indicate the spatial range from which alien dandelions should be removed to allow the conservation of natives. PMID:20676914

  13. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  14. Detecting small-scale genotype-environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations.

    PubMed

    McLeod, K A; Scascitelli, M; Vellend, M

    2012-08-01

    Studies of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) and local adaptation provide critical tests of natural selection's ability to counter opposing forces such as gene flow. Such studies may be greatly facilitated in asexual species, given the possibility for experimental replication at the level of true genotypes (rather than populations) and the possibility of using molecular markers to assess genotype-environment associations in the field (neither of which is possible for most sexual species). Here, we tested for G × E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six genotypes to experimental drought, mown and benign (control) conditions and subsequently using microsatellites to assess genotype-environment associations in the field. We found strong G × E, with genotypes that performed poorly under benign conditions showing the highest performance under stressful conditions (drought or mown). Our six focal genotypes comprise >?80% of plants in local populations. The most common genotype in the field showed its highest relative performance under mown conditions (the most common habitat in our study area), and almost all plants of this genotype in the field were found growing in mowed lawns. Genotypes performing best under benign experimental conditions were found most frequently in unmown conditions in the field. These results are strongly indicative of local adaptation at a very small scale, with unmown microsites of only a few square metres typically embedded within larger mown lawns. By studying an asexual species, we were able to map genotypes with known ecological characteristics to environments with high spatial precision. PMID:22694090

  15. A novel cysteine-rich antifungal peptide ToAMP4 from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Odintsova, T I; Kozlov, S A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2013-09-01

    A novel peptide named ToAMP4 was isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by a combination of acetic acid extraction and different types of chromatography: affinity, size-exclusion, and RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of ToAMP4 was determined by automated Edman degradation. The peptide is basic, consists of 41 amino acids, and incorporates three disulphide bonds. Due to the unusual cysteine spacing pattern, ToAMP4 does not belong to any known plant AMP family, but classifies together with two other antimicrobial peptides ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 previously isolated from the dandelion flowers. To study the biological activity of ToAMP4, it was successfully produced in a prokaryotic expression system as a fusion protein with thioredoxin. The recombinant peptide was shown to be identical to the native ToAMP4 by chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The peptide displays broad-spectrum antifungal activity against important phytopathogens. Two ToAMP4-mediated inhibition strategies depending on the fungus were demonstrated. The results obtained add to our knowledge on the structural and functional diversity of AMPs in plants. PMID:23771034

  16. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas. PMID:22661315

  17. Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Gulfraz, Muhammad; Ahamd, Dawood; Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz; Qureshi, Rehmatullah; Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Jabeen, Nyla; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz

    2014-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale L is a medicinal plant, which has enormous medicinal values against various types of liver disorders and it has traditionally been used for the treatment of liver problems by people from the South East Asia. Previously we have screened the crude methanolic extract of T. officinale against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Present study was designed to compare the protective effect of ethanolic and n-hexane extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight) along with silymarin (100 mg/kg) a standard drug was administered to experimental animals. It was observed that ethanolic plant extract has significantly reduced the negative effect of CCl4 as compared to n-hexane extract and effect of extract was increased with increasing dose level. Although both leaf extracts decreased the concentration of TBARS, H2O2 and nitrite contents which enhance due to CCl4 toxicity but effect was higher in ethanolic extract. The results clearly indicated that Taraxacum officinale ethanolic leaves extract has better protective effect against CCl4 induced liver tissues toxicity. This claim was also supported by histopathological results obtained during this study and this might be due to presence of various polar phytochemicals that might be more prevent in this extract. PMID:25015447

  18. The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, Mehrdad; Resalatpour, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C) mice weighing 30 ± 5?g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200?mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05). As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200?mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(P < 0.05). The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (P < 0.01). 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg and in 200?mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance. PMID:22844289

  19. Formation of unreduced megaspores (Diplospory) in apomictic Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale, s.l.) is controlled by a sex-specific dominant locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dijk Van P. J; J. M. Tanja Bakx-Schotman

    2004-01-01

    In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This population was created by crossing a sexual diploid (2x = 16) with a tetraploid diplosporous pollen donor (4x

  20. Potential of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Normandin; G. Kennedy; J. Zayed

    1999-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound currently added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. It has been suggested that the combustion of MMT containing Mn could cause various deleterious health effects in animals and humans at very high concentrations. This study evaluates the potential of dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) as bioindicators of Mn environmental comtamination. Samples were picked

  1. Fertility gain and heavy metal accumulation in plants and soil, studied by means of a compost amended cultivation of Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bini; S. Casaril; B. Pavoni

    2000-01-01

    A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of compost, as an organic amendment, on biomass production and on total and available Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations in agricultural soils. The available fraction of metals in the soil was measured, both using the DTPA?TEA extraction procedure and determining metal accumulation in the indicator plant Taraxacum officinale (the

  2. Determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in Taraxacum officinale near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR) by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tölgyessy; M. Harangozó; P. Dillinger

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method with Si\\/Li semiconductor detector and238Pu exciting source was used for the determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in plant samples (Taraxacum officinale) from various localities near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR).

  3. The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Bevin A.; Conroy, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. Objectives In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Design Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8?mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. Results For the entire population (n?=?17) there was a significant (p?officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects. PMID:19678785

  4. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, T I; Rogozhin, E A; Sklyar, I V; Musolyamov, A K; Kudryavtsev, A M; Pukhalsky, V A; Smirnov, A N; Grishin, E V; Egorov, T A

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.). We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulphide-bonded large and small subunits. One of them, To-A1 was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homology with the sunflower 2S albumin. Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions. PMID:19594427

  5. Potential of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Normandin, L; Kennedy, G; Zayed, J

    1999-10-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound currently added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. It has been suggested that the combustion of MMT containing Mn could cause various deleterious health effects in animals and humans at very high concentrations. This study evaluates the potential of dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) as bioindicators of Mn environmental contamination. Samples were picked at three different distances from a highway: a highly exposed site (E++), a lightly exposed site (E+) and a control site (E), located respectively at 10, 50 and 100 m. The total Mn, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and Zn concentrations were measured in the soils and in the plants (flower, stem, leaves and root) by neutron activation analysis. Exchangeable Mn was measured in soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mn concentrations of the different parts of the plant and exchangeable Mn in soils were not correlated with distance from the roadway and, thus, do not seem to be a sensitive indicator of Mn contamination. Soil Mn concentrations were correlated with distance from the roadway. This suggests the hypothesis that the environmental fate of Mn from MMT sources could be associated with an increased total Mn in soil but does not lead to an increase in exchangeable Mn. PMID:10570841

  6. Seasonal Variations in the Metal Concentration of Taraxacum Officinale, Plantago Major and Plantago Lanceolata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Djingova; I. Kuleff

    1999-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the concentrations of aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the leaves of Taraxacum officianale, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major are investigated. the most convenient periods for sampling are established when the elemental concentrations have minimal variation and are independent on the development

  7. Density-Independent Mortality and Increasing Plant Diversity Are Associated with Differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-Strategists

    PubMed Central

    Lipowsky, Annett; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Differential selection between clones of apomictic species may result in ecological differentiation without mutation and recombination, thus offering a simple system to study adaptation and life-history evolution in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We caused density-independent mortality by weeding to colonizer populations of the largely apomictic Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) over a 5-year period in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We compared the offspring of colonizer populations with resident populations deliberately sown into similar communities. Plants raised from cuttings and seeds of colonizer and resident populations were grown under uniform conditions. Offspring from colonizer populations had higher reproductive output, which was in general agreement with predictions of r-selection theory. Offspring from resident populations had higher root and leaf biomass, fewer flower heads and higher individual seed mass as predicted under K-selection. Plants grown from cuttings and seeds differed to some degree in the strength, but not in the direction, of their response to the r- vs. K-selection regime. More diverse communities appeared to exert stronger K-selection on resident populations in plants grown from cuttings, while we did not find significant effects of increasing species richness on plants grown from seeds. Conclusions/Significance Differentiation into r- and K-strategists suggests that clones with characteristics of r-strategists were selected in regularly weeded plots through rapid colonization, while increasing plant diversity favoured the selection of clones with characteristics of K-strategists in resident populations. Our results show that different selection pressures may result in a rapid genetic differentiation within a largely apomictic species. Even under the assumption that colonizer and resident populations, respectively, happened to be r- vs. K-selected already at the start of the experiment, our results still indicate that the association of these strategies with the corresponding selection regimes was maintained during the 5-year experimental period. PMID:22253688

  8. Competition between two naturalized dandelions, Taraxacum officinale weber and Taraxacum laevigatum DC., in mixed cultures with different levels of soil moisture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyokazu Suehiro; Husato Ogawa; Kazuo Hozumi

    1986-01-01

    Taraxacum officinala andTaraxacum laevigatum were grown in mixed stands at various plant densities and mixing ratios with various levels of soil moisture to formulate\\u000a the effect of soil moisture on the competitive relationship between the species. In pure stands, the mean plant weight—plant\\u000a density relation for each level of soil moisture could be described by the reciprocal equation of the

  9. Taraxalisin – a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Rudenskaya; A. M. Bogacheva; A. Preusser; A. V. Kuznetsova; Ya. E. Dunaevsky; B. N. Golovkin; V. M. Stepanov

    1998-01-01

    Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp

  10. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on ?-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25636882

  11. Taraxacum officinale (Introduced) 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    for broadleaf weed control. Field studies showed that P. macrostoma was effective at controlling slender aster (Aster subulatus var. ligulatus Shinners), with higher application rates providing 89 to 94% control. Field studies also showed that P. macrostoma...

  12. Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2012-02-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and ?-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PMID:22026646

  13. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C. PMID:25666712

  14. Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; ?repinšek, Zalika

    2002-02-01

    Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

  15. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

  16. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs. PMID:25049500

  17. The Pattern of Genetic Variability in Apomictic Clones of Taraxacum officinale Indicates the Alternation of Asexual and Sexual Histories of Apomicts

    PubMed Central

    Majeský, ?uboš; Vašut, Radim J.; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

  18. The pattern of genetic variability in apomictic clones of Taraxacum officinale indicates the alternation of asexual and sexual histories of apomicts.

    PubMed

    Majeský, Luboš; Vašut, Radim J; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

  19. Isolation and Purification of Water Soluble Proteins from Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) by Two Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Sandovall, A.O.; Andrews, K.; Wahab, A.; Choudhary, M.I.; Ahmed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RI-INBRE Centralized Core Facility was established in 2003 and participates annually in Undergraduate Summer Research Program. It provides students hands on research experience in key technologies in biomedical sciences. We present here the isolation and purification of water soluble proteins from ginger, a rhizome of the plant, Zingiber officinale. It is an important ingredient of species used in traditional South Asian cuisines. In Indian, Pakistani and Chinese folk medicine, ginger is used for gastro-intestinal disorders, nausea, vomiting, inflammatory diseases, muscle and joint pain. Limited studies have been reported on the bioactive proteins from ginger extract. The water soluble proteins were extracted from ginger root and successfully purified to homogeneity by using two-dimensional liquid chromatography (FPLC/RP-HPLC) approach. The ginger root was washed with distilled water; skin removed and then emulsified using an electric blender. Sample was stirred for four days at 4°C with and without protease inhibitor. Purification of a 42kDa protein was achieved by employing gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed phase HPLC. The homogeneity of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Future work will be conducted on the protein characterization using mass spectrometry and Edman protein sequencing. Supported by grant 5P20GM103430 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH, USA.

  20. Activity of endophytic actinomycetes from roots of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga against phytopathogenic fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. TAECHOWISAN; S. LUMYONG

    2003-01-01

    Of 59 endophytic actinomycetes, were isolated from the roots of Zingiber offici- nale and Alpinia galanga, and tested against Candida albicans and phytopathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium oxysporum, ten produced substances that inhibited both phytopathogens and nine had activity against Candida albicans. The strain identified as Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 was the most effective in antifungal activity amongst those investigated.

  1. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  2. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale root extract and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Anbalagan, Krishnan; Manosathyadevan, Manoharan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Oh, Sae-Gang; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles with a particle size of 10-20 nm, using Zingiber officinale root extract as a reducing and capping agent. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) were mixed with Z. officinale root extract for the production of silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surface plasmon absorbance spectra of AgNPs and AuNPs were observed at 436-531 nm, respectively. Optimum nanoparticle production was achieved at pH 8 and 9, 1 mM metal ion, a reaction temperature 50 °C and reaction time of 150-180 min for AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) study provides proof for the purity of AgNPs and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images show the diameter of well-dispersed AgNPs (10-20 nm) and AuNPs (5-20 nm). The nanocrystalline phase of Ag and Au with FCC crystal structures have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the respective peaks for the potential biomolecules in the ginger rhizome extract, which are responsible for the reduction in metal ions and synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs showed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial food pathogens. PMID:24668029

  3. New sections in Taraxacum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Kirschner; Jan Št?pánek

    2004-01-01

    Sectional taxonomy ofTaraxacum in steppe or subsaline habitats in Central Asia is revised based on material collected during expeditions, cultivated or\\u000a studied in herbarium. Two new sections are described from that area:T. sect.Stenoloba similar toT. sect.Leucantha (syn.:T. sect.Sinensia), andT. sect.Suavia allied toT. sect.Dissecta. The type species of the sectionSuavia is described asTaraxacum formosissimum\\u000a Kirschner etŠt?pánek. Widespread mountain dandelions of the

  4. Studying allozyme variation in sexual and apomictic Taraxacum and Pilosella (Asteraceae) populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kashin; V. E. Anfalov; Yu. A. Demochko

    2005-01-01

    Allozyme spectra of peroxidase, esterase, superoxid dismutase, tyrosinase, alcohol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were examined in populations of sexual (Taraxacum serotinum and Pilosella echioides) and apomictic (T. officinale and P. officinarum) plant species. The heterozygosity in these populations (0.455–0.620) proved to be considerably higher than the average level characteristic of plant populations (0.058–0.185). The populations examined did not

  5. Zingiber officinale (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    - land-flower ............ - Zingiber officinale ........ Ginger ........................ - CANNACEAE Canna edulis .................. Edible canna ......... - C. indica .......................... Canna ........................ - Calathea zebrina...

  6. Nitrogen stress induction on Levisticum officinale hairy roots grown in darkness and under photoperiod conditions: effect on growth and volatile components.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monya M; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Deans, Stanley G; Scheffer, Johannes J C

    2008-07-01

    Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24 degrees C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness or in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Greater growth was attained in darkness with 10:90 (control, SH medium), 50:50 and 25:75 NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios, and also with SH control medium under the photoperiod condition, with a 10, 14, 12.5 and 12.5 fold increase of biomass in terms of dry weight, respectively, at the end of 42 days of growth. UPGMA cluster analysis of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots grown with different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios confirmed their chemical variability. Although no particular grouping was detected in relation to the NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios or light conditions studied, most of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots were either dominated by n-octanal, (Z)-falcarinol or both components in about the same relative amounts. PMID:18273553

  7. Characterization of a carlavirus from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne Dijkstra; Yvonne Clement; H. Lohuis

    1985-01-01

    A carlavirus was isolated from leaves of a dandelion plant raised in the experimental garden of the Hugo de Vries Laboratory in Amsterdam. The virus was readily sap-transmissible and infected 24 out of the 52 plant species and cultivars tested, with visible symptoms in 18 of them.Myzus persicae andCuscuta subinclusa (dodder) did not transmit the virus. In addition the virus

  8. Clonal diversity in taraxacum officinale (compositae), an apomict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C Lyman; Norman C Ellstrand

    1984-01-01

    Allozyme analysis, morphological characters, and histocompatibility relationships have revealed unexpected amounts of clonal diversity within and among populations of unisexual animals. Plant studies, likewise, have shown that genetic diversity exists in populations of plants that have restricted recombination. However, no work has been done which investigates the extent of genotypic diversity within and among populations of an obligate apomict.This study

  9. Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation of Taraxacum platycarpum and changes of morphological characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Lee; E. S. Yoon; J. H. Jeong; Y. E. Choi

    2004-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots were efficiently induced from seedlings of Taraxacum platycarpum by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. Root explants produced transformed roots at a higher frequency (76.5±3.5%) as compared to stem (32.7±4.8%) or cotyledon (16.2±5.7%). Hairy roots exhibited active elongation with high branching of roots on growth regulator-free medium. The competence of plant regeneration from non-transformed adventitious roots and transformed

  10. Polyphenoloxidase Silencing Affects Latex Coagulation in Taraxacum Species1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Taraxacum platycarpum and changes of morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Yoon, E S; Jeong, J H; Choi, Y E

    2004-06-01

    Transformed hairy roots were efficiently induced from seedlings of Taraxacum platycarpum by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. Root explants produced transformed roots at a higher frequency (76.5+/-3.5%) as compared to stem (32.7+/-4.8%) or cotyledon (16.2+/-5.7%). Hairy roots exhibited active elongation with high branching of roots on growth regulator-free medium. The competence of plant regeneration from non-transformed adventitious roots and transformed hairy roots was compared. The frequency of adventitious shoot formation from transformed roots was much higher (88.5+/-9.8%) than that of non-transformed roots (31.7 +/-9.5%) on hormone-free medium. Rooting of hairy root-derived adventitious shoots occurred easily on growth regulator-free medium but no rooting was observed on non-transformed shoots. The stable introduction of rol genes into Taraxacum plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization. Transgenic plantlets showed considerable differences in their morphology when compared to the corresponding wild-type (non-transgenic) plants. Plantlets formed from transformed roots had numerous fibrous roots with abundant lateral branches instead of the thickened taproots in non-transformed plants. The differences observed may reflect the modification of morphological root characters by introduction of rol genes. PMID:14986056

  12. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of lignans from Taraxacum mongolicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuyun Shi; Yuping Zhang; Kelong Huang; Suqin Liu; Yu Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Apart from being used as a pharmaceutical, the inflorescences, leaves and roots of Taraxacum mongolicum are processed into different food products. However, only few phytochemical investigations on this plant have been performed. In the present study, a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for the separation and purification of bioactive compounds from T. mongolicum was developed. Two lignans, mongolicumin A and

  13. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  14. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  15. Larvicidal activities of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Jyh Lin; Chung-Yi Chen; Li-Yu Chung; Chuan-Min Yen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous

  16. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  17. An efficient protocol for genetic transformation of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) using Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Woo Tae; Cho, Jin Woong; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2011-11-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is a member of the Brassicaceae family and a rich source of glucosinolate, which has been shown to possess anticancer properties. To extract these compounds from N. officinale for study, a method was developed in which Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to transfer DNA segments into plant genomes in order to produce hairy root cultures, which are a reliable source of plant compounds. The A. rhizogenes strain R1000 had the highest infection frequency and induces the most hairy roots per explant. Polymerase chain reaction and cytohistochemical staining methods were used to validate transgenic hairy roots from N. officinale. Glucosinolate from watercress hairy roots was separated and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Indolic glucosinolates, including glucobrassicin (0.01-0.02 ?mol/g of DW) and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (0.06-0.18 ?mol/g of DW), as well as aromatic glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin) (0.06-0.21 ?mol/g of DW), were identified virtually identical or more in transformed than wild type roots of N. officinale. Hairy root culture of watercress is a valuable approach for future efforts in the metabolic engineering of glucosinolate biofortification in plants, particularly, because indolic glucosinolates are the precursors of a potent cancer chemopreventive agent (indole-3-carbinol). PMID:21161399

  18. The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    . Weber ex Wiggers -- dande- lion; pissenlit officinal (Darbyshire et al. 2000), dandelion officinal, dent-de-lion, dent-de-lion commun, florion d'or, pissenlit dent-de-lion, pissenlit (Ferron and Cayouette 1975); blowball, faceclock, dumble-dor (in Newfoundland), lion's tooth, yellow gown, priest's crown, pee

  19. Sclerotinia minor avances fruiting and reduces germination in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh; Jerome Bernier; Alan K. Watson

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia minor Jagger is a promising biocontrol agent for dandelion in turfgrass. When a flowering dandelion population was treated with S. minor, flowering accelerated to the fruiting stage within 4 days. This developmental response was 4–5 days earlier than in the control, untreated plants and was not observed in herbicide-treated plants. Seeds obtained from the fungal-treated plants were smaller, lighter

  20. Pollution and Genetic Structure of North American Populations of the Common Dandelion ( Taraxacum Officinale )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Keane; Matthew H. Collier; Steven H. Rogstad

    2005-01-01

    Assessing the genetic structure of natural populations differentially impacted by anthropogenic contaminants can be a useful tool for evaluating the population genetic consequences of exposure to pollution. In this study, measures of genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat loci in six dandelion populations (3 urban and 3 rural) showed patterns that may have been influenced by exposure to environmental contaminants. Mean genetic

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  2. Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. Williams; Fiona Goldstone; Jenny Greenham

    1996-01-01

    Three flavonoid glycosides: luteolin 7-glucoside and two luteolin 7-diglucosides were isolated from dandelion flowers and leaves together with free luteolin and chrysoeriol in the flower tissue. The hydroxycinnamic acids, chicoric acid, monocaffeyltartaric acid and chlorogenic acid were found throughout the plant and the coumarins, cichoriin and aesculin were identified in the leaf extracts. This represents the first report of free

  3. The Content of Heavy Metals in an Indicator Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) in Warsaw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Czarnowska; A. Milewska

    The present paper studies the content of heavy metals: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd in the foliage of an indicator plant - dandelion - as collected from the lawns and parks of the Warsaw metroplitan area. The results suggest heavy accumulation of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd as a consequence of the impact of traffic-born pollution.

  4. Acclimation to temperature of the response of photosynthesis to increased carbon dioxide concentration in Taraxacum officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Bunce

    2000-01-01

    The relative stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide in C3 species normally increases strongly with increasing temperature. This results from the kinetic characteristics of Rubisco,\\u000a and has potentially important implications for responses of vegetation to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is often\\u000a assumed that because Rubisco characteristics are conservative, all C3 species have the same temperature dependence of the

  5. Preferential States of Longitudinal Tension in the Outer Tissues of Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) Peduncles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl J. Niklas; Dominick J. Paolillo

    1998-01-01

    We tested Wilhelm Hofmeister's hypothesis that the outer layers of herbaceous stem tissues are held in a preferential state of longitudinal tension by more internal stem tissues that are held in a reciprocal state of compression. We measured (1) the biaxial stiffness of dandelion peduncles that were barometrically inflated with a Scholander pressure bomb, and (2) the stiffness and mechanical

  6. The Use of Natural Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Populations for Assessing the State of Technogenically Disturbed Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Evseeva; S. A. Geras'kin; N. P. Frolova; E. S. Khramova

    2002-01-01

    The adverse consequences of environmental pollution with a broad spectrum of different substances include the acceleration of mutation and recombination processes, increase of genetic load, and reduction of biological diversity. Under these conditions, it is important not only to preserve the environment and human health as its essential component, but also to solve a more complex problem of the optimal

  7. A revision of Taraxacum sect. Piesis (Compositae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Kirschner; Jan Št?pánek

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of allozyme and cultivation data, and of additional herbarium material, a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision\\u000a ofTaraxacum sect.Piesis\\u000a A.J. Richards exKirschner etŠt?pánek is provided. The section is made up of halophilous, sexually reproducing taxa. InT. stenocephalum\\u000a Boiss. etKotschy,T. pindicum\\u000a Kirschner etŠt?pánek, sp. nov., andT. perenne\\u000a Kirschner etŠt?pánek, sp. nov., a tetraploid chromosome number has been recorded, representing the

  8. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  9. Anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum plant. II.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Konoshima, T; Tokuda, H; Masuda, K; Arai, Y; Shiojima, K; Ageta, H

    1999-06-01

    Eleven triterpenoids (1-11) from the roots of Taraxacum japonicum (Compositae) were examined for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetrade-canoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in Raji cells as a primary screening test for anti-tumor-promoters (cancer chemopreventive agents). Of these triterpenoids, taraxasterol (1) and taraxerol (7) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction, but the inhibitory effects of their acetates 2 and 8 were weaker than those of 1 and 7. Furthermore, 1 and 7 exhibited potent anti-tumor-promoting activity in the two-stage carcinogenesis tests of mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter, and 1 showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on mouse spontaneous mammary tumors using C3H/OuJ mouse. These results strongly suggested that taraxasterol (1) could be a valuable chemopreventive agent. PMID:10408235

  10. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Taraxacum ( Asteraceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lud?k Záveský; Vlasta Jarolímová; Jan Št?pánek

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was estimated using flow cytometry in 13 sections represented by 18 species of the genusTaraxacum using propidium iodide as the DNA stain. Investigated plants represented diploid, triploid and tetraploid species from sections\\u000a considered both primitive and advanced, i.e.,T. sect.Dioszegia, Piesis, Glacialia, Mongolica, Scariosa, Obovata, T. pyrenaicum group,T. sect.Coronata, Palustria, Taraxacum (=Crocea),Kashmirana, Ruderalia andErythrosperma. Estimated nuclear 2C DNA

  11. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poonam G. Daswani; S. Brijesh; Pundarikakshudu Tetali; Noshir H. Antia; Tannaz J. Birdi

    2010-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) was studied for its antimi- crobial profile and effect on virulent features of diar- rhoeal pathogens, viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production of enterotoxins. Z. officinale showed no antimicrobial activity. Although it inhibited the production of cholera toxin, it had no effect on the action of this toxin. It also had no effect on the pro-

  12. Selection on apomictic lineages of Taraxacum at establishment in a mixed sexual-apomictic population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De Kovel; De Jong

    2000-01-01

    apomixis; asexuality; evolution; polyploidy; selection; Taraxacum. Abstract A species' mode of reproduction, sexual or asexual, will affect its ecology and evolution. In many species, asexuality is related to polyploidy. In Taraxacum, apomicts are triploid, and sexuals are diploid. To disentangle the effects of ploidy level and reproductive mode on life-history traits, we compared established apomictic Taraxacum genotypes with newly synthesized

  13. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  14. Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and

    E-print Network

    Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

  15. Zingiber officinale (ginger)--an antiemetic for day case surgery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S; Ruggier, R; Hutchinson, S E

    1993-08-01

    The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide and placebo. In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and 21%) and less than in those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for postoperative antiemetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time until discharge were the same in all groups. There was no difference in the incidence of possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual disturbance between the three groups. Zingiber officinale is an effective and promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case surgery. PMID:8214465

  16. Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Van Dijk

    2003-01-01

    The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum,

  17. Cyclic diarylheptanoids from rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroe Kikuzaki; Nobuji Nakatani

    1996-01-01

    Five new diarylheptanoids were isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. They were oxygenated at C-1, 3 and 5 on the heptane chain and cyclized between C-1 and C-5 through oxygen.

  18. American Journal of Botany 91(5): 656663. 2004. THE POTENTIAL FOR GENETIC ASSIMILATION OF A

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    OF A NATIVE DANDELION SPECIES, TARAXACUM CERATOPHORUM (ASTERACEAE), BY THE EXOTIC CONGENER T. OFFICINALE1. officinale. Key words: Asteraceae; exotic species; genetic assimilation; hybridization; Taraxacum the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion

  19. Structural diversity in the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) polyphenol oxidase family results in different responses to model substrates.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; Singh, Ratna; Leufken, Christine M; Inlow, Jennifer K; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are ubiquitous type-3 copper enzymes that catalyze the oxygen-dependent conversion of o-diphenols to the corresponding quinones. In most plants, PPOs are present as multiple isoenzymes that probably serve distinct functions, although the precise relationship between sequence, structure and function has not been addressed in detail. We therefore compared the characteristics and activities of recombinant dandelion PPOs to gain insight into the structure-function relationships within the plant PPO family. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the 11 isoenzymes of dandelion into two evolutionary groups. More detailed in silico and in vitro analyses of four representative PPOs covering both phylogenetic groups were performed. Molecular modeling and docking predicted differences in enzyme-substrate interactions, providing a structure-based explanation for grouping. One amino acid side chain positioned at the entrance to the active site (position HB2+1) potentially acts as a "selector" for substrate binding. In vitro activity measurements with the recombinant, purified enzymes also revealed group-specific differences in kinetic parameters when the selected PPOs were presented with five model substrates. The combination of our enzyme kinetic measurements and the in silico docking studies therefore indicate that the physiological functions of individual PPOs might be defined by their specific interactions with different natural substrates. PMID:24918587

  20. Effect of Probiotic (Aspergillus niger) and Prebiotic (Taraxacum officinale) on Blood Picture and Biochemical Properties of Broiler Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. M. Al-Kassie; Y. M. F. Al-Jumaa; Y. J. Jameel

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and fifty one day-old mixed sexes broiler (Arbor-Acres) were divided into three groups of 50 birds each and randomly assigned to three treatment diets. Group 1 controled with no added probiotic and prebiotic added, groups 2 and 3 with 10 g (An)\\/kg diet and 10 g (To)\\/kg diet were added, respectively. The results indicate that group 3 had

  1. Constitutive knox1 gene expression in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale , Web.) changes leaf morphology from simple to compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai J. Müller; Xinqiang He; Rainer Fischer; Dirk Prüfer

    2006-01-01

    Seed plants with compound leaves constitute a polyphyletic group, but studies of diverse taxa show that genes of the class 1 KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX1) family are often involved in compound leaf development. This suggests that knox1 genes have been recruited on multiple occasions during angiosperm evolution (Bharathan et al. in Science 296:1858–1860, 2002). In agreement with this, we demonstrate that

  2. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cenci?, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195?mg?kg(-1) (ranging 47-487?mg?kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237?mg?kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196?mg?kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890?mg?kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298?mg?kg(-1)). Consumption of 100?g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce. PMID:24779737

  3. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l?1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

  4. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-11-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

  5. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  6. The role of tetraploids in the sexual–asexual cycle in dandelions (Taraxacum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Verduijn; P J Van Dijk; J. M. M. Van Damme

    2004-01-01

    Apomictic plants often produce pollen that can function in crosses with related sexuals. Moreover, facultative apomicts can produce some sexual offspring. In dandelions, Taraxacum, a sexual–asexual cycle between diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts, has been described, based on experimental crosses and population genetic studies. Little is known about the actual hybridization processes in nature. We therefore studied the sexual–asexual cycle

  7. In vitro interactions of Peucedanum officinale essential oil with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Miladinovi?, Dragoljub L; Ili?, Budimir S; Koci?, Branislava D; Miladinovi?, Ljiljana C; Markovi?, Marija S

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Peucedanum officinale L. (Apiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and antibiotics: tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The interactions of the essential oil with antibiotics were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay. Monoterpene hydrocarbons, with ?-phellandrene as the dominant constituent, were the most abundant compound class of the essential oil of P. officinale. The researched essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro. On the contrary, essential oil of P. officinale possesses a great synergistic potential with chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Their combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotic and, consequently, minimised its adverse side effects. In addition, investigated interactions are especially successful against Gram-negative bacteria, the pharmacological treatment of which is very difficult nowadays. PMID:25236807

  8. The cytological history of Watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Manton

    1935-01-01

    Introductory summary ................ ............ ............... ................ ................ .. ........ ............ ....... ...... .... ................ ................ .. This work is a study of certain evolutionary processes observed to be at present affecting the structure and behaviour of a natural wild species. The position, to summarise in anticipation of the detailed facts, is briefly as follows. The species, Nastur$ium officinale, in spite

  9. Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. on bioassay plants.

    PubMed

    Teerarak, Montinee; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Charoenying, Patchanee

    2010-07-01

    Methanolic extracts prepared from dried leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. (Spanish jasmine) inhibited seed germination and stunted both root and shoot length of the weeds Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Phaseolus lathyroides L. The main active compound was isolated and determined by spectral data as a secoiridoid glucoside named oleuropein. In addition, a decrease in allelopathic efficacy appeared as the decomposition periods increased. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts and longer periods of treatment. Likewise, the mitotic phase index was altered in onion incubated with crude extract. Furthermore, crude extract produced mitotic abnormalities resulting from its action on chromatin organization and mitotic spindle. PMID:20199861

  10. Apomixis in Taraxacum paludosum (section Palustria , Asteraceae ): Recombinations of apomixis elements in inter-sectional crosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Záveský; V. Jarolímová; J. Št?pánek

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown independent control of apomixis elements (restitution\\/diplospory, parthenogenesis and autonomous\\u000a endosperm) in Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia. We studied inheritance of apomixis elements in the section Palustria using the crosses between various sections used as mother plants and apomictic T. paludosum (sect. Palustria) as pollen donor. Non-apomictic plants prevailed in F1 progeny, and a high incidence of sterility was

  11. Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla.

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum, clonal diversity can be generated by rare hybridization between sexuals and apomicts, the latter acting as pollen donors. Less extensive clonal diversity is generated by mutations within clonal lineages. Clonal diversity may be maintained by frequency-dependent selection, caused by biological interactions (e.g. competitors and pathogens). Some clones are geographically widespread and probably represent phenotypically plastic 'general-purpose genotypes'. The long-term evolutionary success of apomictic clones may be limited by lack of adaptive potential and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although apomictic clones may be considered as 'evolutionary dead ends', the genes controlling apomixis can escape from degeneration and extinction via pollen in crosses between sexuals and apomicts. In this way, apomixis genes are transferred to a new genetic background, potentially adaptive and cleansed from linked deleterious mutations. Consequently, apomixis genes can be much older than the clones they are currently contained in. The close phylogenetic relationship between Taraxacum and Chondrilla and the similarity of their apomixis mechanisms suggest that apomixis in these two genera could be of common ancestry. PMID:12831477

  12. EFFECTS OF THE FUNGAL PROTEIN NEP1 AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE ON GROWTH OF CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE), COMMON RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA), AND COMMON DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the fungal protein Nep1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) applied separately or in combination on Canada thistle, common ragweed, and dandelion were examined in growth chamber experiments. Experiments examined five treatments: (1) untreated control, (2) Silwet L-77(0.3%,v/v) ...

  13. EFFECT OF THE FUNGAL PROTEIN NEP1 AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. TAGETIS ON GROWTH OF CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE), COMMON RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA), AND DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nep1 is a 24 kDa protein produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli in liquid culture. Previous research demonstrated that foliar application of Nep1 causes ethylene production and necrosis of dicot leaves. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) has been investigated as a biocontrol agent for...

  14. Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-montenegro; Alejandro A. Mun Oz; Anibal Pauchard

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous,component,of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean Andes

  15. Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-Montenegro; Alejandro A. Muñoz; Anibal Pauchard

    2005-01-01

    Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous component of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean

  16. Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klemen Bergant; Lu?ka Kajfež-Bogataj; Zalika ?repinšek

    2002-01-01

    Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to

  17. Facilitation of the non-native Taraxacum officinale by native nurse cushion species in the high Andes of central Chile: are there differences between nurses?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. CAVIERES; C. L. QUIROZ; M. A. MOLINA-MONTENEGRO

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1. Positive interactions between species are known to play an important role in the dynamics of native plant communities, particularly in stressful habitats. However, their role in plant invasions is less known, although recent studies have started to highlight the importance of positive interactions as a driver of invasion. It has been suggested that facilitative interactions during invasions are

  18. In vitro microrhizome production in Zingiber officinale Rosc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Sharma; B. M. Singh

    1995-01-01

    Microrhizomes of Zingiber officinale were successfully produced from tissue culture derived shoots by transferring them to liquid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg\\/l BAP, 2 mg\\/l calcium pantothenate, 0.2 mg\\/l GA3 and 0.05 mg\\/l NAA for shoot proliferation. After 4 weeks of incubation, the medium was replaced with microrhizome induction medium, consisting of MS salts supplemented with 8 mg\\/l BAP

  19. Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquiterpenes from ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Denyer, C V; Jackson, P; Loakes, D M; Ellis, M R; Young, D A

    1994-05-01

    The dried rhizomes of Indonesian ginger, Zingiber officinale, were investigated for antirhinoviral activity in the plaque reduction test. Fractionation by solvent extraction, solvent partition, and repeated chromatography guided by bioassay, allowed the isolation of several sesquiterpenes with antirhinoviral activity. The most active of these was beta-sesquiphellandrene [2] with an IC50 of 0.44 microM vs. rhinovirus IB in vitro. PMID:8064299

  20. Molecular analysis of type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family from Zingiber officinale Rosc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Soniya

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase family is considered to have significant role in biosynthesis of structurally diverse polyketide scaffolds in Zingiber officinale. Genome wide analysis of polyketide synthase gene family in Z. officinale identified partial sequences of six members. Comparative sequence analysis showed that four of them ZoPKS2, 3, 4 and 6 were novel forms as revealed by

  1. Polarity Based Solvents Extraction of Opuntia Dillenii and Zingiber Officinale for In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Ihtisham Umar; Aqeel Javeed; Muhammad Ashraf; Amjad Riaz; Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar; Sheryar Afzal; Rabia Altaf

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from dried stem of Opuntia dillenii and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated for antimicrobial activities by extraction in non-polar (petroleum ether and chloroform) and polar solvents (methanol and water). Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed considerable susceptibility to all extracts of Opuntia dillenii and Zingiber officinale. Ether and chloroform extracts of Opuntia dillenii showed improved antimicrobial activity against

  2. Zingiber officinale and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Tariq, Muhammad; Chen, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is being used as diet-based therapy because of its wide therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and against diabetic complications by directly interacting with different molecular and cellular pathways that provoke the pathogenesis of T2DM. This article explores the overall beneficial effects of Z. officinale on T2DM and its associated complications. Along with elucidating the beneficial facts of Z. officinale, this article may also aid in understanding the molecular basis of its effects in T2DM. The mechanistic rationale for antidiabetic effects of Z. officinale includes the inhibition of several transcriptional pathways, lipid peroxidation, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, and HMG-CoA reductase and the activation of antioxidant enzyme capacity and low-density lipoprotein receptors. Consequently, by targeting these pathways, Z. officinale shows its antidiabetic therapeutic effects by increasing insulin sensitivity/synthesis, protecting ?-cells of pancreatic islets, reducing fat accumulation, decreasing oxidative stress, and increasing glucose uptake by the tissues. In addition to these effects, Z. officinale also exhibits protective effects against several diabetes-linked complications, notably nephropathy and diabetic cataract, by acting as an antioxidant and antiglycating agent. In conclusion, this work suggests that consumption of Z. officinale can help to treat T2DM and diabetic complications; nevertheless, patient counseling also is required as a guiding force for the success of diet-based therapy in T2DM. PMID:26080605

  3. Antihypercholesterolaemic effect of ginger rhizome ( Zingiber officinale ) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El-Sayed M. ElRokh; Nemat A. Z. Yassin; Siham M. A. El-Shenawy; Bassant M. M. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Many herbal medicinal products have potential hypocholesterolaemic activity and encouraging safety profiles. However, only\\u000a a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the work  The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypercholesterolaemic effects of aqueous ginger (Zingiber officinale) infusion in hypercholesterolaemic rat models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  48 rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into six

  4. Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    P?achno, Bartosz J; Musia?, Krystyna; Swi?tek, Piotr; Tuleja, Monika; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    An evolutionary trend to reduce "unnecessary costs" associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the female gametophyte have dealt with amphimictic angiosperms. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast to amphimictic plants, synergids in apomictic embryo sacs do not form a filiform apparatus. We compared the synergid structure in two dandelions from sect. Palustria: the amphimictic diploid Taraxacum tenuifolium and the apomictic tetraploid, male-sterile Taraxacum brandenburgicum. Synergids in both species possessed a filiform apparatus. In T. brandenburgicum, both synergids persisted for a long time without any degeneration, in spite of the presence of an embryo and endosperm. We propose that the persistent synergids in apomicts may play a role in the transport of nutrients to the embryo. PMID:23974526

  5. Biocontrol of root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus amboinicus by using plant extracts as antifungal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chathuri P. Mudalige; N. S. Jyothi; Uma G. Chikabire; S. T. Girisha

    2011-01-01

    Different plant extracts were screened for their potential antifungal activity against Fusarium chlamydosporum causing root rot of Coleus amboinicus and Coleus forskohlii; the aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Annona squamosa, Azadircta indica, Eucalyptus Spp., Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis, Allium schoenoprasum, Cinnamomum verum Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Calendula officinalis species were found to be effective. Both aqueous and 50% ethanol

  6. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Bhandari; Raman kanojia; K. K. Pillai

    2005-01-01

    The lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family, Zingiberaceae) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200mg\\/kg) fed orally for 20 days produced, significant antihyperglycaemic effect (P<0.01) in diabetic rats. Further, the extract treatment also lowered serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL-cholesterol levels when compared with

  7. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. PMID:25825286

  8. Preparative isolation and purification of two flavonoid glycosides from Taraxacum mongolicum by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuyun Shi; Kelong Huang; Yuping Zhang; Suqin Liu

    2008-01-01

    Two flavonoid glycosides, alquds and hesperidin were isolated and purified from the aerial part of Taraxacum mongolicum, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). After C18 open column chromatography served as enrichment step, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the final purification. The target compounds were finally isolated and purified with a solvent system composed of

  9. Variation in Taraxacum bessarabicum and allied taxa of the section Piesis (Compositae) : allozyme diversity, karyotypes and breeding behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kirschner; J. ?têpánek; M. Tichý; A. Krahulcovà; L. Kirshnerová; L. Pellar

    1994-01-01

    Allozyme techniques, karyotype analyses and cultivation experiments were carried out on 20 population samples ofTaraxacum sect.Piesis (Compositae), viz.T. bessarabicum (17 samples from W. and C. Europe, Ukraine and Crimea, Central Asia and the Altai),T. salsum from Crimea,T. x mesohalobium from Crimea, andT. stenolepium from the Causasus. The taxa studied share a primitive, symmetrical karyotype. All taxa studied are sexual,T. bessarabicum

  10. Antioxidant efficacy of Nasturtium officinale extracts using various in vitro assay systems.

    PubMed

    Bahramikia, Seifollah; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2010-12-01

    Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress), of the family Brassicaceae, has been long used as a home remedy or a medicinal plant by the people of southeastern Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of N. officinale extract using various in vitro assay systems, including the ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) assays, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating activity, as well as the inhibitory effect on ferrous ion/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation, in rat liver homogenate. The results revealed that N. officinale extract possesses potent reducing power in a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, concentration-dependent scavenging ability on 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radicals, and hydrogen peroxide, as well as chelating ability on ferrous ions. Furthermore, N. officinale extract prevented thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation in ferrous ion/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, this N. officinale extract had the phenolic and flavonoid contents of 96.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 63.2 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. The cumulative results clearly indicate that N. officinale extract possesses potent antioxidant properties probably mediated through direct trapping of free radicals, reducing power, and also through metal chelating. Based on its antioxidative potential, N. officinale extract might find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases. PMID:21185544

  11. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  12. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadnur, Sanjay V; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2005-12-01

    Fructose supplementation produced cardinal features of Syndrome-X including significant elevations in seum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin and also in body weight. While treatment with methanolic extract of dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale produced a significant reduction in fructose induced elevation in lipid levels, bodyweight, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, treatment with ethyl acetate extract of Z officinale did not poduce any significant change in either of the last two parameters. However, it produced a significant reduction in elevated lipid levels and body weight The concentration of 6-gingerol was found to be higher in methanolic extract and less in ethyl acetate extract. The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Z officinale produces better effects as compared to ethyl acetate extract in fructose induced hyperlipidemia associated with insulin resistance. The extent of activity appears to be dependent on the concentration of 6-gingerol present in the extracts. PMID:16359128

  13. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    PubMed

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination. PMID:25409244

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Republic of Macedonia Using a Plant Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darinka Gjorgieva; Tatjana Kadifkova-Panovska; Katerina Ba?eva; Traj?e Stafilov

    2011-01-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species—Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)—were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd,\\u000a Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal

  15. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 30 (2010) 657666 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2010-01-01

    either preferred perennial alfalfas (including Taraxacum officinale, Veronica persica, Crepis spp., Poa trivialis, Silene latifolia, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Picris spp.) or annual crops (including Mercurialis

  16. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badreldin H. Ali; Gerald Blunden; Musbah O. Tanira; Abderrahim Nemmar

    2008-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis.Currently, there is a renewed interest

  17. Gingerol content of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Wohlmuth; David N. Leach; Mike K. Smith; Stephen P. Myers

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a monocotyledonous, sterile cultigen, is widely used as a spice, flavoring agent, and herbal medicine. The pungency of fresh ginger is due to a series of homologous phenolic ketones of which [6]-gingerol is the major one. The gingerols are thermally unstable and can be converted to their corresponding shogaols, which are present in dried ginger. Fresh

  18. Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Wohlmuth; Mike K. Smith; Lyndon O. Brooks; Stephen P. Myers; David N. Leach

    2006-01-01

    Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene, -bisabolene, and -sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a reputation for possessing a particular \\

  19. Fresh organically grown ginger ( Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE 2 production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivanand D. Jolad; R. Clark Lantz; Aniko M. Solyom; Guan Jie Chen; Robert B. Bates; Barbara N. Timmermann

    2004-01-01

    Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry, a technique previously employed to analyze non-volatile pungent components of ginger extracts modified to trimethylsilyl derivatives, was applied successfully for the first time to analyze unmodified partially purified fractions from the dichloromethane extracts of organically grown samples of fresh Chinese white and Japanese yellow varieties of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). This analysis

  20. Commercially processed dry ginger ( Zingiber officinale): Composition and effects on LPS-stimulated PGE 2 production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivanand D. Jolad; R. Clark Lantz; Guan Jie Chen; Robert B. Bates; Barbara N. Timmermann

    2005-01-01

    Using techniques previously employed to identify ginger constituents in fresh organically grown Hawaiian white and yellow ginger varieties, partially purified fractions derived from the silica gel column chromatography and HPLC of a methylene chloride extract of commercially processed dry ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, which demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all, 115 compounds were

  1. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Zingiber officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Okigbo; I. A Nmeka

    2005-01-01

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Hot water extracts were obtained from leaf and seed of uda (Xylopia aethiopica) and Ginger (Zinigiber officinale), and were found to be fungitoxic against the fungi. The extracts of suppressed the growth

  2. METODICA PER LO STUDIO DI ASPETTI BIORITMICI IN PIANTE DI INTERESSE OFFICINALE IN ITALIA NORD ORIENTALE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIOVANNI CANIGLIA; ANDREA CAPPAI

    RIASSUNTO I1 presente lavoro si propone di fornire un contributo per un approc- cio metodologico a studi fito-fenologici. La ricerca ha preso in considera- zione il metodo di valutazione dei ritmi di crescita e di fioritura in nove specie di interesse officinale (Artemisia dracunculs, Althaea officinalis, Malva sylvestris, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula spica, Origanum majo- rana, Salvia sclarea, Thymus vulgaris, Tussilago

  3. Biochemical and colour changes of watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) during freezing and frozen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Gonçalves; R. M. S. Cruz; M. Abreu; T. R. S. Brandão; C. L. M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    The effects of water blanching, freezing, and frozen storage during 400 days at three different temperatures (?7, ?15 and ?30°C), on watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) colour Hunter Lab parameters, chlorophyll degradation, vitamin C content loss and peroxidase (POD) activity were evaluated. The blanching induced significant changes on colour values and chlorophylls and vitamin C contents. POD activity was reduced

  4. Effect of cold chain temperature abuses on the quality of frozen watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui M. S. Cruz; Margarida C. Vieira; Cristina L. M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperature abuses on the colour and vitamin C content of a new frozen vegetable, watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.).The vitamin C content, expressed as ascorbic (AA) and dehydroascorbic (DHAA) acids, and colour, expressed in the Hunter Lab parameters, were evaluated along a plan of temperature abuses, based on a

  5. Arsenic accumulation and biological responses of watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) exposed to arsenite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Ozturk; Fatih Duman; Zeliha Leblebici; Ridvan Temizgul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate biological responses of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) under arsenic stress. Watercress samples were exposed to 1, 3, 5, 10, and 50?M of arsenite (As(III)) for 7 days. Arsenic accumulation in the leaves of watercress was investigated, and its influence on the rates of lipid peroxidation, ion leakage, photosynthetic pigmentation, proline

  6. Root canal

    MedlinePLUS

    A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... A root canal is done if you have an infection that affects the nerve in the root of a tooth. ...

  7. Root systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (U.S. Government; )

    2004-10-30

    One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

  8. Dissociation Between Anxiolytic and Hypomnestic Effects for Combined Extracts of Zingiber Officinale and Ginkgo Biloba, as Opposed to Diazepam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. U Hasenöhrl; B Topic; C Frisch; R Häcker; C. M Mattern; J. P Huston

    1998-01-01

    HASENÖHRL, R. U., B. TOPIC, C. FRISCH, R. HÄCKER, C. M. MATTERN AND J. P. HUSTON. Dissociation between anxiolytic and hypomnestic effects for combined extracts of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba, as opposed to diazepam. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV 59(2) 527–535, 1998.—Previous work has shown that Zingicomb® (ZC), a combination preparation of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba, exerts anxiolytic-like effects in

  9. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is discussed. PMID:25760668

  10. Identification of genes involved in biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale by RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Chunmei; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; Yu, Zhenming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Lin, Zijian; Duan, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The stems of D. officinale contain mannan polysaccharides, which are promising bioactive polysaccharides for use as drugs. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides in D. officinale have not yet been identified. In this study, four digital gene expression profiling analyses were performed on developing stems of greenhouse-grown D. officinale to identify such genes. Based on the accumulation of mannose and on gene expression levels, eight CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A genes (CSLA), which are highly likely to be related to the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides, were identified from the differentially expressed genes database. In order to further analyze these DoCSLA genes, a full-length cDNA of each was obtained by RACE. The eight genes, belonging to the CSLA family of the CesA superfamily, contain conserved domains of the CesA superfamily. Most of the genes, which were highly expressed in the stems of D. officinale, were related to abiotic stress. Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides. PMID:25924595

  11. Characterization of rubber particles and rubber chain elongation in Taraxacum koksaghyz

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural rubber is a biopolymer with exceptional qualities that cannot be completely replaced using synthetic alternatives. Although several key enzymes in the rubber biosynthetic pathway have been isolated, mainly from plants such as Hevea brasiliensis, Ficus spec. and the desert shrub Parthenium argentatum, there have been no in planta functional studies, e.g. by RNA interference, due to the absence of efficient and reproducible protocols for genetic engineering. In contrast, the Russian dandelion Taraxacum koksaghyz, which has long been considered as a potential alternative source of low-cost natural rubber, has a rapid life cycle and can be genetically transformed using a simple and reliable procedure. However, there is very little molecular data available for either the rubber polymer itself or its biosynthesis in T. koksaghyz. Results We established a method for the purification of rubber particles - the active sites of rubber biosynthesis - from T. koksaghyz latex. Photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed an average particle size of 320 nm, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that isolated rubber particles contain poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) with a purity >95%. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the weight average molecular mass (w) of T. koksaghyz natural rubber is 4,000-5,000 kDa. Rubber particles showed rubber transferase activity of 0.2 pmol min-1 mg-1. Ex vivo rubber biosynthesis experiments resulted in a skewed unimodal distribution of [1-14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) incorporation at a w of 2,500 kDa. Characterization of recently isolated cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) from T. koksaghyz revealed that these enzymes are associated with rubber particles and are able to produce long-chain polyprenols in yeast. Conclusions T. koksaghyz rubber particles are similar to those described for H. brasiliensis. They contain very pure, high molecular mass poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and the chain elongation process can be studied ex vivo. Because of their localization on rubber particles and their activity in yeast, we propose that the recently described T. koksaghyz CPTs are the major rubber chain elongating enzymes in this species. T. koksaghyz is amenable to genetic analysis and modification, and therefore could be used as a model species for the investigation and comparison of rubber biosynthesis. PMID:20170509

  12. Antioxidative effects of daikon sprout ( Raphanus sativus L.) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsunari Ippoushi; Atsuko Takeuchi; Hidekazu Ito; Hideki Horie; Keiko Azuma

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of vegetables are expected to prevent carcinogenesis. The intake of daikon sprout (Japanese name “kaiware-daikon”, Raphanus sativus L.) or ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) significantly decreased the concentration of urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in rats as compared with those before the intake. Moreover, the intake of these vegetables reduced urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chioma A. Anosike; Onyechi Obidoa; Meshach M. Nwuba

    2009-01-01

    The acute toxicity test carried out on the ginger extract gave the LD50 value as 1000 mg\\/kg. The anti- inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effects of the ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in adult Wistar rats were studied using values below the lethal dose. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml undiluted fresh egg albumin (philogistic agent) into the subplantar surface

  14. Inhibitory effect of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Borrelli; Raffaele Capasso; Aldo Pinto; Angelo A Izzo

    2004-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizome) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, including dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhoea. In the present study we evaluated the effect of this herbal remedy on the contractions induced by electrical stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine in the isolated rat ileum. Ginger (0.01–1000 ?g\\/ml) inhibited both EFS- and acetylcholine-evoked contractions, being more

  15. High-frequency in vitro multiplication of disease-free Zingiber officinale Rosc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Sharma; B. M. Singh

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency in vitro multiplication of disease-free clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was obtained by culturing small and active buds of ginger on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg\\/l Kin and 20 g\\/l sucrose.\\u000a An average of 7.7 shoots per bud was obtained on this medium after 4 weeks of culture. A high multiplication rate of well-developed\\u000a plantlets (7.0 shoots

  16. Solar drying of West Indian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Balladin; I. Chang Yen; D. R. McGaw; O. Headley

    1996-01-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m × 0.9 × 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m?3 and a specific drying rate

  17. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thomson; K. K. Al-Qattan; S. M. Al-Sawan; M. A. Alnaqeeb; I. Khan; M. Ali

    2002-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as platelet thromboxane-B2 and prostaglandin-E2 production was examined. A raw aqueous extract of ginger was administered daily for a period of 4 weeks, either orally or intraperitoneally (IP) to rats. Fasting blood serum was investigated for thromboxane-B2, prostaglandin-E2, cholesterol and triglycerides. A

  18. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a Zingiber officinale extract in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Sloth Weidner; Katrin Sigwart

    2000-01-01

    The teratogenicity of EV.EXT 33, a patented Zingiber officinale extract, was examined in Wistar SPF rats according to GLP Guidelines. EV.EXT 33 was administered by oral gavage in concentrations of 100, 333, and 1000 mg\\/kg, to three groups of 22 pregnant female rats from days 6 to 15 of gestation. For comparison, a fourth group received the vehicle, sesame oil.

  19. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 ?L inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae. PMID:25831098

  20. Antiemetic efficacy of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S Sharma; V Kochupillai; S. K Gupta; S. D Seth; Y. K Gupta

    1997-01-01

    Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) extracts (acetone, 50% ethanolic and aqueous) were investigated for antiemetic activity against emesis induced by 3 mg\\/kg cisplatin (the 100% emetic dose i.v.) in healthy mongrel dogs. The acetone and 50% ethanolic extract at the doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg p.o. exhibited significant protection while aqueous extract at these doses

  1. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Ajith; U. Hema; M. S. Aswathy

    2007-01-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents – proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g\\/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous

  2. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger ( Zingiber officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S S. Sharma; Y K. Gupta

    1998-01-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg\\/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses

  3. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurdip Singh; I. P. S. Kapoor; Pratibha Singh; Carola S. de Heluani; Marina P. de Lampasona; Cesar A. N. Catalan

    2008-01-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC–MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane

  4. In vitro induction of tetraploid ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its pollen fertility and germinability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Adaniya; Daisuke Shirai

    2001-01-01

    In vitro induction of tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its pollen fertility and germinability were investigated. The growth of shoot tip cultures on agar MS medium containing 2.0mgl?1 BA was greater than that of similar cultures in liquid MS medium with the same BA concentration. In liquid medium, the combinations of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mgl?1 BA with 0.05mgl?1 NAA

  5. Inhibitory effects of zingerone, a pungent component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on colonic motility in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Momoe Iwami; Takahiko Shiina; Haruko Hirayama; Takeshi Shima; Tadashi Takewaki; Yasutake Shimizu

    2011-01-01

    Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including constipation and diarrhea. Zingerone\\u000a is a likely active constituent responsible for the antidiarrheal activity of ginger. The current study was designed to characterize\\u000a pharmacological actions of zingerone on colonic motility. To evaluate pharmacological effects of zingerone on colonic motility,\\u000a we used isolated colonic

  6. Antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe's extract, oleoresin and essential oil from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khalid Saeed; Zafar Iqbal; Shahid Mehmud; Nusrat Ejaz; W. U. Nisa

    2009-01-01

    Crude extract, essential oil and oleoresin of fresh Zingeber Officinale Roscoe was studied for their antioxidant activity. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using DPPH free radical assay which based on the inhibition of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Concentrations 20-100% of these were prepared and their antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometer at 517 nm. Results indicate that oleoresin

  7. Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale

    PubMed Central

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R.; Owu, Daniel U.; Nwokocha, Magdalene I.; Ufearo, Chibueze S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Objectives: We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Materials & Methods: Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results: Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups. Discussion and Conclusion: Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver. PMID:23225964

  8. Effect of heat and thermosonication treatments on watercress ( Nasturtium officinale) vitamin C degradation kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui M. S. Cruz; Margarida C. Vieira; Cristina L. M. Silva

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in food processing creates novel and interesting methodologies, which are often complementary to classical techniques. In this work, the effect of heat and the combined treatment heat\\/ultrasound (thermosonication) on the thermal degradation kinetics of vitamin C in watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was studied in the temperature range of 82.5 to 92.5 °C. First order reaction kinetics adequately described

  9. Modelling kinetics of watercress ( Nasturtium officinale) colour changes due to heat and thermosonication treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui M. S. Cruz; Margarida C. Vieira; Cristina L. M. Silva

    2007-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) colour changes due to blanching by heat and a combined treatment of heat\\/ultrasound (thermosonication) were studied in the temperature range of 82.5 to 92.5 °C. The application of thermosonication was intended to enable less severe blanching treatments and, therefore, improve the quality of the blanched product. The thermosonication blanching processes promoted changes of the green colour (an parameter)

  10. Effect of heat and thermosonication treatments on peroxidase inactivation kinetics in watercress ( Nasturtium officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui M. S. Cruz; Margarida C. Vieira; Cristina L. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat and the combined heat\\/ultrasound (thermosonication) treatment on the inactivation kinetics of peroxidase in watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was studied in the temperature range of 40–92.5°C. In the heat blanching processes, the enzyme kinetics showed a first-order biphasic inactivation model. The activation energies and the rates of the reaction at a reference temperature for both the heat-labile and

  11. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger) is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500?mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n?=?46, ginger n?=?56). The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P?=?0.015) and protocol two (P?=?0.029). There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P?=?0.017) but not for protocol two (P?=?0.210). Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5?days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3 PMID:22781186

  12. Free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. methanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Yong-Ki, Park

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural resources possess multifaceted and importance of the activities provides substantial scope in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale and Ligusticum chuanxiong, which are closely related species. Materials and Methods: The scavenging activities of plant materials were evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl (OH·), nitric oxide radical (NO·) and metal chelation. In addition, the cell viability and nitric oxide release were assayed using Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Results: The methanolic extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong showed scavenging activities of free radicals with an additional antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the efficacy on the cell viability and nitric oxide release in cell culture model has been established. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong have comparatively similar free radical scavenging activities in vitro and may have important health effects. PMID:21120037

  13. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rumiana Djingova; Petya Kovacheva; Gerhard Wagner; Bernd Markert

    2003-01-01

    Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and Ir) and Ce, La, Nd, Pb and Zr have been determined in street dust, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Plantago lanceolata (plantain), Lolium multiflorum (annual ryegrass), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (moss) and Vascellum pratense (mushrooms) collected along highways and streets in Germany during 1999. Among the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) reflects most

  14. Pollination Diego P. Vzquez1, 2

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Diego

    (Taraxacum officinale), a weed of European origin, reduces the pollination and reproductive success of native Taraxacum species in Japan. However, in central Chile it affects native highAndean species meadows in Colorado, USA, removal of T. officinale has not influenced the visitation and reproductive

  15. Original article Influence of egg cannibalism on growth,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    - trol group). Subsequently, the snails were fed on Taraxacum officinale. After 4 days, cannibalistic;nibales) et chez des individus ayant jeûné (témoins). Pendant 11 semaines, des feuilles de Taraxacum officinale sont utilisées comme aliment. Après 4 jours, les individus cannibales sont 1,3 fois plus lourds

  16. Organisation et nature de l'inclusion cristalline des organites du type «crystal-containing body» rencontrés dans les cellules de l'épithème des hydathodes de Cichorium intybus L. et Taraxacum officinale Weber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Perrin

    1972-01-01

    Summary Single-membrane-bounded organelles containing crystalline inclusions surrounded by a granular matrix are found abundantly in the cells of epithem. Special attention is devoted to changes which occured in the fine structure of these crystalline inclusions and variations in their morphology are described.

  17. An Analysis of Soil and Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) Contamination with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In the Area of the Railway Junction I?awa G?ówna, Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Malawska; B. Wio?komirski

    2001-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heavymetal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co, Cr, Mo) contentswere established in soil and plant samples collectedin different areas of the railway junction IlawaGlówna, Poland. Soil and plant samples werecollected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the loading ramp, platform area, rolling stockcleaning bay and the railway siding. It was found thatthe PAH

  18. Laticifer-Specific cis-Prenyltransferase Silencing Affects the Rubber, Triterpene, and Inulin Content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum12[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M.; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis. PMID:22238421

  19. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation. PMID:17868041

  20. The composition of the essential oil of dried Nigerian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Onyenekwe; Seiji Hashimoto

    1999-01-01

    The essential oil composition of dried Nigerian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was determined by means of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The ginger was\\u000a hydrodistilled; the oil yield was 2.4% and consisted of 64.4% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 6.6% carbonyl compounds, 5.6% alcohols,\\u000a 2.4% monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1.6% esters. The main compounds were zingiberene (29.5%) and sesquiphellandrene (18.4%).\\u000a A number

  1. Metabolic profiling and phylogenetic analysis of medicinal Zingiber species: Tools for authentication of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongliang Jiang; Zhengzhi Xie; Hyun Jo Koo; Steven P. McLaughlin; Barbara N. Timmermann; David R. Gang

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis and metabolic profiling were used to investigate the diversity of plant material within the ginger species and between ginger and closely related species in the genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae). In addition, anti-inflammatory data were obtained for the investigated species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all Zingiber officinale samples from different geographical origins were genetically indistinguishable. In contrast, other Zingiber species

  2. Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with ?-tocopherol protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Ajith; V. Nivitha; S. Usha

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen molecules (ROM) is believed to be involved in the etiology of toxicities of many xenobiotics. Evidences suggested that ROM is involved in the nephrotoxicity of a widely used synthetic anticancer drug cisplatin. The nephroprotective effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale alone and in combination with vitamin E (?-tocopherol) were evaluated

  3. Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiber officinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Prasath; I. El-Sharkawy; S. Sherif; K. S. Tiwary; S. Jayasankar

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is an important spice crop that is badly affected by Ralstonia solanacearum wilt. Ginger does not set seed and sexual recombination has never been reported. In spite of extensive search in its habitats,\\u000a no resistance source to Ralstonia induced bacterial wilt, could be located in ginger. Curcuma amada Roxb. is a potential donor for bacterial wilt

  4. The Effect of Temperature, Photoperiod, and Light Quality on Gluconasturtiin Concentration in Watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Engelen-Eigles; Greg Holden; Jerry D. Cohen; Gary Gardner

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different growth regimes on gluconasturtiin concentration in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) were investigated. Watercress plantlets at the 5th mature leaf stage (ca. 2 weeks old) were exposed to different day and night temperatures, to long (16 h) or short (8 h) days, to red (R) or far-red (FR) light given during the main long day photoperiod,

  5. Influence of Nitrogen and Sulfur on Biomass Production and Carotenoid and Glucosinolate Concentrations in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean A. Kopsell; T. Casey Barickman; Carl E. Sams; J. Scott McElroy

    2007-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a perennial herb rich in the secondary metabolites of glucosinolates and carotenoids. 2-Phenethyl isothiocyanate, the predominate isothiocyanate hydrolysis product in watercress, can reduce carcinogen activation through inhibition of phase I enzymes and induction of phase II enzymes. Sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have been shown to influence concentrations of both glucosinolates and carotenoids in

  6. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

  7. Identification of a Taraxacum brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor protein that is localized on rubber particles and promotes rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Laibach, Natalie; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Two protein families required for rubber biosynthesis in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum have recently been characterized, namely the cis-prenyltransferases (TbCPTs) and the small rubber particle proteins (TbSRPPs). The latter were shown to be the most abundant proteins on rubber particles, where rubber biosynthesis takes place. Here we identified a protein designated T. brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor (TbREF) by using mass spectrometry to analyze rubber particle proteins. TbREF is homologous to the TbSRPPs but has a molecular mass that is atypical for the family. The promoter was shown to be active in laticifers, and the protein itself was localized on the rubber particle surface. In TbREF-silenced plants generated by RNA interference, the rubber content was significantly reduced, correlating with lower TbCPT protein levels and less TbCPT activity in the latex. However, the molecular mass of the rubber was not affected by TbREF silencing. The colloidal stability of rubber particles isolated from TbREF-silenced plants was also unchanged. This was not surprising because TbREF depletion did not affect the abundance of TbSRPPs, which are required for rubber particle stability. Our findings suggest that TbREF is an important component of the rubber biosynthesis machinery in T. brevicorniculatum, and may play a role in rubber particle biogenesis and influence rubber production. PMID:25809497

  8. Licorice Root

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sweet root, gan zao (Chinese licorice) Latin Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice) licorice_foster.jpg © Steven Foster ... Sources Armanini D, Fiore C, Bielenberg J. Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ). In: Coates P, Blackman M, Cragg G, ...

  9. Licorice Root

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sweet root, gan zao (Chinese licorice) Latin Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice) licorice_foster.jpg © Steven Foster ... References Armanini D, Fiore C, Bielenberg J. Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ). In: Coates P, Blackman M, Cragg G, ...

  10. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10?M [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200?M [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-? and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal agents against H. nana. PMID:25063389

  11. Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

    2012-04-01

    Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

  12. Activity-Guided Isolation and Purification of Three Flavonoid Glycosides from Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyu Jiang; Shuyun Shi; Yuping Zhang; Xiaoqing Chen

    2010-01-01

    DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was used to screen different fractions of Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum ethanol extracts. The potent active fraction was isolated and purified by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a solvent system composed of n-hexane-n-butanol-water (3:4:7, v\\/v\\/v). The flow rate was 1.5 mL\\/min and resolution speed was 800 rpm. Three flavonoid glycosides with the purity over 99% were obtained and

  13. Isolation of a Natural Antioxidant, Dehydrozingerone from Zingiber officinale and Synthesis of Its Analogues for Recognition of Effective Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Chung Kuo; Ching-Yuh Cherng; Jye-Fu Jeng; Amooru G. Damu; Che-Ming Teng; E-Jian Lee; Tian-Shung Wu

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidative and inhibitory activity of Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizomes-derived materials (on\\u000a mushroom tyrosinase) were evaluated. The bioactive components of Z. officinale rhizomes were characterized by spectroscopic\\u000a analysis as zingerone and dehydrozingerone, which exhibited potent antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. A series\\u000a of substituted dehydrozingerones [(E)-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-ones] were prepared in admirable yields by the reaction of appropriate

  14. The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation. PMID:24784510

  15. Root fortification.

    PubMed

    Seghi, Robert R; Nasrin, Sadia; Draney, Jonathan; Katsube, Noriko

    2013-03-01

    An incompletely formed tooth is left with thin dentin walls and experiences a higher incidence of cervical root fracture that reduces the long-term overall prognosis of the tooth. Faced with these situations, clinicians have attempted to use various restorative methods to reinforce the remaining root. Various techniques have been reported, and the scientific evidence for each has been reviewed. The biomechanical considerations of reinforcing a weakened root are also reviewed, and the most current information about failure analysis, fracture characteristics of natural dentin, and in vitro test configurations used have been considered. In light of these additional considerations, some recommendations for future understanding of this complex problem have been proposed. PMID:23439045

  16. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent identification number, the distance between branching point to the parent root base, the root length, the root radius and the nodes that belong to each individual root path. This information is relevant for the analysis of dynamic root system development as well as the parameterisation of root architecture models. Here, we show results of Root System Analyzer applied to analyse the root systems of wheat plants grown in rhizotrons. Different treatments with respect to soil moisture and apatite concentrations were used to test the effects of those conditions on root system development. Photographs of the root systems were taken at high spatial and temporal resolution and root systems are automatically tracked.

  17. Determination of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and preparation by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kao, T H; Loh, C H; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the variety and content of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum, a traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activities, by developing an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS method and a preparative column chromatographic method for carotenoid isolation. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 66 min by employing a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (79:14:7, v/v/v) and methylene chloride (100%) with flow rate at 1.0 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. All-trans-canthaxanthin was shown to be an appropriate internal standard for quantitation, with all-trans-?-carotene and its cis isomers present in largest amount (413.6 ?g/g), followed by all-trans-violoxanthin and its cis isomers (209.5 ?g/g), all-trans-lutein and its cis isomers (212.4 ?g/g), all-trans-neoxanthin and its cis isomers (134.6 ?g/g), antheraxanthin (16.5 ?g/g), all-trans-?-cryptoxanthin and its cis isomers (5.8 ?g/g), all-trans-zeaxanthin (3.6 ?g/g) and neochrome (0.1 ?g/g). For preparative chromatography, with a glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) as adsorbent, the carotenoid fraction was eluted with 300 mL of ethyl acetate with flow rate at 10 mL/min. Some more epoxides and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated during preparative column chromatography. Nevertheless, the carotenoids isolated from T. formosanum may be used as raw material for possible production of health food in the future. PMID:22502907

  18. 10-Shogaol, an Antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for Skin Cell Proliferation and Migration Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), platelet derived growth factor-?? (PDGF-??) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent. PMID:22408422

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd.; Mallick, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program. PMID:24600309

  20. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  1. Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry. PMID:21954327

  2. Abscisic acid-dependent regulation of small rubber particle protein gene expression in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is mediated by TbbZIP1.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julia; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Natural rubber is a high-molecular-mass biopolymer found in the latex of >2,500 plant species, including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Taraxacum spp. The active sites of rubber biosynthesis are rubber particles, which comprise a hydrophobic rubber core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane containing species-dependent lipids and associated proteins. Small rubber particle proteins are the most abundant rubber particle-associated proteins in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbSRPPs) and may promote rubber biosynthesis by stabilizing the rubber particle architecture. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding SRPPs and identified a bZIP transcription factor (TbbZIP.1) similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5-ABF-AREB subfamily, which is thought to include downstream targets of ABA and/or abiotic stress-inducible protein kinases. The TbbZIP.1 gene was predominantly expressed in laticifers and regulates the expression of TbSRPP genes in an ABA-dependent manner. The individual TbSRPP genes showed distinct induction profiles, suggesting diverse roles in rubber biosynthesis and stress adaptation. The potential involvement of TbSRPPs in the adaptation of T. brevicorniculatum plants to environmental stress is discussed based on our current knowledge of the stress-response roles of SRPPs and their homologs, and the protective function of latex and rubber against pathogens. Our data suggest that TbSRPPs contribute to stress tolerance in T. brevicorniculatum and that their effects are mediated by TbbZIP.1. PMID:23303876

  3. Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98?ppm and 1.38?ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01?ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe?+?Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

  4. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  5. Inhibitory effects of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil on leukocyte migration in vivo and in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gessilda Alcantara Nogueira de Melo; Renata Grespan; Jefferson Pitelli Fonseca; Thiago Oliveira Farinha; Expedito Leite da Silva; Adriano Lopes Romero; Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2011-01-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, popular name ginger, is grown naturally in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Ginger is used in pharmaceutical,\\u000a cosmetic, and food and beverage industries and the essential oil has been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions including\\u000a as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger

  6. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M Naveena; S. K Mendiratta; A. S. R Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4–5 years age) were marinated

  7. Enhanced maze performance and reduced oxidative stress by combined extracts of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba in the aged rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Topic; E Tani; K Tsiakitzis; P. N Kourounakis; E Dere; R. U Hasenöhrl; R Häcker; C. M Mattern; J. P Huston

    2002-01-01

    Here we assessed the effects of i.g. administration of Zingicomb (ZC), a mixture of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba extracts, on learning and memory, and on indicators of oxidative stress in aged rats. Effects of ZC (1 and 10 mg\\/kg) were investigated in 22–24 months old Wistar rats using the Morris water maze, in which they show deficient performance as

  8. Use of peroxyacetic acid as green chemical on yield and sensorial quality in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) under soilless culture.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gilda; Moggia, Claudia; Osses, Ingrid Jennifer; Alvaro, Juan Eugenio; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of peroxyacetic acid on the productivity of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) cultivated hydroponically using a constant nutritive solution. Green chemistry in protected horticulture seeks compatibility with the environment through the creation of biodegradable byproducts. In hydroponics, appropriate doses of peroxyacetic mixtures deliver these byproducts while also oxygenating the roots. Watercress producers who recirculate the nutritive solution can use these mixtures in order to increase oxygenation in the hydroponic system. The experiment took place between August and December 2009, beginning with the planting of the watercress seeds and concluding with the completion of the sensory panels. A completely random design was used, including three treatments and four repetitions, with applications of 0, 20 and 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture. Measured variables were growth (plant height, leaf length and stem diameter), yield (weight per plant and dry matter) and organoleptic quality (color and sensory panel). The application of 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture had a greater effect on the growth and development of the plants, which reached an average height of 29.3 cm, stem diameter of 3.3 mm and leaf length of 7.6 cm, whereas the control group reached an average height of only 20.2 cm, stem diameter of 1.9 mm and leaf length of 5.7 cm. The application of the peroxyacetic mixtures resulted in an improvement in growth parameters as well as in yield. Individual weights achieved using the 40 mg L(-1) dose were 1.3 g plant(-1) in the control group and 3.4 g plant(-1) in the experimental group (62% yield increase). Sensory analysis revealed no differences in organoleptic quality. PMID:22272143

  9. Root Communication: The Role of Root Exudates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Prithiviraj; Mark W. Paschke; Jorge M. Vivanco

    Plants communicate with neighboring plants and other organisms surrounding them. Aboveground communication isarticulatedthroughstems,leaves,orflowerswhilebelow-groundcommunication ismedi- ated by roots. The plant root is capable of secreting chemicals into the rhizosphere through root exudates. Thechemicalconstituentsoftherootexudatesarecharacteristicofaparticularplantspeciesandalsodepend on the surrounding biotic and abiotic environment. Recent research suggests that the root exudates act as a sort of chemical 'language' between the secreting plant and other organisms

  10. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) as an adjuvant in cancer treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M M; Haniadka, R; Chacko, P P; Palatty, P L; Baliga, M S

    2011-01-01

    Despite acquiring a strong understanding of the molecular basis and advances in treatment, cancer is the second major cause of death in the world. In clinics, the stagedependent treatment strategies may include surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatments like hormonotherapy and chemotherapy, which are associated with side effects. The use of traditional herbal medicine in cancer patients is on a rise, as it is believed that these medications are non toxic and alleviate the symptoms of cancer, boost the immune system, or may tackle the cancer itself. Since antiquity the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe commonly known as ginger (family Zingiberaceae) have widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Additionally, ginger also has a long history of medicinal use in various cultures for treating common colds, fever, to aid digestion, treat stomach upset, diarrhoea, nausea, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal complications and dizziness. Preclinical studies have also shown that ginger possesses chemopreventive and antineoplastic properties. It is also reported to be effective in ameliorating the side effects of ?-radiation and of doxorubicin and cisplatin; to inhibit the efflux of anticancer drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to possess chemosensitizing effects in certain neoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this review is to address observations on the role of ginger as adjuvant to treatment modalities of cancer. Emphasis is also placed on the drawbacks and on future directions for research that will have a consequential effect on cancer treatment and cure. PMID:22006742

  11. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. PMID:25475843

  12. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. PMID:23889539

  13. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:23550785

  14. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Blunden, Gerald; Tanira, Musbah O; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2008-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation and identification of active constituents of ginger, scientific verification of its pharmacological actions and of its constituents, and verification of the basis of the use of ginger in some of several diseases and conditions. This article aims at reviewing the most salient recent reports on these investigations. The main pharmacological actions of ginger and compounds isolated therefrom include immuno-modulatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-emetic actions. Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. It is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. More studies are required in animals and humans on the kinetics of ginger and its constituents and on the effects of their consumption over a long period of time. PMID:17950516

  15. Inhibitory effects of zingerone, a pungent component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on colonic motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Momoe; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Shima, Takeshi; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including constipation and diarrhea. Zingerone is a likely active constituent responsible for the antidiarrheal activity of ginger. The current study was designed to characterize pharmacological actions of zingerone on colonic motility. To evaluate pharmacological effects of zingerone on colonic motility, we used isolated colonic segments from rats, in which mechanical responses were recorded in the longitudinal direction. In addition, we evaluated the effects on colonic motility in vivo by measuring intraluminal pressure changes and expelled fluid volume from the colon in anesthetized rats. Zingerone was applied to the lumen of the colon to allow the drug to access from the mucosal side. Zingerone inhibited spontaneous contractile movements in the isolated colonic segments in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of zingerone on colonic movements were not affected by pretreatment with capsazepine, a typical antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. In addition, tetrodotoxin, a blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channels on neurons, did not affect the suppression of colonic movements by zingerone, suggesting that zingerone acts on the smooth muscles directly. Zingerone also attenuated colonic motility in vivo without affecting blood pressure and heart rate. The effects were reversible and reproducible. Our findings suggest that zingerone can inhibit colonic motility via direct action on smooth muscles. Zingerone might exert beneficial therapeutic effects on hypermotility-induced diarrhea by abrogating excessive gastrointestinal motility. PMID:20799069

  16. 5-HT3 receptor blocking activity of arylalkanes isolated from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, H; Nahrstedt, A; Petereit, F; Windeck, T; Ploch, M; Verspohl, E J

    2005-07-01

    Different extracts (ethanolic, hexane, aqueous) of ginger (rhizomes of Zingiber officinale) and the essential oil were tested using [14C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells and the isolated rat ileum in order to identify their activity in inhibiting 5-HT3 receptor function. The hexane extract proved to be the most active and yielded upon bioassay-guided fractionation nine constituents: [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols, [6]- and [8]-shogaols which were previously shown as active in vivo against cytotoxic drug-induced emesis; [4]-gingerol, [6]-gingerdiol, diacetyl-[6]-gingerdiol and [6]-dehydrogingerdione have not been previously tested for anti-emetic or 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic effects. Even though the latter four compounds are only minor constituents, their identification contributed towards the characterisation of a structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds. The order of potency for the nine constituents in the N1E-115 cell system was [6]-gingerdiol approximately diacetyl-[6]-gingerdiol approximately [6]-dehydrogingerdione approximately [6]-shogaol > or = [8]-shogaol approximately [8]-gingerol > [10]-gingerol > or = [6]-gingerol > [4]-gingerol. PMID:16041645

  17. Effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi Garcia; Grespan, Renata; Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Filho, Benicio Alves de Abreu; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    The antifungal activity of ginger essential oil (GEO; Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was evaluated against Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEO was determined by micro-broth dilution. The effects of GEO on fumonisin and ergosterol production were evaluated at concentrations of 500-5000 ?g/mL in liquid medium with a 5mm diameter mycelial disc of F. verticillioides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the predominant components of GEO were ?-zingiberene (23.9%) and citral (21.7%). GEO exhibited inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2500 ?g/mL, and 4000 and 5000 ?g/mL reduced ergosterol biosynthesis by 57% and 100%, respectively. The inhibitory effect on fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) production was significant at GEO concentrations of 4000 and 2000 ?g/mL, respectively. Thus, the inhibition of fungal biomass and fumonisin production was dependent on the concentration of GEO. These results suggest that GEO was able to control the growth of F. verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin production. PMID:23871071

  18. [Cloning and analysis of reverse transcriptase(RT) of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Si, Jin-Ping; Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Yu-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Using universal primer Ty1-copia retrotransposon RT,43 Ty1-copia like retrotransposon RT with high heterogeneity, stop codon mutation and frameshift mutation were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of Zhejiang Lin'an (C15) and Yunnan Guangnan (A39) of Dendrobium officinale. The length of these sequences varied from 260 to 266 bp, and was rich in AT and consistency ranged from 47.1% to 97.7%. Different c/s-acting regulatory elements induced by low temperature, heat, light, all kinds of plant growth regulating substances and the starting transcription signals, corresponding to CAAT box, TATA box conserved sequences and some other regulatory elements. When being translated into amino acids, ten sequences presented stop codon mutation, five sequences presented frameshift mutation, and thirty-seven sequences presented conserved sequence "SLYGKQ" mutation. Six categories were identified through phylogenic analysis after alignment analyses of their amino acid sequences, and with other plants (eg. Triticum aestivum, Eleocharis quinqueflora) having high homology, which indicated that horizontal transmission of retrotransposon occurred among the plants in the past. PMID:24761633

  19. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Bellik, Yuva

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  20. [Field experiment of F1 generation and superior families selection of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Based on randomized block design of experiment, agronomic traits and yields of 14 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the differences in agronomic traits and yields among families were significant, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Families of 6b x 2a, 9 x 66 and 78 x 69 were selected with the remarkable superiority of yields, agronomic traits and product customization. Correlation analysis between agronomic traits and yields showed that plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, blade length and blade width were all significantly correlated with biological yields and economic yields. Among which, stem diameter, leaf number and blade length were the most significant, and an optimal linear regression model could be established. When the number of shoots was fewer than 4.5, both biological yields and economic yields increased with the increasing number of shoots, but it could not much affect yields when the number of shoots was larger than 4.5. Shoots number, stem diameter and leaf index were basic stability when compared biennial traits to annual, which could be used for early selection. PMID:24558865

  1. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P?

  2. Partial characterization of an enzymatic extract from Bentong ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong).

    PubMed

    Nafi', Ahmad; Ling, Foo Hooi; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong) was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8) and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA) on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP) with a specific activity of 24.8±0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20) slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL-1 and 34.48 mg mL-1 min-1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at -20 °C. PMID:25153861

  3. Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of flowers, stems and leaves of Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, stems and flower of Nasturtium officinale resulted in the identification of 9, 8 and 15 compounds, representing 97%, 100% and 94.7% of the oils, respectively. The main compounds of the oil of leaves were myristicin (57.6%), ?-terpinolene (8.9%) and limonene (6.7%). Caryophyllene oxide (37.2%), p-cymene-8-ol (17.6%), ?-terpinolene (15.2%) and limonene (11.8%) were the main components in stems, whereas limonene (43.6%), ?-terpinolene (19.7%), p-cymene-8-ol (7.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.7%) were the major constituents in the oil of flowers. All the samples were subjected to a screening for their possible antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the above tests, methanol extracts of leaves showed higher antioxidant activity than the oils and methanol extracts of stems and flowers. PMID:21815727

  4. Effects of lead on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in watercress, Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    PubMed

    Keser, Gonca; Saygideger, Saadet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidative effects of lead with increased concentrations by the determination of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (AP)) and lipid peroxidation levels in the stem and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) which was exposed to lead acetate, Pb (CH3COOH)2 regime with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 mg/L Pb in a hydroponic culture. After 14 days, accumulation of lipid peroxidation in stems and leaves and changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The maximum accumulation was observed in the highest concentration group. In this group, lipid peroxidation levels were three times higher than the control group in the stem and leaves. The highest induction in SOD and GR activities were determined at 200 mg/L Pb group in stem, whereas CAT and AP activities were higher than other groups at the concentration of 250 and 100 mg/L Pb, respectively. The increase in CAT activity was found to be greater than GR, SOD, and AP activities in stems of watercress under Pb treatment. Both lead accumulation and antioxidant enzyme responses were higher in stems than in leaves. The results of the present study suggested that the induction in antioxidant responses could be occurring as an adaptive mechanism to the oxidative potential of lead accumulation. PMID:19967468

  5. In vivo antigenotoxic activity of watercress juice (Nasturtium officinale) against induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Natalia A; Ariagno, Julia I; López Nigro, Marcela M; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; de los A Gette, María; Petenatti, Elisa; Palaoro, Luis A; Carballo, Marta A

    2013-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the genotoxicity as well as possible protective activity against damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) of the aqueous juice of watercress (Nasturtium officinale, W.T. Aiton) in vivo. Male and female Swiss mice 7-8?weeks old (N?=?48) were treated by gavage with 1?g?kg(-1) body weight and 0.5?g?kg(-1) body weight of watercress juice during 15 consecutive days. Genotoxicity and its possible protective effect were tested by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in bone marrow. In addition, biopsies of the bladder, epididymis and testicles of mice were performed to extend the experimental design. Watercress juice per se did not induce genetic damage according to the comet assay and micronucleus study, exhibiting a protective activity against CP (P?

  6. Medicinal plants and their role in the dooryard gardens of Bryan, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Elbaum, Nora Renee

    1995-01-01

    Name Scientific Name Catnip Chamomile Nepeta cataria L. Matricaria chamomilla L. Rose Hips Dandelion Fennel Castor Bean Rosa rugose Juss. Taraxacum officinale Wiggers Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Ricinus communis L. Com&ey Willow Calendula...

  7. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD; ZAHRA GHOLAMNEZHAD; MOSTAFA JAFARZADEH; MOHAMMAD FATEHI

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale) extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p.), and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahluji, Sepide; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mobasseri, Majid; Ebrahimzade Attari, Vahide; Payahoo, Laleh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Low-grade inflammation, a common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2), causes some chronic complications in these patients. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in DM2 patients as a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: A total of 64 DM2 patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups and received 2 tablets/day of each for 2 months. The concentrations of IL-6, TNF-? and hs-CRP in blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-? (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.02) and hs-CRP (P = 0.012) in ginger group in comparison to baseline. Moreover, the analysis of covariance showed that the group received ginger supplementation significantly lowered TNF- ? (15.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.6 ± 5.2; P = 0.005) and hs-CRP (2.42 ± 1.7 vs. 2.56 ± 2.18; P = .016) concentrations in comparison to control group. While there were no significant changes in IL-6 (7.9 ± 2.1 vs. 7.8 ± 2.9; P > .05). Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger supplementation in oral administration reduced inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may be a good remedy to diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes. PMID:24312847

  9. Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rajeev, Antappa Govindaraju; Palatty, Princy L; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar S

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant advances and development of novel anti-emetics, nausea and vomiting (emesis) is a major side-effect of cancer chemotherapy. At times, severe nausea and vomiting may also lead to reduction in adherence to the treatment regimen, and this will concomitantly affect the patient's survival. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, is globally an important spice. It has been used for centuries in the Indian, Chinese, Arabic, Tibetan, Unani, and Siddha systems of traditional medicine to treat nausea and vomiting induced by different stimuli. Preclinical studies with experimental animals (dogs and rats) have shown that the various extracts of ginger and the ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Gingerol, the active principle, is also shown to possess anti-emetic effects in minks. However, with regard to humans, while most studies have been supportive of the preclinical observations, a few have been contradictory. The exact mechanism responsible for the anti-emetic effects of ginger is unknown; however, the ginger phytochemicals, especially 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol, may function as a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) antagonist, NK1 antagonist, antihistaminic, and possess prokinetic effects. The present review for the first time attempts to address the anti-emetic observations and the variability in response of the anti-emetic effects of ginger in cancer chemotherapy. An attempt is also made to address the lacunae in the published studies and emphasize aspects that need further investigations for ginger to be of use in clinics as an anti-emetic agent in the future. PMID:22540971

  10. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 ?mol m?2s?1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 ?mol m?2s?1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  11. Radioprotective effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger): past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Pereira, Manisha Maria; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rao, Suresh; Arora, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Radiation is an important modality in treating people with cancer especially when surgical intervention is impracticable or might debilitate the patient. However, effective use of ionizing radiation is compromised by the side effects that result from radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. The use of radioprotective compounds, which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to association with protecting the normal tissue, it will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, till date no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as both culinary and medicinal agent. Preclinical studies carried out in the last decade has shown that ginger and its phytochemicals dehydrozingerone, zingerone possess radioprotective effects in laboratory animals and in cultured cells in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome when administered either through intraperitoneal or oral route was effective in protecting against gamma radiation-induced sickness and mortality. The phytochemicals dehydrogingerone and zingerone present in ginger are also shown to protect mice against radiation-induced sickness and mortality. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the free radical scavenging, antioxidant affects, anti-inflammatory and anti-clastogenic effects may contribute towards the observed protection. Additionally, studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that zingerone selectively protects the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to the radioprotective properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a radioprotective agent. PMID:22596078

  12. Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: Comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Frisch; Rüdiger U. Hasenöhrl; Claudia M. Mattern; Rüdiger Häcker; Joseph P. Huston

    1995-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that the blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion might be a suitable model to assess antiemetic properties of drugs, especially in species that do not vomit, like rats. The effects of the known antiemetic compound metoclopramide were compared with those of zingicomb®, a combination preparation of extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber officinale,

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200?mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50?mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500?mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60??g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  14. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. PMID:23905021

  15. Production of disease-free encapsulated buds of Zingiber officinale Rosc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Sharma; B. M. Singh; R. S. Chauhan

    1994-01-01

    Shoot buds of ginger were successfully encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate gel. Encapsulated buds were germinated in vitro to form roots and shoots. In vitro germination (emergence of sprouts) of encapsulated buds ranged from 16.7% to 81.8% on different media after 5 weeks of incubation. Normal plantlets with an average shoot length of 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm root length

  16. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  17. Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions

    E-print Network

    Muller, Jean-Michel

    Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions Using Small with the computation of reciprocals, square roots, inverse square roots, and some elementary functions using small/number of multipliers and compare with other related methods. Index TermsÐReciprocal, square root, inverse square root

  18. Salicylic Acid Induced Insensitivity to Culture Filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi in the Calli of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prachi; Tilak R. Sharma; Brij M. Singh

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) was used to induce insensitivity in the callus cultures of Zingiber officinale against culture filtrate (CF) of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi. The treatment of callus cultures with SA (104µM) prior to selection with CF of the pathogen-increased callus survival. Exogenous application of SA resulted in increased activity of peroxidase and ß-1,3-glucanase enzymes in the callus cultures. No

  19. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+ ,K +ATPase\\/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-oxidative Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah; Harish Nayaka; Mysore Annaiah; Shylaja M. Dharmesh

    Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE) belonging to the family Zingiberceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg? 1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-\\/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI)

  20. Shogaols from Zingiber officinale protect IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells from beta-amyloid(25-35) insult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Darrick S H L; Kim, Dong-Seon; Oppel, Marissa N

    2002-04-01

    From the rhizome of Zingiber officinale L. (Zingiberaceae), four shogaols that protect IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells from beta-amyloid(25 - 35) insult at EC50 = 4.5 - 81 microM were isolated. The efficacy of cell protection from beta-amyloid(25 - 35) insult by these shogaols was shown to improve as the length of the side chain increases. PMID:11988870

  1. Effect of methanol extracts of Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris on the apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, KYUNG-EUN; SHIN, JI-AE; HONG, IN-SUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

    2013-01-01

    Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris are used as traditional herbs with diverse medicinal effects, including the inhibition of inflammation, reduction of blood pressure and as diuretics, however, the anti-cancer effects of C. officinale Makino and C. bursa-pastoris are poorly defined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of methanol extracts of C. officinale Makino (MECO) and methanol extracts of C. bursa-pastoris (MECB) on the cell growth and apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells. MECO and MECB caused growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in HSC-2 cells. A marked reduction in specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression following treatment with MECO or MECB was also observed. The downregulation of Sp1 by siRNA resulted in growth inhibition and a reduction of total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression. In addition, MECO significantly increased Bax expression levels and MECB increased Bak expression levels and decreased Mcl-1 expression levels. These results suggest that MECO and MECB inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis via the Sp1 protein, indicating that MECO and MECB are useful bioactive materials and attractive drug candidates for oral cancer. PMID:23403540

  2. Effect of methanol extracts of Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris on the apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Shin, Ji-Ae; Hong, In-Sun; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2013-03-01

    Cnidium officinale Makino and Capsella bursa-pastoris are used as traditional herbs with diverse medicinal effects, including the inhibition of inflammation, reduction of blood pressure and as diuretics, however, the anti-cancer effects of C. officinale Makino and C. bursa-pastoris are poorly defined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of methanol extracts of C. officinale Makino (MECO) and methanol extracts of C. bursa-pastoris (MECB) on the cell growth and apoptosis of HSC-2 human oral cancer cells. MECO and MECB caused growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in HSC-2 cells. A marked reduction in specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression following treatment with MECO or MECB was also observed. The downregulation of Sp1 by siRNA resulted in growth inhibition and a reduction of total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression. In addition, MECO significantly increased Bax expression levels and MECB increased Bak expression levels and decreased Mcl-1 expression levels. These results suggest that MECO and MECB inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis via the Sp1 protein, indicating that MECO and MECB are useful bioactive materials and attractive drug candidates for oral cancer. PMID:23403540

  3. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 ?g/g to 10,870.4 ?g/g, and the latter from 9.9 ?g/g to 325.8 ?g/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  4. Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

    2012-06-20

    Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 ?g/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 ?g/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 ?g/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 ?g/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation. PMID:22656126

  5. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  6. Microleakage of root restorations.

    PubMed

    Wenner, K K; Fairhurst, C W; Morris, C F; Hawkins, I K; Ringle, R D

    1988-12-01

    This study evaluated the microleakage of various restorative materials placed in root surfaces. A minimum of 20 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were used for each combination of restorative materials. Four preparations were made on the root surface and each restored with a different material. After thermocycling in dye, the root was cut transversely in several sections through the restoration, and microscopically examined to record the microleakage at the interface between restorative materials and tooth. Results indicated that fewer composite resin specimens allowed microleakage into dentin as compared with either amalgam or glass ionomer materials. PMID:3060508

  7. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  8. Root numbers of curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIA SABITOVA

    2004-01-01

    We generalize a theorem of D. Rohrlich concerning root numbers of elliptic curves over the field of rational numbers. Our result applies to curves of all higher genera over number fields. Namely, under certain conditions which naturally extend the conditions used by D. Rohrlich, we show that the root number associated to a smooth projective curve over a number field

  9. An impression on current developments in the technology, chemistry, and biological activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Kubra, I Rahath; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely cultivated as a spice for its aromatic and pungent components. The essential oil and oleoresins from ginger are valuable products responsible for the characteristic flavor and pungency. Both are used in several food products such as soft beverages and also in many types of pharmaceutical formulations. More than 100 compounds have been reported from ginger, some of which are isolated and characterized, others are tentatively identified by GC-MS and / or LC-MS. [6]-Gingerol, the major gingerol in ginger rhizomes, has been found to possess many interesting pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and cardiotonic effects. Ginger is considered as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA. Due to all these properties, ginger has gained considerable attention in developed countries in recent years, especially for its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present review is a persuasive presentation of the current information on processing, chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal uses of ginger. Further studies are required for the validation of the beneficial uses. Formulation for novel products and new usages may emerge in the years to come, based on the revealed results of various studies. PMID:22591340

  10. Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasuko; Goto, Hirozo; Kizu, Haruhisa; Okamoto, Tadashi; Asano, Naoki; Hollinshead, Jackie; Nash, Robert J; Adachi, Isao

    2006-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Scientific research has gradually verified the antidiabetic effects of ginger. Especially gingerols, which are the major components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes including the effect of enhancement against insulin-sensitivity. Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. The assay for aldose reductase inhibitors in ginger led to the isolation of five active compounds including 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (2) and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were good inhibitors of recombinant human aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 19.2 +/- 1.9 and 18.5 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds significantly suppressed not only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes but also lens galactitol accumulation in 30% of galactose-fed cataract rat model. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the applicable side alkyl chain length and the presence of a C3 OCH3 group in the aromatic ring are essential features for enzyme recognition and binding. These results suggested that it would contribute to the protection against or improvement of diabetic complications for a dietary supplement of ginger or its extract containing aldose reductase inhibitors. PMID:16939321

  11. Evaluation of Chloropicrin as a Soil Fumigant against Ralstonia solanacarum in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg?1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m?2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. PMID:24618853

  12. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 ?mol m?2s?1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ? 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 ?mol m?2s?1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  13. SNP in Chalcone Synthase gene is associated with variation of 6-gingerol content in contrasting landraces of Zingiber officinale.Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Mandi, Swati Sen

    2015-07-25

    Zingiber officinale, medicinally the most important species within Zingiber genus, contains 6-gingerol as the active principle. This compound obtained from rhizomes of Z.officinale, has immense medicinal importance and is used in various herbal drug formulations. Our record of variation in content of this active principle, viz. 6-gingerol, in land races of this drug plant collected from different locations correlated with our Gene expression studies exhibiting high Chalcone Synthase gene (Chalcone Synthase is the rate limiting enzyme of 6-gingerol biosynthesis pathway) expression in high 6-gingerol containing landraces than in the low 6-gingerol containing landraces. Sequencing of Chalcone Synthase cDNA and subsequent multiple sequence alignment revealed seven SNPs between these contrasting genotypes. Converting this nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence, alteration of two amino acids becomes evident; one amino acid change (asparagine to serine at position 336) is associated with base change (A?G) and another change (serine to leucine at position 142) is associated with the base change (C?T). Since asparagine at position 336 is one of the critical amino acids of the catalytic triad of Chalcone Synthase enzyme, responsible for substrate binding, our study suggests that landraces with a specific amino acid change viz. Asparagine (found in high 6-gingerol containing landraces) to serine causes low 6-gingerol content. This is probably due to a weak enzyme substrate association caused by the absence of asparagine in the catalytic triad. Detailed study of this finding could also help to understand molecular mechanism associated with variation in 6-gingerol content in Z.officinale genotypes and thereby strategies for developing elite genotypes containing high 6-gingerol content. PMID:25895474

  14. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H.; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2012-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update. PMID:23243452

  15. Topics In Primitive Roots

    E-print Network

    N. A. Carella

    2015-03-12

    This monograph considers a few topics in the theory of primitive roots g(p) modulo a prime p>=2. A few estimates of the least primitive roots g(p) and the least prime primitive roots g^*(p) modulo p, a large prime, are determined. One of the estimate here seems to sharpen the Burgess estimate g(p) 0, to the smaller estimate g(p) 2. The expected order of magnitude is g(p) 1 constant. The corresponding estimates for least prime primitive roots g^*(p) are slightly higher. Anotrher topic deals with an effective lower bound #{p > x/log x for the number of primes p 1. The current results in the literature claim the lower bound #{p > x/(log x)^2, and have restrictions on the minimal number of fixed integers to three or more.

  16. Cotton Root-rot. 

    E-print Network

    Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

    1889-01-01

    121 2 -16 1 t I i 6' /t AS AGRICULTURAL EXY ERIMENT STATI( BULLETIN No. 7, C. NOVEMBER, 1889. COTTON ROOT-ROT AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE, College Station, Brazos County, Texas. BY ORDER OF THE COUNCIL: F. A. GULLEY, DIRECTOR..... ....................... .Assistant to Director. D. ADRIANCE .......................... Asst. Chemist and Meteorologist. J. M. Ca~son. ........................ .Assistant to Agriculturist. C. K. FUQUA.. ........................ .Sugar Chemist. COTTON ROOT-ROT. sout It =ng...

  17. Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature of plants was -12‰, enabling us to differentiate between root-derived C and native SOM-C respiration. We found that the relative abundance of fine, medium and coarse roots were significantly different among cultivars. Root systems of Alamo, Kanlow and Cave-in-Rock were characterized by a large abundance of coarse-, relative to fine roots, whereas Carthage, Forestburg and Blackwell had a large abundance of fine, relative to coarse roots. Fine roots had a 28% lower C:N ratio than medium and coarse roots. These differences led to different root decomposition rates. We conclude that root architecture should be taken into account when predicting root decomposition rates; enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of root decomposition will improve model predictions of C input to soil organic matter.

  18. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres. PMID:25795090

  19. Treating root-surface caries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Burgess; John R. Gallo

    2002-01-01

    Gingival recession associated with aging and periodontal therapy exposes root surfaces, which are then susceptible to root caries. Resin-modified glass ionomer, glass ionomer, compomer, composite resin, and amalgam restora- tive materials are frequently used to restore carious root lesions. Amalgam continues to be used successfully to restore root caries. Resin composites, compomers, glass ionomers, and resin-modified glass ionomers are increas-

  20. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  1. Developmental Changes in Peanut Root Structure during Root Growth and Root-structure Modification by Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Ryosuke; Abe, Jun; Lee, O. New; Morita, Shigenori; Lux, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule formation. Methods Peanut plants were grown in the field, in vermiculite or in filter paper. The taproot, first-order and second-order lateral roots and root nodules were analysed using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy with hand sections and resin sections. Key Results Three root categories were recognized. The primary seminal root was thick, exhibiting early and intensive secondary thickening mainly on its base. It was tetrarch and contained broad pith. First-order lateral roots were long and thin, with limited secondary thickening; they contained no pith. Particularly different were second- and higher-order lateral roots, which were anatomically simple and thin, with little or no secondary growth. Unusual wall ingrowths were visible in the cells of the central part of the cortex in the first-order and second-order lateral roots. The nodule body was formed at the junction of the primary and lateral roots by the activity of proliferating cells derived originally from the pericycle. Conclusions Two morphologically and anatomically distinct types of lateral roots were recognized: long, first-order lateral roots, forming the skeleton of the root system, and thin and short second- and higher-order lateral roots, with an incomplete second state of endodermal development, which might be classified as peanut ‘feeder roots’. Formation of root nodules at the base of the lateral roots was the result of proliferating cell divisions derived originally from the pericycle. PMID:18256023

  2. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan®): part II. Fine structures of O-acetylated residues.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaohui; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shaoping; Phillips, Glyn O; Goff, H Douglas; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Main objective of this study was to investigate the detailed structural information about O-acetylated sugar residues in Dendronan(®). A water solution (2%, w/w) of Dendronan(®) was treated with endo-?-mannanase to produce oligosaccharides rich in O-acetylated sugar residues. The oligosaccharides were partly recovered by ethanol precipitation (70%, w/w). The recovered sample (designated Hydrolyzed Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide, HDOP) had a yield of 24.7% based on the dry weight of Dendronan(®) and was highly O-acetylated. A D2O solution of HDOP (6%, w/w) generated strong signals in (1)H, (13)C, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY, 2D (1)H-(13)C HMQC, and 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC NMR spectra. Results of NMR analyses showed that the majority of O-acetylated mannoses were mono-substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 or O-3 position. There were small amounts of mannose residues with di-O-acetyl substitution at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Minor levels of mannoses with 6-O-acetyl, 2,6-di-O-acetyl, and 3,6-di-O-acetyl substitutions were also identified. Much information about sugar residue sequence was extracted from 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC and 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY spectra. (1)J(C-H) coupling constants of major sugar residues were obtained. Evidences for the existence of branches or O-acetylated glucoses in HDOP were not found. The major structure of Dendronan(®) is shown as follows: [Formula: see text] M: ?-D-mannopyranose; G: ?-D-glucopyranose; a: O-acetyl group. PMID:25498655

  3. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle ( Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard ( Sinapis alba) and watercress ( Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Reifenrath; Caroline Müller

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable

  4. Genetic Diversity of the Endemic and Medicinally Important Plant Rheum officinale as Revealed by Inter-Simpe Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qu; Yang, Rui; Feng, Shi-Fang; Li, Yan; Ren, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Rheum officinale Baill., an important but endangered medicinal herb, is endemic to China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 populations of R. officinale. Thirteen selected primers yielded 189 bright and discernible bands, with an average of 14.54 per primer. The genetic diversity was low at the population level, but pretty high at the species level (H = 0.1008, I = 0.1505, PPB = 28.95% vs. H = 0.3341, I = 0.5000, PPB = 95.24%, respectively) by POPGENE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation was found mainly among populations (74.38%), in line with the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.2766) among populations. Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5381, P = 0.002), indicating the role of geographic isolation in shaping the present population genetic structure. Both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis demonstrated the similar results. Our results imply that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species, and cultivation is proposed in this study. PMID:22489188

  5. Wired to the roots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P.

    2012-01-01

    Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don’t know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses. PMID:23073006

  6. Fine root turnover: a story of root production and root phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M. L.; Adams, T. S.; Smithwick, E. A.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fine root turnover in terrestrial ecosystems partially controls carbon flow from plants into soils as well the amount of roots available for nutrient and water uptake. However, we have poor understanding of basic patterns and variability in fine root turnover. We address this shortfall through the use of a heuristic model and analysis of a multi-year minirhizotron dataset exploring the impacts of fine root phenology and production on fine root turnover rates across 12 temperate tree species in a common garden experiment. The heuristic model allowed us to calculate fine root turnover given different patterns of root production and different fine root lifespans. Using the model we found that patterns of phenology characterized by a single, concentrated peak resulted in slower calculated root turnover rates while broader and bi-modal production patterns resulted in faster turnover rates. For example, for roots with median lifespans of 91 days, estimates of root turnover increased from 1.5 yr-1 to 4.0 yr-1 between the pattern of concentrated root production and the pattern with root production spread equally throughout the year. Turnover rates observed in the common garden ranged from 0.75 yr-1 to 1.33 yr-1 and 0.93 yr-1 to 2.14 yr-1 when calculated as annual production divided by maximum standing root crop or average standing root crop, respectively. Turnover varied significantly across species and interannual variability in root production and turnover was high. Patterns of root phenology observed at the common garden included concentrated root production in late spring as well as several examples of bi-modal and broader patterns of root production with roots produced across spring, summer and fall. Overall, both phenology and total root production impacted estimates of root turnover, particularly for short-lived fine roots with median lifespans of less than one year. Our results suggest that better understanding fine root phenology and production will improve our ability to describe and predict key processes of root turnover and resource uptake belowground in terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Root Canal Irrigants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Zehnder

    2006-01-01

    Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

  8. PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

  9. Root Action and Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spencer Pickering

    1907-01-01

    THE remarkable and all but fatal effect of growing grass over the roots of freshly planted apple trees has been studied at the Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm since 1894, and formed the subject-matter of the third report of that station (1903). No satisfactory explanation of the action was obtained. Experiment showed that it could not be attributed to the abstraction

  10. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  11. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Baake; D. Joseph; P. Kramer; M. Schlottmann

    2000-01-01

    It is shown how root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right\\u000apool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All\\u000anon-periodic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with\\u000amaximal symmetry.

  12. Root halotropism: Salinity effects on Bassia indica root

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Shelef; N. Lazarovitch; B. Rewald; S. Rachmilevitch

    2010-01-01

    Plant roots are responsible for the acquisition of nutrients and water from the soil and have an important role in plant response to soil stress conditions. The direction of root growth is gravitropic in general. Gravitropic responses have been widely studied; however, studies about other root tropisms are scarce. Soil salinity is a major environmental response factor for plants, sensed

  13. Macroinvertebrates associated with water hyacinth roots and a root analog

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    Macroinvertebrates associated with water hyacinth roots and a root analog Julie E. Barker1,3 , John of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), an introduced macrophyte, in freshwa- ter systems depend on the growth and extent of floating mats. We studied macroinvertebrates associated with roots of water hyacinth

  14. Angles of multivariable root loci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

  15. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. RESULTS: Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 ?g/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 ?g/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 ?g/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and c-Myc. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a combination of CAERS and CFEZO is a promising treatment for the prevention of colon cancer. PMID:25386076

  16. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  17. Square Root SAM Frank Dellaert

    E-print Network

    Dellaert, Frank

    Square Root SAM Frank Dellaert College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Abstract information matrix or the measurement matrix into square root form. Such techniques have several significant that square root information smoothing (SRIS) is a fundamentally better approach to the problem of SLAM than

  18. Nitrogen Regulation of Root Branching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIA W ALCH-LIU; I GOR I. I VANOV; S OPHIE F ILLEUR; T ONY R EMANS; BRIAN G. F ORDE

    2006-01-01

    ? Background Many plant species can modify their root architecture to enable them to forage for heterogeneously distributed nutrients in the soil. The foraging response normally involves increased proliferation of lateral roots within nutrient-rich soil patches, but much remains to be understood about the signalling mechanisms that enable roots to sense variations in the external concentrations of different mineral nutrients

  19. The nutritional control of root development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Forde; Helena Lorenzo

    2001-01-01

    Root development is remarkably sensitive to variations in the supply and distribution of inorganic nutrients in the soil. Here we review examples of the ways in which nutrients such as N, P, K and Fe can affect developmental processes such as root branching, root hair production, root diameter, root growth angle, nodulation and proteoid root formation. The nutrient supply can

  20. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  1. The Roots of Beowulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  2. Alfalfa Root Rot. 

    E-print Network

    Curtis, Geo. W.

    1892-01-01

    . ........................ .Assistant in Chemil Texas Agtriaultutral Expe~iment Station. ALFALFA ROOT ROT A comparatively new trouble which occurs in growing alfalfa is the tendency to die in spots which has been reported from various sections of the state. By many this has been... alfalfa apread out into it a fern feet. * *" Another letter from Mr. Farley dated May 24, 1892 contains this statement: " * * I notice a few stalks of dead alfalfa now, but will ad- vise yon later in June or July, and think it mill be a benefit...

  3. Alfalfa Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Curtis, Geo. W.

    1892-01-01

    . ........................ .Assistant in Chemil Texas Agtriaultutral Expe~iment Station. ALFALFA ROOT ROT A comparatively new trouble which occurs in growing alfalfa is the tendency to die in spots which has been reported from various sections of the state. By many this has been... alfalfa apread out into it a fern feet. * *" Another letter from Mr. Farley dated May 24, 1892 contains this statement: " * * I notice a few stalks of dead alfalfa now, but will ad- vise yon later in June or July, and think it mill be a benefit...

  4. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-01-01

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

  5. Perennial roots to immortality.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. PMID:24563283

  6. Exogenous polyamines improve rooting of hazel microshoots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Rey; Carmen Díaz-Sala; Roberto Rodríguez

    1994-01-01

    A strong positive effect of polyamines on rooting of microshoots of adult hazel (Corylus avellana L., cv. Gironell) is described. The effect of polyamines, both in the root induction solution and in the actual rooting medium, was assessed in order to study the effect on the successive rooting phases. Polyamines improved rooting of indole-3-butyric acid-treated microshoots in a synergistic fashion,

  7. Withanolides from Withania somnifera roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxminarain Misra; Priyanka Mishra; Archana Pandey; Rajender S. Sangwan; Neelam S. Sangwan; Rakesh Tuli

    2008-01-01

    Two new and seven known withanolides along with ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol glucoside, ?+? glucose were isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera. Among the known compounds, Viscosa lactone B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside and ?+? glucose are being reported from the roots of W. somnifera for the first time. One of the new compounds contained the rare 16?-acetoxy-17(20)-ene the

  8. PLANT ROOTS, THE HIDDEN HALF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roots are a critcally important part of the plant, and are little understood. This book provides the reader with the latest knowledge available about roots, their growth, functioning, and impact on the soil. The material is presented in a way that is useful for the novice as well as the expert in ...

  9. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Wandersee

    2010-02-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classroo

  10. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases. PMID:23616336

  11. Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging

    E-print Network

    Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging-uptake fraction, nitrogen-uptake model, nitrogen-use efficiency, optimal foraging by roots, optimal rooting depth, root distributions, root strategies. Correspondence Ross E. McMurtrie, School of Biological, Earth

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Ba?eva, Katerina; Stafilov, Traj?e

    2011-02-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg?¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD <0.1 mg kg?¹) except for R. pseudoacacia flowers and T. officinale roots. The maximum Cd concentration was 7.97 ± 0.15 mg kg?¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers from the Veles area. Nickel concentrations were in the range from 1.90 ± 0.04 to 5.74 ± 0.03 mg kg?¹. For U. dioica leaves and R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled near a lead-smelting plant, concentrations of 465.0 ± 0.55 and 403.56 ± 0.34 mg kg?¹ Zn were detected, respectively. In all control samples, results for Zn were low, ranging from 10.2 ± 0.05 to 38.70 ± 0.18 mg kg?¹. In this study, it was found that the flower of R. pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that T. officinale, U. dioica, and R. pseudoacacia were better metal accumulators and M. recutita was a metal avoider. PMID:20508923

  13. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  14. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD ZAFAR; MUSHTAQ AHMAD; MIR AJAB KHAN

    Present study was confined to pollen morphology and pollen fertility estimation used an aid in taxonomic description of 7 species of family Asteraceae from flora of Rawalpindi. The species are Ageratum conyzoides L., Calendula arvensis L., Cousinia minuta Boiss., Diagn., Eclipta alba (L.) Hasskl, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Saussuria heteromala (D. Don) Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Polleniferous material and complete

  15. Competitive and Soil Fertility Effects of Forbs and Legumes as Companion Plants or Living Mulch in Wide Spaced Organically Grown Cereals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Ulrich Germeier

    2006-01-01

    Effects of forbs and legumes intercropped with organically grown winter cereals on plant productivity and fertility related soil parameters were determined. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), cornflower (Centaureo cyanus), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), white clover (Trifolium repens) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) were established between wide spaced cereal rows as companion plants or as perennial living mulch, where cereals were

  16. [Chicoric and chlorogenic acids in various plants growing in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Chkhikvishvili, I D; Kharebava, G I

    2001-01-01

    Chicoric acid was isolated from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) leaves by column chromatography. Conditions for HPLC analysis of chicoric and chlorogenic acids were optimized. These acids were assayed in some plants growing in Georgia. The optimum conservation temperature for the preservation of chicoric and chlorogenic acids in leaves of dandelion and bilberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) was determined. PMID:11357428

  17. Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?

    2001-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent

  18. Oribatida (Acari) in grassy arable fallows are more affected by soil properties than habitat age and plant species?

    PubMed Central

    Wissuwa, Janet; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Frank, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Oribatid mites are one of the numerically dominant arthropod groups in soils. They play an important role in soil food webs via regulating the decomposition of organic matter and propagating microorganisms within the soil. To our knowledge, the influence of different plant functional groups on oribatid mites has not been studied in abandoned farmland with undisturbed succession before. The density and assemblage structure of oribatid mites in nine grassy arable fallows relative to three habitat age classes (2–3, 6–8, 12–15 years) and three selected plant species (legume: Medicago sativa, forb: Taraxacum officinale, grass: Bromus sterilis) were investigated in soil associated with single plants. Mite density declined marginally not significant with habitat age because of high abundances of the ubiquitous species Tectocepheus velatus sarekensis and Punctoribates punctum in young and mid-aged fallows and their subsequent decline in old fallows. Oribatid mite density and species assemblage were not affected by plant species. Only P. punctum had significantly higher densities in B. sterilis samples than in T. officinale samples due to a higher amount of fine roots. Distance-based linear models revealed that 65% of the variation in mite assemblage was explained by soil properties, soil type, exposition and geographic position, while habitat age was of minor importance. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the mite assemblage was best explained by soil organic and microbial carbon, water content and pH.

  19. Effect of Zingiber officinale Supplementation on Obesity Management with Respect to the Uncoupling Protein 1 -3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic Receptor Trp64Arg Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Zemestani, Maryam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on some obesity-associated parameters, with nutrigenetics approach. Accordingly, 80 eligible obese women (aged 18-45?years) were randomly assigned to receive either ginger (2-g ginger rhizomes powder as two 1-g tablets per day) or placebo supplements (corn starch with the same amount) for 12?weeks. Subjects were tested for changes in body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, body composition, appetite score, and dietary intake. Moreover, participants were genotyped for the -3826A>G and Trp64Arg polymorphisms of uncoupling protein 1 and ß3-adrenergic receptor genes, respectively. Over 12?weeks, ginger supplementation resulted in a slight but statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric measurements and total appetite score as compared with placebo group, which were more pronounced in subjects with the AA genotype for uncoupling protein 1 and Trp64Trp genotype for ß3-adrenergic receptor gene. However, there was no significant difference in changes of body composition and total energy and macronutrients intake between groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ginger consumption has potential in managing obesity, accompanying with an intervention-genotype interaction effect. However, further clinical trials need to explore ginger's efficacy as an anti-obesity agent in the form of powder, extract, or its active components. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25899896

  20. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p < 0.01). An in vitro mechanistic study showed that (S)-[6]-gingerol, the major pungent phenolic principle in ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 ?M) increased AMPK ?-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1? mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol. PMID:24428842

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2012-08-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms. PMID:22484860

  2. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  3. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  4. Swarming Behavior in Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Mazzolai, Barbara; Baluska, Frantisek; Arecchi, F. Tito; Vicsek, Tamás; Mancuso, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming. PMID:22272246

  5. Swarming behavior in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Mazzolai, Barbara; Baluska, Frantisek; Arecchi, F Tito; Vicsek, Tamás; Mancuso, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming. PMID:22272246

  6. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Three-rooted Mandibular First Molars: Part II—Measurement of Root Canal Curvatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchun Gu; Qun Lu; Ping Wang; Longxing Ni

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThe distolingual (DL) roots of three-rooted mandibular molars often challenge clinicians during root canal therapy. This study investigated canal curvatures in permanent three-rooted mandibular first molars by using micro–computed tomography (micro-CT) scans.

  7. Roots: Its Impact and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Roland S.

    1979-01-01

    What is contained in Roots, the 587-page narrative that captured an entire world population? The answer is not simple, nor is it overly complex, but rather an admixture of significant psychological, sociological, and timing factors that served to ignite the fuse of human fascination for the unknown, the hidden truths, the obscure, and the forbidden. This paper analyzes the impact and implications of Roots on many facets of American society. PMID:480399

  8. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Parry; Roger Horgan

    1992-01-01

    The pathway of water-stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis in etiolated and light-grown leaves has been elucidated (see A.D. Parry and R. Horgan, 1991, Physiol. Plant. 82, 320–326). Roots also have the ability to synthesise ABA in response to stress and it was therefore of interest to examine root extracts for the presence of carotenoids, including those known to be ABA

  9. Drying of Echinacea angustifolia Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; S. Sokansanj

    2003-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia roots were dried at 23, 30, 40, 50, and 60°C to determine the effect of drying on chemical constituency. During drying, the concentrations of the alkamides, cis or trans undeca-2-en 8, 10-diyonic acid isobutylamide and cis or trans dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, did not decrease at any of the drying temperatures as compared with roots dried

  10. Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

    \\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

  11. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays).

    PubMed

    Chimungu, Joseph G; Loades, Kenneth W; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-06-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength were evaluated in plant roots grown in the greenhouse and in the field. Root anatomical phenes were found to be better predictors of root penetrability than root diameter per se and associated with smaller distal cortical region cell size. Smaller outer cortical region cells play an important role in stabilizing the root against ovalization and reducing the risk of local buckling and collapse during penetration, thereby increasing root penetration of hard layers. The use of stele diameter was found to be a better predictor of root tensile strength than root diameter. Cortical thickness, cortical cell count, cortical cell wall area and distal cortical cell size were stronger predictors of root bend strength than root diameter. Our results indicate that root anatomical phenes are important predictors for root penetrability of high-strength layers and root biomechanical properties. PMID:25903914

  12. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    PubMed Central

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength were evaluated in plant roots grown in the greenhouse and in the field. Root anatomical phenes were found to be better predictors of root penetrability than root diameter per se and associated with smaller distal cortical region cell size. Smaller outer cortical region cells play an important role in stabilizing the root against ovalization and reducing the risk of local buckling and collapse during penetration, thereby increasing root penetration of hard layers. The use of stele diameter was found to be a better predictor of root tensile strength than root diameter. Cortical thickness, cortical cell count, cortical cell wall area and distal cortical cell size were stronger predictors of root bend strength than root diameter. Our results indicate that root anatomical phenes are important predictors for root penetrability of high-strength layers and root biomechanical properties. PMID:25903914

  13. A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach June 9, 1998 Abstract This is a quick guide to root programming, but has no experience with root or C++. Its goal is to get the user up and running quickly? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Basic Questions 4 2.1 What is root

  14. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Keel; M. Blackburn; C. Campbell; M. N. Högberg; A. Richter; B. Wild; P. Högberg

    2008-01-01

    Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance\\/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were

  15. [Application of minirhizotron in fine root studies].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwei; Yu, Lizhong; Yu, Shuiqiang; Han, Youzhi; Wang, Zhengquan; Guo, Dali

    2006-04-01

    Due to the production, death, and decomposition of fine root, its turnover plays an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Some methods such as sequential root coring, compartmental flow model, and ingrowth core have been widely used in collecting root biomass data and estimating fine root turnover, but failed in monitoring the dynamics of fine root due to its simultaneous production and death. Minirhizotron is a nondestructive in situ method for studying the dynamics of fine root, which allows the simultaneous measurement of fine root growth and mortality. This paper reviewed the application of minirhizotron in fine root studies, with the focus on minirhizotron tube installation, image collection, data extraction, and calculation parameters. In a case study, the total fine root length, fine root length density per unit volume, fine root length density per unit area, fine root biomass density, and fine root production and mortality of Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelini were calculated, and the results showed that minirhizotron method was feasible in studying the processes of fine root development, eclipse, death, and decomposition. The factors affecting fine root measurement and its precision mainly included the quality and quantity of tube installation, sampling interval and quantity, and analysis technique of images, etc. Soil texture, tube material, and disturbance of light on root were also the factors affecting the precision of the method. How to improve the measurement precision of minirhizotron would be the critical problem in future study. PMID:16836108

  16. ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Medford, Oregon (USA) CONFERENCEPROCEEDINGS #12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS M. Garbelotto & P

  17. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  18. A METHOD TO SEPARATE PLANT ROOTS FROM SOIL AND ANALYZE ROOT SURFACE AREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the effects of soil management practices on crop production requires a knowledge of these effects on plant roots. Much time is required to wash plant roots from soil and separate the living plant roots from organic debris and previous years' roots. We developed a root washer that can acc...

  19. Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Arjeh M.

    Root filtration spaces from Lie algebras and abstract root groups 1 Arjeh M. Cohen a, G subgroups and simple Lie algebras generated by extremal elements lead to root filtration spaces of buildings. Here we show how to obtain the root filtration space axioms from root subgroups and classical Lie

  20. Root status and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Rene Brun et al.

    2003-10-01

    In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project.

  1. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  2. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    1997-01-01

    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  3. Sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" to root mechanical properties and root distribution: Implication for shallow landslide stability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Massimiliano; Giadrossich, Filippo; Cohen, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Root reinforcement is recognized as an important factor for shallow landslides stability. Due to the complexity of root reinforcement mechanisms and the heterogeneity of the root-soil system, the estimation of parameters used in root reinforcement models is difficult, time consuming, and often highly uncertain. For practical applications, it is necessary to focus on the estimation of the most relevant parameters. The objective of the present contribution is to review the state of the art in the development of root reinforcement models and to discuss the sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" (RBM) when considering the variability of root mechanical properties and the heterogeneity of root distributions. The RBM is a strain-step loading fiber bundle model extended to include the mechanical and geometrical properties of roots. The model allows the calculation of the force-displacement behavior of a root bundle. In view of new results of field pullout tests performed on coarse roots of spruce (Picea abies) and considering a consistent dataset of root distribution of alpine tree species, we quantify the sensitivity of the RBM and the uncertainty associated with the most important input parameters. Preliminary results show that the extrapolation of force-diameter values from incomplete datasets (i.e., when only small roots are tested and values for coarse roots are extrapolated) may result in considerable errors. In particular, in the case of distributions with root diameters larger than 5 mm, root reinforcement tends to be dominated by coarse roots and their mechanical properties need to be quantified. In addition to the results of the model sensitivity, we present a possible best-practice method for the quantification of root reinforcement in view of its application to slope stability calculations and implementations in numerical models.

  4. Root system patterning: auxin synthesis at the root periphery.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, Jaimie M

    2015-06-01

    Plasticity in plant form is achieved through differential elaboration of developmental pre-patterns during postembryonic organ development. A new report links the output of the root clock, an oscillatory transcriptional pre-patterning mechanism, with cell-type-specific production of the plant hormone auxin, and identifies a downstream component required for elaboration of the pre-pattern. PMID:26035789

  5. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  6. Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control. 

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

    1931-01-01

    in later bulletins. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ROOT-ROT Root-rot is one of the moat destructive plant diseases known. An- nual losses from root-rot to the cotton crop of Texas are estimated at 10 to 15 per cent. This direct reduction in yield results from... Conditions Affecting Root-rot t While root-rot occurs extensively throughout Texas, there are cer- tain sections in which it has as yet been less destructive than it is else- where. For instance, in East Texas root-rot has been less prevalent than...

  7. Excising the Root from STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of well-intentioned STEM initiatives, some designed to improve the recruitment and retention of science teachers. Sometimes it appears that the initiators are remote from direct contact with the "grass roots" issues that feed the "stem" on which the blossoms of young enthusiastic recruits to the science teaching profession are…

  8. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  9. Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

  10. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  11. Cylindrocladium root and crown rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Cylindrocladium have been shown to cause damping-off, seedling blight, and a black crown and root rot of mature plants. In Hawaii, seedling disease was caused by Calonectria ilicicola (anamorph: Cylindrocladium parasiticum) and Cylindrocladium clavatum. A third species, C. scopari...

  12. Image analysis from root system pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

    2009-04-01

    Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

  13. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve the issue and give valuable insight for the next generation of VEGGIE.

  14. Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    PubMed

    Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture. PMID:15998402

  15. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  16. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

  17. Development and function of Azospirillum -inoculated roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Okon; Y. Kapulnik

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The surface distribution ofAzospirillum on inoculated roots of maize and wheat is generally similar to that of other members of the rhizoplane microflora. During the first three days, colonization takes place mainly on the root elongation zone, on the base of root hairs and, to a lesser extent, on the surface of young root hairs.Azospirillum has been found in cortical

  18. Root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes in walnut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Caboni; Paola Lauri; Mariagrazia Tonelli; Giuseppina Falasca; Carmine Damiano

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes (wild-type, strain 1855), when applied to the basal part of microcuttings of walnut (J. regia L.), produced numerous adventitious roots in vitro: 58.6% of rooting was induced in microcuttings in hormone free medium and 62.9% and abundant callus formation in the presence of IBA. A. rhizogenes did not induce rooting when IAA was present in the rooting medium.

  19. Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Li; Jianhao Sun; Fusuo Zhang; Tianwen Guo; Xingguo Bao; F. Andrew Smith; Sally E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Even though ecologists and agronomists have considered the spatial root distribution of plants to be important for interspecific\\u000a interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, few experimental studies have quantified patterns of root distribution\\u000a dynamics and their impacts on interspecific interactions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship\\u000a between root distribution and interspecific interactions between intercropped plants. Roots were

  20. Root branching responses to phosphate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Desnos, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Plant roots favour colonization of nutrient-rich zones in soil. Molecular genetic evidences demonstrate that roots sense and respond to local and global concentrations of inorganic phosphate and nitrate, in a fashion that depends on the shoot nutrient status. Recent investigations in Arabidopsis highlighted the role of the root tip in phosphate sensing and attributed to already known proteins (multicopper oxidases and nitrate transporters) new and unexpected functions in the root growth response to phosphate or nitrate. PMID:18024148

  1. Colonization of Wheat Root Hairs and Roots by Agrobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Kalaptur; G. K. Solovova; V. I. Panasenko; M. I. Chumakov

    2004-01-01

    Formation of extracellular structures in pure culture and in interaction with wheat root surface was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of various factors (growth temperature as well as pretreatment of agrobacteria with kalanchoe extract, acetosyringone, and centrifugation) on formation of extracellular structures was tested. The data on Agrobacterium tumefaciens (wild-type strain C58 and mutants LBA2525 (virB2::lacZ)

  2. Bell pepper responses to root restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. NeSmith; D. C. Bridges; J. C. Barbour

    1992-01-01

    Various container sizes were used to induce root restriction on ‘Jupiter’ bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). There was little or no effect of container size on plant growth up to 23 days after transplanting (DAT). By 45 DAT, leaf area and plant dry weight was diminished proportional to container volume. Root?to?shoot ratio was constant among the various root restricting conditions

  3. Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber

    E-print Network

    Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber IST (Institute of Science and Technology) Austria real roots of a square- free polynomial f. Given isolating intervals, our algorithm refines each of them to a certain width 2-L, that is, each of the roots is approximated to L bits after the binary

  4. Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard

    E-print Network

    Jebara, Tony

    Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard Department of Computer Science Columbia University New caused by finite numerical precision. We adapt square root algo- rithms, popular in Kalman filtering that involve the square root of precision matrices. Combining this with the machinery of the junction tree

  5. Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber

    E-print Network

    Efficient Real Root Approximation Michael Kerber IST (Institute of Science and Technology) Austria real roots of a square- free polynomial f . Given isolating intervals, our algorithm refines each of them to a width at most 2-L, that is, each of the roots is approximated to L bits after the binary

  6. Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard

    E-print Network

    Square Root Propagation Andrew G. Howard Department of Computer Science Columbia University New caused by finite numerical precision. We adapt square root algo­ rithms, popular in Kalman filtering that involve the square root of precision matrices. Combining this with the machinery of the junction tree

  7. Sugarbeet root rot in the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot in sugarbeets caused by fungi and bacteria is a considerable problem in the western United States. In October 2004 and 2005, a survey was conducted on recently harvested sugarbeet roots throughout southern Idaho and eastern Oregon to identify the fungi and bacteria associated with root rot...

  8. Root Cause Analysis: Methods and Mindsets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluch, Jacob H.

    This instructional unit is intended for use in training operations personnel and others involved in scram analysis at nuclear power plants in the techniques of root cause analysis. Four lessons are included. The first lesson provides an overview of the goals and benefits of the root cause analysis method. Root cause analysis techniques are covered…

  9. FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than, and basidiomycetes. Root and butt rots, instead, are exclusively caused by fungi belonging to the homo

  10. Chemical reduction at the root surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Uren

    1982-01-01

    A “sandwich” of moist filter paper impregnated with an insoluble hydrous Fe(III)oxide (or an insoluble Mn oxide) was used to investigate chemical reduction taking place near root surfaces. It was felt that these systems were more similar to soil conditions than solution cultures, particularly because root hairs developed. After sterile roots of sunflower seedlings had brown across the filter paper

  11. Effect of scapling on root respiration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scalping improves root quality at harvest since impurities such as potassium, sodium, amino nitrogen and invert sugars that hinder sugarbeet processing are concentrated in the upper root crown. The effect of scalping on root storage properties, however, is less clear. A small study was conducted t...

  12. How Roots Perceive and Respond to Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    1984-01-01

    Discusses graviperception and gravitropism by plant roots. Indicates that graviperception occurs via sedimentation of amyloplasts in columella cells of the root cap and that the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots may be due to the intensity of their caps to establish a concentration gradient of inhibitor(s) sufficient to affect…

  13. Root Cap and the Perception of Gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Juniper; Suzanne Groves; BRURIA LANDAU-SCHACHAR; L. J. AUDUS

    1966-01-01

    DURING investigations into the fine structure of apical meristems under the electron microscope, one of us (S. G.) discovered that it was possible, in maize and barley, to detach the intact root cap cleanly from the rest of the root tip. This is shown in Fig. 1. The roots of grasses are characterized by having a discrete cap meristem and,

  14. The problem with root cause analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Robert Nelms

    2007-01-01

    An 800 person forum comprised of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) practitioners from all over the world tried to define “Root Cause Analysis.” They could not agree on an answer. A smaller group was formed, composed in part by at least 5 major RCA consultants. They could not agree either. Several major Professional Societies have tried to define root cause analysis

  15. Hydraulic lift: water efflux from upper roots improves effectiveness of water uptake by deep roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Caldwell; J. H. Richards

    1989-01-01

    Deuterated water absorbed by deep roots of Artemisia tridentata appeared in the stem water of neighboring Agropyron desertorum tussocks. This supports the hypothesis that water absorbed by deep roots in moist soil moves through the roots, is released in the upper soil profile at night, and is stored there until it is resorbed by roots the following day. This phenomenon

  16. Update on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Anurag

    Update on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying Plant and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853­2701 Interest in root biology research (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, along with a sequenced genome, has led to valuable insights into root

  17. Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2 Running title: Co-regulation of root gravitropism and branching by auxin3 transport4 Lucas, M.1,2 , Godin, C.2: 27 June 200718 6 figures19 6 supplementary figures20 21 hal-00831806,version1- #12;2 ABSTRACT1 Root

  18. ROOT FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE: A FRAMEWORK FOR MODELLING THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ROOTS AND SOIL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROOT FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE: A FRAMEWORK FOR MODELLING THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ROOTS AND SOIL Alain biological activity and associated processes are concentrated in the soil located around living plant roots and influenced by root activity, an environment known as the rhizosphere. Consequently, among the wide array

  19. Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching

    E-print Network

    Smith, Steven E.

    Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero-rootedAccumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average salinitysustained crop production. Irrigation, even with moderately saline water, pushes accumulated salts deeper

  20. Rapid induction of Agrobacterium   tumefaciens -mediated transgenic roots directly from adventitious roots in Panax   ginseng

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Yeon Han; Yong Eui Choi

    2009-01-01

    Root segments from seedlings of Panax ginseng produced adventitious roots directly when cultured on 1\\/2 MS solid medium lacking NH4NO3 and containing 3.0 mg l?1 IBA. Using this adventitious root formation, we developed rapid and efficient transgenic root formation directly from adventitious\\u000a root segments in P. ginseng. Root segments were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) caring ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Putative transgenic adventitious roots were formed

  1. The pattern of secondary root formation in curving roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Fortin, M C; Pierce, F J; Poff, K L

    1989-01-01

    A gravitational stimulus was used to induce the curvature of the main root of Arabidopsis thaliana. The number of secondary roots increased on the convex side and decreased on the concave side of any curved main root axes in comparison with straight roots used as the control. The same phenomenon was observed with the curved main roots of plants grown on a clinostat and of mutant plants exhibiting random root orientation. The data suggest that the pattern of lateral root formation is associated with curvature but is independent of the environmental stimuli used to induce curvature. PMID:11539812

  2. Local root apex hypoxia induces NO-mediated hypoxic acclimation of the entire root.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Sergio; Azzarello, Elisa; Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Roots are very sensitive to hypoxia and adapt effectively to a reduced availability of oxygen in the soil. However, the site of the root where oxygen availability is sensed and how roots acclimate to hypoxia remain unclear. In this study, we found that the root apex transition zone plays central roles in both sensing and adapting to root hypoxia. The exposure of cells of the root apex to hypoxia is sufficient to achieve hypoxic acclimation of the entire root; particularly relevant in this respect is that, of the entire root apex, the transition zone cells show the highest demand for oxygen and also emit the largest amount of nitric oxide (NO). Local root apex-specific oxygen deprivation dramatically inhibits the oxygen influx peak in the transition zone and simultaneously stimulates a local increase in NO emission. The hypoxia-induced efflux of NO is strictly associated with the transition zone and is essential for hypoxic acclimation of the entire root. PMID:22422934

  3. Mueller matrix roots depolarization parameters.

    PubMed

    Noble, Hannah D; McClain, Stephen C; Chipman, Russell A

    2012-02-20

    The Mueller matrix roots decomposition recently proposed by Chipman in [1] and its three associated families of depolarization (amplitude depolarization, phase depolarization, and diagonal depolarization) are explored. Degree of polarization maps are used to differentiate among the three families and demonstrate the unity between phase and diagonal depolarization, while amplitude depolarization remains a distinct class. Three families of depolarization are generated via the averaging of different forms of two nondepolarizing Mueller matrices. The orientation of the resulting depolarization follows the cyclic permutations of the Pauli spin matrices. The depolarization forms of Mueller matrices from two scattering measurements are analyzed with the matrix roots decomposition-a sample of ground glass and a graphite and wood pencil tip. PMID:22358163

  4. Root systems of chaparral shrubs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Kummerow; David Krause; William Jow

    1977-01-01

    Root systems of chaparral shrubs were excavated from a 70 m2 plot of a mixed chaparral stand located on a north-facing slope in San Diego County (32°54' N; 900 m above sea level). The main shrub species present were Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos pungens, Ceanothus greggii, Erigonum fasciculatum, and Haplopappus pinifolius. Shrubs were wired into their positions, and the soil was

  5. Integrating Root Cause Analysis Methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leith Hitchcock

    Many Root Cause Analysis (RCA) methodologies have specific applications and limitations and in some case for complex machinery\\u000a investigations they can be combined and enhanced for better results. Typical methodologies that can be combined effectively\\u000a are Kepner Tregoe, Causal Tree Analysis (Apollo), Fault Tree Analysis, Logic Tree Analysis, Barrier Analysis, and Human Performance\\u000a Evaluation amongst others.\\u000a \\u000a The difficulty with many

  6. A method for counting roots observed in minirhizotrons and their theoretical conversion to root length density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Buckland; C. D. Campbell; L. A. Mackie-Dawson; G. W. Horgan; E. I. Duff

    1993-01-01

    A method for counting root intersections with observation tubes (mini- or micro-rhizotrons) is proposed that allows a theoretical\\u000a conversion of root counts to estimated root length density and which is robust to the effects of tracking along the tubes.\\u000a A field test showed that the method agreed well with measured root length densities in cores for wild cherry roots but

  7. Induction of branch roots by cutting method in t Hyoscyamus niger root culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Han Woo; Jong Moon Park; Ji-Won Yang

    1997-01-01

    Root tips of Hyoscyamus niger were cultivated on agar or in liquid medium, and patterns of elongation and branching were investigated.\\u000a The elongation of roots compared to branching, particularly tertiary root branching, was more effective in liquid medium than\\u000a on agar medium. The number (0.06 per cm) of tertiary roots which branched out from secondary roots was far less than

  8. Shoot regeneration capacity from roots and transgenic hairy roots of tomato cultivars and wild related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lázaro E. P. Peres; Patrícia G. Morgante; Cláudia Vecchi; Jane E. Kraus; Marie-Anne van Sluys

    2001-01-01

    The organogenetic competence of roots and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots of twelve Lycopersicon genotypes was investigated. Both roots and hairy roots of L. peruvianum, L. chilense, L. hirsutum and two L. peruvianum-derived genotypes regenerated shoots after 2–4 weeks of incubation on zeatin-contained medium. Anatomical analysis showed\\u000a that shoot regeneration in roots could be direct or indirect, depending on the genotype

  9. Complex Square Root with Operand Prescaling Milos D. Ercegovac

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Complex Square Root with Operand Prescaling Milos D. Ercegovac Computer Science Department, 3732-recurrence algorithm for complex square-root. The operand is prescaled to allow the selection of square-root digits routines for complex square root. 1 Introduction 1.1 Complex square-root Complex square-root appears

  10. Sites and Regulation of Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Ljung; Anna K. Hull; John Celenza; Masashi Yamada; Mark Estelle; Jennifer Normanly; Goran Sandberga

    2005-01-01

    Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative

  11. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-09-01

    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

  12. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots and root tips and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) colonized root pieces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It's fairly well established that a functional ethylene response path is important to root knot and cyst nematode colonization of plant roots. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and the role of ethylene in nematode colonization of roots may be indirect, e.g. lateral root initiati...

  13. Root exudates mediate kin recognition in plants

    PubMed Central

    Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Jilany, Tafari A

    2010-01-01

    Though recent work has demonstrated that plants can recognize species, kin versus strangers, and self/non-self roots, no mechanism for identity recognition in plants has yet been found. Here we examined the role of soluble chemicals in signaling among roots. Utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana, we exposed young seedlings to liquid media containing exudates from siblings, strangers (non-siblings), or only their own exudates. In one experiment, root secretions were inhibited by sodium orthovanadate and root length and number of lateral roots were measured. In a second experiment, responses to siblings, strangers, and their own exudates were measured for several accessions (genotypes), and the traits of length of the longest lateral root and hypocotyl length were also measured. The exposure of plants to the root exudates of strangers induced greater lateral root formation than exposure of plants to sibling exudates. Stranger recognition was abolished upon treatment with the secretion inhibitor. In one experiment, plants exposed to sibling or stranger exudates have shorter roots than plants only exposed to their own exudates. This self/non-self recognition response was not affected by the secretion inhibitor. The results demonstrate that that kin recognition and self/non-self are two separate identity recognition systems involving soluble chemicals. Kin recognition requires active secretion by roots. PMID:20539778

  14. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  15. Proanthocyanidins from Krameria triandra root.

    PubMed

    Scholz, E; Rimpler, H

    1989-08-01

    Oligomeric proanthocyanidins were isolated from rhatany root (Krameria triandra) and characterised by acid hydrolysis, thiolytic degradation, and spectroscopic methods. They consisted of 2-14 flavanol units with mainly 2,3-cis configuration and with a propelagonidin:procyanidin ratio of 65:35. The predominant interflavan linkage was [4,8]. [4,6]-Bonds were present in the higher oligomers, presumably forming branched chain units. The astringency of the drug was mainly due to proanthocyanidins with degrees of polymerization from 5-10, and these were also the astringent compounds of rhatany tea and tincture. A pharmacological screening of the extract revealed a significant antimicrobial effect. PMID:2813572

  16. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

  17. Genotypic recognition and spatial responses by rice roots

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Suqin; Clark, Randy T.; Zheng, Ying; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Weitz, Joshua S.; Kochian, Leon V.; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Liao, Hong; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Root system growth and development is highly plastic and is influenced by the surrounding environment. Roots frequently grow in heterogeneous environments that include interactions from neighboring plants and physical impediments in the rhizosphere. To investigate how planting density and physical objects affect root system growth, we grew rice in a transparent gel system in close proximity with another plant or a physical object. Root systems were imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. Root–root interaction strength was calculated using quantitative metrics that characterize the extent to which the reconstructed root systems overlap each other. Surprisingly, we found the overlap of root systems of the same genotype was significantly higher than that of root systems of different genotypes. Root systems of the same genotype tended to grow toward each other but those of different genotypes appeared to avoid each other. Shoot separation experiments excluded the possibility of aerial interactions, suggesting root communication. Staggered plantings indicated that interactions likely occur at root tips in close proximity. Recognition of obstacles also occurred through root tips, but through physical contact in a size-dependent manner. These results indicate that root systems use two different forms of communication to recognize objects and alter root architecture: root-root recognition, possibly mediated through root exudates, and root-object recognition mediated by physical contact at the root tips. This finding suggests that root tips act as local sensors that integrate rhizosphere information into global root architectural changes. PMID:23362379

  18. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be efficient in extracting water from the subsoil and better tolerate periods of water shortage. However, in this case the xylem axial resistance could be the limiting factor for the uptake of water.

  19. Roots at the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere is the layer of soil around the roots where complex and dynamic interactions between plants and soil affect the capacity of plants to take up water. The physical properties of the rhizosphere are affected by mucilage, a gel exuded by roots. Mucilage can absorb large volumes of water, but it becomes hydrophobic after drying. We use a percolation model to describe the rewetting of dry rhizosphere. We find that at a critical mucilage concentration the rhizosphere becomes impermeable. The critical mucilage concentration depends on the radius of the soil particle size. Capillary rise experiments with neutron radiography prove that for concentrations below the critical mucilage concentration water could easily cross the rhizosphere, while above the critical concentration water could no longer percolate through it. Our studies, together with former observations of water dynamics in the rhizosphere, suggest that the rhizosphere is near the percolation threshold, where small variations in mucilage concentration sensitively alter the soil hydraulic conductivity. Is mucilage exudation a plant mechanism to efficiently control the rhizosphere conductivity and the access to water? PMID:25974526

  20. Host Specificity of Mogulones cruciger (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Biocontrol Agent for Houndstongue ( Cynoglossum officinale ), with Emphasis on Testing of Native North American Boraginaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. De Clerck-Floate; M. Schwarzländer

    2002-01-01

    Recent concerns over the safety of native North American plant species in the family Boraginaceae, especially those of endangered status in the USA, prompted additional host specificity testing of the European root weevil Mogulones cruciger , a proposed agent for the biocontrol of houndstongue in the USA. M. cruciger can complete full development on species within closely-related genera in the

  1. Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poff, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

  2. An approach to minirhizotron root image analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Vamerali; A. Ganis; S. Bona; G. Mosca

    1999-01-01

    Minirhizotrons speed up research on root demography, but image quality often hampers standardization of the image processing\\u000a method. A simple procedure working on the blue band of colour images was tested on fibrous roots of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris\\u000a var. saccharifera). With respect to green and red, the blue band allows better detection of roots when their luminance is\\u000a very similar

  3. Root-knot Nematodes and Giant Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. K. Jones; Derek B. Goto

    \\u000a Of all the economically important plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) are amongst the most widespread, the best recognized and most widely studied. This is partly because infected roots\\u000a develop galls where the nematodes feed, which with severe infection give roots a ‘knotted’ appearance. They have a remarkably\\u000a wide host range, and are ubiquitous especially in tropical and sub-tropical

  4. Cluster Roots: A Curiosity in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Shane; Hans Lambers

    2005-01-01

    Cluster roots are an adaptation for nutrient acquisition from nutrient-poor soils. They develop on root systems of a range\\u000a of species belonging to a number of different families (e.g., Proteaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae) and are\\u000a also found on root systems of some crop species (e.g., albus, Macadamia integrifoliaandCucurbita pepo). Their morphology is variable but typically, large numbers of determinate

  5. New stopping criteria for iterative root finding

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    2014-01-01

    A set of simple stopping criteria is presented, which improve the efficiency of iterative root finding by terminating the iterations immediately when no further improvement of the roots is possible. The criteria use only the function evaluations already needed by the root finding procedure to which they are applied. The improved efficiency is achieved by formulating the stopping criteria in terms of fractional significant digits. Test results show that the new stopping criteria reduce the iteration work load by about one-third compared with the most efficient stopping criteria currently available. This is achieved without compromising the accuracy of the extracted roots. PMID:26064544

  6. OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

  7. Chemical root pruning and its effects on water relations and root morphology of photinia 

    E-print Network

    Vartak, Diptish Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    -treated containers. The effects of chemical root pruning on water relations and root morphology were studied. A model was developed to predict transpiration in greenhouse grown photinia. A separate experiment was conducted to test accuracy of stem gauges...

  8. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  9. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  10. ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUE 325 7.6.2 DiscreteTime Root Locus Experiment

    E-print Network

    Gajic, Zoran

    ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUE 325 7.6.2 Discrete­Time Root Locus Experiment Part 1. Give interpretation of the root locus rules from Table 7.1 in the context of discrete­time systems. Note that the imaginary axis(A,B,C,D,K) to draw the root locus for a fifth­order discrete­time model of a steam power control system considered

  11. Abscisic acid and gibberellin-like substances in roots and root nodules of Glycine max

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Williams; Margarita Sicardi De Mallorca

    1982-01-01

    Summary  The content of endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances of roots and root nodules of SOya, and GA production byRhizobium japonicum cultures, were investigated by a combined thin layer chromatographic (TLC)-dwarf pea epicotyl bioassay technique. GAs were\\u000a more concentrated in root nodules than in the roots, totalling 1.34 and 0.16 nM GA3 equivalents g?1 dry wt. respectively. GA production byR. japonicum cultures

  12. Mercury content of sprouts and harvested roots from treated sweet potato mother roots. [Ipomoea batatas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Huisingh; L. W. Nielsen

    1972-01-01

    Mercury containing fungicides have been used extensively for seed and root disease control, but data on the fate of the mercury (Hg) are scarce. Experiments were designed to see if Hg applied to propagative sweet potato roots increased the Hg-content of edible roots. Roots were treated with Semesan Bel(hydroxymercurinitrophenol + hydroxymercurichlorophenol), Mertect (Thiabendazole: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), or Botran (2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroanaline) at recommended rates

  13. Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

  14. An unusual root tip formation in hairy root culture of Hyoscyamus muticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mondher Jaziri; Jacques Homes; Koichiro Shimomura

    1994-01-01

    Summary  Hairy root cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus were established using Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834. In one out of 8 clones established, an unusual root tip formation was observed after transfer of cultures from half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) to White's medium (1939). This phenomenon was associated with the production of a fine brownish cell suspension culture. Hairy root development resumed after

  15. Human Root Caries: Microbiota in Plaque Covering Sound, Carious and Arrested Carious Root Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schüpbach; V. Osterwalder; B. Guggenheim

    1995-01-01

    The plaque microbiota covering sound or carious root surfaces were studied and compared with that covering arrested root caries lesions. From each of these categories five extracted teeth were examined. The experimental design of the study allowed us to relate the qualitative and quantitative microbial composition to the degree of integrity of the root surface. Plaque was sampled by a

  16. Kinetics of short-term root-carbon mineralization in roots of biofuel crops in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand and document the rates of root decomposition in biofuel cropping systems, we compared the evolution of CO2 from roots incubated with samples of two Iowa Mollisols. Root samples were collected from experimental plots for four cropping systems: a multispecies reconstructed prairie...

  17. Shoot-root defense signaling and activation of root defense by leaf damage in poplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian T. Major; C. Peter Constabel

    2007-01-01

    Shoot-root systemic defense signaling of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray Populus del- toides Bartr. ex Marsh.) was investigated with molecular techniques to extend existing knowledge of poplar defense. Treat- ment of roots with methyl jasmonate demonstrated that transcripts of PtdTI3, a poplar trypsin inhibitor and marker of poplar defense responses, can be induced in poplar roots as

  18. Regulation of shoot\\/root ratio by cytokinins from roots in Urtica dioica : Opinion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin H. Beck

    1996-01-01

    According to current knowledge, cytokinins are predominantly root-born phytohormones which are transported into the shoot by the transpiration stream. In the “hormone message concept” they are considered the root signals, which mediate the flux of the photosynthates to the various sinks of the plant. In this review, experiments are assessed, in which changes of the shoot to root ratio of

  19. Root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots of eastern oak species to Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about root susceptibility of eastern tree species to Phytophthora ramorum. In this study, we examined root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots. Oak radicles of several eastern oak species were exposed to zoospore suspensions of 1, 10, 100, or 1000 zoospores per ml at ...

  20. The position and growth of lateral roots on cultured root axes of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum ( Solanaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Barlow; J. S. Adam

    1988-01-01

    Root axes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cultured in vitro in three different concentrations of sucrose in order to vary their growth rate. Lateral root growth and the initiation of lateral root primordia were studied on each group of axes. Various aspects of primordium initiation, positioning, and emergence were quantified with a view to discovering variable and constant features of

  1. Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M G.; Tingey, D T.; Phillips, D L.; Storm, M J.

    2001-06-01

    Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, a review of the literature indicates a wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhizotron data are used. Tube installation is critical, and steps must be taken to insure good soil/tube contact without compacting the soil. Ideally, soil adjacent to minirhizotrons will mimic bulk soil. Tube installation causes some degree of soil disturbance and has the potential to create artifacts in subsequent root data and analysis. We therefore recommend a waiting period between tube installation and image collection of 6-12 months to allow roots to recolonize the space around the tubes and to permit nutrients to return to pre-disturbance levels. To make repeated observations of individual roots for the purposes of quantifying their dynamic properties (e.g. root production, turnover or lifespan), tubes should be secured to prevent movement. The frequency of image collection depends upon the root parameters being measured or calculated and the time and resources available for collecting images and extracting data. However, long sampling intervals of 8 weeks or more can result in large underestimates of root dynamic properties because more fine roots will be born and die unobserved between sampling events. A sampling interval of 2 weeks or less reduces these underestimates to acceptable levels. While short sample intervals are desirable, they can lead to a potential trade-off between the number of minirhizotron tubes used and the number of frames analyzed per tube. Analyzing fewer frames per minirhizotron tube is one way to reduce costs with only minor effects on data variation. The quality of minirhizotron data should be assessed and reported; procedures for quantifying the quality of minirhizotron data are presented here. Root length is a more sensitive metric for dynamic root properties than the root number. To make minirhizotron data from separate experiments more easily comparable, idiosyncratic units should be avoided. Volumetric units compatible with aboveground plant measures make minirhizotron-based estimates of root standing crop, production and turnover more useful. Methods for calculating the volumetric root data are discussed and an example presented. Procedures for estimating fine root lifespan are discussed. PMID:11323033

  2. Root-soil relationships and terroir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Soil features, along with climate, are among the most important determinants of a succesful grape production in a certain area. Most of the studies, so far, investigated the above-ground vine response to differente edaphic and climate condition, but it is clearly not sufficient to explain the vine whole behaviour. In fact, roots represent an important part of the terroir system (soil-plant-atmosphere-man), and their study can provide better comprehension of vine responses to different environments. The root density and distribution, the ability of deep-rooting and regenerating new roots are good indicators of root well-being, and represents the basis for an efficient physiological activity of the root system. Root deepening and distribution are strongly dependent and sensitive on soil type and soil properties, while root density is affected mostly by canopy size, rootstock and water availability. According to root well-being, soil management strategies should alleviate soil impediments, improving aeration and microbial activity. Moreover, agronomic practices can impact root system performance and influence the above-ground growth. It is well known, for example, that the root system size is largely diminished by high planting densities. Close vine spacings stimulate a more effective utilization of the available soil, water and nutrients, but if the competition for available soil becomes too high, it can repress vine growth, and compromise vineyard longevity, productivity and reaction to growing season weather. Development of resilient rootstocks, more efficient in terms of water and nutrient uptake and capable of dealing with climate and soil extremes (drought, high salinity) are primary goals fore future research. The use of these rootstocks will benefit a more sustainable use of the soil resources and the preservation and valorisation of the terroir.

  3. Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Horiike, G; Kuroyanagi, M; Noguchi, H; Shimizu, M; Niwa, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1999-05-14

    Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation. PMID:10356981

  4. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  5. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  6. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie C.

    2007-05-02

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

  7. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alexander M; Silverberg, Jesse L; Padgett, Jennifer; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D) using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for 2 months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals) and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific), than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies. PMID:25972880

  8. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root–root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Paya, Alexander M.; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Padgett, Jennifer; Bauerle, Taryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D) using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for 2 months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals) and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific), than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies. PMID:25972880

  9. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  10. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  11. The best for the guest: high Andean nurse cushions of Azorella madreporica enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal status in associated plant species.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Torres-Mellado, Gustavo Adolfo; Palfner, Goetz; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2011-10-01

    Positive interactions between cushion plant and associated plants species in the high Andes of central Chile should also include the effects of fungal root symbionts. We hypothesized that higher colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi exists in cushion-associated (nursling) plants compared with conspecific individuals growing on bare ground. We assessed the AM status of Andean plants at two sites at different altitudes (3,200 and 3,600 ma.s.l.) in 23 species, particularly in cushions of Azorella madreporica and five associated plants; additionally, AM fungal spores were retrieved from soil outside and beneath cushions. 18 of the 23 examined plant species presented diagnostic structures of arbuscular mycorrhiza; most of them were also colonized by dark-septate endophytes. Mycorrhization of A. madreporica cushions showed differences between both sites (68% and 32%, respectively). In the native species Hordeum comosum, Nastanthus agglomeratus, and Phacelia secunda associated to A. madreporica, mycorrhization was six times higher than in the same species growing dispersed on bare ground at 3,600 ma.s.l., but mycorrhiza development was less cushion dependent in the alien plants Cerastium arvense and Taraxacum officinale at both sites. The ratio of AM fungal spores beneath versus outside cushions was also 6:1. The common and abundant presence of AM in cushion communities at high altitudes emphasizes the importance of the fungal root symbionts in such situations where plant species benefit from the microclimatic conditions generated by the cushion and also from well-developed mycorrhizal networks. PMID:21384201

  12. Extended Affine Root Systems III ( Elliptic Weyl Groups )

    E-print Network

    Saito, Kyoji

    Extended Affine Root Systems III ( Elliptic Weyl root system*)R) in terms of the elliptic Dynkin diagram (R, * *G) for the elliptic root system of W (R). *) an elliptic root system = a 2-extended affine root system (see the int* *roduction

  13. ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES International Conference

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    #12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO;Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 M

  14. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DRYING RATE OF ECHINACEA ROOT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Kabganian; Danielle Julie Carrier; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2002-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia or the purple coneflower is an important medicinal plant that boosts the immune system. It is believed that the active ingredients are predominantly located in the root. Physical characteristics and drying rates of the root of E. angustifolia from a farm in Saskatchewan, Canada were studied. Root consisted of a main (central) root and secondary root branches. Cleaned

  15. GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically for the high-throughput analysis of root system images. GiA Roots includes user-assisted algorithms to distinguish root from background and a fully automated pipeline that extracts dozens of root system phenotypes. Quantitative information on each phenotype, along with intermediate steps for full reproducibility, is returned to the end-user for downstream analysis. GiA Roots has a GUI front end and a command-line interface for interweaving the software into large-scale workflows. GiA Roots can also be extended to estimate novel phenotypes specified by the end-user. Conclusions We demonstrate the use of GiA Roots on a set of 2393 images of rice roots representing 12 genotypes from the species Oryza sativa. We validate trait measurements against prior analyses of this image set that demonstrated that RSA traits are likely heritable and associated with genotypic differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that GiA Roots is extensible and an end-user can add functionality so that GiA Roots can estimate novel RSA traits. In summary, we show that the software can function as an efficient tool as part of a workflow to move from large numbers of root images to downstream analysis. PMID:22834569

  16. Rational Roots of Polynomials with Integer Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Randel; Walls, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    In this note the authors investigate ways to shorten the amount of work involved in using the Rational Roots Theorem to find the rational roots of a polynomial with integral coefficients. The first result is a proof of a fact that we had long suspected, but were never able to find the statement of in any of the college algebra textbooks we had…

  17. Astroculture ™ root metabolism and cytochemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Porterfield; D. J. Barta; D. W. Ming; R. C. Morrow; M. E. Musgrave

    2000-01-01

    Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture™ plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the

  18. A Grass Root Proposal for Carbon Sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Salter; Tony Lovell; Bruce Ward

    2010-01-01

    The mass of invisible root material below ground is related to the amount of visible plant material above ground as would have been shown below except for EGU rules. However in many countries modern livestock management methods involve constant grazing which keeps grass short and so leaves very little root mass. This paper will show photographic comparisons, such as the

  19. Growth and development of root system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and development of root systems of cotton plants is under genetic control but may be modified by the environment. There are many factors that influence root development in cotton. These range from abiotic factors such as soil temperature, soil water, and soil aeration to biotic factors ...

  20. Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Johnson; D. T. Tingey; D. L. Phillips; M. J. Storm

    2001-01-01

    Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, a review of the literature indicates a wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhizotron data are used. Tube installation is critical, and steps must be taken to insure good soil\\/tube contact without compacting the soil.

  1. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  2. ADVANCING FINE ROOT RESEARCH WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, it is clear from the literature that there is still wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhi...

  3. Root-L Geneaology Discussion List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1987-01-01

    ROOTS-L is a mailing list for genealogical researchers. Topics include surname queries, discussions of methodology and interesting genealogical web sites, etc. send email to: LISTSERV@MAIL.EWORLD.COM in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE ROOTS-L yourfirstname yourlastname

  4. Gravity Signal Transduction in Primary Roots

    PubMed Central

    PERRIN, ROBYN M.; YOUNG, LI-SEN; NARAYANA MURTHY, U.M.; HARRISON, BENJAMIN R.; WANG, YAN; WILL, JESSICA L.; MASSON, PATRICK H.

    2005-01-01

    • Aims The molecular mechanisms that correlate with gravity perception and signal transduction in the tip of angiosperm primary roots are discussed. • Scope Gravity provides a cue for downward orientation of plant roots, allowing anchorage of the plant and uptake of the water and nutrients needed for growth and development. Root gravitropism involves a succession of physiological steps: gravity perception and signal transduction (mainly mediated by the columella cells of the root cap); signal transmission to the elongation zone; and curvature response. Interesting new insights into gravity perception and signal transduction within the root tip have accumulated recently by use of a wide range of experimental approaches in physiology, biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics and cell biology. The data suggest a network of signal transduction pathways leading to a lateral redistribution of auxin across the root cap and a possible involvement of cytokinin in initial phases of gravicurvature. • Conclusion These new discoveries illustrate the complexity of a highly redundant gravity-signalling process in roots, and help to elucidate the global mechanisms that govern auxin transport and morphogenetic regulation in roots. PMID:16033778

  5. Root canal sealers induce cytotoxicity and necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsui-Hsien Huang; Shinn-Jyh Ding; Ting-Zen Hsu; Zen-Dar Lee; Chia-Tze Kao

    2004-01-01

    There are three types of the root canal sealers commonly used in clinical applications. They are calcium hydroxide base (Sealapex), zinc oxide–eugenol base (Canals), and epoxy-resin base (AH Plus). Elutable substances and degradation products from root canal sealers may gain access to periodontal tissue in a number of ways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biologic

  6. 2001 NORTH AMERICAN ROOT WEEVIL WORKSHOP PREFACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The First North American Root Weevil Workshop was held at the Oregon State University North Willamette Research and Extension Center in Aurora, Oregon, November 1-2, 2001. The participants discussed a range of topics about root weevil biology, detection, and monitoring, as well as the population dy...

  7. Sporulation on plant roots by Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum has been shown to infect the roots of many of the pathogen’s foliar hosts. Methods of detecting inoculum in runoff and of quantifying root colonization were tested using Viburnum tinus, Camellia oleifera, Quercus prinus, Umbellularia californica, and Epilobium ciliatum. Plants...

  8. ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

  9. Gravitropism and Autotropism in Cress Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    The overall purpose of this experiment was to study how cress roots respond to a withdrawal of a gravity stimulus i.e. when and how much the roots straighten (autotropism) after curving (gravitropism). This question was studied both in extensive ground-based research and in microgravity on BioRack.

  10. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues.

    PubMed

    Slocum, R D; Gaynor, J J; Galston, A W

    1984-11-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight. PMID:11538824

  11. Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Hales; C. R. Ford; T. Hwang; J. M. Vose; L. E. Band

    2009-01-01

    Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether

  12. Nitrate contra auxin: nutrient sensing by roots.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Tom; Friml, Jirí

    2010-06-15

    In a new study published in this issue of Developmental Cell, Krouk et al. reveal a surprising mechanism by which plant root systems adapt their architecture for soil exploitation. The dual transporter NRT1.1 uses both nitrate and the plant hormone auxin as substrates, enabling soil nitrate availability to regulate auxin-driven lateral root development. PMID:20627068

  13. CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOWARD T. BONNETT

    1969-01-01

    Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

  14. Root cause localization in large scale systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emre Kiciman; Lakshminarayanan Subramanian

    2005-01-01

    Root cause localization, the process of identifying the source of problems in a system using purely external observations, is a significant challenge in many large-scale systems. In this pa- per, we propose an abstract model that captures the common issues underlying root cause localization and hence provides the ability to leverage solutions across different systems. The primary motivation of this

  15. Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass

    E-print Network

    Krausz, Joseph P.

    2005-04-21

    the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus...

  16. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  17. Effect of lead on root growth

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  18. How roots perceive and respond to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Graviperception by plant roots is believed to occur via the sedimentation of amyloplasts in columella cells of the root cap. This physical stimulus results in an accumulation of calcium on the lower side of the cap, which in turn induces gravicurvature. In this paper we present a model for root gravitropism integrating gravity-induced changes in electrical potential, cytochemical localization of calcium in cells of gravistimulated roots, and the interdependence of calcium and auxin movement. Key features of the model are that 1) gravity-induced redistribution of calcium is an early event in the transduction mechanism, and 2) apoplastic movement of calcium through the root-cap mucilage may be an important component of the pathway for calcium movement.

  19. Alfalfa Root Flavonoid Production Is Nitrogen Regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, C.; Zuanazzi, JAS.; Sallaud, C.; Quirion, J. C.; Esnault, R.; Husson, H. P.; Kondorosi, A.; Ratet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids produced by legume roots are signal molecules acting both as chemoattractants and nod gene inducers for the symbiotic Rhizobium partner. Combined nitrogen inhibits the establishment of the symbiosis. To know whether nitrogen nutrition could act at the level of signal production, we have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes as well as the production of flavonoids in the roots of plants grown under nitrogen-limiting or nonlimiting conditions. We show here that growth of the plant under nitrogen-limiting conditions results in the enhancement of expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes chalcone synthase and isoflavone reductase and in an increase of root flavonoid and isoflavonoid production as well as in the Rhizobium meliloti nod gene-inducing activity of the root extract. These results indicate that in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots, the production of flavonoids can be influenced by the nitrogen nutrition of the plant. PMID:12228491

  20. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    PubMed Central

    Lartaud, Marc; Perin, Christophe; Courtois, Brigitte; Thomas, Emilie; Henry, Sophia; Bettembourg, Mathilde; Divol, Fanchon; Lanau, Nadege; Artus, Florence; Bureau, Charlotte; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Sarah, Gautier; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Dievart, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex, and central metaxylem vessels), number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-olds stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex) but a decrease in external (peripheral) tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis, and epidermis). Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations. PMID:25646121

  1. Variation of the Linkage of Root Function with Root Branch Order

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengxia; Zeng, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence has shown strong linkage of root function with root branch order. However, it is not known whether this linkage is consistent in different species. Here, root anatomic traits of the first five branch order were examined in five species differing in plant phylogeny and growth form in tropical and subtropical forests of south China. In Paramichelia baillonii, one tree species in Magnoliaceae, the intact cortex as well as mycorrhizal colonization existed even in the fifth-order root suggesting the preservation of absorption function in the higher-order roots. In contrast, dramatic decreases of cortex thickness and mycorrhizal colonization were observed from lower- to higher-order roots in three other tree species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Acacia auriculiformis and Gordonia axillaries, which indicate the loss of absorption function. In a fern, Dicranopteris dichotoma, there were several cortex layers with prominently thickened cell wall and no mycorrhizal colonization in the third- and fourth-order roots, also demonstrating the loss of absorptive function in higher-order roots. Cluster analysis using these anatomic traits showed a different classification of root branch order in P. baillonii from other four species. As for the conduit diameter-density relationship in higher-order roots, the mechanism underpinning this relationship in P. baillonii was different from that in other species. In lower-order roots, different patterns of coefficient of variance for conduit diameter and density provided further evidence for the two types of linkage of root function with root branch order. These linkages corresponding to two types of ephemeral root modules have important implication in the prediction of terrestrial carbon cycling, although we caution that this study was pseudo-replicated. Future studies by sampling more species can test the generality of these two types of linkage. PMID:23451168

  2. Retinal Glia Promote Dorsal Root Ganglion Axon Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Lorber, Barbara; Chew, Daniel J.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Chong, Rachel S.; Fawcett, James W.; Martin, Keith R.

    2015-03-27

    growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify...

  3. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  4. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  5. ANCHORAGE MECHANICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ANCHORAGE MECHANICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEMS A thesis submitted to the University..........................................................................................................................................................11 1.1.1 Types of Root Systems ...................................................................................................................................11 1.1.2 Factors Influencing Root System Form

  6. Locally finite root systems Ottmar Loos Erhard Neher

    E-print Network

    Locally finite root systems Ottmar Loos Erhard Neher Institut ......................................... * *14 3. Locally finite root systems .............................................. * * 21 4 ............................................................ 38 6. Integral bases, root bases and Dynkin diagrams ......................... 47 7. Weights

  7. Establishment of willow cuttings grown in porous membrane root envelopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan P. Drew

    1993-01-01

    Small diameter fine, fibrous roots of willow are exceedingly difficult to remove from most soils. Where field retrieval of entire plants including clean roots may be important, porous membrane rooting envelopes are a method of choice.

  8. Root Hypoxia Reduces Leaf Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Barbara A.; Neuman, Dawn S.; Stachowiak, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the potential role of restricted phloem export, or import of substances from the roots in the leaf growth response to root hypoxia. In addition, the effects of root hypoxia on abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) levels were measured and their effects on in vitro growth determined. Imposition of root hypoxia in the dark when transpirational water flux was minimal delayed the reduction in leaf growth until the following light period. Restriction of phloem transport by stem girdling did not eliminate the hypoxia-induced reduction in leaf growth. In vitro growth of leaf discs was inhibited in the presence of xylem sap collected from hypoxic roots, and also by millimolar ABA. Disc growth was promoted by sap from aerated roots and by 0.1 micromolar ZR. The flux of both ABA and ZR was reduced in xylem sap from hypoxic roots. Leaf ABA transiently increased twofold after 24 hours of hypoxia exposure but there were no changes in leaf cytokinin levels. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667366

  9. Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche. PMID:22808103

  10. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

  11. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  12. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany.

    PubMed

    Djingova, Rumiana; Kovacheva, Petya; Wagner, Gerhard; Markert, Bernd

    2003-06-01

    Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and Ir) and Ce, La, Nd, Pb and Zr have been determined in street dust, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Plantago lanceolata (plantain), Lolium multiflorum (annual ryegrass), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (moss) and Vascellum pratense (mushrooms) collected along highways and streets in Germany during 1999. Among the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) reflects most adequately the pollution with the investigated elements matching the results from street dust. A strong positive correlation between all elements determined in the plants is established. Transfer factor for Pt between soil and plants has been determined in an agricultural experiment ranging between 0.004 and 0.008 for two types of soils. PMID:12738216

  13. Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

  14. Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants. PMID:23785372

  15. Light as stress factor to plant roots – case of root halotropism

    PubMed Central

    Yokawa, Ken; Fasano, Rossella; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing underground, largely in darkness, roots emerge to be very sensitive to light. Recently, several important papers have been published which reveal that plant roots not only express all known light receptors but also that their growth, physiology and adaptive stress responses are light-sensitive. In Arabidopsis, illumination of roots speeds-up root growth via reactive oxygen species-mediated and F-actin dependent process. On the other hand, keeping Arabidopsis roots in darkness alters F-actin distribution, polar localization of PIN proteins as well as polar transport of auxin. Several signaling components activated by phytohormones are overlapping with light-related signaling cascade. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of roots to salinity is altered in the light-grown Arabidopsis roots. Particularly, light-exposed roots are less effective in their salt-avoidance behavior known as root halotropism. Here we discuss these new aspects of light-mediated root behavior from cellular, physiological and evolutionary perspectives. PMID:25566292

  16. Roots of algebraic equations and Clifford algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston Casanova

    1999-01-01

    If an algebraic equation onIR admits real roots it admits hyperbolic roots which are elements of the set (x\\u000a 0 + ?y\\u000a 0) where ? is a Clifford number having a square equal to 1. The equation can have hyperbolic or real roots\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a $${{(a_1 + a_2 )} \\\\over 2} + \\\\varepsilon {{(a_1 - a_2 )} \\\\over 2}$$\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ifa\\u000a 1 anda

  17. Selenium Absorption by Excised Astragalus Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Jane M.; Shrift, Alex

    1968-01-01

    Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl2 and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator. PMID:5638040

  18. Selenium absorption by excised Astragalus roots.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, J M; Shrift, A

    1968-01-01

    Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl(2) and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator. PMID:5638040

  19. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

  20. Euphorbia escula L. Root and Root Bud Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels at Three Phenologic Stages.

    PubMed

    Nissen, S J; Foley, M E

    1987-06-01

    Endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels of Euphorbia esula L. primary root and root buds were examined at three phenologic stages. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using (13)C(6)[benzene ring]-indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, were used to measure root bud free and bound IAA levels in vegetative, full flower, and post-flower plants. Highest levels of free IAA (103 nanograms per gram fresh weight) were found in root buds during full flower. Esterified and amide IAA increased significantly in root buds of full flower and post-flower plants, but were not detectable in root buds of vegetative plants. Primary rootfree IAA was highest in vegetative and full flower plants (34.5 nanograms per gram fresh weight) and decreased by 50% in post-flower plants. PMID:16665432

  1. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  2. Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects Root Gorelick*

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects Root Gorelick* School of Life Sciences, Arizona environmentally alterable additive genetic variance confounds prediction of evolutionary trajectories, but (1 phenotypically plastic than animals. Conclusion: Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects place

  3. LCD ROOT Simulation and Analysis Tools

    E-print Network

    Masako Iwasaki; Toshinori Abe

    2001-02-07

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

  4. LCD ROOT Simulation and Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Masako

    2001-02-08

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

  5. Irregular sesquiterpenoids from Ligusticum grayi roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root oil of Ligusticum grayi (Apiaceae) contains numerous irregular sesquiterpenoids. In addition to the known acyclic sesquilavandulol and a new sesquilavandulyl aldehyde, two thapsanes, one epithapsane, and fourteen sesquiterpenoids representing eight novel carbon skeletons were found. The new sk...

  6. Flavonoids in roots of Sophora prostrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munekazu Iinuma; Masayoshi Ohyama; Toshiyuki Tanaka

    1995-01-01

    Further investigation of the phenolic constituents in the roots of Sophora prostrata gave 14 phenolic compounds, including four new ones, prostratols D-G. Structures were characterized by means of spectral data involving 2D NMR techniques.

  7. Building and tracking root shapes.

    PubMed

    Jacq, Jean-José; Schwartz, Cédric; Burdin, Valérie; Gérard, Romain; Lefèvre, Christian; Roux, Christian; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    An algorithm aiming at robust and simultaneous registrations of a sequence of 3-D shapes was recently presented by Jacq et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 55, no. 5, 2008]. This algorithm has to carry out an implicit representation of their common root shape (RS). A particular emphasis was put on the median consensus shape, which is a specific type of RS. Unlike this previous study, mainly focusing on the algorithm foundations while dealing with very specific applications examples, this paper attempts to show the versatility of the RS concept through a set of three problems involving a wider scope of application. The first problem copes with the design of prosthetic cortical plates for the hip joint. It shows how an explicit reconstruction of the RS, coming with its consensus map, could bring out an intermediary anatomical support from which pragmatic choices could be made, thereby performing a tradeoff between morphological, surgical, and production considerations. The second problem addresses in vivo real-time shoulder biomechanics through a miniature 3-D video camera. This new protocol implicitly operates through RS tracking of the content of virtual spotlights. It is shown that the current medical-oriented protocol, while operating within expert offices through low-cost equipments, could challenge high-end professional equipments despite some limitations of the 3-D video cameras currently available. The last problem deals with respiratory motions. This is an auxiliary measurement required by some medical imaging systems that can be handled as a basic application case of the former new protocol. PMID:19457742

  8. Diet of nestling Linnets ( Acanthis cannabina L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Christine Eybert; Pierre Constant

    1998-01-01

    Summary The diet of nestling linnets (Acanthis cannabina) living on a heathland in Brittany (France) was studied by faecal pellet analysis during the 1982 and 1983 breeding seasons. Seeds composed the main part of the diet. According to month,Taraxacum officinale (Compositae),Stellaria media (Caryophyllaceae),Brassica napus (Cruciferae),Anthoxantum odoratum (Gramineae) andEuphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae) dominated. Nestling age and brood size influenced parents' food selection,

  9. Growth of hybrid poplar as affected by dandelion and quackgrass competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bachitter S. Kabba; J. Diane Knight; Ken C. J. Van Rees

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and quackgrass (Elymus repens) on the growth of hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides?×?Populus?×?petrowskyana var. Walker). Single hybrid poplar seedlings were grown in pots either alone (SHP) or with four or eight dandelion plants\\u000a per pot or with one or three quackgrass plants per pot

  10. Warming and Intensified Summer Drought Influence Leaf Dark Respiration and Related Plant Traits in Three Dominant Species of the Southern Oak Savanna

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Kourtnee Marr

    2011-08-08

    . Larigauderie et al. (1995) found that, in several different alpine and lowland species (Poa alpine, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Luzula alpino-pilosa, Carex foetida, Cirsium alpinum, Saxifraga biflora, Luzula campestris, Carex caryophyllea, and Cirsium acaule...) little or no acclimation of respiration occurred when grown at low temperatures, while other species (Ranunculus acris, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Leucanthemum alpinum, Poa pratensis, Taraxacum alpinum, T. officinale) did exhibit acclimation of respiration...

  11. Root anatomy of grasses and clovers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Soper

    1959-01-01

    Comparisons are made of the anatomy of the mature parts of roots of the grasses Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, Glyceria fluitans, and Alopecurus pratensis.Noteworthy features include a well-marked exodermis and a subjacent layer of sclerenchyma in Glyceria; the greater lignification of the Dactylis root as compared with Lolium; the greater total cross-sectional area of metaxylem vessels in Dactylis compared with

  12. Operated semigroups, Motzkin paths and rooted trees

    E-print Network

    Guo, Li

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial objects such as rooted trees that carry a recursive structure have found important applications recently in both mathematics and physics. We put such structures in an algebraic framework of operated semigroups. This framework provides the concept of operated semigroups with intuitive and convenient combinatorial descriptions, and at the same time endows the familiar combinatorial objects with a precise algebraic interpretation. As an application, we obtain constructions of free Rota-Baxter algebras in terms of Motzkin paths and rooted trees.

  13. High throughput phenotyping of root growth dynamics, lateral root formation, root architecture and root hair development enabled by PlaRoM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima YazdanbakhshA; Joachim FisahnA

    Plant organ phenotyping by non-invasive video imaging techniques provides a powerful tool to assess physiological traits and biomass production. We describe here a range of applications of a recently developed plant root monitoring platform (PlaRoM). PlaRoM consists of an imaging platform and a root extension profiling software application.Thisplatformhasbeendevelopedformultiparallelrecordingsofrootgrowthphenotypesofupto50individual seedlings over several days, with high spatial and temporal resolution. PlaRoM can

  14. Soil physical conditions affecting seedling root growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Eavis

    1972-01-01

    Summary  The role of mechanical impedance, poor aeration and water availability in restricting pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling root growth in sandy loam soil at three bulk densities and six matric potentials was studied. Mechanical impedance\\u000a increased both with bulk density and —matric potential. In certain treatments the roots were shorter and thicker as impedance\\u000a increased but in others shorter, thicker

  15. Root water uptake by kiwifruit vines following partial wetting of the root zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Green; B. E. Clothier

    1995-01-01

    Rates of sap flow and root-water uptake by two 7-year old kiwifruit vines (Acinidia deliciosa) were studied in an orchard with the aim of determining the ability of the vines to alter their spatial pattern of root-water uptake following differential wetting of the root zone. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to monitor changes in the soil's volumetric water content, p.

  16. Fine root biomass and turnover in southern taiga estimated by root inclusion nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lukac; Douglas L. Godbold

    2010-01-01

    Fine roots play an important part in forest carbon, nutrient and water cycles. The turnover of fine roots constitutes a major\\u000a carbon input to soils. Estimation of fine root turnover is difficult, labour intensive and is often compounded by artefacts\\u000a created by soil disturbance. In this work, an alternative approach of using inclusion nets installed in an undisturbed soil\\u000a profile

  17. Suppression of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Roots Is Required for Sustained Root Growth under Phosphate Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun; Yu, Haopeng; Tian, Caihuan; Zhou, Wenkun; Li, Chuanyou; Jiao, Yuling; Liu, Dong

    2014-05-27

    Plants cope with inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiencies in their environment by adjusting their developmental programs and metabolic activities. For Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the developmental responses include the inhibition of primary root growth and the enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs. Pi deficiency also inhibits photosynthesis by suppressing the expression of photosynthetic genes. Early studies showed that photosynthetic gene expression was also suppressed in Pi-deficient roots, a nonphotosynthetic organ; however, the biological relevance of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hypersensitive to Pi starvation7 (hps7), that is hypersensitive to Pi deficiency; the hypersensitivity includes an increased inhibition of root growth. HPS7 encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase. Accumulation of HPS7 proteins in root tips is enhanced by Pi deficiency. Comparative RNA sequencing analyses indicated that the expression of many photosynthetic genes is activated in roots of hps7. Under Pi deficiency, the expression of photosynthetic genes in hps7 is further increased, which leads to enhanced accumulation of chlorophyll, starch, and sucrose. Pi-deficient hps7 roots also produce a high level of reactive oxygen species. Previous research showed that the overexpression of GOLDEN-like (GLK) transcription factors in transgenic Arabidopsis activates photosynthesis in roots. The GLK overexpressing (GLK OX) lines also exhibit increased inhibition of root growth under Pi deficiency. The increased inhibition of root growth in hps7 and GLK OX lines by Pi deficiency was completely reversed by growing the plants in the dark. Based on these results, we propose that suppression of photosynthetic gene expression is required for sustained root growth under Pi deficiency. PMID:24868033

  18. Proximal root diameter as predictor of total root size for fractal branching models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Y. Spek; Meine van Noordwijk

    1994-01-01

    If root systems have scale-independent branching rules, the total number of links in the root system can be predicted from\\u000a the ratio of the largest and smallest root diameter. In Paper I we presented an algebraic model for a dicho-syntomous pattern\\u000a (the simplest form of proportionate branching forming two equal branches at each node) and a herringbone branching model (the

  19. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  20. Astroculture™ Root Metabolism and Cytochemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

    Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture™ plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure