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1

Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root induction in Taraxacum officinale and analysis of sesquiterpene lactones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots were efficiently induced from leaf and petiole explants of Taraxacum officinale after infection with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The highest frequency of hairy root initiation was observed after transformation of leaf explants with the A4 strain. Hairy roots developed from leaf tissue produced more biomass than non-transformed roots. A quantitative study of sesquiterpene lactones

A. Mahesh; R. Jeyachandran

2011-01-01

2

Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11?, 13-dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11 in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.

W Kisiel; B Barszcz

2000-01-01

3

Preliminary observations on organogenesis in Taraxacum officinale tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tissue cultures ofTaraxacum officinale have been isolated from the secondary thickened root. Callus development and leaf and root formation occur on a basal medium supplemented with coconut milk and IAA or NAA, and the addition of kinetin to these media enhances callus growth and organogenesis. Cultures grown on the basal medium with coconut milk and 2,4-D show only callus

B. G. Bowes

1970-01-01

4

Taraxacum officinale as a food source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the lack of studies of the leaves of Taraxacum officinale Weber (dandelion) justifying its use as food, the present study was done to emphasize the nutritional level. The chemical composition for 100 g of dry matter was: proteins 15.48 g; ash 14.55 g; and total dietary fiber 47.80 g. Ca determination yielded a value of 695 mg and P

N. L. Escudero; M. L. De Arellano; S. Fernández; G. Albarracín; S. Mucciarelli

2003-01-01

5

Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing

Hye-Jin Jeon; Hyun-Jung Kang; Hyun-Joo Jung; Young-Sook Kang; Chang-Jin Lim; Young-Myeong Kim; Eun-Hee Park

2008-01-01

6

Endogenous gibberellin levels and senescence in Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in leaf tissue of Taraxacum officinale was high during leaf growth and expansion but declined progressively during leaf senescence. In the chromatographic system used, most of the GA from Taraxacum leaves moves with the Rf of GA3. However, several other GAs were also effective in retarding senescence in Taraxacum leaves. It is concluded that

R. A. Fletcher; T. Oegema; R. F. Horton

1969-01-01

7

Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1  

PubMed Central

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. Fructan concentrations, 1-SST activities, 1-SST protein, and mRNA concentrations were compared in different organs during vegetative and generative development of T. officinale plants. Expression of 1-SST was abundant in young roots but very low in leaves. 1-SST was also expressed at the flowering stages in roots, stalks, and receptacles. A good correlation was found between northern and western blots showing transcriptional regulation of 1-SST. At the pre-flowering stage, 1-SST mRNA concentrations and 1-SST activities were higher in the root phloem than in the xylem, resulting in the higher fructan concentrations in the phloem. Fructan localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in phloem parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements. However, inulin-like crystals occasionally appeared in xylem vessels.

Van den Ende, Wim; Michiels, An; Van Wonterghem, Dominik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Van Laere, Andre

2000-01-01

8

The dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) — A monitor for environmental pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum offcinale and show that it accumulates these elements. The accumulation corresponds to the extent of environmental pollution. Since Taraxacum officinale is widely distributed it may be successfully used for monitoring metal pollution.

I. Kuleff; R. Djingova

1984-01-01

9

Trace metal contents of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as a convenient environmental indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some vascular plants are known to concentrate trace metals and are regarded to be suitable indicators of atmospheric metal deposition. Among plant species used for biogeochemical studies dandelion (Taraxacum officinale.) is convenient for monitoring air\\/soil pollution. The plant commonly occurs in different ecosystems with relatively parallel stages of ontogenesis over a broad area of geographical regions. Its leaves and roots

Alina Kabata-Pendias; S. Dudka

1991-01-01

10

Photonastic and thermonastic opening of capitulum in dandelion, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capitula ofTaraxacum officinale andT. japonicum open in response to temperature rise at lower temperatures (thermonasty), and in response to light at higher temperatures\\u000a (photonasty), as was the case inT. albidum. The capitula ofT. officinale could respond to the same temperature rise more sensitively than those ofT. albidum orT. japonicum. The minimum temperature for photonastic opening is as low as

Osamu Tanaka; Yuuji Tanaka; Hiromitsu Wada

1988-01-01

11

Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale Web.) as phytoindicators of cadmium contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web.) were demonstrated to be potential indicator plants for heavy metal contaminated sites. Chicory, grown with 0.5–50 µM cadmium (Cd) in nutrient solution, accumulated 10–300 µM Cd g-1 in shoots and 10–890 µg Cd µg-1 in roots and rhizomes. With dandelion, 20–410 µg Cd µg-1 was found in shoots and 20–1360 µg

L. Simon; H. W. Martin; D. C. Adriano

1996-01-01

12

Difference in in vitro response and esculin content in two populations of Taraxacum officinale Weber.  

PubMed

In vitro micropropagation has been achieved in medicinally important plant, Taraxacum officinale collected from two different regions, Kashmir (J & K) and Garhwal (Uttarakhand). Leaf segments inoculated on MS supplemented with different combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Benzyladenine (BA) produced indirect regeneration. For root induction MS fortified with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was used. Taraxacum officinale collected from Garhwal responded two weeks earlier and showed shoot regeneration whereas in Kashmir population only callus proliferation occurred. Esculin content was also higher in the samples from Garhwal. The content was affected by both, the hormone concentration as well as age of the cultures. RAPD of the in vitro raised regenerants confirmed genetic stability. PMID:23572985

Jamshieed, Sumiya; Das, Sandip; Sharma, M P; Srivastava, P S

2010-12-07

13

A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic,

K. Vijverberg; R. G. M. Van der Hulst; P. Lindhout; P. J. Van Dijk

2004-01-01

14

Genotypic variation within asexual lineages of Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed Central

Restriction site variation in DNA that encodes rRNA (rDNA) was surveyed among 714 offspring within 31 lineages (26 genotypes) of obligate asexually reproducing Taraxacum officinale (dandelions). Although clonal offspring are expected, plants with nonparental rDNA were produced from two parents that were themselves siblings (same genotype). The variation is best characterized by the loss of an EcoRI restriction site that maps to the spacer region in the parental rDNA and is most likely involved in amplification of rare or unique rDNA repeats. In one family, 41 surveyed offspring lacked the EcoRI site. In the other family, only 1 of 26 offspring lost the EcoRI site. Other classes of DNA surveyed, chloroplast DNA and the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene (Adh2), showed no variation. However, offspring with nonparental rDNA also had nonparental alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) restriction fragments. Because somatic mutations in plants can be incorporated into reproductive tissue, we propose that somatic events affecting at least both multicopy rDNA and DNA homologous to the maize Adh1 gene occurred at different developmental times in the two families. An event early in development would result in all variant offspring; an event late in development would result in a single variant offspring. These results support the view that mutation (in the broad sense) influences the level of genotypic variation in asexual organisms, which may facilitate adaptive evolution of asexual species. Images

King, L M; Schaal, B A

1990-01-01

15

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

1998-01-01

16

Untersuchungen an Populationen des Taraxacum-officinale -Komplexes im Kontaktgebiet der diploiden und polyploiden Biotypen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung DerTaraxacum-officinale-Komplex enthält im Raume von Niederösterreich neben polyploiden auch zahlreiche diploide Biotypen. Bei Untersuchungen an 5 Populationen zu je 100 Pflanzen stellte sich heraus, daß sich die Populationen und deren Teilpopulationen in den meisten Fällen aus einem Gemisch von diploiden und polyploiden Pflanzen aufbauen. Rein diploide und rein polyploide Teilpopulationen sind selten. Wie in überwiegend polyploiden Populationen lassen sich

Dietrich Fürnkranz

1966-01-01

17

Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum officinale (TO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with TO after the treatment of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?) resulted in increased NO synthesis. TO had no effect on NO synthesis by itself. When TO was used in combination with rIFN-?, there was

Hyung-Min Kim; Chang-Hwan Oh; Cha-Kwon Chung

1999-01-01

18

Metal content of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) leaves in relation to soil contamination and airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this ‘species’ a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its value as a biological monitor of environmental metal contamination. To examine the metal content of dandelion leaves in relation to environmental metal levels, the

B Keane; M. H Collier; J. R Shann; S. H Rogstad

2001-01-01

19

Proteins in the roots of the perennial weeds chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale Weber) are associated with overwintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots are the overwintering structures of herbaceous perennial weeds growing in temperate climates. During the fall they accumulated\\u000a reserves which are remobilized when growth resumes in the spring. An 18kDa (kilodalton) protein increases in both chicory\\u000a and dandelion roots during the fall months. The proteins in both species are antigenically similar, and are recognized also\\u000a by an antibody to a

David R. Cyr; J. Derek Bewley

1990-01-01

20

Kairomone from dandelion, Taraxacum officinale , attractant for scarab beetle Anomala octiescostata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attraction of the scarab beetleAnomala octiescostata to dandelion,Taraxacum officinale, was demonstrated to be chemically mediated by a mixture ofcis-3-hexenyl acetate, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, phenylacetonitrile, and benzyl benzoate, in the ratio 4:8:14:3:5:19:11. Combination of the synthetic kairomone and sex pheromone (buibuilactone + japonilure, 8:2), significantly increased the total catches ofA. octiescostata. Catches of male (but not female)

Walter Soares Leal; Mikio Ono; Makoto Hasegawa; Masaaki Sawada

1994-01-01

21

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 microg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 microg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC(50) of 78.2 microg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary. PMID:20016719

Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-In

2008-12-31

22

Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 µg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC50 of 78.2 µg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary.

Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min

2008-01-01

23

The occurrence of phenotypically complementary apomixis-recombinants in crosses between sexual and apomictic dandelions ( Taraxacum officinale )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic seed development in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) involves (1) restitutional meiosis (diplospory), (2) egg cell parthenogenesis, and (3) autonomous endosperm development. The question is whether these elements of apomixis are controlled by one single gene or by several independent genes. Five triploid non-apomictic hybrids, obtained in diploid sexual × triploid apomict crosses were characterized using cyto-embryological and genetic methods.

Peter J. van Dijk; Peter van Baarlen; J. Hans de Jong

2003-01-01

24

The effects of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue in mice.  

PubMed

The study is to investigate the effect of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue based on the forced swimming capacity in mice. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., normal control (NC) and three doses of TOE treated group (High-dose, Middle-dose and Low-dose). Three TOE treated groups were treated by oral TOE with 10, 30 and 100mg/kg b.w respectively for a period of 42 days. The normal control group was given a corresponding volume of sterile distilled water. After 6 weeks, the forced swimming capacity and blood biochemical parameters in mice were measured, and the result showed that TOE had an anti- physical fatigue effect. It enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice, effectively delayed the lowering of glucose in the blood, and prevented the increase in lactate and triglyceride concentrations. PMID:22238492

Jinchun, Zhang; Jie, Chen

2010-12-30

25

Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.  

PubMed

Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. PMID:22640720

Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

2012-05-26

26

HPLC analysis of geometrical isomers of lutein epoxide isolated from dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutein epoxide has been isolated from petals of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F. Weber ex Wiggers) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica to be used for the accurate identification of this carotenoid in other sources. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C30 column, as a result of which six geometrical isomers were separated. The identification of

Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; George Britton; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia

2006-01-01

27

Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl

C. Hu; D. D. Kitts

2005-01-01

28

Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200?mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5?mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:22424457

Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

2012-03-16

29

Effects of Taraxacum officinale on fatigue and immunological parameters in mice.  

PubMed

In Korean herbal medicine dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO) has been used to improve energy levels and health. However, the effects of TO in experimental models remain unclear. We examined the anti-fatigue and immune-enhancing effects of TO in mice by performing a forced swimming test (FST) and in vitro by using peritoneal macrophages, respectively. After daily oral administration of TO, blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue were measured after the FST. FST immobility time was significantly decreased in the TO-treated group (100 mg/kg) on the tenth day. TO (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased glucose levels, acting as an energy source. The level of lactic dehydrogenase, which is an accurate indicator of muscle damage, tended to decline after TO administration (10 and 100 mg/kg). When TO (100 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice, blood urea nitrogen levels decreased significantly. We also examined the effect of TO on the production of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. When TO was used in combination with recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-?), a noticeable cooperative induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-10 production was observed. Furthermore, in peritoneal macrophages, rIFN-? plus TO treatment significantly increased the production of NO through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction. Taken together, these results suggest that TO improves fatigue-related indicators and immunological parameters in mice. PMID:23135630

Lee, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jong-Hyun; An, Hyo-Jin

2012-11-07

30

Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity. PMID:12502425

Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

2003-01-01

31

Detecting small-scale genotype-environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations.  

PubMed

Studies of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) and local adaptation provide critical tests of natural selection's ability to counter opposing forces such as gene flow. Such studies may be greatly facilitated in asexual species, given the possibility for experimental replication at the level of true genotypes (rather than populations) and the possibility of using molecular markers to assess genotype-environment associations in the field (neither of which is possible for most sexual species). Here, we tested for G × E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six genotypes to experimental drought, mown and benign (control) conditions and subsequently using microsatellites to assess genotype-environment associations in the field. We found strong G × E, with genotypes that performed poorly under benign conditions showing the highest performance under stressful conditions (drought or mown). Our six focal genotypes comprise >?80% of plants in local populations. The most common genotype in the field showed its highest relative performance under mown conditions (the most common habitat in our study area), and almost all plants of this genotype in the field were found growing in mowed lawns. Genotypes performing best under benign experimental conditions were found most frequently in unmown conditions in the field. These results are strongly indicative of local adaptation at a very small scale, with unmown microsites of only a few square metres typically embedded within larger mown lawns. By studying an asexual species, we were able to map genotypes with known ecological characteristics to environments with high spatial precision. PMID:22694090

McLeod, K A; Scascitelli, M; Vellend, M

2012-06-13

32

Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.  

PubMed

Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

2012-02-10

33

Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.  

PubMed

We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas. PMID:22661315

Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

2012-06-02

34

Genotypic Diversity Effects on the Performance of Taraxacum officinale Populations Increase with Time and Environmental Favorability  

PubMed Central

Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

Drummond, Emily B. M.; Vellend, Mark

2012-01-01

35

The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice.  

PubMed

Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C) mice weighing 30 ± 5?g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200?mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200?mg/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05). As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200?mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(P < 0.05). The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (P < 0.01). 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg and in 200?mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance. PMID:22844289

Modaresi, Mehrdad; Resalatpour, Narges

2012-07-12

36

Determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in Taraxacum officinale near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR) by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method with Si\\/Li semiconductor detector and238Pu exciting source was used for the determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in plant samples (Taraxacum officinale) from various localities near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR).

J. Tölgyessy; M. Harangozó; P. Dillinger

1993-01-01

37

Formation of unreduced megaspores (Diplospory) in apomictic Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale, s.l.) is controlled by a sex-specific dominant locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This population was created by crossing a sexual diploid (2x = 16) with a tetraploid diplosporous pollen donor (4x

Dijk Van P. J; J. M. Tanja Bakx-Schotman

2004-01-01

38

Drought tolerance in the alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), its exotic congener T. officinale, and interspecific hybrids under natural and experimental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared water relations and adaptations to drought stress in native and invasive exotic dandelions, Taraxacum ceratophorum and T. officinale . Photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and water use efficiency (WUE; carbon gained\\/water lost) were measured for the two species under extreme drought in the alpine tundra of Colorado, USA. We also subjected both species and F1 hybrids to a dry-down

M. T. Brock; CANDACE GALEN

2005-01-01

39

Potential of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound currently added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. It has been suggested that the combustion of MMT containing Mn could cause various deleterious health effects in animals and humans at very high concentrations. This study evaluates the potential of dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) as bioindicators of Mn environmental comtamination. Samples were picked

L. Normandin; G. Kennedy; J. Zayed

1999-01-01

40

Seasonal Variations in the Metal Concentration of Taraxacum Officinale, Plantago Major and Plantago Lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal changes in the concentrations of aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the leaves of Taraxacum officianale, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major are investigated. the most convenient periods for sampling are established when the elemental concentrations have minimal variation and are independent on the development

R. Djingova; I. Kuleff

1999-01-01

41

Cytogenetische Untersuchungen an Taraxacum im Raume von Wien. II. Hybriden zwischen T. officinale und T. palustre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Auswertung von Kreuzungsexperimenten zeigt, daß beiTaraxacum in einem weit höheren Maß, als auf Grund der in dieser Gattung so weit verbreiteten apomiktischen Fortpflanzung ursprünglich anzunehmen war, mit Artbastarden gerechnet werden muß. Die Hybriden treten nioht nur bei Kreuzungen von — im Raume von Wien häufigen — diploiden Pflanzen auf, sondern auch bei Kreuzungen von diploiden Pflanzen mit tetraploiden,

Dietrich Fürnkranz

1961-01-01

42

Anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol extract and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of the methanol extract and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL). The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting. The methanol extract and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed production of NO, PGE(2), and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 microg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited production of the inflammatory molecules. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions of the methanol extract, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities. These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway. PMID:20673058

Koh, Yoon-Jeoung; Cha, Dong-Soo; Ko, Je-Sang; Park, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Hee-Don

2010-08-01

43

Taraxalisin – a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp

G. N. Rudenskaya; A. M. Bogacheva; A. Preusser; A. V. Kuznetsova; Ya. E. Dunaevsky; B. N. Golovkin; V. M. Stepanov

1998-01-01

44

EDTA reduces lead accumulation in Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of EDTA in phytoextraction studies has been reported to increase heavy metal accumulation in above-ground parts or to have no negative impact on the overall (root\\/shoot) accumulation levels in terrestrial plants. At a purely quantitative level, this study assessed the phytoextraction potential of a previously untested high-biomass terrestrial plant, Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), in the presence of Pb

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

45

THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON CATALASE EXTRACTED FROM TARAXACUM ROOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effect of the microwave on the enzyme activity is an appealing research subject with many applications. The root of Taraxacum officianle is a rich source for catalase. The enzyme can be easily extracted by homogenization in phosphate buffer. The optimal pH for enzyme activity was 7, at an optimal concentration of H2O2 around 50 mM. The optimal temperature

Laura Popet; Ana-Maria Lacrama; Adriana Isvoran; Vasile Ostafe

2006-01-01

46

Constituents from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

A MeOH extract from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum has shown significant effects on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. Chemical analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of 26 compounds, including eight new triterpenes, one new sesquiterpene glycoside, and seventeen known compounds. The structure of each new compound was established using NMR spectroscopy. Some triterpenes had a significant effect on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. PMID:22293479

Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio

2012-01-01

47

Fertilizer and planting strategies to increase biomass and improve root morphology in the natural rubber producer Taraxacum brevicorniculatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum brevicorniculatum produces high-quality natural rubber in its roots and could be developed as an alternative commercial source of this valuable raw material. However, current wild type accessions have a low biomass and branched roots that make them difficult to harvest. We set out to determine the optimum fertilizer and spacing requirements for T. brevicorniculatum plants in greenhouse and field

Oliver Munt; Marina Arias; Mónica Hernandez; Enrique Ritter; Christian Schulze Gronover; Dirk Prüfer

48

Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.  

PubMed

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and ?-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PMID:22026646

Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

2012-02-01

49

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins.  

PubMed

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to lead chelation in vitro. Using this in vitro metal chelation method, we showed that immobilised tannins prepared from lateral roots of Symphytum officinale L., that contained high tannin levels, chelated 3.5 times more lead than those from main roots with lower tannin levels. This trend was confirmed using increasing concentrations of tannins from a single root type, and using purified tannins (tannic acid) from Chinese gallnuts. This study presents a new, simple, and reliable method that demonstrates direct lead-tannin chelation. In relation to phytoremediation, it also suggests that plant roots with more 'built-in' tannins may advantageously accumulate more lead. PMID:19477483

Chin, Lily; Leung, David W M; Harry Taylor, H

2009-05-27

50

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predict and data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence. PMID:11931095

Bergant, Klemen; Kajfez-Bogataj, Lucka; Crepinsek, Zalika

2002-02-01

51

Isolation of symlandine from the roots of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) using countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

Three pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symlandine, symphytine, and echimidine (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale using a one-step countercurrent chromatography procedure. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR methods. This is the first description of the separation of symlandine (1) from its stereoisomer, symphytine (2). PMID:11430014

Kim, N C; Oberlies, N H; Brine, D R; Handy, R W; Wani, M C; Wall, M E

2001-02-01

52

Menthol and geraniol biotransformation and glycosylation capacity of Levisticum officinale hairy roots.  

PubMed

The biotransformation capacity of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch hairy root cultures was studied by evaluating the effect of the addition of 25 mg/L menthol or geraniol on morphology, growth, and volatiles production. L. officinale hairy root cultures were maintained for 7 weeks in SH medium, in darkness at 24 degrees C and 80 r.p.m., and the substrates were added 15 days after inoculation. Growth was evaluated by measuring fresh and dry weight and by using the dissimilation method. Volatiles composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Hairy roots morphology and growth were not influenced by substrate addition. No new volatiles were detected after menthol addition and, as was also the case with the control cultures, volatiles of these hairy roots were dominated by (Z)-falcarinol (1-45%), N-octanal (3-8%), palmitic acid (3-10%), and (Z)-ligustilide (2-9%). The addition of geraniol induced the production of six new volatiles: nerol/citronellol/neral (traces-15%), alpha-terpineol (0.2-3%), linalool (0.1-1.2%), and geranyl acetate (traces-2%). The relative amounts of the substrates and some of their biotransformation products decreased during the course of the experiment. Following the addition of beta-glycosidase to the remaining distillation water, analysis of the extracted volatiles showed that lovage hairy roots were able to convert both substrates and their biotransformation products into glycosidic forms. GC:gas chromatography GC-MS:gas chromatography-mass spectrometry SH:Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) culture medium. PMID:19156598

Nunes, Inês S; Faria, Jorge M S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

2009-01-20

53

The Pattern of Genetic Variability in Apomictic Clones of Taraxacum officinale Indicates the Alternation of Asexual and Sexual Histories of Apomicts  

PubMed Central

Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts.

Majesky, Lubos; Vasut, Radim J.; Kitner, Miloslav; Travnicek, Bohumil

2012-01-01

54

The pattern of genetic variability in apomictic clones of Taraxacum officinale indicates the alternation of asexual and sexual histories of apomicts.  

PubMed

Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

Majeský, Luboš; Vašut, Radim J; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

2012-08-01

55

Improved method for isolation of lycopsamine from roots of comfrey (Symphytum officinale).  

PubMed

An improved method for the isolation and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots was developed, introducing very fast, selective and ion residue-free reduction of N-oxides followed by ion-exchange chromatography giving a non-aqueous solution of alkaloids, from which solvents can be easily removed. With this procedure the use of large volumes of organic solvents, very slow reduction of N-oxides and input of additional impurities was avoided. Lycopsamine, which proved to be the major alkaloid, was additionally purified by preparative layer chromatography (PLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity of the alkaloid was confirmed by (I)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:22908565

Janes, Damjan; Kalamar, Bostjan; Kreft, Samo

2012-07-01

56

Differential effects of reproductive interference by an alien congener on native Taraxacum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive interference (RI) has been suggested to play a critical role in native plant displacement by alien congeners.\\u000a However, although co-existence of native and alien congeners may provide an opportunity to refute the RI hypothesis, few studies\\u000a have examined such a case. Using a native Japanese dandelion, Taraxacum longeappendiculatum, and a co-existing alien congener, Taraxacum officinale, we tested the hypothesis

Sachiko Nishida; Koh-Ichi Takakura; Takayoshi Nishida; Takashi Matsumoto; Masahiro M. Kanaoka

57

Role of post-dispersal seed and seedling predation in establishment of dandelion ( Taraxacum agg.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dandelion Taraxacum agg. (formerly Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers) is a common weed species associated with pastures, grasslands and no-tillage cropping systems throughout its native range in Europe, and more recently introduced into North America, Australasia and elsewhere. Following wind-dispersal from the parent plant, its seeds are subject to predation from a host of invertebrate predators. Similarly, seedling predation

Alois Honek; Zdenka Martinkova; Pavel Saska; Stanislava Koprdova

2009-01-01

58

Comparative cyto-embryological investigations of sexual and apomictic dandelions ( Taraxacum ) and their apomictic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In the autonomous apomictic Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), parthenogenetic egg cells develop into embryos and central cells into endosperm without prior fertilisation. Unreduced (2n) megaspores are formed via meiotic diplospory, a nonreductional type of meiosis. In this paper, we describe the normal developmental pathways of sexual and apomictic reproduction and compare these with the development observed in the apomictic

Peter van Baarlen; Hans J. de Jong; Peter J. van Dijk

2002-01-01

59

Activity of endophytic actinomycetes from roots of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga against phytopathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 59 endophytic actinomycetes, were isolated from the roots of Zingiber offici- nale and Alpinia galanga, and tested against Candida albicans and phytopathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium oxysporum, ten produced substances that inhibited both phytopathogens and nine had activity against Candida albicans. The strain identified as Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 was the most effective in antifungal activity amongst those investigated.

T. TAECHOWISAN; S. LUMYONG

2003-01-01

60

Clonal diversity in taraxacum officinale (compositae), an apomict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme analysis, morphological characters, and histocompatibility relationships have revealed unexpected amounts of clonal diversity within and among populations of unisexual animals. Plant studies, likewise, have shown that genetic diversity exists in populations of plants that have restricted recombination. However, no work has been done which investigates the extent of genotypic diversity within and among populations of an obligate apomict.This study

Jennifer C Lyman; Norman C Ellstrand

1984-01-01

61

Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation of Taraxacum platycarpum and changes of morphological characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformed hairy roots were efficiently induced from seedlings of Taraxacum platycarpum by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. Root explants produced transformed roots at a higher frequency (76.5±3.5%) as compared to stem (32.7±4.8%) or cotyledon (16.2±5.7%). Hairy roots exhibited active elongation with high branching of roots on growth regulator-free medium. The competence of plant regeneration from non-transformed adventitious roots and transformed

M. H. Lee; E. S. Yoon; J. H. Jeong; Y. E. Choi

2004-01-01

62

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Taraxacum platycarpum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dandelion plants, the genus Taraxacum, are used in herbal medicine owing to their choleretic, diuretic and anti-carcinogenic activities and several medicinal compounds have been isolated from the roots of these plants. Metabolic manipulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis is a potential strategy to improve the production of high-value secondary metabolites. The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is known to control a key

Tae Woong Bae; Hae Ryoung Park; Youn Sig Kwak; Hyo Yeon Lee; Stephen B. Ryu

2005-01-01

63

Biological feedstock development as part of the domestication and commercialization of Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a potential domestic source of natural rubber and inulin: progress and outlook  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild-collected F0 seed was found to contain a mixture Taraxacum species (i.e., highly variable seedling phenotypes), a likely drag on TKS germplasm enhancement. Also, roots of unselected, wild-collected Taraxacum genotypes were found to contain, on average, 1.4 and 56.4 percent rubber and inulin, re...

64

Polyphenoloxidase silencing affects latex coagulation in Taraxacum species.  

PubMed

Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

2009-07-15

65

Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of lignans from Taraxacum mongolicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from being used as a pharmaceutical, the inflorescences, leaves and roots of Taraxacum mongolicum are processed into different food products. However, only few phytochemical investigations on this plant have been performed. In the present study, a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for the separation and purification of bioactive compounds from T. mongolicum was developed. Two lignans, mongolicumin A and

Shuyun Shi; Yuping Zhang; Kelong Huang; Suqin Liu; Yu Zhao

2008-01-01

66

Isozyme inheritance in diploid Taraxacum hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve enzyme systems were investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a population of diploid sexual Taraxacum hybrids. The genetic basis of isozyme bands was found by analysis of progeny phenotype segregation. Nine monomorphic and seven polymorphic loci were identified. Esterase isozymes could not be assigned to single Mendelian genes. The high level of heterozygosity found is related to the breeding

J Hughes; A J Richards

1985-01-01

67

Taraxacum apenninum — ein altes Element mediterraner Gebirge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Taraxacum apenninum (Ten.)Ten., das auf Grund seiner Merkmale schon lange Zeit als alte Art angesehen wurde, ist diploid. Die Chromosomenzahl beträgt 2n=16, Die Art bewohnt heute ein kleines Restareal in den Abruzzen (zentraler Apennin): ein zweites Verbreitungsgebiet in Griechenland ist fraglich geworden. Im Vergleich mit anderen mediterran verbreiteten Relikten ergeben sich interessante Übereinstimmungen in den Arealformen. Ein direkter Zusammenhang

Dietrich Fürnkranz

1964-01-01

68

The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.  

PubMed

Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

2013-02-18

69

The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack  

PubMed Central

Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.

Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

2013-01-01

70

Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Forty-three male and female subjects (45-83 years old) with diagnosed primary osteoarthritis of the knee who met the inclusion criteria were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 10% or 20% comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) or a placebo cream. Outcomes of pain, stiffness, and functioning were done on the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants applied the cream 3× a day for 6 weeks and were evaluated every 2 weeks during the treatment. Results Repeated-measures analyses of variance yielded significant differences in all of the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index categories (pain P < .01, stiffness P < .01, daily function P < .01), confirming that the 10% and 20% comfrey-based creams were superior to the reference cream. The active groups each had 2 participants who had temporary and minor adverse reactions of skin rash and itching, which were rapidly resolved by modifying applications. Conclusion Both active topical comfrey formulations were effective in relieving pain and stiffness and in improving physical functioning and were superior to placebo in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee without serious adverse effects.

Smith, Doug B.; Jacobson, Bert H.

2011-01-01

71

Hamata , a new section of Taraxacum ( Asteraceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct group of triploid, apomicticTaraxacum species, recognized by blackish green, pruinose involucres and ± hamate lateral lobes, is newly described as sectionHamata. Cytological and morphological investigations have shown a distinctive uniformity among these species which supports this classification. A key to all knownHamata species, illustrations and notes about critical species are given. A new species of the section,T. fusciflorum,

H. Øllgaard

1983-01-01

72

A newly found cadmium accumulator— Taraxacum mongolicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T.

Shuhe Wei; Qixing Zhou; Shiny Mathews

2008-01-01

73

A revision of Taraxacum sect. Piesis (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of allozyme and cultivation data, and of additional herbarium material, a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision\\u000a ofTaraxacum sect.Piesis\\u000a A.J. Richards exKirschner etŠt?pánek is provided. The section is made up of halophilous, sexually reproducing taxa. InT. stenocephalum\\u000a Boiss. etKotschy,T. pindicum\\u000a Kirschner etŠt?pánek, sp. nov., andT. perenne\\u000a Kirschner etŠt?pánek, sp. nov., a tetraploid chromosome number has been recorded, representing the

Jan Kirschner; Jan Št?pánek

1998-01-01

74

Preferential States of Longitudinal Tension in the Outer Tissues of Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) Peduncles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested Wilhelm Hofmeister's hypothesis that the outer layers of herbaceous stem tissues are held in a preferential state of longitudinal tension by more internal stem tissues that are held in a reciprocal state of compression. We measured (1) the biaxial stiffness of dandelion peduncles that were barometrically inflated with a Scholander pressure bomb, and (2) the stiffness and mechanical

Karl J. Niklas; Dominick J. Paolillo

1998-01-01

75

Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three flavonoid glycosides: luteolin 7-glucoside and two luteolin 7-diglucosides were isolated from dandelion flowers and leaves together with free luteolin and chrysoeriol in the flower tissue. The hydroxycinnamic acids, chicoric acid, monocaffeyltartaric acid and chlorogenic acid were found throughout the plant and the coumarins, cichoriin and aesculin were identified in the leaf extracts. This represents the first report of free

Christine A. Williams; Fiona Goldstone; Jenny Greenham

1996-01-01

76

Pollution and Genetic Structure of North American Populations of the Common Dandelion ( Taraxacum Officinale )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the genetic structure of natural populations differentially impacted by anthropogenic contaminants can be a useful tool for evaluating the population genetic consequences of exposure to pollution. In this study, measures of genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat loci in six dandelion populations (3 urban and 3 rural) showed patterns that may have been influenced by exposure to environmental contaminants. Mean genetic

Brian Keane; Matthew H. Collier; Steven H. Rogstad

2005-01-01

77

Genetic variability in obligate apomicts of the genus Taraxacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether obligate apomicts can generate genetic variability, the only valid procedure is to investigate heritable variation\\u000a amongst the offspring of fully agamospermous mothers. Among plants, most reports have been forTaraxacum, and this review concentrates on this genus, although there are many analogous reports for animals. InTaraxacum, within-family variation is commonly found at the levels of ploidy, aneuploidy, recombination

A. John Richards

1996-01-01

78

In vitro Organogenesis in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient plant regeneration in Zingiber officinale Rose, was achieved using callus derived from shoot primordia and grown on MS media. Organogenesis was maximum on media supplemented with 5.0 mg\\/liter 6-benzyladenine, 1.0 mg\\/liter indole acetic acid, 100 mg\\/liter adenine sulfate and 3 percent (w\\/v) sucrose. D-glucose had intermediary effect on rooting, but fructose, maltose, and mannitol had no effect. Of the

G. R. Rout; P. Das

1997-01-01

79

Larvicidal activities of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous

Rong-Jyh Lin; Chung-Yi Chen; Li-Yu Chung; Chuan-Min Yen

2010-01-01

80

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Taraxacum coreanum and Their Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaf and root samples of Taraxacum coreanum. Of the 72 isolates recovered, 39 were from leaves and 33 from roots with an isolation frequency of 54% and 46%, respectively. Based on ITS sequence analysis, 72 isolates were classified into 19 genera of which 17 were under the phylum Ascomycota and 2 were under Basidiomycota. Diverse genera were found and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Phoma were dominant. Out of 19 genera, Apodus, Ceriporia, Dothideales, Leptodontidium, Nemania, Neoplaconema, Phaeosphaeria, Plectosphaerella and Terfezia were new to Korea. Seventy two isolates were screened for antifungal activity, of which 10 isolates (14%) were found active at least against one of the tested fungi. Isolate 050603 had the widest antifungal spectra of activity, and isolates 050592 and 050611 were active against three plant pathogenic fungi.

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Kim, Won Ki; Woo, Sung Kyoon; Park, Myung Soo

2006-01-01

81

[Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

2013-02-01

82

Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex. PMID:20533167

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

2010-06-08

83

Taraxacum species as environmental indicators for grassland management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of the microspecies of the genus Taraxacum was made in a range from low to highly dynamic habitats based on qualitative inventories of grasslands under different management conditions. After several years of constant management, a characteristic species composition occurs. Under mowing (hayfield) conditions, dandelions disappear over a period of about twenty years in a sequence where the low-dynamic

P. Oosterveld

1983-01-01

84

Satellited chromosomes, systematics and phylogeny in Taraxacum ( Asteraceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is made of the occurrence, nature and frequency of satellited chromosomes in the agamospermous genusTaraxacum. Species belonging to the 10 sections thought to be most primitive in the genus lack satellited chromosomes. In most other sections, a characteristic satellited chromosome is seen with a large euchromatic region distal to the presumed nucleolar oraniser region (NOR). In sections of

M. Mogie; A. J. Richards

1983-01-01

85

Taraxacum—A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Taraxacum is a member of the family Asteraceae, subfamily Cichorioideae, tribe Lactuceae and widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The perennial weed has been known since ancient times for its curative properties and has been utilized for the treatment of various ailments such as dyspepsia, heartburn, spleen and liver complaints, hepatitis and anorexia.

Katrin Schütz; Reinhold Carle; Andreas Schieber

2006-01-01

86

Proteomic analysis of latex from the rubber-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

PubMed

Many plants produce latex, a specialized, metabolically active cytoplasm. This is generally regarded as a defensive trait but latex may also possess additional functions. We investigated the role of latex in the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum that contains considerable amounts of high-quality natural rubber by carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the latex proteome. We developed reliable protocols for the preparation of protein samples for one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis, which led to 278 unique identifications. A gene ontology classification system based on comparisons with known Arabidopsis thaliana root proteins showed that dandelion proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport were enriched in the latex proteome, whereas those involved in stress responses were not. We also found that proteins involved in rubber biosynthesis were distributed among different fractions of the latex proteome. PMID:22539439

Wahler, Daniela; Colby, Thomas; Kowalski, Natalie A; Harzen, Anne; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Hillebrand, Andrea; Fischer, Rainer; Helsper, Johannes; Schmidt, Jürgen; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Prüfer, Dirk

2012-03-01

87

Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zingiber officinale (ginger) was studied for its antimi- crobial profile and effect on virulent features of diar- rhoeal pathogens, viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production of enterotoxins. Z. officinale showed no antimicrobial activity. Although it inhibited the production of cholera toxin, it had no effect on the action of this toxin. It also had no effect on the pro-

Poonam G. Daswani; S. Brijesh; Pundarikakshudu Tetali; Noshir H. Antia; Tannaz J. Birdi

2010-01-01

88

Modes of speciation and evolution of the sections in Taraxacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modes of evolution of species classified within different sections inTaraxacum involve diverse processes, viz. primary divergence of an ancestral sexual diploid, hybridization between a tetraploid apomict\\u000a and a diploid sexual hybrid, differentiation of an advanced apomictic taxon at one ploidy level, hybridization between a sexual\\u000a tetraploid and a sexual diploid, formation of a polyploid series from an apomictic ancestor of

Jan Kirschner; Jan Št?pánek

1996-01-01

89

Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum,

P. J. Van Dijk

2003-01-01

90

Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. on bioassay plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts prepared from dried leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. (Spanish jasmine) inhibited seed germination and stunted both root and shoot length of the weeds Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Phaseolus lathyroides L. The main active compound was isolated and determined by spectral data as a secoiridoid glucoside named oleuropein. In addition, a decrease in allelopathic

Montinee Teerarak; Chamroon Laosinwattana; Patchanee Charoenying

2010-01-01

91

Kinetic studies on Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the isolation, purification and characterization of gingerol, the major pungent constituent of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and its kinetic of extraction using a number of organic solvents. The characterization was carried out through GC and GC-MS. Gingerol has been assayed in the plant material during extraction with various solvents by a HPLC method. In order to develop a relationship between solvent characteristics such as viscosity and dielectric constant and the rates of extraction, the kinetics of extraction of gingerol has been studied by using twelve different solvents in order to evaluate the solvent efficacy in the extraction processes. It has been observed that both solvent viscosity (1/v) and dielectric constant (epsilon) show a linear relationship with the rates of extraction (k). An increase in solvent viscosity leads to a decrease in the rates of extraction, similarly an increase in dielectric constant also leads to a decrease in the rates of extraction. This appears to be largely due to an unionizable character of gingerol which does not interact with polar solvents. Thus solvent viscosity and dielectric constant both play an important role in the choice of solvents for the extraction of gingerol. Solvents with relatively low viscosity and dielectric constant are more suitable for the extraction of gingerol from plant material. PMID:16414586

Shadmani, Amir; Azhar, Iqbal; Mazhar, Farah; Hassan, M Mohtasheemul; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Ahmad, Iqbal; Usmanghani, Khan; Shamim, Sumbul

2004-01-01

92

[Some worries about Dendrobium officinale industry].  

PubMed

In recent years, with the continuous development of the industry of Dendrobium officinale, the technological alliance on CEEUSRO has been established. However, many problems also exposed with the rapid expansion of the industry, such as weak basic research, single species of the product, lack of in-depth studies and difficult to guarantee the quality. Industrial foam was gradually formed. To guard against the D. officinale becoming another "Puer Tea" , the authors believe that the key to sustainable development of the industry is enterprises and research institutes should strengthen basic research, speed up development of application of integrated innovations, government should strengthen guidance, regulate the operation of the market, then protect the quality of D. officinale in the market. PMID:23713266

Li, Guang; Lu, Juan; Chen, Xi

2013-02-01

93

Larvicidal activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement of [10]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin at various concentrations was reached from 24 to 72 h, respectively. Further investigation to determine minimal effective doses of [10]-gingerol and hexahydrocurcumin revealed [10]-gingerol to have a greater maximum larvicidal effect and loss of spontaneous movements than hexahydrocurcumin, mebendazole and albendazole. These constituents of ginger showed effects against DPPH and peroxyl radical under larvicidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as larvicidal agents against A. cantonensis. PMID:20045669

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

2010-01-04

94

Composition of the Essential Oil of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch from Some European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the essential oil composition of Leviticum officinale W.D.J. Koch from different European countries were determined using capillary GC and GC\\/MS methods. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.11–1.80% from dried cut roots and 0.09% from leaves. A total of 48 components were identified, representing over 87% of the total yield of oil. Ten compounds not earlier reported:

Ain Raal; Elmar Arak; Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Mati Müürisepp

2008-01-01

95

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2012-09-23

96

Lead chelation to immobilised Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) root tannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported correlations between tannin level and metal accumulation within plant tissues suggest that metal-chelating tannins may help plants to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metal contaminants. This paper supports such correlations using a new method that demonstrated the ability of plant tannins to chelate heavy metals, and showed that the relative levels of tannins in tissues were quantitatively related to

Lily Chin; David W. M. Leung; H. Harry Taylor

2009-01-01

97

Genetic variation in agamospermous microspecies of Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma and sect. Obliqua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agamospermous microspecies of Taraxacum have been studied at the isozyme level. T. tortilobum and T. rubicundum (sect. Erythrosperma), both of a fairly broad ecological amplitude, consisted of several clones. In Holland only a few clones occur compared with the situation in Central Europe. By contrast, in T. obliquum (sect. Obliqua), restricted to the outer dune habitat, no genetic variation could

H Van Oostrum; A A Sterk; H J W Wijsman

1985-01-01

98

Genetic interpretation of enzyme variation in sexual and agamospermous taxa of Taraxacum sections Vulgaria and Mongolica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of 15 enzymes, comprising at least 22 genetic loci, was investigated in crosses between sexual diploid individuals of Taraxacum sections Vulgaria and Mongolica. Patterns were consistent with simple Mendelian segregation. From the inheritance information isozyme phenotypes in agamospermous plants from natural populations were inferred. In some crosses part or all of the progeny originated from self-fertilization, sofar a

S. B. J. Menken; T. Morita; E. C. P. Wardenaar; A. Boersma

1988-01-01

99

Isozyme variation within and between Taraxacum agamospecies in a single locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isozyme systems were analysed in 97 individuals of Taraxacum randomly sampled from 100 m2 of mature sand dune on the north-east coast of England. Ten agamospecies were identified in the sample and another ten occurred nearby. There was no variation found in the sample for tyrosinase or acid phosphatase. For esterase each agamospecies was found to be different and

H Ford; A J Richards

1985-01-01

100

The role of tetraploids in the sexual–asexual cycle in dandelions (Taraxacum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic plants often produce pollen that can function in crosses with related sexuals. Moreover, facultative apomicts can produce some sexual offspring. In dandelions, Taraxacum, a sexual–asexual cycle between diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts, has been described, based on experimental crosses and population genetic studies. Little is known about the actual hybridization processes in nature. We therefore studied the sexual–asexual cycle

M. H. Verduijn; P J Van Dijk; J. M. M. Van Damme

2004-01-01

101

Crosses between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum). I. The inheritance of apomixis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some dandelions, Taraxacum?, are diplosporous gametophytic apomicts. Crosses between closely related diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts were made to study the inheritance of apomixis. Seed-set was less than one-third of that in diploid x diploid crosses, probably because of the inviability of aneuploid pollen or zygotes. Almost 90% of the viable offspring were diploid and the result of selfing, as

Tas C. Q. I; Peter J Van Dijk

1999-01-01

102

The genetic structure of populations of sexual and asexual Taraxacum (dandelions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure, as assessed by isozymes, is described for three populations of outbreeding sexuals, three populations of obligate agamosperms, and six accessions of inbreeding sexual Taraxacum. Fifteen loci in 10 isozyme systems were identified, and isozyme bands were previously shown to be allelic in sexual × sexual and were confirmed as allelic in sexual × agamosperm crosses. Sexual ×

Jane Hughes; A J Richards

1988-01-01

103

Design and application of specific 16S rDNA-targeted primers for assessing endophytic diversity in Dendrobium officinale using nested PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

Novel specific 16S rDNA-targeted primers were successfully designed and applied to the characterization of endophytic diversity in Dendrobium officinale. Using the popular universal bacterial primers 27f/1492r, the fragments of chloroplast and mitochondrion 16S/18S rDNA were amplified from D. officinale. They shared high nucleotide identity with the chloroplast 16S rDNAs (99-100 %) and with the mitochondrion 18S rDNAs (93-100 %) from various plants, respectively, and both shared 73-86 % identities with the bacterial 16S rDNA sequences in GenBank. The current bacterial universal primers, including 27f/1492r, match well with the chloroplast and mitochondrion 16S/18S rDNAs, which accordingly renders these primers not useful for endophytic diversity analysis. Novel 16S rDNA-targeted primers fM1 (5'-CCGCGTGNRBGAHGAAGGYYYT-3') and rC5 (5'-TAATCCTGTTTGCTCC CCAC-3') were designed, which show good specificity compared to the 16S/18S rDNAs of D. officinale, and perfect universality within bacteria except for Cyanobacteria. The primers fM1/rC5, together with 515f-GC/rC5, which overlaps the whole V4 region of 16S rDNA, were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to analyze the diversity of endophytic bacteria in D. officinale from three different sources in China. The results showed diversities in roots and stems of the plants from all three locations. Altogether, 29 bands were identified as bacteria, with the dominant group being Proteobacteria and the dominant genus being Burkholderia, some of which commonly has the function of nitrogen fixation and thus may play potentially important roles in D. officinale. Therefore, the nested PCR-DGGE method based on the novel primers provides a good alternative for investigating the communities and roles of endophytes in D. officinale. PMID:24127138

Yu, Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Sui-Juan; Liu, Wen-Hong; Hu, Xiu-Fang

2013-10-15

104

Potential of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz for accelerating phytoextraction of cadmium in combination with eco-friendly amendments.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction and phytostabilization are well-established sub-processes of phytoremediation that are being followed for in situ remediation of soils contaminated with toxic metals. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz, a newly reported Cd accumulator has shown considerable potential for phytoextracting Cd. This paper investigated the effects of urea and chicken manure on T. mongolicum phytoextracting Cd from soil using pot culture experiments. The results showed that urea application did not affect the Cd concentrations in root, leaf, inflorescence and shoot of T. mongolicum, but chicken manure significantly decreased them (p<0.05) by 23.5%, 31.5%, 24.8% and 30.4% owing to decreased extractable Cd. Urea and chicken manure significantly increased (p<0.05) the phytoextraction capacities (microg pot(-1)) of T. mongolicum to Cd by 3-5-fold due to the increase in shoot biomass (increased 4-7 folds). Further, addition of urea and chicken manure increased organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the microorganism count, urease and phosphatase activities of soil indicating their eco-friendly function. Urea is ideal for optimizing phytoextraction of T. mongolicum to Cd, while chicken manure is appropriate for phytostabilization. PMID:20570438

Wei, Shuhe; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Qixing; Zhan, Jie; Ma, Lihui; Wu, Zhijie; Sun, Tieheng; Prasad, M N V

2010-05-13

105

In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers.  

PubMed

The growing demand for flower extracts in perfume trade can primarily be met by increasing flower production and multiplying planting material. The major commercial aromatic flower yielding plants including Jasminum officinale L., a member of the Family Oleaceae have drawn the attention of a large section of the concerned sectors leading to a thrust upon developing advanced propagation technologies for these floral crops, in addition to conventional nature-dependent agro-techniques. This chapter describes concisely and critically, a protocol developed for in vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale by shoot regeneration from existing as well as newly developed adventitious axillary buds via proper phytohormonal stimulation. To start with nodal segments as explants, March-April is the most ideal time of the year when planting material suitable for in vitro multiplication is abundantly available. Prior to inoculation of explants in the culture medium, special care is needed to reduce microbial contamination by spraying on selected spots of the donor plant with anti-microbial agents 24 h prior to collection; treatment with antiseptic solution after final cleaning and surface sterilization by treating explants with mercuric chloride. Inoculated explants are free from brown leaching from cut ends by two consecutive subcultures within 48 h in MS basal medium. Multiplication of shoots, average 4-5 at each node, takes place in MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L NAA, and 40 g/L sucrose over a period of 8 weeks. For elongation of regenerated shoots, cultures are transferred to MS medium, supplemented with a single growth hormone, kinetin at 2.0 mg/L. Emergence and elongation of roots from shoot base is facilitated by placing on the notch of a filter paper bridge. The hardened in vitro propagated plants are able to grow normally in soil like other conventionally propagated Jasminum officinale. PMID:20099096

Bhattacharya, Sabita; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

2010-01-01

106

Principal features of the cpDNA evolution in Taraxacum (Asteraceae, Lactuceae): a conflict with taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships based on the chloroplast genome of Taraxacum were studied. Representative samples of 44 sections or species groups and a number of isolated species were analyzed. On the basis of the sequence variation in psbA – trnH and in trnL –trnF, mutations associated with RFLPs were monitored. Five RFLPs without homoplasy were recognized and used to reconstruct four main

J. Kirschner; J. Štepánek; T. H. M. Mes; J. C. M. den Nijs; P. Oosterveld; H. Štorchová; P. Kuperus

2003-01-01

107

Hybridization between European and Asian dandelions ( Taraxacum section Ruderalia and section Mongolica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Natural hybridization in Taraxacum between native sexual diploids and introduced agamospermous triploids occurring in Japan was studied by means of chloroplast\\u000a DNA (cpDNA) marker. We first determined the nucleotide sequences between trnT (UGU) and trnF (GAA) of cpDNA for 22 plants obtained from Japan and Europe. The sequences analyzed were about 1,574 base pairs long. Among\\u000a all accessions, the

Hiroyuki Shibaike; Haruka Akiyama; Satoshi Uchiyama; Kaori Kasai; Tatsuyoshi Morita

2002-01-01

108

Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla.  

PubMed Central

The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum, clonal diversity can be generated by rare hybridization between sexuals and apomicts, the latter acting as pollen donors. Less extensive clonal diversity is generated by mutations within clonal lineages. Clonal diversity may be maintained by frequency-dependent selection, caused by biological interactions (e.g. competitors and pathogens). Some clones are geographically widespread and probably represent phenotypically plastic 'general-purpose genotypes'. The long-term evolutionary success of apomictic clones may be limited by lack of adaptive potential and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although apomictic clones may be considered as 'evolutionary dead ends', the genes controlling apomixis can escape from degeneration and extinction via pollen in crosses between sexuals and apomicts. In this way, apomixis genes are transferred to a new genetic background, potentially adaptive and cleansed from linked deleterious mutations. Consequently, apomixis genes can be much older than the clones they are currently contained in. The close phylogenetic relationship between Taraxacum and Chondrilla and the similarity of their apomixis mechanisms suggest that apomixis in these two genera could be of common ancestry.

van Dijk, Peter J

2003-01-01

109

Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous,component,of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean Andes

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-montenegro; Alejandro A. Mun Oz; Anibal Pauchard

2005-01-01

110

Nurse effect of the native cushion plant Azorella monantha on the invasive non-native Taraxacum officinale in the high-Andes of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive interactions among native plant species are common in alpine habitats, particularly those where one species (nurse plant) generates microclimatic conditions that are more benign than the surrounding environment, facilitating the establishment of other species. Nonetheless, these microclimatic conditions could facilitate the establishment of non-native species as well. A conspicuous component of the alien alpine flora of the central Chilean

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Constanza L. Quiroz; Marco A. Molina-Montenegro; Alejandro A. Muñoz; Anibal Pauchard

2005-01-01

111

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to

Klemen Bergant; Lu?ka Kajfež-Bogataj; Zalika ?repinšek

2002-01-01

112

Selective Seed Abortion Increases Offspring Survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale(Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to

Chantal Melser; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer

2001-01-01

113

The effect of dandelion or a cover crop on mycorrhiza inoculum potential, soil aggregation and yield of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to observe the influence of a cover crop (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.), and a perennial weed (dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg.), on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculum potential, soil aggregation, and maize yield after one season. Mycorrhizal colonization of maize roots was higher following the autumn planting of either winter wheat or dandelion compared

Z. Kabir; R. T. Koide

2000-01-01

114

Eudesmanolides from Taraxacum mongolicum and their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A new eudesmanolide, 1?,3?-dihydroxy-eudesman-11(13)-en-6?,12-olide (1) was isolated and identified from Taraxacum mongolicum, together with two known compounds, 1?,3?-dihydroxyeudesman-6?,12-olide (2) and loliolide (3). The structure of 1 was established by analysis of its physical and spectroscopic data. 1 was found to have an inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production with an IC(50) of 38.9 ?M in activated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:21468913

Kim, Young-Hee; Choo, Soo-Jin; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong-Seok; Yoo, Ick-Dong

2011-04-06

115

[Achene morphology cluster analysis of Taraxacum F. H. Wigg. from northeast China and molecule systematics evidence determined by SRAP].  

PubMed

The achenes morphological and micro-morphological characteristics of six species of genus Taraxacum from northeastern China as well as SRAP cluster analysis were observed for their classification evidences. The achenes were observed by microscope and EPMA. Cluster analysis was given on the basis of the size, shape, cone proportion, color and surface sculpture of achenes. The Taraxacum inter-species achene shape characteristic difference is obvious, particularly spinulose distribution and size, achene color and achene size; with the Taraxacum plant achene shape the cluster method T. antungense Kitag. and the T. urbanum Kitag. should combine for the identical kind; the achene morphology cluster analysis and the SRAP tagged molecule systematics's cluster result retrieves in the table with "the Chinese flora". The class group to divide the result is consistent. Taraxacum plant achene shape characteristic stable conservative, may carry on the inter-species division and the sibship analysis according to the achene shape characteristic combination difference; the achene morphology cluster analysis as well as the SRAP tagged molecule systematics confirmation support dandelion classification result of "the Chinese flora". PMID:23162905

Li, Hai-juan; Zhao, Xin; Jia, Qing-fei; Li, Tian-lai; Ning, Wei

2012-08-01

116

Absence of mutagenic effects of a particular Symphytum officinale L. liquid extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. PMID:19827020

Benedek, Birgit; Ziegler, Andreas; Ottersbach, Peter

2010-03-01

117

Polarity Based Solvents Extraction of Opuntia Dillenii and Zingiber Officinale for In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from dried stem of Opuntia dillenii and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated for antimicrobial activities by extraction in non-polar (petroleum ether and chloroform) and polar solvents (methanol and water). Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed considerable susceptibility to all extracts of Opuntia dillenii and Zingiber officinale. Ether and chloroform extracts of Opuntia dillenii showed improved antimicrobial activity against

Muhammad Ihtisham Umar; Aqeel Javeed; Muhammad Ashraf; Amjad Riaz; Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar; Sheryar Afzal; Rabia Altaf

2011-01-01

118

Potential of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz for accelerating phytoextraction of cadmium in combination with eco-friendly amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction and phytostabilization are well-established sub-processes of phytoremediation that are being followed for in situ remediation of soils contaminated with toxic metals. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz, a newly reported Cd accumulator has shown considerable potential for phytoextracting Cd. This paper investigated the effects of urea and chicken manure on T. mongolicum phytoextracting Cd from soil using pot culture experiments. The results

Shuhe Wei; Shanshan Wang; Qixing Zhou; Jie Zhan; Lihui Ma; Zhijie Wu; Tieheng Sun; M. N. V. Prasad

2010-01-01

119

Distribution of diploid sexual plants of Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia in east-Central Europe, with special reference to Czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbarium specimens (c. 1 000) and population samples (76) have been screened for the occurrence of diploid representatives ofTaraxacum sect.Ruderalia (T. sect.Vulgaria, nom. illeg.). The area studied comprises German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and parts of Austria, Yugoslavia, and Rumania. Diploids are common from the Valley of the Moravia river on southwards. Isolated outpost localities are found in S.

J. C. M. DEN NIJS; J. Kirschner; J. Št?pánek; A. Hulst

1990-01-01

120

Laticifer-specific cis-prenyltransferase silencing affects the rubber, triterpene, and inulin content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

PubMed

Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis. PMID:22238421

Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-11

121

[Review of pharmacological activities of Dendrobium officinale based on traditional functions].  

PubMed

This review firstly made a summary of ancient literature on traditional functions of Dendrobium, combined with literature of modern pharmacological research and clinical application of D. officinale from CNKI search system, it was summarized that D. officinale had broad bioactivities including immunomodulation, antifatigue activity, antioxidation, digest-promotion, stimulation of salivary secretion, lowering hyperglycemia, anti-hypertension, anti liver injury and antitumor activity, etc. Furthermore, public healty needs and present situation of cooperative product development were analyzed base on tradtional functions, pharmacological actions and related clinical applications of D. officinale, could provide a reference for the further industrial development. PMID:23713270

Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu; Chen, Su-Hong

2013-02-01

122

Cloning and characterization of a novel gene that encodes ( S )-?-bisabolene synthase from ginger, Zingiber officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, contains a fragrant oil mainly composed of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. We isolated a cDNA that codes for a sesquiterpene\\u000a synthase from young rhizomes of ginger, Z. officinale Roscoe, Japanese cultivar “Kintoki”. The cDNA, designated ZoTps1, potentially encoded a protein that comprised 550 amino acid residues and exhibited 49–53% identity with those of the sesquiterpene\\u000a synthases already

Masaki Fujisawa; Hisashi Harada; Hiromichi Kenmoku; Satoru Mizutani; Norihiko Misawa

2010-01-01

123

Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the protective effect of Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract (DLE) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of DLE, we fed C57BL/6 mice with normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 2g/kg DLE DLE (DL), and HFD supplemented with 5 g/kg DLE (DH). We found that the HFD supplemented by DLE dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to HFD alone. Body and liver weights of the DL and DH groups were significantly lesser than those of the HFD group, and DLE supplementation dramatically suppressed triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), insulin, fasting glucose level in serum, and Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) induced by HFD. In addition, DLE treatment significantly increased activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle protein. DLE significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver, reduced insulin resistance, and lipid in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice via the AMPK pathway. These results indicate that the DLE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23603008

Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Sung, Mi Jeong

2013-04-18

124

[Chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic characteristics of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast China].  

PubMed

The paper adopted the JEM-100CX II transmission electron microscope to observe chloroplast ultrastructure of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast, and the LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system was used to compare the chlorophyll fluorescence and the photosynthesis characteristics of five kinds of dandelions in Northeast China. Chloroplast ultrastructure showed: in the five kinds of dandelion, larger chloroplast, grana with more layers, regular thylakoid, without starch grains and so on, these chloroplasts characteristics decided to bigger photosynthetic rate. The five kinds of dandelion P(n) exhibited a "double peak" diurnal curve: stomatal limitation is the main adjustment factors for the midday depression phenomenon. The P(n),G(s),C(i) content of T. mongolicum are the highest, and T. asiaticum are the lowest among them. The relation between P(n) and G(s),C(i) is direct ratio, P(n) and T(r) is in an inverse proportion among the five kinds of dandelion. In addition, P(n) is positively correlated with Chla, Chlb, and the relationship with Chlb is bigger. The paper demonstrates the Mongolian dandelion photosynthetic efficiency is the highest, it is an higher photosynthetic efficiency dandelion,it provide theoretical basis for assessment and use of the resource of dandelion. PMID:22860444

Ning, Wei; Wu, Jie; Zhao, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Li, Tianlai

2012-05-01

125

Biocontrol of root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus amboinicus by using plant extracts as antifungal agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different plant extracts were screened for their potential antifungal activity against Fusarium chlamydosporum causing root rot of Coleus amboinicus and Coleus forskohlii; the aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Annona squamosa, Azadircta indica, Eucalyptus Spp., Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis, Allium schoenoprasum, Cinnamomum verum Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Calendula officinalis species were found to be effective. Both aqueous and 50% ethanol

Chathuri P. Mudalige; N. S. Jyothi; Uma G. Chikabire; S. T. Girisha

2011-01-01

126

Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated in four-way olfactometer bioassays. Results showed that vacuum distilled A. melegueta and Z. officinale extracts were repellent towards adult S. zeamais both in the absence and the presence of maize, Zea mays, grains. Bioassay-guided liquid chromatographic fractionation

Donald A. Ukeh; Michael A. Birkett; John A. Pickett; Alan S. Bowman; A. Jennifer Mordue

2009-01-01

127

Selective seed abortion increases offspring survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to assess the quality of the resulting offspring. Nutrient addition did not increase the number of seeds per flower significantly. Fewer embryos were aborted in the ovule removal treatment. The seeds produced in the ovule removal treatment had a significantly greater mass and significantly lower survival than the offspring from the control group. This difference in survival indicates that offspring of lower quality are selectively aborted in the control group. Offspring from the nutrient addition treatment survived longer. The offspring of the treatments did not differ significantly from the control group in growth. Simple mathematical calculations, based on the differences in offspring quality that we found, indicate that the selective abortion hypothesis can be an important factor explaining the advantage of the "surplus production" of ovules. PMID:11410467

Melser, C; Klinkhamer, P G

2001-06-01

128

Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis.Currently, there is a renewed interest

Badreldin H. Ali; Gerald Blunden; Musbah O. Tanira; Abderrahim Nemmar

2008-01-01

129

Steamed ginger ( Zingiber officinale): Changed chemical profile and increased anticancer potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger, from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosco (Zingiberaceae), is a common condiment for foods and beverages. In this work, we tested a hypothesis that a steaming process affects the chemical profile and anticancer potential of ginger. An HPLC method with TOF\\/MS and DAD was developed to analyse the chemical constituents in ginger. The antiproliferative effect of fresh, dried and

Xiao-Lan Cheng; Qun Liu; Yong-Bo Peng; Lian-Wen Qi; Ping Li

2011-01-01

130

Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene, -bisabolene, and -sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a reputation for possessing a particular \\

Hans Wohlmuth; Mike K. Smith; Lyndon O. Brooks; Stephen P. Myers; David N. Leach

2006-01-01

131

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. L.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under

Maria Fernanda; Pereira Lavieri Gomes; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco; JoseGuilherme Xavier; Leoni Villano Bonamin

2007-01-01

132

Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: An efficient and sustainable approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol\\/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time\\/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet

Jiajin Hu; Zheng Guo; Marianne Glasius; Kasper Kristensen; Langtao Xiao; Xuebing Xu

2011-01-01

133

Effect of gamma Radiation and Temperature on Ginger (Zingiber Officinale L.) Sprout and Weight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32 +- 3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows...

S. Sirikulvadhana C. Prompubesara

1979-01-01

134

Faecal microbial contamination of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) gathered by a Maori protocol in New Zealand streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the food safety status of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) harvested from rural streams under Maori protocol. Sixty?five sample bunches (c. 500 g) were collected from four streams in the Waikato region of New Zealand each summer from 2005 to 2007. Two streams, Southern Enclosure and Te Waihou, were within reserves and the other two,

A. Donnison; C. Ross; L. Dixon

2009-01-01

135

SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADICAL SCAVENGERS FROM NEO-TARAXACUM SIPHONANTHUM BY ONLINE RAPID SCREENING METHOD AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online rapid screening method, the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detector (DAD)–radical scavenging detection (RSD)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectroscopy (MS)\\/MS system, was developed for the screening and identification of radical scavengers from Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum, a new species found in China in 1989. For further characterization, the target compounds were isolated by silica column chromatography, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HSCCC,

Shu Yun Shi; Yu Ping Zhang; Hong Hao Zhou; Ke Long Huang; Xin Yu Jiang

2010-01-01

136

Laticifer-Specific cis-Prenyltransferase Silencing Affects the Rubber, Triterpene, and Inulin Content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum12[C][W  

PubMed Central

Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis.

Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M.; Prufer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-01-01

137

AROMATHERAPY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): STERILE MALES EXPOSED TO GINGER ROOT OIL IN PRE-RELEASE, STORAGE BOXES DISPLAY INCREASED MATING COMPETITIVENESS IN FIELD CAGE TRIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small conta...

138

EFFECTS OF DIET, GINGER ROOT OIL, AND ELEVATION ON THE MATING COMPETITIVENESS OF MALE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLIES FROM A MASS-REARED GENETIC SEXING STRAIN IN GUATEMALA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingther officinale R...

139

An Analysis of Soil and Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) Contamination with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In the Area of the Railway Junction I?awa G?ówna, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heavymetal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co, Cr, Mo) contentswere established in soil and plant samples collectedin different areas of the railway junction IlawaGlówna, Poland. Soil and plant samples werecollected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the loading ramp, platform area, rolling stockcleaning bay and the railway siding. It was found thatthe PAH

M. Malawska; B. Wio?komirski

2001-01-01

140

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

141

Comfrey root: from tradition to modern clinical trials.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) has been used over many centuries as a medicinal plant. In particular, the use of the root has a longstanding tradition. Today, several randomised controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety. Comfrey root extract has been used for the topical treatment of painful muscle and joint complaints. It is clinically proven to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling of muscles and joints in the case of degenerative arthritis, acute myalgia in the back, sprains, contusions and strains after sports injuries and accidents, also in children aged 3 years and older. This paper provides information on clinical trials, non-interventional studies and further literature published on comfrey root till date. PMID:23224633

Staiger, Christiane

2012-12-07

142

High-frequency in vitro multiplication of disease-free Zingiber officinale Rosc  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency in vitro multiplication of disease-free clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was obtained by culturing small and active buds of ginger on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg\\/l Kin and 20 g\\/l sucrose.\\u000a An average of 7.7 shoots per bud was obtained on this medium after 4 weeks of culture. A high multiplication rate of well-developed\\u000a plantlets (7.0 shoots

T. R. Sharma; B. M. Singh

1997-01-01

143

Encapsulation for in vitro short-term storage and exchange of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synseeds of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were produced using aseptically proliferated 2-week old encapsulating explants (microshoots) upon complexation of 4% sodium alginate prepared in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) and 100mM calcium chloride. Conversion of synseeds into plantlets (conversion) was recorded as 66% and 53% on MS (3% sucrose) and on MS (3% sucrose)+2.5mg\\/l BA media, respectively. However, shoots\\/synseed were

S. Gopala Sundararaj; Anuradha Agrawal; Rishi K. Tyagi

2010-01-01

144

Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of recombinant (+)-germacrene D synthase from Zingiber officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone encoding a sesquiterpene synthase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, has been isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale). The full-length cDNA (AY860846) contains a 1650-bp open reading frame coding for 550 amino acids (63.8kDa) with a theoretical pI=5.59. The deduced amino acid sequence is 30–46% identical with sequences of other sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. The recombinant enzyme, produced in Escherichia coli,

Sarah Picaud; Mikael E. Olsson; Maria Brodelius; Peter E. Brodelius

2006-01-01

145

In vitro induction of tetraploid ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its pollen fertility and germinability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro induction of tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its pollen fertility and germinability were investigated. The growth of shoot tip cultures on agar MS medium containing 2.0mgl?1 BA was greater than that of similar cultures in liquid MS medium with the same BA concentration. In liquid medium, the combinations of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mgl?1 BA with 0.05mgl?1 NAA

Shinichi Adaniya; Daisuke Shirai

2001-01-01

146

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

147

A laboratory evaluation of comfrey ( Symphytum officinale L.) as a forage crop for ensilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m2 area of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) was chopped and ensiled in duplicate laboratory silos, either unwilted or following a 24h wilt, to test the hypothesis that the crop might be suitable for ensiling as animal feed. Concentrations of dry matter (DM) averaged 112 and 146g\\/kg for the unwilted and wilted crops. Both crops were very difficult to chop due

J. M Wilkinson

2003-01-01

148

Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale  

PubMed Central

Context: Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Objectives: We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Materials & Methods: Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results: Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups. Discussion and Conclusion: Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.

Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R.; Owu, Daniel U.; Nwokocha, Magdalene I.; Ufearo, Chibueze S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

2012-01-01

149

Antioxidative effects of daikon sprout ( Raphanus sativus L.) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative effects of vegetables are expected to prevent carcinogenesis. The intake of daikon sprout (Japanese name “kaiware-daikon”, Raphanus sativus L.) or ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) significantly decreased the concentration of urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in rats as compared with those before the intake. Moreover, the intake of these vegetables reduced urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats

Katsunari Ippoushi; Atsuko Takeuchi; Hidekazu Ito; Hideki Horie; Keiko Azuma

2007-01-01

150

Solar drying of West Indian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire basket dryer (1.8 m × 0.9 × 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m?3 and a specific drying rate

D. A. Balladin; I. Chang Yen; D. R. McGaw; O. Headley

1996-01-01

151

Down-regulation of small rubber particle protein expression affects integrity of rubber particles and rubber content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1-5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40-50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

2012-07-23

152

[SCoT differential expression of cold resistance related genes in Dendrobium officinale under low temperature stress].  

PubMed

In order to study the molecule mechanism of the differential expression in Dendrobium officinale under low temperature, the high cold resistance germplasms were used for constructing the RNA pools. SCoT markers were used to analyze the different cDNA pools transcribed from the RNA pools. 11 transcripts derived fragments from 500 cDNA amplified bands were amplified by 64 primers, and were sorted out, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that cDNA pools with SCoT markers could be used for differential display in D. officinale under low temperature stress. Sequence analysis indicated that the transcripts derived fragments were significantly homologous in nucleotide sequence with membrane-associated proteins, osmotic regulation protein, CBF transcriptional factor, resistance protein. One left gene segments functions were still unknown, which may be related to the cold resistant gene expression in D. officinale. PMID:23713274

Li, Dong-Bin; Gao, Yan-Hui; Si, Jin-Ping

2013-02-01

153

Determination of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and preparation by column chromatography.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the variety and content of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum, a traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activities, by developing an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS method and a preparative column chromatographic method for carotenoid isolation. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 66 min by employing a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (79:14:7, v/v/v) and methylene chloride (100%) with flow rate at 1.0 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. All-trans-canthaxanthin was shown to be an appropriate internal standard for quantitation, with all-trans-?-carotene and its cis isomers present in largest amount (413.6 ?g/g), followed by all-trans-violoxanthin and its cis isomers (209.5 ?g/g), all-trans-lutein and its cis isomers (212.4 ?g/g), all-trans-neoxanthin and its cis isomers (134.6 ?g/g), antheraxanthin (16.5 ?g/g), all-trans-?-cryptoxanthin and its cis isomers (5.8 ?g/g), all-trans-zeaxanthin (3.6 ?g/g) and neochrome (0.1 ?g/g). For preparative chromatography, with a glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) as adsorbent, the carotenoid fraction was eluted with 300 mL of ethyl acetate with flow rate at 10 mL/min. Some more epoxides and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated during preparative column chromatography. Nevertheless, the carotenoids isolated from T. formosanum may be used as raw material for possible production of health food in the future. PMID:22502907

Kao, T H; Loh, C H; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

2012-03-28

154

A novel C-S lyase from the latex-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum displays alanine aminotransferase and l-cystine lyase activity.  

PubMed

We isolated a novel pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent l-cystine lyase from the dandelion Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Real time qPCR analysis showed that C-S lyase from Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbCSL) mRNA is expressed in all plant tissues, although at relatively low levels in the latex and pedicel. The 1251 bp TbCSL cDNA encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 46,127 kDa. It is homologous to tyrosine and alanine aminotransferases (AlaATs) as well as to an Arabidopsis thaliana carbon-sulfur lyase (C-S lyase) (SUR1), which has a role in glucosinolate metabolism. TbCSL displayed in vitrol-cystine lyase and AlaAT activities of 4 and 19nkatmg(-1) protein, respectively. However, we detected no in vitro tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) activity and RNAi knockdown of the enzyme had no effect on phenotype, showing that TbCSL substrates might be channeled into redundant pathways. TbCSL is in vivo localized in the cytosol and functions as a C-S lyase or an aminotransferase in planta, but the purified enzyme converts at least two substrates specifically, and can thus be utilized for further in vitro applications. PMID:23073363

Munt, Oliver; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

2012-10-13

155

Plant regeneration from embryogenic suspension-derived protoplasts of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described to regenerate plants from embryogenic suspension-derived protoplasts of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Somatic embryogenic calli were induced from ginger shoot tips on solid MS medium with half the concentration of NH4NO3 and supplemented with 1.0 mg l?1 2,4-Dichloroacetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.2 mg l?1 Kin. Rapid-growing and well-dispersed suspension cultures were established by subculturing the embryogenic calli in the same

Yinghua Guo; Jinhe Bai; Zhenxian Zhang

2007-01-01

156

Anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing effects of the constituents of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol inhibited the Ca²?-dependent contractions in high K? medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism. PMID:22836212

Liao, Yu-Ren; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chan, Yu-Yi; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, Tian-Shung

2012-07-26

157

Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated in four-way olfactometer bioassays. Results showed that vacuum distilled A. melegueta and Z. officinale extracts were repellent towards adult S. zeamais both in the absence and the presence of maize, Zea mays, grains. Bioassay-guided liquid chromatographic fractionation of the distillates showed that fractions containing oxygenated compounds accounted for the repellent activity. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), followed by GC peak enhancement and enantioselective GC using authentic compounds, identified 3 major compounds in the behaviourally active fractions of A. melegueta and Z. officinale to be (S)-2-heptanol, (S)-2-heptyl acetate and (R)-linalool in a ratio of 1:6:3, and 1,8-cineole, neral and geranial in a ratio of 5.48:1:2.13, respectively. The identification of these behaviourally active compounds provides the scientific basis for the observed repellent properties of A. melegueta and Z. officinale, and demonstrates the potential for their use in stored-product protection at the small-scale farmer level in Africa. PMID:19394981

Ukeh, Donald A; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Bowman, Alan S; Luntz, A Jennifer Mordue

2009-04-22

158

Changes in the amounts of [6]gingerol and derivatives during a culture cycle of ginger, Zingiber officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of [6]gingerol and [6]shogaol (phenolic pungent principles of ginger) was much higher in culture systems of Zingiber officinale where morphological differentiation was apparent. Cultures grown on a callus-inducing medium also accumulated these metabolites but to a lesser extent. There is a positive relationship between product accumulation and morphological differentiation, although unorganised callus tissue also seems to possess the

Rafael Zarate; Michael M. Yeoman

1996-01-01

159

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

2011-10-27

160

Phenylpropanoid ester from Zingiber officinale and their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A new phenylpropanoid ester mixture, (E)-geranylferulic acid (1a) and (Z)-geranylferulic acid (1b), along with 13 known compounds, [6]-gingerol (2), [8]-gingerol (3), [10]-gingerdione (4), 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione (5), 1-dehydro-[8]-gingerdione (6), [6]-paradol (7), [8]-paradol (8), [6]-gingeroldiacetate (9), 6-hydroxy-[6]-shogaol (10), galanolactone (11), trans-®-sesquiphellandrol (12), trans-sesquipiperitol (13), and 4?,5?-dihydroxybisabola-2,10-diene (14) were isolated from ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale. Their structures were determined based on the spectroscopic (1D, 2D-NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All of the isolates were evaluated for their potential to inhibit LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC(50) values ranging from 5.5 to 28.5 ?M. PMID:22370785

Hong, Seong Su; Oh, Joa Sub

2012-02-28

161

Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract. PMID:8887946

Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

1996-01-01

162

Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale  

PubMed Central

Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry.

Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

2011-01-01

163

Identification of antioxidants from Taraxacum mongolicum by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–radical-scavenging detection–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraxacum mongolicum was a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and viral infectious diseases. Furthermore, fresh leaves of T. mongolicum have been used by local people as vegetable food in Northern China. An on-line rapid screening method, high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–radical-scavenging detection–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–RSD–ESI-MS) system, has been developed for the separation and identification of

Shuyun Shi; Yu Zhao; Honghao Zhou; Yuping Zhang; Xinyu Jiang; Kelong Huang

2008-01-01

164

Effect of growth regulator and culture conditions on shoot multiplication and rhizome formation in ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Shoot multiplication of Zingiber officinale cv. V3S18 was achieved by meristem culture on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 26.6 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 8.57 ?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and 1111.1 ?M adenine sulfate and 3% (w\\/v) sucrose. In vitro rhizome formation from in vitro-raised shoots was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.44 ?M BA, 5.71 ?M

G. R. Rout; S. K. Palai; S. Samantaray; P. Das

2001-01-01

165

Inhibitory effects of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil on leukocyte migration in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zingiber officinale Roscoe, popular name ginger, is grown naturally in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Ginger is used in pharmaceutical,\\u000a cosmetic, and food and beverage industries and the essential oil has been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions including\\u000a as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger

Gessilda Alcantara Nogueira de Melo; Renata Grespan; Jefferson Pitelli Fonseca; Thiago Oliveira Farinha; Expedito Leite da Silva; Adriano Lopes Romero; Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

2011-01-01

166

INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PLANTAS DE CONFREI (Symphytum officinale L.)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição

FONSÊCA CASTRO; AMAURI ALVES DE ALVARENGA

167

Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study on Thin-Layer Vacuum Drying of Ginger ( Zingiber Officinale R. ) Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum-drying characteristics of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) slices were investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at a constant chamber pressure of 8 kPa, and at four different\\u000a drying temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 65 °C).The effects of drying temperature on the drying rate and moisture ratio\\u000a of the ginger samples were evaluated. Efficient model for describing the vacuum-drying process was chosen

Indrajit D. Thorat; Debabandya Mohapatra; R. F. Sutar; S. S. Kapdi; Dipali D. Jagtap

168

Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400?mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6?weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-?B activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-?B nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100??g/mL) for 24?hr prior to interleukin-1? (IL-1?, 8?ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNF? and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-?B activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-?B-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-?B activity, I?B? degradation and I?B kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-?B activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:21902812

Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

2011-10-21

169

Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of Z. officinale leaves. The Z. officinale essential oil yield was 0.26%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were Camphene (5.26%), Phellandrene (6.58%), Zingiberene (36.48%), Geranial (4.32%), ?-gurjunene (2.74%), and Citronellol ?-sesguiphellandrene (12.31%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 46.38?ppm and an LC(90) value of 84.32?ppm. Also, Camphene (?95.0%), Phellandrene (?95.0%), Zingiberene (?95.0%), Geranial (?95.0%), ?-gurjunene (?97.0%), and Citronellol (?95.0%) were tested against the F21 laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Zingiberene (?95.0%) and Citronellol (?95.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 99.55?ppm and 141.45?ppm. This indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:20568951

Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Sang-Buem; Kim, Soo-Ki

2010-06-23

170

Enhancement of the differentiation of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium officinale to shoots by ultrasound treatment.  

PubMed

An efficient micropropagation protocol has been developed for Dendrobium officinale, through protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). A correlation between enhanced differentiation of PLBs of D. officinale by ultrasound and changes in the levels of endogenous hormones and the antioxidant enzyme activities was described. Ultrasound treatments improved the conversion of PLBs of D. officinale to shoots. The highest conversion frequency of PLBs to shoots was obtained following the ultrasound treatment at 300 W for 5 min. Compared to the control, the enhanced conversion of PLBs to shoots following the ultrasound treatment was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of total cytokinins (CTKs) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which was due to a decrease in the endogenous level of IAA and an increase in the endogenous level of total CTKs. Analysis of enzyme activities indicated that the increased endogenous level of total CTKs driven by ultrasound was associated with the inhibition of CTK decomposition by CTK oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6), while the decreased endogenous level of IAA was associated with the promotion of IAA decomposition by IAA oxidase (EC 1.10.3.3). In addition, ultrasound treatment increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) in the conversion process of PLBs to shoots. PMID:22437146

Wei, Ming; Yang, Chao-ying; Wei, Sheng-hua

2012-03-19

171

Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of recombinant (+)-germacrene D synthase from Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding a sesquiterpene synthase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, has been isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale). The full-length cDNA (AY860846) contains a 1650-bp open reading frame coding for 550 amino acids (63.8kDa) with a theoretical pI=5.59. The deduced amino acid sequence is 30-46% identical with sequences of other sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. The recombinant enzyme, produced in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the formation of a major product, (+)-germacrene D (50.2% of total sesquiterpenoids produced) and a co-product, germacrene B (17.1%) and a number of minor by-products. The optimal pH for the recombinant enzyme is around 7.5. Substantial (+)-germacrene D synthase activity is observed in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ or Co2+, while the enzyme is inactive when Cu2+ or Zn2+ is used. The Km- and kcat-values are 0.88 microM and 3.34 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. A reaction mechanism involving a double 1,2-hydride shift has been established using deuterium labeled substrates in combination with GC-MS analysis. PMID:16839518

Picaud, Sarah; Olsson, Mikael E; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

2006-06-21

172

Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins. PMID:18706468

Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

2008-07-29

173

Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.  

PubMed

Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a reputation for possessing a particular "lemony" aroma, due to its high content of the isomers neral and geranial, often collectively referred to as citral. Fresh rhizomes of 17 clones of Australian ginger, including commercial cultivars and experimental tetraploid clones, were steam distilled 7 weeks post-harvest, and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of 16 of the 17 clones, including the tetraploid clones and their parent cultivar, were found to be of substantially similar composition. These oils were characterized by very high citral levels (51-71%) and relatively low levels of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons typical of ginger oil. The citral levels of most of these oils exceeded those previously reported for ginger oils. The neral-to-geranial ratio was shown to be remarkably constant (0.61 +/- 0.01) across all 17 clones. One clone, the cultivar "Jamaican", yielded oil with a substantially different composition, lower citral content and higher levels of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Because this cultivar also contains significantly higher concentrations of pungent gingerols, it possesses unique aroma and flavor characteristics, which should be of commercial interest. PMID:16478268

Wohlmuth, Hans; Smith, Mike K; Brooks, Lyndon O; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N

2006-02-22

174

A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans. PMID:23612703

Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-04-24

175

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:23550785

Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

2013-03-13

176

Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used in various foods and beverages. 6-Gingerol is the major bioactive constituent responsible for the antiinflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant activities of ginger. The effect of application of ?-amylase, viscozyme, cellulase, protease and pectinase enzymes to ginger on the oleoresin yield and 6-gingerol content has been investigated. Pre-treatment of ginger with ?-amylase or viscozyme followed by extraction with acetone afforded higher yield of oleoresin (20%±0.5) and gingerol (12.2%±0.4) compared to control (15%±0.6 oleoresin, 6.4%±0.4 gingerol). Extraction of ginger pre-treated with enzymes followed by extraction with ethanol provided higher yield of gingerol (6.2-6.3%) than the control (5.5%) with comparable yields of the oleoresin (31-32%). Also, ethanol extract of cellulase pre-treated ginger had the maximum polyphenol content (37.5 mg/g). Apart from 6-gingerol, 6-paradol along with 6- and 8-methyl shogaols were the other important bio-active constituents in the oleoresin from cellulase-treated ginger. PMID:23561138

Nagendra chari, K L; Manasa, D; Srinivas, P; Sowbhagya, H B

2013-02-11

177

Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis1  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies based on ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger’s antiarthritic effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.

Funk, Janet L.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Oyarzo, Janice N.; Timmermann, Barbara N.

2009-01-01

178

Hairpins involving both inverted and direct repeats are associated with homoplasious indels in non-coding chloroplast DNA of Taraxacum (Lactuceae: Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Sequence variation in 2.2 kb of non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome of eight dandelions (Taraxacum: Lactuceae) from Asia and Europe is interpreted in the light of the phylogenetic signal of base substitutions vs. indels (insertions-deletions). The four non-coding regions displayed a total of approximately 30 structural mutations of which 9 are potentially phylogenetically informative. Insertions, deletions, and an inversion were found that involved consecutive stretches of up to 172 bases. When compared to phylogenetic relationships of the chloroplast genomes based on nucleotide substitutions only, many homoplasious indels (33%) were detected that differed considerably in length and did not comprise simple sequence repeats typically associated with replication slippage. Though many indels in the intergenic spacers were associated with direct repeats, frequently, the variable stretches participated in inverted repeat stabilized hairpins. In each intergenic spacer or intron examined, nucleotide stretches ranging from 30 to 60 bp were able to fold into stabilized secondary structures. When these indels were homoplasious, they always ranked among the most stabilized hairpins in the non-coding regions. The association of higher order structures that involve both classes of repeats and parallel structural mutations in hot spot regions of the chloroplast genome can be used to differentiate among mutations that differ in phylogenetic reliability. PMID:10984175

Mes, T H; Kuperus, P; Kirschner, J; Stepanek, J; Oosterveld, P; Storchova, H; den Nijs, J C

2000-08-01

179

Molecular cloning of mevalonate pathway genes from Taraxacum brevicorniculatum and functional characterisation of the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.  

PubMed

Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is known to produce high quality rubber. The biosynthesis of rubber is dependent on isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) precursors derived from the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The cDNA sequences of seven MVA pathway genes from latex of T. brevicorniculatum were isolated, including three cDNA sequences encoding for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductases (TbHMGR1-3). Expression analyses indicate an important role of TbHMGR1 as well as for the HMG-CoA synthase (TbHMGS), the diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase and the mevalonate kinase in the provision of precursors for rubber biosynthesis. The amino acid sequences of the TbHMGRs show the typical motifs described for plant HMGRs such as two transmembrane domains and a catalytic domain containing two HMG-CoA and two NADP(H) binding sites. The functionality of the HMGRs was demonstrated by complementation assay using an IPP auxotroph mutant of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the transient expression of the catalytic domains of TbHMGR1 and TbHMGR2 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in a strong accumulation of sterol precursors, one of the major groups of pathway end-products. PMID:21833516

van Deenen, Nicole; Bachmann, Anne-Lena; Schmidt, Thomas; Schaller, Hubert; Sand, Jennifer; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

2011-08-11

180

Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate  

PubMed Central

The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 ?mol CO2 m?2s?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 ?mol m?2s?1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 ?mol m?2s?1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

2010-01-01

181

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study.  

PubMed

Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the 'resistant hepatocyte model' (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1-2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann-Whitney and ?(2)) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ? 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ? 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

2007-12-26

182

Hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale): chemical diversity of volatiles and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds of hedge mustard (Sysimbrium officinale) have been investigated for the first time. Forthy-two compounds were identified after hydrodistillation (without or upon autolysis) after gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. In addition, after decoction and hydrolysis of O-glycosides, 18 volatile O-aglycones were identified. In general, the main volatiles found in hydrodistillates were: isopropyl isothiocyanate (27.6-48.9%), 2-methylpropanenitrile (0.5-18.8%), (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (0.5-18.0%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (4.9-9.4%), (E)-hex-2-enal (3.5-8.6%), (Z)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.3-8.4%), octanoic (0.5-8.6%) and dodecanoic acid (0-5.0%), 2-methylbutanenitrile (0-4.6%), dibutyl phthalate (0-4.5%), and ethyl linolenate (0-3.6%). The main volatile O-aglycones were: 2-phenylethyl alcohol (21.5%), 6,7-dehydro-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionol (9.3%), eugenol (8.3%), benzyl alcohol (7.0%), ethyl vanillate (5.2%), 6-(tert-butyl)-5-methylphenol (5.1%), vanillin acetone (4.7%), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4.3%), and 2-hydroxy-beta-ionone (3.8%). All hydrodistillates exhibited great potential of antibacterial activity against five Gram-positive bacteria, nine ampicillin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and four fungi at a concentration of 500 microg/ml using the disc diffusion method. PMID:20730965

Blazevi?, Ivica; Radoni?, Ani; Masteli?, Josip; Zeki?, Marina; Skocibusi?, Mirjana; Maravi?, Ana

2010-08-01

183

Radioprotective effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger): past, present and future.  

PubMed

Radiation is an important modality in treating people with cancer especially when surgical intervention is impracticable or might debilitate the patient. However, effective use of ionizing radiation is compromised by the side effects that result from radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. The use of radioprotective compounds, which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to association with protecting the normal tissue, it will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, till date no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as both culinary and medicinal agent. Preclinical studies carried out in the last decade has shown that ginger and its phytochemicals dehydrozingerone, zingerone possess radioprotective effects in laboratory animals and in cultured cells in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome when administered either through intraperitoneal or oral route was effective in protecting against gamma radiation-induced sickness and mortality. The phytochemicals dehydrogingerone and zingerone present in ginger are also shown to protect mice against radiation-induced sickness and mortality. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the free radical scavenging, antioxidant affects, anti-inflammatory and anti-clastogenic effects may contribute towards the observed protection. Additionally, studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that zingerone selectively protects the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to the radioprotective properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a radioprotective agent. PMID:22596078

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Pereira, Manisha Maria; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rao, Suresh; Arora, Rajesh

2012-05-18

184

Beneficial effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Zingiber officinale (ZO), commonly known as ginger, has been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Several studies have reported the hypoglycaemic properties of ginger in animal models. The present study evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect of its aqueous extract administered orally (daily) in three different doses (100, 300, 500 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 d to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A dose-dependent antihyperglycaemic effect revealed a decrease of plasma glucose levels by 38 and 68 % on the 15th and 30th day, respectively, after the rats were given 500 mg/kg. The 500 mg/kg ZO significantly (P<0·05) decreased kidney weight (% body weight) in ZO-treated diabetic rats v. control rats, although the decrease in liver weight (% body weight) was not statistically significant. Kidney glycogen content increased significantly (P<0·05) while liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased significantly (P<0·05) in diabetic controls v. normal controls. ZO (500 mg/kg) also significantly decreased kidney glycogen (P<0·05) and increased liver and skeletal muscle glycogen in STZ-diabetic rats when compared to diabetic controls. Activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in diabetic controls were decreased by 94, 53 and 61 %, respectively, when compared to normal controls; and ZO significantly increased (P<0·05) those enzymes' activities in STZ-diabetic rats. Therefore, the present study showed that ginger is a potential phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes through its effects on the activities of glycolytic enzymes. PMID:22152092

Abdulrazaq, Nafiu Bidemi; Cho, Maung Maung; Win, Ni Ni; Zaman, Rahela; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2011-12-12

185

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

186

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of Megalobrama amblycephala under Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from Rheum officinale Bail) on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala. The fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. We then challenged the fish

Bo Liu; Xianping Ge; Jun Xie; Pao Xu; Yijin He; Yanting Cui; Jianhua Ming; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan

187

Regeneration of plants from tissue- and cell suspension cultures of Symphytum officinale L. and effect of in vitro culture on pyrrolizidine alkaloid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary calluses were induced from various organs of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) plants on solid MS and B5 medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. The callus was further subcultured on B5 medium. Cell suspension cultures were derived from B5 grown calluses by transfer to liquid B5 medium.

H. J. Huizing; E. C. Pfauth; Th. M. Malingré; J. H. Sietsma

1983-01-01

188

Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: Comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tests the hypothesis that the blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion might be a suitable model to assess antiemetic properties of drugs, especially in species that do not vomit, like rats. The effects of the known antiemetic compound metoclopramide were compared with those of zingicomb®, a combination preparation of extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber officinale,

Christian Frisch; Rüdiger U. Hasenöhrl; Claudia M. Mattern; Rüdiger Häcker; Joseph P. Huston

1995-01-01

189

Effect of fast CO 2 pressure changes on the yield of lovage ( Levisticum officinale Koch.) and celery ( Apium graveolens L.) extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pressure alterations on the yield of CO2 extracts from different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) was studied. It was found that by applying frequent pressure changes in the extraction vessel it is possible to increase the rate of the isolation of CO2 soluble materials from lovage seeds and leaves, lovage

Egidijus Daukšas; Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Björn Sivik; Tobias Nillson

2002-01-01

190

Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

2012-04-26

191

Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts of two plants including fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. have been studied with brine shrimp test. There is only one report about cytotoxicity of H. sphondylium in literature and so H. persicum has been used as second selection. At first

Mohammad Hassan Moshafi; Fariba Sharififar; Gholam-Reza Dehghan; Alieh Ameri

2009-01-01

192

Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.  

PubMed

Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 ?g/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 ?g/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 ?g/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 ?g/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 ?g/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation. PMID:22656126

Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

2012-06-12

193

Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C(18) cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C(18) column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 ?g/g to 10,870.4 ?g/g, and the latter from 9.9 ?g/g to 325.8 ?g/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0-6.8% and 2.0-7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7-7.4% and 1.5-8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

2011-12-27

194

Inhibitory effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil on leukocyte migration in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Zingiber officinale Roscoe, popular name ginger, is grown naturally in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Ginger is used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food and beverage industries and the essential oil has been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions including as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil (GEO) in an in vitro chemotaxis assay and on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in vivo. GEO was analyzed by GC-MS and the main components identified were ar-curcumene (59%), ?-myrcene (14%), 1,8-cineol (8%), citral (7.5%), and zingiberene (7.5%). Oral administration of GEO (200-500 mg/kg) reduced the rolling and leukocyte adherence after 2 h of carrageenan injection (100 ?g) into the scrotal chamber. The number of leukocytes migrated to the perivascular tissue 4 h after the irritant stimulus was also diminished. GEO in all doses tested (10(-4), 10(-3), or 10(-2) ?L/mL) caused a significant reduction of leukocyte chemotaxis (35.89 ± 4.33, 30.67 ± 0.70, and 35.85 ± 3.83%, respectively) toward casein stimuli. The data presented showed direct and systemic effects of GEO on leukocyte migration as an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of ginger. PMID:20981498

Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; da Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2010-10-28

195

Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Zingiber officinale dried rhizomes ethanol extract (ZOE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of ZOE was evaluated by 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while the antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of the plant extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. ZOE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The plant extract (ZOE, 50-800 mg/kg p.o.) also significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation, and caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycaemia in normal (normoglycaemic) and diabetic rats. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Zingiber officinale rhizomes ethanol extract possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological support to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of ginger in the treatment and/or management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural Africa communities. PMID:16807883

Ojewole, John A O

2006-09-01

196

Root responses to flooding.  

PubMed

Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding. PMID:23608517

Sauter, Margret

2013-04-19

197

Water transport across roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually, roots are looked at as rather perfect osmometers with the endodermis being the ‘root membrane’ which is equivalent to the plasma membrane of cells. However, this ‘single-equivalent-membrane model’ of the root does not explain the findings of a variable hydraulic resistance of roots as well as of differences between hydraulic and osmotic water flow and of low reflection coefficients

Ernst Steudle; Lehrstuhl PflanzenOkologie

1994-01-01

198

Cytotoxicity, toxicity, and anticancer activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an uncommon adenocarcinoma which arises from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts. The aim of the study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, toxicity, and anticancer activity of a crude ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) against CCA. Cytotoxic activity against a CCA cell line (CL-6) was assessed by calcein-AM and Hoechst 33342 assays and anti-oxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay. Investigation of apoptotic activity was performed by DNA fragmentation assay and induction of genes that may be involved in the resistance of CCA to anticancer drugs (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3) was examined by real-time PCR. To investigate anti-CCA activity in vivo, a total of 80 OV and nitrosamine (OV/ DMN)-induced CCA hamsters were fed with the ginger extract at doses of 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight daily or every alternate day for 30 days. Control groups consisting of 10 hamsters for each group were fed with 5-fluorouracil (positive control) or distilled water (untreated control). Median IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) values for cytotoxicity and anti-oxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extract of ginger were 10.95, 53.15, and 27.86 ?g/ml, respectively. More than ten DNA fragments were visualized and up to 7-9 fold up-regulation of MDR1 and MRP3 genes was observed following exposure to the ethanolic extract of ginger. Acute and subacute toxicity tests indicated absence of any significant toxicity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight given by intragastric gavage. The survival time and survival rate of the CCA-bearing hamsters were significantly prolonged compared to the control group (median of 54 vs 17 weeks). Results from these in vitro and in vivo studies thus indicate promising anticancer activity of the crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA with the absence of any significant toxicity. Moreover, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in conferring resistance of CCA to the ginger extract. PMID:23167387

Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Viyanant, Vithoon; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Tesana, Smarn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Itharat, Arunporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2012-01-01

199

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata

Cheryl Lans; Nancy Turner

2011-01-01

200

Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiber officinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is an important spice crop that is badly affected by Ralstonia solanacearum wilt. Ginger does not set seed and sexual recombination has never been reported. In spite of extensive search in its habitats, no resistance source to Ralstonia induced bacterial wilt, could be located in ginger. Curcuma amada Roxb. is a potential donor for bacterial wilt resistance to Z. officinale, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. Pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 proteins are a family of proteins that are induced by different phytopathogens in many plants and share significant sequence similarity with thaumatin. Two putative PR5 genes, CaPR5 and ZoPR5, were amplified from C. amada and ginger, which encode precursor proteins of 227 and 224 amino acid residues, respectively, and share high homology with a number of other PR5 genes. The secondary and three-dimensional structure comparison did not reveal any striking differences between these two proteins. The expression of Ca and ZoPR5s under R. solanacearum inoculation was analyzed at different time points using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results reveal that CaPR5 is readily induced by the bacterium in C. amada, while ZoPR5 induction was very weak and slow in ginger. These results suggest that the CaPR5 could play a role in the molecular defense response of C. amada to pathogen attack. This is the first report of the isolation of PR5 gene from the C. amada and Z. officinale. Promoter analysis indicates the presence of a silencing element binding factor in ZoPR5-promoter, but not in CaPR5. Prospective promoter elements, such as GT-1 box and TGTCA, implicated as being positive regulatory elements for expression of PR proteins, occur in the 5'-flanking sequences of the CaPR5. Transient GUS expression study confirms its action with a weaker GUS expression in ginger, indicating that the PR5 expression may be controlled in the promoter. PMID:21594675

Prasath, D; El-Sharkawy, I; Sherif, S; Tiwary, K S; Jayasankar, S

2011-05-19

201

Composition of a monoterpenoid-rich essential oil from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale from north western Himalayas.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), collected from Nahan, Himachal Pradesh, India, was determined by gas chromatography and GC-MS. Fifty-one compounds, representing 95.1% of the oil, were identified. The oil was characterized by relatively large amounts of the monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole (10.9%), linalool (4.8%), borneol (5.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.6%), neral (8.1%), geraniol (14.5%), geranial (9.5%), trans-dimethoxy citral (5.0%) and geranyl acetate (6.3%). Five compounds, namely trans-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide acetate, (Z)-dimethoxycitral, (E)-dimethoxy citral and epi-zingiberenol are reported for the first time in oil of ginger. PMID:21366054

Gupta, Suphla; Pandotra, Pankaj; Ram, Gandhi; Anand, Rajneesh; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Husain, Kashif; Bedi, Yashbir Singh; Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao

2011-01-01

202

[Molecular cloning and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (DoSAMDC1) in Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme in the polyamines biosynthesis, thus is essential for basic physiological and biochemical processes in plant. In the present study, a full length cDNA of DoSAMDC1 gene was obtained from symbiotic germinated seeds of an endangered medicinal orchid species Dendrobium officinale, using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR technique for the first time. The full length cDNA was 1 979 bp, with three open reading frames, i.e. tiny-uORF, small-uORF and main ORF (mORF). The mORF was deduced to encode a 368 amino acid (aa) protein with a molecular mass of 40.7 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.2. The deduced DoSAMDC1 protein, without signal peptide, had two highly conserved function domains (proenzyme cleavage site and PEST domain) and a 22-aa transmembrane domain (89-110). Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic relationship analyses revealed DoSAMDC1 had a higher level of sequence similarity to monocot SAMDCs than those of dicot. Expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses showed that DoSAMDC1 transcripts were expressed constitutively without significant change in the five tissues (not infected with fungi). While in the symbiotic germinated seeds, the expression level was enhanced by 2.74 fold over that in the none-germinated seeds, indicating possible involvement of the gene in symbiotic seed germination of D. officinale. PMID:23984533

Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-06-01

203

Developmental Changes in Peanut Root Structure during Root Growth and Root-structure Modification by Nodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule

RYOSUKE TAJIMA; JUN ABE; O NEW LEE; SHIGENORI MORITA; ALEXANDER LUX

2008-01-01

204

The Root Pressure Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

Marsh, A. R.

1972-01-01

205

The Root Pressure Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)|

Marsh, A. R.

1972-01-01

206

Salicylic Acid Induced Insensitivity to Culture Filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi in the Calli of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) was used to induce insensitivity in the callus cultures of Zingiber officinale against culture filtrate (CF) of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi. The treatment of callus cultures with SA (104µM) prior to selection with CF of the pathogen-increased callus survival. Exogenous application of SA resulted in increased activity of peroxidase and ß-1,3-glucanase enzymes in the callus cultures. No

Prachi; Tilak R. Sharma; Brij M. Singh

2002-01-01

207

Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+ ,K +ATPase\\/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-oxidative Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE) belonging to the family Zingiberceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg? 1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-\\/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI)

Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah; Harish Nayaka; Mysore Annaiah; Shylaja M. Dharmesh

208

Optimal pollination environment of tetraploid ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) evaluated by in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth in styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination percentages in vitro of a tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), ‘4×Sanshu’, tended to be highest at around 20°C. Pollen tube growth in the styles was greatly enhanced at 17°C, i.e., pollen tubes penetrated into the entire stylar length in 66.7% of the styles used. Pollen stored for at least 3h under 40–80% relative humidity (RH) almost completely lost

Shinichi Adaniya

2001-01-01

209

Effects of 1,3-dichloropropene as a methyl bromide alternative for management of nematode, soil-borne disease, and weed in Ginger ( Zingiber officinale) crops in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a potential candidate as a soil disinfectant because of the restriction of methyl bromide (MeBr) in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. Field trials were conducted to ascertain the efficiency of 1,3-D as a MeBr alternative in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and evaluate its application prospects in China. Five treatments were replicated five times in a

Kang Qiao; Yukun Zhu; Hongyan Wang; Xiaoxue Ji; Kaiyun Wang

210

Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified

Renmin Liu; Aifeng Li; Ailing Sun

2004-01-01

211

WHY ROOTING FAILS.  

SciTech Connect

I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

CREUTZ,M.

2007-07-30

212

Corky root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

213

The roots of trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The root of a tree develops the twofold function of absorbing water mixed with mineral salts, and anchoring the plant to the substrate. The former activity is the more important in determining the spreading of a root. If, however, the root is regarded only as a bundle of stiffeners implanted in a semi-infinite elastic medium and we want to optimize its shape, then the problem can be reduced to an optimization problem in elasticity.

Villaggio, Piero

214

Dose-Response Analysis of Factors Involved in Germination and Secondary Dormancy of Seeds of Sisymbrium officinale: I. Phytochrome.  

PubMed

The germination of seeds of Sisymbrium officinale is light- and nitrate dependent. A close interaction between the effects of light and nitrate on germination has been reported previously (HWM Hilhorst, CM Karssen [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 591-597). In this study, a detailed dose-response analysis of the light-induced germination during induction of secondary dormancy is presented. Germination in water dropped from 90 to 0% after a dark incubation of 15 degrees C of approximately 160 hours. In the presence of 25 millimolar KNO(3), the decrease in germination level was delayed. At 24-hour intervals fluence-response curves were obtained in the presence of 25 millimolar KNO(3). With increasing length of the preincubation period, fluence-response curves shifted along the abscissa to the right. After 120 hours the maximal germination level started to decline. The fluence-response curves were simulated by using formulations from receptor occupancy theory for a simple bimolecular reaction in which the reaction partners were Pfr and its tentative receptor X. A good simulation was obtained when cooperativity of the binding of Pfr to X was assumed. The experimental curve parameters could then be interpreted as binding parameters. PMID:16667801

Hilhorst, H W

1990-11-01

215

An impression on current developments in the technology, chemistry, and biological activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely cultivated as a spice for its aromatic and pungent components. The essential oil and oleoresins from ginger are valuable products responsible for the characteristic flavor and pungency. Both are used in several food products such as soft beverages and also in many types of pharmaceutical formulations. More than 100 compounds have been reported from ginger, some of which are isolated and characterized, others are tentatively identified by GC-MS and / or LC-MS. [6]-Gingerol, the major gingerol in ginger rhizomes, has been found to possess many interesting pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and cardiotonic effects. Ginger is considered as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA. Due to all these properties, ginger has gained considerable attention in developed countries in recent years, especially for its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present review is a persuasive presentation of the current information on processing, chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal uses of ginger. Further studies are required for the validation of the beneficial uses. Formulation for novel products and new usages may emerge in the years to come, based on the revealed results of various studies. PMID:22591340

Kubra, I Rahath; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

2012-01-01

216

Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1). PMID:11455660

Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

2001-03-01

217

Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.)  

PubMed Central

Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests.

Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleuterio; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sonia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

2009-01-01

218

Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation.  

PubMed

Changes in the yields of the oleoresin and content of pungent bioactive principles: [6], [8], [10] gingerols and [6] shogaol of Jamaican ginger ( Zingiber officinale) were investigated during different stages of maturity (7-9 months). Ethanolic oleoresin extracts were prepared (95%, w/w) by cold maceration of dried ginger powder, and their percentage yields were calculated (w/w). The pungent bioactive principles in the ginger oleoresin were extracted with methanol and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ginger harvested at 8 months from Bourbon, Portland had the highest oleoresin yield (8.46 +/- 0.46%). [6] Gingerol was found to be the most abundant pungent bioactive principle in all the oleoresin samples investigated, with the 9 months sample from Bourbon, Portland containing the highest level (28.94 +/- 0.39%). The content of [6] gingerols was also found to be consistently high (7-9 months) in oleoresin samples from Johnson Mountain, St. Thomas (15.12 +/- 0.39 to 16.02 +/- 0.95%). The results suggest that Bourbon in Portland may be the most ideal location for cultivating ginger for high yields and quality, however, Johnson Mountain in St. Thomas could prove to be the least restrictive location, allowing for harvesting of good quality material throughout the maturity period (7-9 months). PMID:18564850

Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Junor, Grace-Ann O; Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Salmon, Colleen N A; Smith, Ann Marie

2008-06-20

219

Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.).  

PubMed

Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

2009-03-01

220

Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean ?-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. PMID:23510578

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

2013-03-01

221

Gingerols of Zingiber officinale enhance glucose uptake by increasing cell surface GLUT4 in cultured L6 myotubes.  

PubMed

In this study we investigate the active constituents of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe (ginger) and determine their activity on glucose uptake in cultured L6 myotubes and the molecular mechanism underlying this action. Freeze-dried ginger powder was extracted with ethyl acetate (1?kg/3?L) to give the total ginger extract, which was then separated into seven fractions, consisting of nonpolar to moderately polar compounds, using a short-column vacuum chromatographic method. The most active fraction (F7) was further purified for identification of its active components. The effect of the extract, fractions, and purified compounds on glucose uptake was evaluated using radioactive labelled 2-[1,2-³H]-deoxy-D-glucose in L6 myotubes. The pungent phenolic gingerol constituents were identified as the major active compounds in the ginger extract enhancing glucose uptake. (S)-[6]-Gingerol was the most abundant component among the gingerols, however, (S)-[8]-gingerol was the most potent on glucose uptake. The activity of (S)-[8]-gingerol was found to be associated primarily with an increase in surface distribution of GLUT4 protein on the L6 myotube plasma membrane, as detected by expression of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged GLUT4 in L6 muscle cells. The enhancement of glucose uptake in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells by the gingerol pungent principles of the ginger extract supports the potential of ginger and its pungent components for the prevention and management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22828920

Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

2012-07-24

222

Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Scientific research has gradually verified the antidiabetic effects of ginger. Especially gingerols, which are the major components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes including the effect of enhancement against insulin-sensitivity. Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. The assay for aldose reductase inhibitors in ginger led to the isolation of five active compounds including 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (2) and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were good inhibitors of recombinant human aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 19.2 +/- 1.9 and 18.5 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds significantly suppressed not only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes but also lens galactitol accumulation in 30% of galactose-fed cataract rat model. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the applicable side alkyl chain length and the presence of a C3 OCH3 group in the aromatic ring are essential features for enzyme recognition and binding. These results suggested that it would contribute to the protection against or improvement of diabetic complications for a dietary supplement of ginger or its extract containing aldose reductase inhibitors. PMID:16939321

Kato, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasuko; Goto, Hirozo; Kizu, Haruhisa; Okamoto, Tadashi; Asano, Naoki; Hollinshead, Jackie; Nash, Robert J; Adachi, Isao

2006-09-01

223

Meniscus root repair.  

PubMed

Root tears are a subset of meniscal injuries that result in significant knee joint pathology. Occurring on either the medial or lateral side, root tears are defined as radial tears or avulsions of the posterior horn attachment to bone. After a root tear, there is a significant increase in tibio-femoral contact pressure concomitant with altered knee joint kinematics. Previous cadaver studies from our institution have shown that root repair of the medial meniscus is successful in restoring joint biomechanics to within normal limits. Indications for operative management of meniscal root tears include (1) a symptomatic medial meniscus root tear with minimal arthritis and having failed non-operative treatment, and (2) a lateral root tear in associated with an ACL tear. In this review, we describe diagnosis, imaging, patient selection, and arthroscopic surgical technique of medial and lateral meniscus root injuries. In addition we highlight the pearls of repair technique, associated complications, post-operative rehabilitation regimen, and expected outcomes. PMID:22555205

Vyas, Dharmesh; Harner, Christopher D

2012-06-01

224

Seeds: Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this indepth hands-on activity, learners build a structure that allows them to observe the growth of roots and the correlation between root growth and stem extension. Because no dirt is used in this arrangement, a guiding question can be posed: What does the plant need to grow? The PDF includes activity rationale, procedure, background and follow-up discussion suggestions.

Education Development Center, Inc.

2010-01-01

225

ROOTING GUATEMALAN AVOCADO CUTTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A method is described which, although not considered commercially practical, proved to be very successful in rooting cuttings of Guatemalan avocado varieties. Essentially it consists of obtaining cuttings from stems, the bases of which have at no time been exposed to light or low humidity. In certain experimental work with the avocado, own rooted trees, that is trees propagated

E. F. Frolich

226

Aortic root replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between September 1976 and September 1993, 270 patients underwent aortic root replacement at our institution. Two hundred fifty-two patients underwent a Bentall composite graft repair and 18 patients received a cryopreserved homograft aortic root. One hundred eighty-seven patients had a Marfan aneurysm of the ascending aorta (41 with dissection) and 53 patients had an aneurysm resulting from nonspecific medial degeneration

Vincent L. Gott; A. Marc Gillinov; Reed E. Pyeritz; Duke E. Cameron; Bruce A. Reitz; Peter S. Greene; Christopher D. Stone; Robert L. Ferris; Diane E. Alejo; Victor A. McKusick

1995-01-01

227

Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 ?mol m?2s?1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ? 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 ?mol m?2s?1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

2010-01-01

228

Root hydrotropism: an update.  

PubMed

While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance. PMID:23258371

Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

2012-12-20

229

Metabolic profiling of in vitro micropropagated and conventionally greenhouse grown ginger (Zingiber officinale).  

PubMed

Ginger is an important medicinal and culinary herb, known worldwide for its health promoting properties. Because ginger does not reproduce by seed, but is clonally propagated via rhizome division and replanting, it is susceptible to accumulation and transmittance of pathogens from generation to generation. In addition, such propagation techniques lead to slow multiplication of particularly useful stocks. We have developed an in vitro propagation method to alleviate these problems. Metabolic profiling, using GC/MS and LC-ESI-MS, was used to determine if chemical differences existed between greenhouse grown or in vitro micropropagation derived plants. Three different ginger lines were analyzed. The constituent gingerols and gingerol-related compounds, other diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of these compounds, as well as major mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chemical differences between lines (yellow ginger vs. white ginger and blue ring ginger) and tissues (rhizome, root, leaf and shoot). However, this analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between growth treatments (conventional greenhouse grown vs. in vitro propagation derived plants). Further statistical analyses (ANOVA) confirmed these results. These findings suggest that the biochemical mechanisms used to produce the large array of compounds found in ginger are not affected by in vitro propagation. PMID:16963091

Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

2006-09-11

230

Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The ginger proteases (GP-I and GP-II), isolated from the ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale, have an unusual substrate specificity preference for cleaving peptides with a proline residue at the P2 position. The complete amino-acid sequence of GP-II, a glycoprotein containing 221 amino acids, and about 98% that of GP-I have been determined. Both proteases, which are 82% similar, have cysteine residues at positions 27 and histidines at position 161, corresponding to the essential cysteine-histidine diads found in the papain family of cysteine proteases, and six corresponding cysteine residues that form the three invariant disulfide linkages seen in this family of proteins. The sequence homology with other members (papain, bromelain, actinidin, protease omega, etc.) of this family is approximately 50%. GP-II has two predicted glycosylation sites at Asn99 and Asn156. Analyisis by electrospray and collision-induced dissociation MS showed that both sites were occupied by the glycans (Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)2 and (Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)3, in a ratio of approximately 7 : 1. Both glycans are xylose containing biantennary complex types that share the common core structural unit, Man1-->6(Man1-->3) (Xyl1-->2)Man1-->4GlcNAc1-->4(Fuc1-->3)GlcNAc for the major form, with an additional N-acetylglucosamine residue being linked, in the minor form, to one of the terminal mannose units of the core structure. PMID:10691991

Choi, K H; Laursen, R A

2000-03-01

231

Roots of Terror.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Women in International Studies (WIIS), Georgetown University, in cooperation with the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), U.S. Army War College, conducted a colloquium, 'The Roots of Terror: Understanding the Evolving Threat of Global Terrorism,' on Fe...

C. Johnson

2007-01-01

232

Corn root gravitropism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravitropism is the turning or growing in a different direction of a plant in response to gravity. This corn plant's root grows downward and exhibits positive gravitropism because it is growing toward gravity's pull.

Roger P. Hangarter (Indiana University;Department of Biology)

2000-01-01

233

Gravisensitivity of cress roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum dose (stimulus x time [gs]) eliciting a visible gravitropic response, has been determined using continuous and intermittent stimulation and two different accelerations at 1g and 0.1g. The minimum dose of 20 - 30 gs estimated for microgravity roots and of 50 - 60 gs for roots grown on a 1g-centrifuge indicated a higher sensitivity of microgravity roots. Applying intermittent stimuli to microgravity-grown roots, gravitropic responses were observed after two stimuli of 13.5 gs separated by a stimulus free interval of 118 s. The curvature of microgravity-grown roots to lateral stimulation by 0.1 g was remarkably smaller than by 1g in spite of the same doses which were applied to the seedlings. Microscopic investigations corresponding to stimulations in the range of the threshold values, demonstrated small displacement (< 2 ?m) of statoliths in root statocytes. Accepting the statolith theory, one can conclude that stimulus transformation has to occur in the cytoplasm in close vicinity to the statoliths and that this transformation system was affected during seedling cultivation in microgravity.

Volkmann, Dieter; Tewinkel, Martin

234

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of Megalobrama amblycephala under Aeromonas hydrophila infection.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from Rheum officinale Bail) on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala. The fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. We then challenged the fish with A. hydrophila and recorded mortality and changes in serum cortisol, lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the relative expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA for a period of 5 d. Supplementation with 0.1% anthraquinone extract significantly increased serum lysozyme activity before infection, serum ALP activity at 24 h after infection, serum total protein concentration 12 h after infection, hepatic CAT activity 12 h after infection, hepatic SOD activity before infection, and the relative expression of hepatic HSP70 mRNA both before infection and 6 h after infection. In addition, the supplemented group had decreased levels of serum cortisol 6 h after infection, serum AST and ALT activities 12 h after infection, and hepatic MDA content 12 h after infection. Mortality was significantly lower in the treatment group (86.67%) than the control (100%). Our results suggest that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract from R. officinale Bail can enhance resistance against pathogenic infections in M. amblycephala. PMID:21362482

Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; He, Yijin; Cui, Yanting; Ming, Jianhua; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun

2011-03-29

235

Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature of plants was -12‰, enabling us to differentiate between root-derived C and native SOM-C respiration. We found that the relative abundance of fine, medium and coarse roots were significantly different among cultivars. Root systems of Alamo, Kanlow and Cave-in-Rock were characterized by a large abundance of coarse-, relative to fine roots, whereas Carthage, Forestburg and Blackwell had a large abundance of fine, relative to coarse roots. Fine roots had a 28% lower C:N ratio than medium and coarse roots. These differences led to different root decomposition rates. We conclude that root architecture should be taken into account when predicting root decomposition rates; enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of root decomposition will improve model predictions of C input to soil organic matter.

de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2010-12-01

236

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

237

Hydraulic conductivity of rice roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure chamber and a root pressure probe technique have been used to measure hydraulic conductivities of rice roots (root Lpr per m 2 of root surface area). Young plants of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (an upland variety, cv. Azucena and a lowland variety, cv. IR64) were grown for 31-40 d in 12 h days with 500 mmol

Naoko Miyamoto; Ernst Steudle; Tadashi Hirasawa; Renee Lafitte

2001-01-01

238

Root communication among desert shrubs.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive and experimental studies of desert shrub distributions have revealed important questions about the mechanisms by which plants interact. For example, do roots interact by mechanisms other than simple competition for limiting resources? We investigated this question using the desert shrubs Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata grown in chambers that allowed observation of roots during intraplant and intra- and interspecific interplant encounters. Two types of root "communication" were revealed. Ambrosia root systems appear to be capable of detecting and avoiding other Ambrosia root systems, whereas Larrea roots inhibit Larrea and Ambrosia roots in their vicinity. Images

Mahall, B E; Callaway, R M

1991-01-01

239

The Roots of Carnivorous Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivorous plants may benefit from animal-derived nutrients to supplement minerals from the soil. Therefore, the role and importance of their roots is a matter of debate. Aquatic carnivorous species lack roots completely, and many hygrophytic and epiphytic carnivorous species only have a weakly devel-oped root system. In xerophytes, however, large, extended and\\/or deep-reaching roots and sub-soil shoots develop. Roots develop

Wolfram Adlassnig; Marianne Peroutka; Hans Lambers; Irene K. Lichtscheidl

2005-01-01

240

The seasonal dynamics of yeast communities in the rhizosphere of soddy-podzolic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast was studied in the rhizosphere of two plant species (Ajuga reptans L. and Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) in a forb-birch forest on soddy-podzolic soil. Eurybiont phyllobasidial cryptococci and red-pigmented phytobionts Rhodotorula glutinis were found to predominate in the phyllosphere of these plants, whereas the typical pedobionts Cryptococcus terricola and Cr. podzolicus occurred on the surface of roots and in the rhizosphere. The seasonal changes in the number and species composition of the yeast communities in the rhizosphere were more smooth as compared to those in the phyllosphere. In the period of active vegetation of the plants, the phytobiont yeasts develop over their whole surface, including the rhizoplane. Their number on the aboveground parts of the plants was significantly lower than that of the pedobiont forms. Thus, the above-and underground parts of the plants significantly differed in the composition of the dominant species of epiphytic yeasts.

Golubtsova, Yu. V.; Glushakova, A. M.; Chernov, I. Yu.

2007-08-01

241

Global Patterns of Vertical Root Distributions and Maximum Rooting Depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant roots are important pathways in global biogeochemical cycles. Roots transport water from the soil to the atmosphere and carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, redistribute nutrients and water in the soil profile, and contribute to the weathering of soil minerals. Data on the vertical distribution and maximum depths of roots in the soil profile are needed to quantify these and other processes. The global coverage of such root data is uneven, which makes it desirable to estimate global root distributions and maximum rooting depths from measurements of aboveground vegetation structure, soil parameters, and climatic variables. We analyzed root two databases compiled from the literature to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that influence vertical root distributions in global ecosystems and maximum rooting depths of individual plants. The first database included 520 vertical root profiles from 286 geographic locations. The second database included 1350 rooting depths for individual plants species from water-limited systems globally. Vertical root distributions were characterized by interpolated 50% and 95% rooting depths (the depths above which 50% or 95% of all roots are located). The 95% rooting depths increased with decreasing latitude from 80\\deg to 30\\deg, but showed no clear trend in the tropics. Mean annual evapotranspiration, precipitation, and length of the warm season were all positively correlated with rooting depths. Globally, more than 90% of all profiles had at least 50% of all roots in the upper 0.3 m of the soil profile (incl. organic horizons) and 95% of all roots in the upper 2 m. Deeper 50% and 95% rooting depths were mainly found in water-limited ecosystems. Median rooting depths of individual plants in water-limited ecosystems increased with increasing precipitation from less than 1 m in deserts with <50 mm of mean annual precipitation to about 2 m in climates with 650 to 750 mm mean annual precipitation. Maximum rooting depths were largely independent of climate and ranged between 2 and 4 m for herbaceous plants and between 4 and 6 m for woody plants. The on average deepest roots were found in trees, followed by shrubs, semi-shrubs, perennial herbaceous plants, annuals, and stem succulents. Root distributions and maximum rooting depths are highly variable, but significant proportions of the variability can be explained by empirical relationships with aboveground vegetation structure, climate, and soil characteristics. Such relationships could potentially be used to improve the parameterization of roots in models of land-atmosphere interactions.

Schenk, H. J.; Jackson, R. B.

2001-05-01

242

A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.  

PubMed

Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods. PMID:15493660

Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

243

Cointegration and Unit Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an updated survey of a burgeoning literature in testing, estimation and model specification in the presence of integrated variables. Integrated variables are a specific class of non-stationary variables which seem to characterize faithfully the properties of many macroeconomic tie seris. The analysis of cointegration develops out of the esxistence of unit roots and offers a generic route

Juan José Dolado; Tim Jenkinson; Simon Sosvilla-Rivero

1990-01-01

244

Diageotropism in Vanilla Roots.  

PubMed

Diageotropic growth in the dark and geotropic growth in the light occurred in the roots of cuttings of three Vanilla species. The diageotropic response also occurred in far-red, red, orange, and green light, while positive geotropism resulted only if blue light was present. PMID:17834304

Irvine, J E; Freyre, R H

1961-07-01

245

Great Plains Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

Frey, Jennifer

2001-01-01

246

Great Plains Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

Frey, Jennifer

2001-01-01

247

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

248

Roots of Empathy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Roots of Empathy" program for elementary school students in some Toronto schools, designed to teach about parenting, human development, and emotional literacy, and to nurture the growth of empathy. Focuses on development of a culture of caring, the role of perspective taking for conflict resolution, the positive neuroscience message…

Gordon, Mary

2001-01-01

249

Unit Root Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent criticism of unit root tests concerns the poor power and size properties that many such tests exhibit. However, during the past decade or so intensive research has been conducted to alleviate these problems and great advances have been made. The present paper provides a selective survey of recent contributions to improve upon both the size and power of

Niels Haldrup; Michael Jansson

250

"Roots": Medium and Message.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison of the…

Kinnamon, Keneth

251

Root canal medicaments.  

PubMed

The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

2009-02-01

252

Invertase Activity in Root Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in plant biology and enzyme kinetics. Students microscopically observe corn root sections and determine by enzymatic assays, the intergrase enzyme activity in selected regions of the root.

Chris J. Perumalla (University of Toronto;); Johan A. Hellebust (University of Toronto;); Corey A. Goldman (University of Toronto;)

1994-01-01

253

Anti-melanoma, tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-microbial activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous leaf extracts of Teraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

There has been a tenacious search for pharmaceuticals of natural origin, as they are cost-effective and are noted for having little or no side effects. The rate at which diseases are developing resistance to synthetic drugs is quite alarming, and the side effects of these drugs remain an excruciating agony to the pharmaceutical industry. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have wide applications in current technology. However, their use in medicine has not been adequately explored. Chemical methods for the synthesis are associated with environmental benignity and tissue toxicity on in vivo administration. For the first time, we have synthesized AuNPs from leaf extracts of Teraxacum officinale that were found to have significant anti-melanoma, tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-microbial effects, and hence stand as promising candidates for use in cosmetics medical and food industries. PMID:22085398

Tettey, C O; Nagajyothi, P C; Lee, S E; Ocloo, A; Minh An, T N; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, K D

2011-12-30

254

Water transport in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial transport of water in excised barley (Hordeum distichon, cv. Villa) roots was measured using a new method based on the pressure-probe technique. After attaching excised roots to the probe, root pressures of 0.9 to 2.9 bar were developed. They could be altered either by changing the root pressure artificially (with the aid of the probe) or by changing the

E. Steudle; W. D. Jeschke

1983-01-01

255

Lesson 24: Roots and Radicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exponential notation for Nth roots and radicals is introduced. A short discussion about Nth roots and irrational numbers follows before symbolic manipulation of fractional exponents and solving equations is presented. Power functions and solving radical equations are presented before the lesson concludes with roots of negative numbers.

2011-01-01

256

Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

2011-01-01

257

Control of Arabidopsis Root Development  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis root has been the subject of intense research over the past decades. This research has led to significantly improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying root development. Key insights into the specification of individual cell types, cell patterning, growth and differentiation, branching of the primary root, and responses of the root to the environment have been achieved. Transcription factors and plant hormones play key regulatory roles. Recently, mechanisms involving protein movement and the oscillation of gene expression have also been uncovered. Root gene regulatory networks controlling root development have been reconstructed from genome-wide profiling experiments, revealing novel molecular connections and models. Future refinement of these models will lead to a more complete description of the complex molecular interactions that give rise to a simple growing root.

Petricka, Jalean J.; Winter, Cara M.; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

258

Hydraulic conductivity of rice roots.  

PubMed

A pressure chamber and a root pressure probe technique have been used to measure hydraulic conductivities of rice roots (root Lp(r) per m(2) of root surface area). Young plants of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (an upland variety, cv. Azucena and a lowland variety, cv. IR64) were grown for 31-40 d in 12 h days with 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and day/night temperatures of 27 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Root Lp(r) was measured under conditions of steady-state and transient water flow. Different growth conditions (hydroponic and aeroponic culture) did not cause visible differences in root anatomy in either variety. Values of root Lp(r) obtained from hydraulic (hydrostatic) and osmotic water flow were of the order of 10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1) and were similar when using the different techniques. In comparison with other herbaceous species, rice roots tended to have a higher hydraulic resistance of the roots per unit root surface area. The data suggest that the low overall hydraulic conductivity of rice roots is caused by the existence of apoplastic barriers in the outer root parts (exodermis and sclerenchymatous (fibre) tissue) and by a strongly developed endodermis rather than by the existence of aerenchyma. According to the composite transport model of the root, the ability to adapt to higher transpirational demands from the shoot should be limited for rice because there were minimal changes in root Lp(r) depending on whether hydrostatic or osmotic forces were acting. It is concluded that this may be one of the reasons why rice suffers from water shortage in the shoot even in flooded fields. PMID:11520872

Miyamoto, N; Steudle, E; Hirasawa, T; Lafitte, R

2001-09-01

259

The Influence Of Motor-Car Exhaust On The Content Of Non-Structural Carbohydrates In Stem Apices, Floral Meristems And Apical Buds Of Tagetes Patula L. And Calendula Officinales L  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the decrease in flowering of Tagetes patula L. and Calendula officinales L. under conditions of environmental pollution due to motor-car exhaust fumes results in a reduction of non-structural carbohydrates\\u000a in stem apices, floral meristems and apical buds. This might be one of the reasons for reduced flowering intensity. A comparison\\u000a of the results showed that

V. P. Bessonova; O. P. Priymak

260

Photophobic behavior of maize roots.  

PubMed

Primary roots of young maize seedlings showed peculiar growth behavior when challenged by placing them on a slope, or if whole seedlings were turned upside down. Importantly, this behavior was dependent on the light conditions. If roots were placed on slopes in the dark, they performed "crawling" behavior and advanced rapidly up the slope. However, as soon as these roots were illuminated, their crawling movements along their horizontal paths slowed down, and instead tried to grow downwards along the gravity vector. A similar light-induced switch in the root behavior was observed when roots were inverted, by placing them in thin glass capillaries. As long as they were kept in the darkness, they showed rapid growth against the gravity vector. If illuminated, these inverted roots rapidly accomplished U-turns and grew down along the gravity vector, eventually escaping from the capillaries upon reaching their open ends. De-capped roots, although growing vigorously, did not display these light-induced photophobic growth responses. We can conclude that intact root cap is essential for the photophobic root behavior in maize. PMID:22751294

Burbach, Christian; Markus, Katharina; Zhang, Yin; Schlicht, Markus; Baluška, František

2012-07-01

261

Maximum-rank root subsystems of hyperbolic root systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kac-Moody algebra is said to be hyperbolic if it corresponds to a generalized Cartan matrix of hyperbolic type. Root subsystems of root systems of algebras of this kind are studied. The main result of the paper is the classification of the maximum-rank regular hyperbolic subalgebras of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.

Tumarkin, P. V.

2004-02-01

262

Root canals in two-rooted maxillary second molars.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to register the root canal number, root canal position, and root canal cross-section in human two-rooted, permanent maxillary second molars. One hundred and fifty-nine such teeth extracted in Denmark were cross-sectioned at the mid-root level and apically in accordance with precise guidelines. The observations were made in a stereomicroscope, corresponding to the above-mentioned section levels. At mid-root there were two canals present in 11% of the teeth examined; the canals were located mesially and distofacially, mesiofacially and distally, or facially and lingually. Three canals positioned mesiofacially, distofacially, and lingually were observed in 89% of the teeth. At the same level 62% of the canal cross-sections were noncircular, some being, for instance, C-shaped, whereas 38% of the cross-sections were circular. Apically, two canals were found, representing 19% of the teeth, with the canal position as at mid-root; 81% of the teeth were three-canaled with the same canal position as at mid-root. At the apical level 60% of the canal cross-sections were noncircular, whereas 40% of the cross-sections were circular. PMID:9477024

Carlsen, O; Alexandersen, V

1997-12-01

263

Relationship between root structure and root cadmium uptake in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear description of the mechanism of root cadmium absorption is required in order to understand how this toxic metal is phytoaccumulated. An experiment was carried out in order to test the hypotheses that (1) the Cd uptake is higher for maize roots grown in hydroponics than for those grown in aeroponics, (2) this difference is due to the fact

Tanegmart Redjala; Ivan Zelko; Thibault Sterckeman; Valérie Legué; Alexander Lux

2011-01-01

264

Leaf Physiological Traits and their Importance for Species Success in a Mediterranean Grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We related leaf physiological traits of four grassland species (Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, Festuca valida, and Taraxacum officinale), dominant in a Mediterranean grassland, to their origin and success at community level. From early May to mid-June 1999, four leaf samplings were done. Species originating from poor environments (P. pratensis, F. valida) had low carbon isotope discrimination (?), specific leaf area

J. T. Tsialtas; T. S. Pritsa; D. S. Veresoglou

2004-01-01

265

Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent

R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?

2001-01-01

266

Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study was confined to pollen morphology and pollen fertility estimation used an aid in taxonomic description of 7 species of family Asteraceae from flora of Rawalpindi. The species are Ageratum conyzoides L., Calendula arvensis L., Cousinia minuta Boiss., Diagn., Eclipta alba (L.) Hasskl, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Saussuria heteromala (D. Don) Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Polleniferous material and complete

MUHAMMAD ZAFAR; MUSHTAQ AHMAD; MIR AJAB KHAN

267

[Chicoric and chlorogenic acids in various plants growing in Georgia].  

PubMed

Chicoric acid was isolated from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) leaves by column chromatography. Conditions for HPLC analysis of chicoric and chlorogenic acids were optimized. These acids were assayed in some plants growing in Georgia. The optimum conservation temperature for the preservation of chicoric and chlorogenic acids in leaves of dandelion and bilberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) was determined. PMID:11357428

Chkhikvishvili, I D; Kharebava, G I

268

A Virus Attacking Lettuce and Dandelion  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the last three years lettuces have been seen in different parts of Britain suffering from a severe disease, the symptoms suggesting infection with a virus. The cause has now been found to be a virus that is also responsible for the chlorotic rings and spots so commonly seen in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).

B. Kassanis

1944-01-01

269

Elevated COâ and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) COâ levels. Leaves of elevated COâ plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient COâ plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf

S. C. Thomas; F. A. Bazzaz

1996-01-01

270

Biological Weed Control via Nutrient Competition: Potassium Limitation of Dandelions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weedy plants are often controlled by the application of herbicides. Here we explore an alternative method of control. We suggest that the abundance of an undesired plant species (here dandelions: Taraxacum officinale ) may be controlled by modifying interspecific competition via changes in resource supply rates. This hypothesis is supported by several lines of evidence. First, analyses of effects of

Elizabeth A. Tilman; David Tilman; Michael J. Crawley; A. E. Johnston

1999-01-01

271

Selected cultural and environmental parameters influence disease severity of dandelion caused by the potential bioherbicidal fungi, Phoma herbarum and Phoma exigua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected cultural and environmental variables were investigated for their influence on the efficacy of Phoma herbarum and Phoma exigua to cause disease on dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) under growth room conditions. In both species, mycelial fragments caused significantly greater disease severity on dandelion than spore suspensions. Mycelial age was not an important factor in disease severity caused by P. herbarum, with

S. M. Stewart-wade; G. J. Boland

2004-01-01

272

Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster  

PubMed Central

Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

Danjon, Frederic; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Celine

2013-01-01

273

Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used in our laboratory for live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs. PMID:24132430

Ketelaar, Tijs

2014-01-01

274

Nahm's equations and root systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of deriving solutions to Nahm''s equations based on root structure of simple Lie algebras is given. As an illustration of this method the recently found solutions to Nahm''s equations with tetrahedral and octahedral symmetries are shown to correspond to A 2 and A 3 root systems.

Brzezi?ski, Tomasz; Merabet, Houari

1997-11-01

275

In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production.  

PubMed

The bioactivity of an ethyl acetate extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) towards Schistosoma mansoni adult pairs, both cultured in vitro and in vivo in laboratory mice, was investigated by monitoring worm mortality and fecundity. In vitro, a concentration of 200 mg l(-1) of extract killed almost all worms within 24 h. Male worms seemed more susceptible than female under these conditions. Cumulative egg output of surviving worm pairs in vitro was considerably reduced when exposed to the extract. For example, after 4 days of exposure to 50 mg l(-1), cumulative egg output was only 0.38 eggs per worm pair compared with 36.35 for untreated worms. In vivo efficacy of the extract was tested by oral and subcutaneous delivery of 150 mg kg(-1) followed by assessment of worm survival and fecundity. Neither delivery route produced any significant reduction in worm numbers compared with untreated controls. Worm fecundity was assessed in vivo by cumulative egg counts per liver at 55 days post infection with mice treated subcutaneously. Such infections showed egg levels in the liver of about 2000 eggs per worm pair in 55 days, in both treated and control mice, with no significant difference between the two groups. To ensure that density-dependent effects did not confound this analysis, a separate experiment demonstrated no such influence on egg output per worm pair, at intensities between 1 and 23 worms per mouse. PMID:12363378

Sanderson, L; Bartlett, A; Whitfield, P J

2002-09-01

276

Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms. PMID:22484860

Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

2012-04-07

277

Root canals in one-rooted maxillary second molars.  

PubMed

The Royal Dental College, Copenhagen, houses an extensive collection of human teeth extracted in Denmark. The collection currently contains 104 one-rooted, permanent maxillary second molars. The root complex on these teeth was sectioned at the junction between the coronal and the apical halves, i.e. mid-root, and at the junction between the middle and the apical thirds, i.e. apically. Using a stereomicroscope we then registered, mid-root and apically, the following variables: canal number, canal position, and canal cross-section. Mid-root there was 1 centrally located root canal in 25.96% of the teeth examined; 2 canals were observed either mesially and distofacially, mesiofacially and distally, or facially and lingually in 34.62%; 3 canals positioned mesiofacially, distofacially, and lingually were found in 39.42%. At the same level 63.51% of the canal cross-sections were non-circular, whereas 36.49% of the canals had a circular cross-section image. The non-circular canal cross-sections could more specifically be characterized as C-shaped, Y-shaped, hourglass-shaped or the root canal had a greater faciolingual than mesiodistal extension or, respectively, a greater mesiodistal than faciolingual extension. Apically there was 1 centrally located root canal in 35.58%; 2 canals were observed with a position either mesially and distofacially, mesiofacially and distally, or facially and lingually in 37.49%; 3 canals located mesiofacially, distofacially, and lingually were found in 26.92%. At the apical level, 64.32% of the root canal cross-sections were non-circular, whereas 35.68% of the canals showed a circular cross-section. The results presented here are aimed at: clinical dentists, endodontists, and dental morphologists. PMID:1411268

Carlsen, O; Alexandersen, V; Heitmann, T; Jakobsen, P

1992-10-01

278

Evaluation of root fungicides as root dips for the control of root rot in storage, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root rot in storage can lead to considerable sucrose losses in storage and adversely affect factory processing as well. The use of fungicide treatments applied to the root surface prior to storage were investigated to determine if they could reduce storage rots caused by Botrytis sp., Penicillium s...

279

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root system...

C. Loehle R. Jones

1988-01-01

280

Auxin Induced Lateral Root Formation in Chicory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of auxins [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D), indole-3 acetic acid (1AA) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)] to excised chicory roots induced the formation of lateral root meristems mainly located close to the pre-existing apical root meristem. Lateral root growth induced in non-excised roots required higher auxin concentrations. Inhibition of root elongation and concomittant enlargement of the apices was also observed.

CHRISTOPHE VUYLSTEKER; ERIC DEWAELE; SERGE RAMBOUR

1998-01-01

281

Root complex and root canal system: a correlation analysis using one-rooted mandibular second molars.  

PubMed

The principal aim of this investigation was to verify an expected, probable correlation between certain variables, which are initially represented in the macrostructure of the root complex corresponding to the cemento-dentin junction, and certain variables that subsequently manifest themselves in the root canal system. A material consisting of 76 one-rooted, permanent mandibular second molars (M2 inf) was used. The specimens were cut at the mid-root level and all observations were made on the coronal root segment using a stereomicroscope. Relevant variables of the root complex were observed. The total macromorphologic variation of the root complex could be subdivided and classified in well-defined, distinguishable types. In accordance with the single root complex type an expected, logically deduced configuration of the root canal system was established. The relevant variables of the canal system were then recorded. Finally, the root complex morphology, as well as the expected and actually observed canal configuration, were compared type by type. In 76.3% of the teeth a good concordance could be shown between the expected and the actual canal configuration, whereas in 23.7% of the specimens there was a divergence. In 42.1% of the investigated teeth, 1 centrally localized main canal with varying cross section images, among them a C-shaped image, was found. In 30.3%, 2 main canals were found, which were often localized mesially and distally. In 23.7%, 3 main canals were observed: 1 mesiofacial, 1 mesiolingual and 1 distal. In the remaining 3.9%, 1 non-independent supernumerary canal was seen in a distolingual position. PMID:2399422

Carlsen, O

1990-08-01

282

Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: Regulating Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Root Apical Dominance and Root Gravitropism  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Development and architecture of plant roots are regulated by phytohormones. Cytokinin (CK), synthesized in the root cap, promotes cytokinesis, vascular cambium sensitivity, vascular differentiation and root apical dominance. Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in young shoot organs, promotes root development and induces vascular differentiation. Both IAA and CK regulate root gravitropism. The aims of this study were to analyse the hormonal mechanisms that induce the root's primary vascular system, explain how differentiating-protoxylem vessels promote lateral root initiation, propose the concept of CK-dependent root apical dominance, and visualize the CK and IAA regulation of root gravitropiosm. • Key Issues The hormonal analysis and proposed mechanisms yield new insights and extend previous concepts: how the radial pattern of the root protoxylem vs. protophloem strands is induced by alternating polar streams of high IAA vs. low IAA concentrations, respectively; how differentiating-protoxylem vessel elements stimulate lateral root initiation by auxin–ethylene–auxin signalling; and how root apical dominance is regulated by the root-cap-synthesized CK, which gives priority to the primary root in competition with its own lateral roots. • Conclusions CK and IAA are key hormones that regulate root development, its vascular differentiation and root gravitropism; these two hormones, together with ethylene, regulate lateral root initiation.

ALONI, R.; ALONI, E.; LANGHANS, M.; ULLRICH, C. I.

2006-01-01

283

IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap  

SciTech Connect

In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing {sup 3}H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 {mu}1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 {mu}1 of sorbitol or the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap.

Hasenstein, K.H. (Univ. of SW Louisiana, Lafayette (USA))

1989-04-01

284

Swarming Behavior in Plant Roots  

PubMed Central

Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming.

Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Mazzolai, Barbara; Baluska, Frantisek; Arecchi, F. Tito; Vicsek, Tamas; Mancuso, Stefano

2012-01-01

285

Power and Roots by Recursion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article illustrates how questions from elementary finance can serve as motivation for studying high order powers, roots, and exponential functions using Logo procedures. A second discussion addresses a relatively unknown algorithm for the trigonometric exponential and hyperbolic functions. (PK)|

Aieta, Joseph F.

1987-01-01

286

Roots: Its Impact and Implications  

PubMed Central

What is contained in Roots, the 587-page narrative that captured an entire world population? The answer is not simple, nor is it overly complex, but rather an admixture of significant psychological, sociological, and timing factors that served to ignite the fuse of human fascination for the unknown, the hidden truths, the obscure, and the forbidden. This paper analyzes the impact and implications of Roots on many facets of American society.

Jefferson, Roland S.

1979-01-01

287

Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

288

Abscisic acid biosynthesis in roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathway of water-stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis in etiolated and light-grown leaves has been elucidated (see A.D. Parry and R. Horgan, 1991, Physiol. Plant. 82, 320–326). Roots also have the ability to synthesise ABA in response to stress and it was therefore of interest to examine root extracts for the presence of carotenoids, including those known to be ABA

Andrew D. Parry; Roger Horgan

1992-01-01

289

Root nodulation of Sesbania rostrata.  

PubMed

The tropical legume Sesbania rostrata can be nodulated by Azorhizobium caulinodans on both its stem and its root system. Here we investigate in detail the process of root nodulation and show that nodules develop exclusively at the base of secondary roots. Intercellular infection leads to the formation of infection pockets, which then give rise to infection threads. Concomitantly with infection, cortical cells of the secondary roots dedifferentiate, forming a meristem which has an "open-basket" configuration and which surrounds the initial infection site. Bacteria are released from the tips of infection threads into plant cells via "infection droplets," each containing several bacteria. Initially, nodule differentiation is comparable to that of indeterminate nodules, with the youngest meristematic cells being located at the periphery and the nitrogen-fixing cells being located at the nodule center. Because of the peculiar form of the meristem, Sesbania root nodules develop uniformly around a central axis. Nitrogen fixation is detected as early as 3 days following inoculation, while the nodule meristem is still active. Two weeks after inoculation, meristematic activity ceases, and nodules then show the typical histology of determinate nodules. Thus, root nodule organogenesis in S. rostrata appears to be intermediate between indeterminate and determinate types. PMID:8106317

Ndoye, I; de Billy, F; Vasse, J; Dreyfus, B; Truchet, G

1994-02-01

290

Effects of root diameter and root nitrogen concentration on in situ root respiration among different seasons and tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of root respiration is a prerequisite for a better understanding of ecosystem carbon budget and carbon allocation.\\u000a However, there are not many relevant data in the literature on direct measurements of in situ root respiration by root chamber\\u000a method. Furthermore, few studies have been focused on the effects of root diameter (D\\u000a r) and root nitrogen concentration (N\\u000a r)

Dima Chen; Lixia Zhou; Xingquan Rao; Yongbiao Lin; Shenglei Fu

2010-01-01

291

Biotechnological Induction of Rooting in Arbutus menziesii  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work tests the ability of the bacterium hairy-root (Agrobacterium rhizogenes) to induce the formation of adventitious roots on Pacific mad- rone (Arbutus menziesii) stems and cuttings. Madrone stems 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age are innoculated at different seasons of the year and tested for the production of adventitious roots. Successful rooting of stems with endogenously produced

Barbara Selemon; Toby Bradshaw

292

Aortic root dilation after the Ross procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated changes in neoaortic root geometry in patients who underwent the Ross procedure. Serial postoperative echocardiographic measurements of the neoaortic root indexed to the square root of body surface area (centimeters divided by meters) were obtained from 30 patients (age range 3.1 to 31.4 years) and compared with paired preoperative and immediate postoperative values. Normal aortic root diameter

M. Victoria T Tantengco; Richard A Humes; Sandra K Clapp; Kevin W Lobdell; Henry L Walters; Mehdi Hakimi; Michael L Epstein

1999-01-01

293

Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root

Kristiina Himanen; Marnik Vuylsteke; Steffen Vanneste; Steven Vercruysse; Elodie Boucheron; Philippe Alard; Dominique Chriqui; Marc van Montagu; Dirk Inzé; Tom Beeckman

2004-01-01

294

Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese medicine) or [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

The authors previously reported that an extract from Zingiber officinale, traditionally eaten along with raw fish and used in traditional Chinese medicine, effectively destroyed Anisakis larvae in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effective components of ginger rhizomes. Methanol extracts were fractionated after first being treated with HCl at pH 3, then with NaHCO3 at pH 10, and, finally, with NaOH at pH 13 (fraction 1). In general, this fraction is rich in neutral substances. [6]-Shogaol and [6]-gingerol, known neutral components of ginger rhizomes, were detected using gas chromatography and were found to be the most prevalent components in the fraction, occurring in quantities that resulted in a dose-dependent killing efficacy. Authentic [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol could kill Anisakis larvae at a minimal effective dose of 62.5 and 250 micrograms/ml, respectively. However, the concentration of [6]-gingerol in fraction 1 was greater than 20 times that of [6]-shogaol, making the former the most active component in the fraction. Furthermore, synergistic effects between [6]-gingerol and a small amount of [6]-shogaol were observed. Pyrantel pamoate, an available antinematodal drug, had no lethal effect, even at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In saline solution containing [6]-shogaol (62.5 micrograms/ml), greater than 90% of larvae lost spontaneous movement within 4 h and were destroyed completely within 16 h. Microscopical examinations showed destruction of the digestive tract and disturbances of culticulae. PMID:2251240

Goto, C; Kasuya, S; Koga, K; Ohtomo, H; Kagei, N

1990-01-01

295

Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale on some biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, 64 patients with DM2 were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2?g/d of each). A 3?d diet record, anthropometric measurements and concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FPG), HbA1c, lipid profile (including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein) and also the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were determined before and after 2 months of intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly lowered the levels of insulin (11.0?±?2.3 versus 12.1?±?3.3; p?=?0.001), LDL-C (67.8?±?27.2 versus 89.2?±?24.9; p?=?0.04), TG (127.7?±?43.7 versus 128.2?±?37.7; p?=?0.03) and the HOMA index (3.9?±?1.09 versus 4.5?±?1.8; p?=?0.002) and increased the QUICKI index (0.313?±?0.012 versus 0.308?±?0.012; p?=?0.005) in comparison to the control group; while, there were no significant changes in FPG, TC, HDL-C and HbA1c (p?>?0.05). In summary, ginger supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile in DM2 patients. Therefore it may be considered as a useful remedy to reduce the secondary complications of DM2. PMID:23496212

Mahluji, Sepide; Attari, Vahide Ebrahimzade; Mobasseri, Majid; Payahoo, Laleh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Golzari, Samad E J

2013-03-18

296

Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE) belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200?mg?kg?1?b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI) of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80%) at 30?mg?kg?1?b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38??g and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4??g?mL?1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE). DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4??g was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5?g?kg?1?b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50%) and gallic (46%) phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Annaiah, Harish Nayaka Mysore; Dharmesh, Shylaja M.

2011-01-01

297

Adventitious root mass distribution in progeny of four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) groups selected for root shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of one cycle of selection for adventitious root system shape (i.e. percentage of total root mass in successive depth increments) were investigated in progeny of four perennial ryegrass pools with contrasting rooting patterns: (1) low surface (0–10 cm) root mass and roots to 1 m; (2) high surface root mass and roots to 1 m; (3) high root

JR Crush; SN Nichols; L. Ouyang

2010-01-01

298

A METHOD TO SEPARATE PLANT ROOTS FROM SOIL AND ANALYZE ROOT SURFACE AREA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of the effects of soil management practices on crop production requires a knowledge of these effects on plant roots. Much time is required to wash plant roots from soil and separate the living plant roots from organic debris and previous years' roots. We developed a root washer that can acc...

299

Hypoxic acclimation to anoxia in Avena roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic pretreatment (H-PT; incubated in 5% O2 atmospherefor 24 h) greatly improved subsequent tolerance of anoxia in theprimary roots of Avena sativa. Survival of H-PT roots inanoxia increased by 6.4-fold compared to that of non-pretreated (N-PT) roots ofthe seedlings. ATP concentration in the H-PT roots was 4.8-fold greater thanthat in the N-PT roots at 12 h after onset of anoxia.

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2002-01-01

300

Genomics of Root–Microbe Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Roots are exposed to a multitude of soil organisms and often form intimate associations with bacteria, fungi, and nematodes.\\u000a Microbes influence roots by producing signals, toxins, altering nutrient cycling, and by invading roots as endosymbionts or\\u000a endoparasites. Genomic tools have helped to elucidate the molecular changes induced in roots by microbes. Two mutualistic\\u000a symbioses of roots, those with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia

Ulrike Mathesius; Giel E. van Noorden

301

7 CFR 318.58-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sativum). Dasheen, malanga, taro (Colocasia and Caladium spp.). Eggplant. Fennel. Ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Horseradish (Armoracia). Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana). Lerens, sweet corn root (Calathea...

2009-01-01

302

Ephemeral root modules in Fraxinus mandshurica.  

PubMed

Historically, ephemeral roots have been equated with 'fine roots' (i.e. all roots of less than an arbitrary diameter, such as 2 mm), but evidence shows that 'fine roots' in woody species are complex branching systems with both rapid-cycling and slow-cycling components. A precise definition of ephemeral roots is therefore needed. Using a branch-order classification, a rhizotron method and sequential sampling of a root cohort, we tested the hypothesis that ephemeral root modules exist within the branching Fraxinus mandshurica (Manchurian ash) root system as distal nonwoody lateral branches, which show anatomical, nutritional and physiological patterns distinct from their woody mother roots. Our results showed that in F. mandshurica, distal nonwoody root branch orders die rapidly as intact lateral branches (or modules). These nonwoody branch orders exhibited highly synchronous changes in tissue nitrogen concentrations and respiration, dominated root turnover, nutrient flux and root respiration, and never underwent secondary development. The ephemeral root modules proposed here may provide a functional basis for differentiating and sampling short-lived absorptive roots in woody plants, and represent a conceptual leap over the traditional coarse-fine root dichotomies based on arbitrary size classes. PMID:21058949

Xia, Mengxue; Guo, Dali; Pregitzer, Kurt S

2010-09-07

303

Root status and future developments  

SciTech Connect

In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project.

Rene Brun et al.

2003-10-01

304

Electrotropism of Maize Roots 1  

PubMed Central

We examined the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in solutions of low electrolyte concentration using primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., variety Merit). When submerged in oxygenated solution across which an electric field was applied, the roots curved rapidly and strongly toward the positive electrode (anode). The strength of the electrotropic response increased and the latent period decreased with increasing field strength. At a field strength of 7.5 volts per centimeter the latent period was 6.6 minutes and curvature reached 60 degrees in about 1 hour. For electric fields greater than 10 volts per centimeter the latent period was less than 1 minute. There was no response to electric fields less than 2.8 volts per centimeter. Both electrotropism and growth were inhibited when indoleacetic acid (10 micromolar) was included in the medium. The auxin transport inhibitor pyrenoylbenzoic acid strongly inhibited electrotropism without inhibiting growth. Electrotropism was enhanced by treatments that interfere with gravitropism, e.g. decapping the roots or pretreating them with ethyleneglycol-bis-[?-ethylether]-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid. Similarly, roots of agravitropic pea (Pisum sativum, variety Ageotropum) seedlings were more responsive to electrotropic stimulation than roots of normal (variety Alaska) seedlings. The data indicate that the early steps of gravitropism and electrotropism occur by independent mechanisms. However, the motor mechanisms of the two responses may have features in common since auxin and auxin transport inhibitors reduced both gravitropism and electrotropism.

Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

1990-01-01

305

Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.  

PubMed

Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately. PMID:24167506

Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

2013-10-23

306

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2012-12-18

307

Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.  

PubMed

Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed. PMID:23801487

Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

2011-12-08

308

Strigolactones fine-tune the root system.  

PubMed

Strigolactones were originally discovered to be involved in parasitic weed germination, in mycorrhizal association and in the control of shoot architecture. Despite their clear role in rhizosphere signaling, comparatively less attention has been given to the belowground function of strigolactones on plant development. However, research has revealed that strigolactones play a key role in the regulation of the root system including adventitious roots, primary root length, lateral roots, root hairs and nodulation. Here, we review the recent progress regarding strigolactone regulation of the root system and the antagonism and interplay with other hormones. PMID:23801297

Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Goormachtig, Sofie; Geelen, Danny

2013-06-26

309

Adsorption and absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to rice roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice roots and surrounding air, soil and water samples were collected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis. The rice roots were separated into lateral roots and nodal roots, and the PAH concentration in the former was found to be higher than that in the latter. In addition, root physiological characteristics including root biotic mass, root lipid content and specific surface

X. C. Jiao; F. L. Xu; R. Dawson; S. H. Chen; S. Tao

2007-01-01

310

The FairRoot framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FairRoot framework is an object oriented simulation, reconstruction and data analysis framework based on ROOT. It includes core services for detector simulation and offline analysis. The framework delivers base classes which enable the users to easily construct their experimental setup in a fast and convenient way. By using the Virtual Monte Carlo concept it is possible to perform the simulations using either Geant3 or Geant4 without changing the user code or the geometry description. Using and extending the task mechanism of ROOT it is possible to implement complex analysis tasks in a convenient way. Moreover, using the FairCuda interface of the framework it is possible to run some of these tasks also on GPU. Data IO, as well as parameter handling and data base connections are also handled by the framework. Since some of the experiments will not have an experimental setup with a conventional trigger system, the framework can handle also free flowing input streams of detector data. For this mode of operation the framework provides classes to create the needed time sorted input streams of detector data out of the event based simulation data. There are also tools to do radiation studies and to visualize the simulated data. A CMake-CDash based building and monitoring system is also part of the FairRoot services which helps to build and test the framework on many different platforms in an automatic way, including also Continuous Integration.

Al-Turany, M.; Bertini, D.; Karabowicz, R.; Kresan, D.; Malzacher, P.; Stockmanns, T.; Uhlig, F.

2012-12-01

311

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

312

Excising the Root from STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of well-intentioned STEM initiatives, some designed to improve the recruitment and retention of science teachers. Sometimes it appears that the initiators are remote from direct contact with the "grass roots" issues that feed the "stem" on which the blossoms of young enthusiastic recruits to the science teaching profession are…

Lock, Roger

2009-01-01

313

Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with re...

K. H. Hasenstein

1997-01-01

314

Cutting the Roots of Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach…

Koziey, Paul W.

1996-01-01

315

Image analysis from root system pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

2009-04-01

316

Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

Dupuy, Lionel X.

2011-09-01

317

Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation  

PubMed Central

Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species.

Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

2012-01-01

318

Root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes in walnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes (wild-type, strain 1855), when applied to the basal part of microcuttings of walnut (J. regia L.), produced numerous adventitious roots in vitro: 58.6% of rooting was induced in microcuttings in hormone free medium and 62.9% and abundant callus formation in the presence of IBA. A. rhizogenes did not induce rooting when IAA was present in the rooting medium.

Emilia Caboni; Paola Lauri; Mariagrazia Tonelli; Giuseppina Falasca; Carmine Damiano

1996-01-01

319

Development of ROOT Services for Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROOT is a platform-independent, object-oriented framework used for facing the challenges in the high-energy physics data analysis. Physical experiments as NA48, CMS, ALICE and ATLAS use for data storage and analysis G-Lite Grid infrastructure and ROOT framework for interactive manipulation of the analyzed data. It is strategically important ROOT to be used in Grid middleware. The aim of this paper is to present methodology for exposing legacy ROOT functionalities as services.

Goranova, R.

2010-11-01

320

Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract ( Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee.

Doug B. Smith; Bert H. Jacobson

2011-01-01

321

Root Cap and the Perception of Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING investigations into the fine structure of apical meristems under the electron microscope, one of us (S. G.) discovered that it was possible, in maize and barley, to detach the intact root cap cleanly from the rest of the root tip. This is shown in Fig. 1. The roots of grasses are characterized by having a discrete cap meristem and,

B. E. Juniper; Suzanne Groves; BRURIA LANDAU-SCHACHAR; L. J. AUDUS

1966-01-01

322

Auxin Transport Promotes Arabidopsis Lateral Root Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral root development in Arabidopsis provides a model for the study of hormonal signals that regulate postembry- onic organogenesis in higher plants. Lateral roots originate from pairs of pericycle cells, in several cell files positioned opposite the xylem pole, that initiate a series of asymmetric, transverse divisions. The auxin transport inhibitor N -1-naph- thylphthalamic acid (NPA) arrests lateral root development

Ilda Casimiro; Alan Marchant; Rishikesh P. Bhalerao; Tom Beeckman; Sandra Dhooge; Ranjan Swarup; Neil Graham; Dirk Inzé; Goran Sandberg; Pedro J. Casero; Malcolm Bennett

2001-01-01

323

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone alters root growth and root processes by first reducing photosynthesis and altering foliar metabolic pathways. The alteration in foliar metabolism is reflected in lowered carbohydrate levels in the roots. This can reduce key metabolic processes such as mineral uptake and sy...

324

Involvement of polyamines in root development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root development is under the control of hormonal, metabolic, and environmental cues that can act on genetically-controlled developmental programmes and thus affect the plasticity of root architecture. These processes involve not only the five `classical' plant hormones, but also other growth regulators, such as polyamines. The present review emphasises the importance of polyamines in the different aspects of root development:

Ivan Couée; Irène Hummel; Cécile Sulmon; Gwenola Gouesbet; Abdelhak El Amrani

2004-01-01

325

Celebrex Offers a Small Protection From Root  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Tooth movement results from alveolar bone resorption\\/deposition following application of orthodontic forces, and root resorption can be an undesirable complication associated with this process. No treatment for external root resorption is available to date. Objective: To determine if COX-2 inhibitors like Celebrex are effec- tive in protecting root resorption associated with orthodontic

John Jerome; Timothy Brunson; Gerald Takeoka; Chad Foster; Hong B. Moon; Enrique Grageda; Maggie Zeichner-David

2005-01-01

326

Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape.  

PubMed

Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Suzui, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Toshinori; Komatsu, Fumiya; Ishioka, Noriko S; Ito-Tanabata, Sayuri; Kawachi, Naoki; Rai, Hiroki; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Chino, Mitsuo; Fujimaki, Shu

2013-01-29

327

Root-soil mechanical interactions during pullout and failure of root bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots play a major role in reinforcing and stabilizing steep hillslopes. Most studies in slope stability implement root reinforcement as an apparent cohesion by upscaling the behavior of static individual roots. Recent studies, however, have shown that much better predictions of slope stability can be made if the progressive failure of bundles of roots are considered. The characteristics of progressive

M. Schwarz; D. Cohen; D. Or

2010-01-01

328

Assessing root traits associated with root rot resistance in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting differences in root architecture and growth patterns among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes may provide unique selection criteria for genetic resistance to Fusarium root rot. Genetic variation in root system architecture was quantified for 10 contrasting bean genotypes that represent four common bean classes (kidney, cranberry, black, and snap bean) under greenhouse conditions and under root rot disease

B Román-Avilés; S. S Snapp; J. D Kelly

2004-01-01

329

Root induction in three species of bamboo with different rooting abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting of in vitro axillary shoots from adult field culms of Bambusa atra, Dendrocalamus giganteus and D. hookeri and of juvenile seedling shoots of D. giganteus were investigated. B. atra rooted spontaneously without exogenous auxin during axillary shoot proliferation, while both Dendrocalamus species rooted only on transfer to rooting media with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). D. giganteus required coumarin, an auxin

S. M. S. D. Ramanayake; K. M. M. N. Maddegoda; M. C. Vitharana; G. D. G. Chaturani

2008-01-01

330

The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge.

Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corne M. J.

2013-01-01

331

A New Anatomically Based Nomenclature for the Roots and Root Canals--Part 1: Maxillary Molars  

PubMed Central

Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequently named based on definite sets of criteria. A new method for identification and naming of roots and root canal anatomy in maxillary molars, based on their root and canal relationship, was formulated and is presented in this paper. The nomenclature makes certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate naming of the various aberrations presented in the maxillary molars. A simple, yet extensive, nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of maxillary molars.

Kottoor, Jojo; Albuquerque, Denzil Valerian; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

2012-01-01

332

Sustainability: characteristics and scientific roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature about sustainable development is abundant and expanding, and syntheses are therefore increasingly necessary. This\\u000a paper represents an effort to characterize the main principles behind the concept of sustainability and to identify and describe\\u000a the scientific approaches at the root of each of those principles. From a scientific point of view, the identification of\\u000a sustainability principles is possibly more interesting

Nuno QuentalJulia; Júlia M. Lourenço; Fernando Nunes da Silva

2011-01-01

333

Calcium in Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growth of cells as diverse as fungal hyphae, pollen tubes, algal rhizoids, and root hairs is characterized by a highly\\u000a localized control of cell expansion confined to the growing tip. The cellular regulators that have been shown to maintain\\u000a this spatial localization of growth range from monomeric G-proteins and the actin cytoskeleton to protein kinases and phospholipid-modulating\\u000a enzymes. A

T. Bibikova; S. Gilroy

334

The Biblical Roots of Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While democracy is usually perceived as a Greco-European development, it is note-worthy that some of its roots can be found in the Bible. The Covenant between God and the tribes of Israel at Mount Sinai is based on the people’s consent. God is seen as the King of Israel: theocracy means the rule of God literally, and not the rule

Mordecai Roshwald

2006-01-01

335

Root systems of chaparral shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root systems of chaparral shrubs were excavated from a 70 m2 plot of a mixed chaparral stand located on a north-facing slope in San Diego County (32°54' N; 900 m above sea level). The main shrub species present were Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos pungens, Ceanothus greggii, Erigonum fasciculatum, and Haplopappus pinifolius. Shrubs were wired into their positions, and the soil was

Jochen Kummerow; David Krause; William Jow

1977-01-01

336

Root functioning modifies seasonal climate  

PubMed Central

Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the nocturnal vertical transfer of soil water from moister to drier regions in the soil profile by roots, has now been observed in Amazonian trees. We have incorporated HR into an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model Version 2) to estimate its impact on climate over the Amazon and other parts of the globe where plants displaying HR occur. Model results show that photosynthesis and evapotranspiration increase significantly in the Amazon during the dry season when plants are allowed to redistribute soil water. Plants draw water up and deposit it into the surface layers, and this water subsidy sustains transpiration at rates that deep roots alone cannot accomplish. The water used for dry season transpiration is from the deep storage layers in the soil, recharged during the previous wet season. We estimate that HR increases dry season (July to November) transpiration by ?40% over the Amazon. Our model also indicates that such an increase in transpiration over the Amazon and other drought-stressed regions affects the seasonal cycles of temperature through changes in latent heat, thereby establishing a direct link between plant root functioning and climate.

Lee, Jung-Eun; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fung, Inez

2005-01-01

337

Shoot regeneration capacity from roots and transgenic hairy roots of tomato cultivars and wild related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organogenetic competence of roots and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots of twelve Lycopersicon genotypes was investigated. Both roots and hairy roots of L. peruvianum, L. chilense, L. hirsutum and two L. peruvianum-derived genotypes regenerated shoots after 2–4 weeks of incubation on zeatin-contained medium. Anatomical analysis showed\\u000a that shoot regeneration in roots could be direct or indirect, depending on the genotype

Lázaro E. P. Peres; Patrícia G. Morgante; Cláudia Vecchi; Jane E. Kraus; Marie-Anne van Sluys

2001-01-01

338

Linking root morphology, longevity and function to root branch order: a case study in three shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching order supports a powerful approach to understanding complex root systems; however, how the pattern of root\\u000a morphological characteristics, tissue carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and root lifespan are related to anatomical\\u000a features of variable root orders for mature shrubs (?19 years old) in sandy habitats is still unclear. In this study, these\\u000a relationships were investigated for three typical

Gang Huang; Xue-yong Zhao; Ha-lin Zhao; Ying-xin Huang; Xiao-an Zuo

2010-01-01

339

Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.  

PubMed

Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:20934368

Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

2010-10-08

340

The biomechanics of Pachycereus pringlei root systems.  

PubMed

We report on the root system of the large columnar cactus species Pachycereus pringlei to explore the hypothesis that increasing plant size decreases the ability to resist wind-throw but increases the capacity to absorb and store nutrients in roots (i.e., plant size limits the performance of these functions and may shift the performance of one function in favor of another as size increases). Based on 18 plants differing in size, the root system is characterized by a broad and deep bayonet-like root central to a shallow and extensive lateral system of root elements bearing sinker roots near the stem base. All root types have a living secondary cortex and contain wood with a large volume fraction of ray tissues that increases toward the stem base. Wood stiffness and tensile strength are correlated negatively with the ray tissue volume fraction and thus decrease toward the stem base in lateral and bayonet roots. Calculations show that the ability of the bayonet and proximal lateral root elements to resist wind-throw decreases with increasing plant size, whereas the nutrient absorption/storage capacity of the total root system increases with plant size (i.e., a size-dependent shift between these two root functions occurs). PMID:21669707

Niklas, Karl J; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Clara; Paolillo, Dominick J

2002-01-01

341

Aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme, iron(II), and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat heart in vitro.  

PubMed

Ginger has reportedly been used in folk medicine for the management and prevention of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger on a key enzyme linked to hypertension (angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE]), and on pro-oxidants [Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] which have been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in the rat's isolated heart in vitro. Aqueous extracts (0.05 mg/mL) of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were prepared and the ability of the extracts to inhibit ACE along with Fe(2+)- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation was determined in rat's heart in vitro. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited ACE in a dose-dependent manner (25-125 ?g/mL). However, red ginger extract (EC50=27.5 ?g/mL) had a significantly (P<.05) higher inhibitory effect on ACE than white ginger extract (EC50=87.0 ?g/mL). Furthermore, incubation of the rat's heart in the presence of Fe(2+) and SNP caused a significant increase (P<.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the heart homogenates, while the introduction of the ginger extracts (78-313 ?g/mL) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the stressed heart homogenates. This suggests that the possible mechanism through which ginger exerts its antihypertensive properties may be through inhibition of ACE activity and prevention of lipid peroxidation in the heart. Furthermore, red ginger showed stronger inhibition of ACE than white ginger. Additionally, it should be noted that these protective properties of the ginger varieties could be attributed to their polyphenol contents. PMID:23875904

Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2013-07-01

342

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether geomorphically controlled variations in ecology affect the spatial distribution of root cohesion by measuring the distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of 15 native trees in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, United States. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses (areas of divergent topography) relative to those in hollows (unchanneled, convergent topography) coincident with the variability in cellulose content. This cellulose variability is likely related to topographic differences in soil water potential. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with roots in hollows being more evenly distributed in the soil column than those on noses. Trees located on noses had higher mean root cohesion than those in hollows because of a higher root tensile force. R. maximum had the shallowest, weakest roots suggesting that recent expansion of this species due to fire suppression has likely lowered the root cohesion of some hollows. Quantification of this feedback between physiologic controls on root growth and slope hydrology has allowed us to create a curvature-based model of root cohesion that is a significant improvement on current models that assume a spatially averaged value.

Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J. M.; Band, L. E.

2009-09-01

343

A plausible mechanism for auxin patterning along the developing root  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In plant roots, auxin is critical for patterning and morphogenesis. It regulates cell elongation and division, the development and maintenance of root apical meristems, and other processes. In Arabidopsis, auxin distribution along the central root axis has several maxima: in the root tip, in the basal meristem and at the shoot\\/root junction. The distal maximum in the root tip

Victoria V Mironova; Nadezda A Omelyanchuk; Guy Yosiphon; Stanislav I Fadeev; Nikolai A Kolchanov; Eric Mjolsness; Vitaly A Likhoshvai

2010-01-01

344

Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

345

Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.  

PubMed Central

Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes.

Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

1980-01-01

346

Distribution of Pb, Cd and Ba in soils and plants of two contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Evaluation of metal accumulation in soils and plants is of environmental importance due to their health effects on humans and other biota. Soil material and plant tissue were collected along transects in two heavily contaminated facilities, a Superfund site and a lead-acid battery dump, and analyzed for metal content. Soil lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba) concentrations for the Superfund site averaged 55,480, 8.5 and 132.3 mg/kg, respectively. Soil Pb occurred primarily in the carbonate, sulfide/residual and organic chemical fractions (41.6, 28.6 and 16.7%, respectively). Soil Pb, Cd and Ba concentrations for the dump site averaged 29,400, 3.9 and 1130 mg/kg, respectively. Soil Pb occurred mostly in the organic and carbonate fractions as 48.5 and 42.5%, respectively. Pb uptake in the two sites ranged from non-detectable (Agrostemma githago, Plantago rugelii, Alliaria officinalis shoots), to 1800 mg/kg (Agrostemma githago root). Cd uptake was maximal in Taraxacum officinale at 15.4 mg/kg (Superfund site). In the majority > or =65%) of the plants studied, root Pb and Cd content was higher than that for the shoots. Tissue Pb correlated slightly with exchangeable and soluble soil Pb; however, tissue Cd was poorly correlated with soil Cd species. None of the sampled plants accumulated measurable amounts of Ba. Those plants that removed most Pb and Cd were predominantly herbaceous species, some of which produce sufficient biomass to be practical for phytoremediation technologies. Growth chamber studies demonstrated the ability of T. officinale and Ambrosia artemisiifolia to successfully remove soil Pb and Cd during repeated croppings. Tissue Pb was correlated with exchangeable soil Pb at r(2)=0.68 in Ambrosia artemisiifolia. PMID:15092867

Pichtel, J; Kuroiwa, K; Sawyerr, H T

2000-10-01

347

PATTERNS IN SOIL FERTILITY AND ROOT HERBIVORY INTERACT TO INFLUENCE FINE-ROOT DYNAMICS.  

SciTech Connect

Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8–9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (,1.0 mm diameter), which comprised well over half of all root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P , 0.0001), with maximum biomass found where the treatments were combined (interaction term significant, P , 0.001). These results suggest that root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

Stevens, Glen, N.; Jones, Robert, H.

2006-03-01

348

The role of root system architecture and root hairs in promoting anchorage against uprooting forces in Allium cepa and root mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role played by lateral roots and root hairs in promoting plant anchorage, and specifically resist- ance to vertical uprooting forces has been deter- mined experimentally. Two species were studied, Allium cepa (onion) which has a particularly simple root system and two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, one without root hairs (rhd 2-1) and another with reduced lateral root branching (axr

Peter H. J. Bailey; J. D. Currey; A. H. Fitter

2002-01-01

349

Root exudates mediate kin recognition in plants  

PubMed Central

Though recent work has demonstrated that plants can recognize species, kin versus strangers, and self/non-self roots, no mechanism for identity recognition in plants has yet been found. Here we examined the role of soluble chemicals in signaling among roots. Utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana, we exposed young seedlings to liquid media containing exudates from siblings, strangers (non-siblings), or only their own exudates. In one experiment, root secretions were inhibited by sodium orthovanadate and root length and number of lateral roots were measured. In a second experiment, responses to siblings, strangers, and their own exudates were measured for several accessions (genotypes), and the traits of length of the longest lateral root and hypocotyl length were also measured. The exposure of plants to the root exudates of strangers induced greater lateral root formation than exposure of plants to sibling exudates. Stranger recognition was abolished upon treatment with the secretion inhibitor. In one experiment, plants exposed to sibling or stranger exudates have shorter roots than plants only exposed to their own exudates. This self/non-self recognition response was not affected by the secretion inhibitor. The results demonstrate that that kin recognition and self/non-self are two separate identity recognition systems involving soluble chemicals. Kin recognition requires active secretion by roots.

Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Jilany, Tafari A

2010-01-01

350

The Source of Carbon for Root Respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Enriched Background Isotope Study (EBIS) that took advantage of a whole-ecosystem radiocarbon label that occurred in the temperate forest near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, we measured the radiocarbon signature of total soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration and root respiration, at different times during the last 3 growing seasons (2002-2004). By applying a mass balance approach, the relative and absolute contributions of heterotrophic and root respiration to total soil respiration were estimated. In contrast to heterotrophic respiration, root respiration seemed to be less affected by changes in soil moisture and temperature but rather showed a link to photosynthetic activity with a very similar pattern during the growing season as that of leaf area index. The radiocarbon signature of root respiration was very dynamic with low values in spring compared to the summer. The sources of variation can include changes in the local atmospheric signature and/or changes in the source of C being respired. Two different sites with different values and patterns of local atmospheric radiocarbon signature showed the same pattern in radiocarbon signatures of root respiration indicating that the source of variation was phenological. Low values during the spring could indicate the use of stored carbohydrates switching to more recent photosynthetic products as the summer progresses. As a first attempt to elucidate the source of C respired by roots, we will compare the radiocarbon content of starch, cellulose and soluble sugars in roots to that of bulk root material and root respired CO2. These radiocarbon signatures can help us identify the pool of C that is most likely being respired by roots during the growing season. A better understanding of the source of C for root respiration has implications for understanding the role of root respiration in C cycling in temperate forests, specifically the timescale over which carbon is fixed through photosynthesis and returned to the atmosphere by root respiration.

Cisneros-Dozal, L.; Trumbore, S.; Zheng, S.

2004-12-01

351

Random roots and lineage sorting.  

PubMed

Lineage sorting has been suggested as a major force in generating incongruent phylogenetic signal when multiple gene partitions are examined. The degree of lineage sorting can be estimated using the coalescent process and simulation studies have also pointed to a major role for incomplete lineage sorting as a factor in phylogenetic inference. Some recent empirical studies point to an extreme role for this phenomenon with up to 50-60% of all informative genes showing incongruence as a result of lineage sorting. Here, we examine seven large multi-partition genome level data sets over a large range of taxonomic representation. We took the approach of examining outgroup choice and its impact on tree topology, by swapping outgroups into analyses with successively larger genetics distances to the ingroup. Our results indicate a linear relationship of outgroup distance with incongruence in the data sets we examined suggesting a strong random rooting effect. In addition, we attempted to estimate the degree of lineage sorting in several large genome level data sets by examining triads of very closely related taxa. This exercise resulted in much lower estimates of incongruent genes that could be the result of lineage sorting, with an overall estimate of around 10% of the total number of genes in a genome showing incongruence as a result of true lineage sorting. Finally we examined the behavior of likelihood and parsimony approaches on the random rooting phenomenon. Likelihood tends to stabilize incongruence as outgroups get further and further away from the ingroup. In one extreme case, likelihood overcompensates for sequence divergence but increases random rooting causing long branch repulsion. PMID:22445448

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Payne, Ansel; DeSalle, Rob

2012-03-14

352

Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of\\u000a maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm\\u000a from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification.

Josué Martos; Gustavo Henrique Tatsch; Augusto César Tatsch; Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira; Carmen María Ferrer-Luque

353

General complex polynomial root solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This general complex polynomial root solver, implemented in Fortran and further optimized for binary microlenses, uses a new algorithm to solve polynomial equations and is 1.6-3 times faster than the ZROOTS subroutine that is commercially available from Numerical Recipes, depending on application. The largest improvement, when compared to naive solvers, comes from a fail-safe procedure that permits skipping the majority of the calculations in the great majority of cases, without risking catastrophic failure in the few cases that these are actually required.

Skowron, J.; Gould, A.

2012-12-01

354

Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.  

PubMed

Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

2012-01-12

355

Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA  

PubMed Central

Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

2012-01-01

356

[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].  

PubMed

Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration. PMID:24066535

Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

2013-06-01

357

Genotypic recognition and spatial responses by rice roots  

PubMed Central

Root system growth and development is highly plastic and is influenced by the surrounding environment. Roots frequently grow in heterogeneous environments that include interactions from neighboring plants and physical impediments in the rhizosphere. To investigate how planting density and physical objects affect root system growth, we grew rice in a transparent gel system in close proximity with another plant or a physical object. Root systems were imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. Root–root interaction strength was calculated using quantitative metrics that characterize the extent to which the reconstructed root systems overlap each other. Surprisingly, we found the overlap of root systems of the same genotype was significantly higher than that of root systems of different genotypes. Root systems of the same genotype tended to grow toward each other but those of different genotypes appeared to avoid each other. Shoot separation experiments excluded the possibility of aerial interactions, suggesting root communication. Staggered plantings indicated that interactions likely occur at root tips in close proximity. Recognition of obstacles also occurred through root tips, but through physical contact in a size-dependent manner. These results indicate that root systems use two different forms of communication to recognize objects and alter root architecture: root-root recognition, possibly mediated through root exudates, and root-object recognition mediated by physical contact at the root tips. This finding suggests that root tips act as local sensors that integrate rhizosphere information into global root architectural changes.

Fang, Suqin; Clark, Randy T.; Zheng, Ying; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Weitz, Joshua S.; Kochian, Leon V.; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Liao, Hong; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

358

Analysis of root meristem size development.  

PubMed

Plant post-embryonic development takes place in the meristems. In the root of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, stem cells organized in a stem-cell niche in the apex of the root meristem generate transit-amplifying cells, which undergo additional division in the proximal meristem and differentiate in the elongation/differentiation zone. For meristem maintenance, and therefore continuous root growth, the rate of cell differentiation must equal the rate of generation of new cells: how this balance is achieved is a central question in plant development. We have shown that maintenance of the Arabidopsis root meristem size is established by a balance between the antagonistic effects of cytokinin, which promotes cell differentiation, and auxin, which promotes cell division. Cytokinin antagonizes auxin in a specific developmental domain (the vascular tissue transition zone) from where it controls the differentiation rate of all the other root tissues. Here, we describe protocols to analyze development of root meristems. PMID:20734261

Perilli, Serena; Sabatini, Sabrina

2010-01-01

359

Root and root canal morphology of the human permanent maxillary first molar: a literature review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to review the literature with respect to the root and canal systems in the maxillary first molar. Root anatomy studies were divided into laboratory studies (in vitro), clinical root canal system anatomy studies (in vivo) and clinical case reports of anomalies. Over 95% (95.9%) of maxillary first molars had three roots and 3.9% had two roots. The incidence of fusion of any two or three roots was approximately 5.2%. Conical and C-shaped roots and canals were rarely found (0.12%). This review contained the most data on the canal morphology of the mesiobuccal root with a total of 8399 teeth from 34 studies. The incidence of two canals in the mesiobuccal root was 56.8% and of one canal was 43.1% in a weighted average of all reported studies. The incidence of two canals in the mesiobuccal root was higher in laboratory studies (60.5%) compared to clinical studies (54.7%). Less variation was found in the distobuccal and palatal roots and the results were reported from fourteen studies consisting of 2576 teeth. One canal was found in the distobuccal root in 98.3% of teeth whereas the palatal root had one canal in over 99% of the teeth studied. PMID:16934622

Cleghorn, Blaine M; Christie, William H; Dong, Cecilia C S

2006-06-30

360

Root-to-Root Travel of the Beneficial Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†  

PubMed Central

The root-to-root travel of the beneficial bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on wheat and soybean roots in agar, sand, and light-textured soil was monitored. We used a motile wild-type (Mot+) strain and a motility-deficient (Mot-) strain which was derived from the wild-type strain. The colonization levels of inoculated roots were similar for the two strains. Mot+ cells moved from inoculated roots (either natural or artificial roots in agar, sand, or light-textured soil) to noninoculated roots, where they formed a band-type colonization composed of bacterial aggregates encircling a limited part of the root, regardless of the plant species. The Mot- strain did not move toward noninoculated roots of either plant species and usually stayed at the inoculation site and root tips. The effect of attractants and repellents was the primary factor governing the motility of Mot+ cells in the presence of adequate water. We propose that interroot travel of A. brasilense is an essential preliminary step in the root-bacterium recognition mechanism. Bacterial motility might have a general role in getting Azospirillum cells to the site where firmer attachment favors colonization of the root system. Azospirillum travel toward plants is a nonspecific active process which is not directly dependent on nutrient deficiency but is a consequence of a nonspecific bacterial chemotaxis, influenced by the balance between attractants and possibly repellents leaked by the root.

Bashan, Yoav; Holguin, Gina

1994-01-01

361

A Rooted Net of Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko.

2011-01-01

362

DNS measurements at a root server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Domain Name System (DNS) prescribes domain names to be used in network transactions (email, web requests, etc.) instead of IP addresses. The root of the DNS distributed database is managed by 13 root nameservers. We passively measure the performance of one of them: F.root-servers.net. These measurements show an astounding number of bogus queries: from 60-85% of observed queries were

Nevil Brownlee; K. C. Claffy; E. Nemeth

2001-01-01

363

Nodulation of rooted leaves in leguminous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Root formation was obtained on the petioles of detached leaves of several leguminous plants, particularly on the primary leaves\\u000a of bean. Root formation is easily obtained in artificial light at a temperature of 22 to 24°C. In the greenhouse it is optimal\\u000a in early spring and late autumn. During hot summer seasons no roots but callus was formed on the

T. A. Lie

1971-01-01

364

Cluster Roots: A Curiosity in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster roots are an adaptation for nutrient acquisition from nutrient-poor soils. They develop on root systems of a range\\u000a of species belonging to a number of different families (e.g., Proteaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae) and are\\u000a also found on root systems of some crop species (e.g., albus, Macadamia integrifoliaandCucurbita pepo). Their morphology is variable but typically, large numbers of determinate

Michael W. Shane; Hans Lambers

2005-01-01

365

Riparian roots through time, space and disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian zones are landscape features adjacent to streams and are widely recognized as important in reducing erosion and filtering\\u000a groundwater. Few studies directly investigate rooting dynamics of riparian areas, and little information exists concerning\\u000a riparian root densities, biomass, depth profiles, changes through time, or vulnerability to disturbance. This study examined\\u000a spatial and temporal patterns in root systems in streamsides influenced

Darby K. Kiley; Rebecca L. Schneider

2005-01-01

366

Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.  

PubMed

Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge. PMID:23579914

Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

2013-01-01

367

A Consistent Test for a Unit Root  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates several U.S. macroeconomic time series for the presence of a unit root using a newly developed test. This test has stationarity as its null hypothesis, and the alternative is a unit-root process. The test is shown to be consistent, and its asymptotic null distribution is determined. Our findings contrast sharply with those obtained via the standard unit-root

S. J. Leybourne; B. P. M. McCabe

1994-01-01

368

Root selection methods in flood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1970s, de Laine developed a root-matching procedure for estimating unit hydrograph ordinates from estimates of the fast component of the total runoff from multiple storms. Later, Turner produced a root selection method which required only data from one storm event and was based on recognising a pattern typical of unit hydrograph roots. Both methods required direct runoff data, i.e. prior separation of the slow response. This paper introduces a further refinement, called root separation, which allows the estimation of both the unit hydrograph ordinates and the effective precipitation from the full discharge hydrograph. It is based on recognising and separating the quicker component of the response from the much slower components due to interflow and/or baseflow. The method analyses the z-transform roots of carefully selected segments of the full hydrograph. The root patterns of these separate segments tend to be dominated by either the fast response or the slow response. This paper shows how their respective time-scales can be distinguished with an accuracy sufficient for practical purposes. As an illustration, theoretical equations are derived for a conceptual rainfall-runoff system with the input split between fast and slow reservoirs in parallel. These are solved analytically to identify the reservoir constants and the input splitting parameter. The proposed method, called "root separation", avoids the subjective selection of rainfall roots in the Turner method as well as the subjective matching of roots in the original de Laine method.

Parmentier, Benoît; Dooge, James C. I.; Bruen, Michael

369

Maxillary first molar with two root canals.  

PubMed

Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. PMID:23862051

Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

2013-05-09

370

OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

371

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

1999-01-01

372

Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with\\/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development.

Ataru Higa; Erika Miyamoto; Laiq ur Rahman; Yoshie Kitamura

2008-01-01

373

Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.  

PubMed

Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants. PMID:23922705

Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

2013-07-26

374

Control of root size and root environment of fruit trees for optimal fruit production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development in technologies of irrigation and fertilization enable us to control root size and environment under field conditions. Low volume irrigation and fertilization affects root size and rate of rootlets production and consequently vegetative and reproductive processes of whole plants. The mechanisms involved seem to include growth regulators production at the root apexes and their translocation to the shoots.

Ben Ami Bravdo; I. Levin; R. Assaf

1992-01-01

375

The Root Cap Determines Ethylene-Dependent Growth and Development in Maize Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides providing protection against mechanical damage to the root tip, the root cap is involved in the per- ception and processing of diverse external and internal stimuli resulting in altered growth and development. The trans- duction of these stimuli includes hormonal signaling pathways such as those of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin. Here, we show that the root cap is essential

Achim Hahn; Roman Zimmermann; D. Wanke; K. Harter; Hans G. Edelmann

2008-01-01

376

Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

stand of alfalfa under irrigation extended to 2.5 m (Dud- ley et al., 1994). It may be advantageous for deep-rooted Accumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average salinity sustained crop production. Irrigation, even with moderately saline water, pushes accumulated salts deeper into the root zone, allowing of

Laura V. Vaughan; Jennifer W. MacAdam; Steven E. Smith; Lynn M. Dudley

2002-01-01

377

Root diversity in alpine plants: root length, tensile strength and plant age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high diversity of plant species and functional groups is hypothesised to increase the diversity of root types and their subsequent effects for soil stability. However, even basic data on root characteristics of alpine plants are very scarce. Therefore, we determined important root characteristics of 13 plant species from different functional groups, i.e. grasses, herbs and shrubs. We excavated the whole root systems of 62 plants from a machine-graded ski slope at 2625 m a.s.l. and analysed the rooting depth, the horizontal root extension, root length and diameter. Single roots of plant species were tested for tensile strength. The age of herbs and shrubs was determined by growth-ring analysis. Root characteristics varied considerably between both plant species and functional groups. The rooting depth of different species ranged from 7.2 ± 0.97 cm to 20.5 ± 2.33 cm, but was significantly larger in the herb Geum reptans (70.8 ± 10.75 cm). The woody species Salix breviserrata reached the highest horizontal root extensions (96.8 ± 25.5 cm). Most plants had their longest roots in fine diameter classes (0.5

Pohl, M.; Stroude, R.; Körner, C.; Buttler, A.; Rixen, C.

2009-04-01

378

Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And

A. Carminati; A. Moradi; S. Oswald; D. Vetterlein; U. Weller; H.-J. Vogel

2009-01-01

379

Relations between Roots and Coefficients of Cubic Equations with One Root Negative the Reciprocal of Another  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under predetermined conditions on the roots and coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions relating the coefficients of a given cubic equation x[cubed] + ax[squared] + bx + c = 0 can be established so that the roots possess desired properties. In this note, the condition for one root of a cubic equation to be "the negative reciprocal of…

Asiru, M. A.

2007-01-01

380

Root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots of Eastern United States oak species to Phytophthora ramorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about root susceptibility of eastern U.S. tree species to Phytophthora ramorum. In this study, we examined root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots. Sprouted acorns of Q. rubra, Q. palustrus, Q. coccinia, Q. alba, Q. michauxii and Q. prinus were exposed to motile zoos...

381

Root isotropy and an evaluation of a method for measuring root distribution in soil trenches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of root length density (LV) with soil depth is tedious and laborious. Yet the information is necessary in order to model root nutrient uptake. Measuring the number of roots exiting the face of a soil trench is less laborious and has previously been shown to be five times faster than the soil core-break method. Based on geometric theory,

Isabel Lopez-Zamora; Newton Falcão; N. B. Comerford; N. F. Barros

2002-01-01

382

Dehydrocostus lactone is exuded from sunflower roots and stimulates germination of the root parasite Orobanche cumana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination of the obligate root parasites of the Orobanchaceae depends on the perception of chemical stimuli from host roots. Several compounds, collectively termed strigolactones, stimulate the germination of the various Orobanche species, but do not significantly elicit germination of Orobanche cumana, a specific parasite of sunflower.Phosphate starvation markedly decreased the stimulatory activity of sunflower root exudates toward O. cumana,

Daniel M. Joel; Swapan K. Chaudhuri; Dina Plakhine; Hammam Ziadna; John C. Steffens

2011-01-01

383

Simple method for C?labelling root material for use in root decomposition studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was devised in which plant roots can be easily and uniformly radiolabelled with C for use in soil decomposition studies. The roots were labelled from an exogenous sugar solution for a total period of 48 hours after which root decomposition studies could be performed. The method offers distinct advantages over the existing constant C?CO2 atmosphere labelling method.

D. L. Jones; P. R. Darrah

1994-01-01

384

Identification of rice root associated nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron reducing bacteria during root decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of O2 from roots of aquatic plants supports the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and of sulfide to sulfate in the rhizosphere, so that these electron acceptors may become available to the root microbial communities and affect their activity. We studied the composition of the bacterial community active in anoxically incubated rice roots by analysis of terminal restriction fragment

Daniel Scheid; Stephan Stubner; Ralf Conrad

2004-01-01

385

Inhibition of Auxin Movement from the Shoot into the Root Inhibits Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been re- ported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and trans- ported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at

Robyn C. Reed; Shari R. Brady; Gloria K. Muda

1998-01-01

386

Density-dependent root morphology and root distribution in the submerged plant Vallisneria natans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root morphology, root distribution and biomass allocation in relation to plant nutrient concentration were investigated in the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans, growing on two types of sediment (clay and a mixture of sandy loam and clay) with three kinds of initial density (290, 650 and 1300plantsm?2). Both initial density and sediment type had significant impacts on biomass accumulation, root morphology,

Yonghong Xie; Shuqing An; Bofeng Wu; Wenwen Wang

2006-01-01

387

A new Approach for Quantifying Root-Reinforcement of Streambanks: the RipRoot Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian vegetation plays an important role in controlling geotechnical and fluvial processes acting along and within streambanks through the binding effects of roots. Quantification of this mechanical effect is therefore essential to accurately model streambank stability. Until now, most attempts to include the effects of root reinforcement by riparian vegetation have used root-cohesion values estimated using the Wu et al.

N. L. Pollen; A. Simon

2003-01-01

388

Length of the apical unbranched zone of maize axile roots: Its relationship to root elongation rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length of the apical unbranched zone was studied in maize axile roots. Plants were grown in an aeroponic growth chamber allowing direct measurements on individual axile roots. The total length of the roots and the length of the apical unbranched zone were measured regularly. A commonly accepted hypothesis, according to which laterals emerge at a constant distance behind the

Sylvain Pellerin; Florence Tabourel

1995-01-01

389

Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

2010-09-01

390

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-05-02

391

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

392

Coupling root architecture and pore network modeling - an attempt towards better understanding root-soil interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding root-soil interactions is of high importance for environmental and agricultural management. Root uptake is an essential component in water and solute transport modeling. The amount of groundwater recharge and solute leaching significantly depends on the demand based plant extraction via its root system. Plant uptake however not only responds to the potential demand, but in most situations is limited by supply form the soil. The ability of the plant to access water and solutes in the soil is governed mainly by root distribution. Particularly under conditions of heterogeneous distribution of water and solutes in the soil, it is essential to capture the interaction between soil and roots. Root architecture models allow studying plant uptake from soil by describing growth and branching of root axes in the soil. Currently root architecture models are able to respond dynamically to water and nutrient distribution in the soil by directed growth (tropism), modified branching and enhanced exudation. The porous soil medium as rooting environment in these models is generally described by classical macroscopic water retention and sorption models, average over the pore scale. In our opinion this simplified description of the root growth medium implies several shortcomings for better understanding root-soil interactions: (i) It is well known that roots grow preferentially in preexisting pores, particularly in more rigid/dry soil. Thus the pore network contributes to the architectural form of the root system; (ii) roots themselves can influence the pore network by creating preferential flow paths (biopores) which are an essential element of structural porosity with strong impact on transport processes; (iii) plant uptake depend on both the spatial location of water/solutes in the pore network as well as the spatial distribution of roots. We therefore consider that for advancing our understanding in root-soil interactions, we need not only to extend our root models, but also improve the description of the rooting environment. Until now there have been no attempts to couple root architecture and pore network models. In our work we present a first attempt to join both types of models using the root architecture model of Leitner et al., (2010) and a pore network model presented by Raoof et al. (2010). The two main objectives of coupling both models are: (i) Representing the effect of root induced biopores on flow and transport processes: For this purpose a fixed root architecture created by the root model is superimposed as a secondary root induced pore network to the primary soil network, thus influencing the final pore topology in the network generation. (ii) Representing the influence of pre-existing pores on root branching: Using a given network of (rigid) pores, the root architecture model allocates its root axes into these preexisting pores as preferential growth paths with thereby shape the final root architecture. The main objective of our study is to reveal the potential of using a pore scale description of the plant growth medium for an improved representation of interaction processes at the interface of root and soil. References Raoof, A., Hassanizadeh, S.M. 2010. A New Method for Generating Pore-Network Models. Transp. Porous Med. 81, 391-407. Leitner, D, Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, S. 2010. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Tropisms and coupling to nutrient uptake from soil. Plant Soil 332, 177-192.

Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Raoof, Amir

2013-04-01

393

Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is char- acterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants. Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes

Zhi-Bi Hu

394

Chloroplast development in isolated roots of Convolvulus arvensis (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of chloroplast development is described for isolated roots of Convolvulus arvensis. Stages in the transition from the leucoplast, characteristic of dark-grown roots, to the chloroplast, found in light-grown roots, are defined and related to chlorophyll content of the root tissue. The interdependence of tissue type and organellogenesis has been investigated for three tissues in the primary root:

Jane Heltne; Howard T. Bonnett

1970-01-01

395

Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and evolution of cratonic roots has been debated for many years. Precambrian cratons are underlain by cold lithospheric roots that are chemically depleted. Thermal and petrologic data indicate that Archean roots are colder and more chemically depleted than Proterozoic roots. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the degree of depletion in a lithospheric root depends mostly

Mikhail K. Kaban; Peter Schwintzer; Irina M. Artemieva; Walter D. Mooney

2003-01-01

396

Influence of Environmental Variability on Root Dynamics in Northern Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant root systems are highly dynamic over various temporal and spatial scales, and are responsive to changes in environmental conditions. The objective of this review is to describe the dynamics of root structure and function in boreal and northern temperate forests and examine how edaphic and climatic characteristics and intra- and interspecific root competition impact root dynamics. Fine roots exhibit

Brian W. Brassard; Han Y. H. Chen; Yves Bergeron

2009-01-01

397

Simulation of root development based on the dielectric breakdown model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the root distribution in soil is essential for estimating water uptake by plant roots. It is difficult, however, to characterize and model undisturbed root systems. Root development in a two-dimensional potential field is simulated with the dielectric breakdown model (DBM), which implies a similarity between electric discharge and root distribution. A weighted potential gradient with an exponent rj was

O. HIROTA

1999-01-01

398

Simulation of root development based on the dielectric breakdown model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the root distribution in soil is essential for estimating water uptake by plant roots. It is difficult, however, to characterize and model undisturbed root systems. Root development in a two-dimensional potential field is simulated with the dielectric breakdown model (DBM), which implies a similarity between electric discharge and root distribution. A weighted potential gradient with an exponent ? was

J. CHIKUSHI; O. HIROTA

1998-01-01

399

Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an introduction to unit root econometrics as applied in macroeconomics. The paper first discusses univariate time series analysis, emphasizing the following topics: alternative representations of unit root processes, unit root testing procedures, the power of unit root tests, and the interpretation of unit root econometrics in finite samples. A second part of the paper tackles similar issues

John Y. Campbell; Pierre Perron

1991-01-01

400

PARTIALLY LINEAR MODELS WITH UNIT ROOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the asymptotic properties of a nonstationary partially linear regression model. In particular, we allow for covariates to enter the unit root (or near unit root) model in a nonparametric fashion, so that our model is an extension of the semiparametric model analyzed in Robinson (1988, Econometrica 56, 931 954). It is proved that the autoregressive parameter can

Ted Juhl; Zhijie Xiao

2005-01-01

401

Root and stem partitioning of Pinus taeda  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured root and stem mass at three sites (Piedmont (P), Coastal Plain (C), and Sandhills (S)) in the southeastern United States. Stand density, soil texture and drainage, genetic makeup and environmental conditions varied with site while differences in tree size at each site were induced with fertilizer additions. Across sites, root mass was about one half of stem mass

Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Lance W. Kress

2006-01-01

402

Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development  

PubMed Central

Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS cells are attached to the surface of the cementum, and others separate to become the epithelial rest of Malasez. HERS cells secrete extracellular matrix components onto the surface of the dentin before dental follicle cells penetrate the HERS network to contact dentin. HERS cells also participate in the cementum development and may differentiate into cementocytes. During root development, the HERS is not interrupted, and instead the HERS cells continue to communicate with each other through the network structure. Furthermore, HERS cells interact with cranial neural crest derived mesenchyme to guide root development. Taken together, the network of HERS cells is crucial for tooth root development.

Huang, Xiaofeng; Bringas, Pablo; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang

2009-01-01

403

Affine root systems and dual numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The root systems in Carroll spaces with degenerate metric are defined. It is shown that their Cartan matrices and reflection groups are affine. Due to the geometric consideration the root system structure of affine algebras is determined by a sufficiently simple algorithm.

Kostyakov, I. V.; Gromov, N. A.; Kuratov, V. V.

404

On affine extension of splint root systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splint of root system of simple Lie algebra appears naturally in the study of (regular) embeddings of reductive subalgebras. It can be used to derive branching rules. Application of splint properties drastically simplifies calculations of branching coefficients. We study affine extension of splint root system of simple Lie algebra and obtain relations on theta and branching functions.

Lyakhovsky, V. D.; Nazarov, A. A.

2012-09-01

405

Promotion of root elongation by phosphorus deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decrease of culture solution pH and increase in cation\\/anion ratio in the plant were observed when horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) was grown in solution culture deficient in phosphorus. The effux of H+ from the roots of ?P plants was observed in bromocresol purple agar. The length of root cells was considerably increased by ?P treatment. Thus a close correlation

M. Anuradha; A. Narayanan

1991-01-01

406

2001 NORTH AMERICAN ROOT WEEVIL WORKSHOP PREFACE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The First North American Root Weevil Workshop was held at the Oregon State University North Willamette Research and Extension Center in Aurora, Oregon, November 1-2, 2001. The participants discussed a range of topics about root weevil biology, detection, and monitoring, as well as the population dy...

407

Improving safety through root cause analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operations at the US Department of Energy -- Savannah River Site (SRS) include such diverse facilities as reactors, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, coal burning power houses, analytical laboratories and research facilities. To enhance the safety of operations at SRS, a Root Cause Analysis process has been developed and is discussed in this document. Root Cause Analysis is a three-step process

J. L. Gatlin; K. Taylor

1991-01-01

408

Competition for Nutrients and Optimal Root Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allocation of resources among roots and shoots represents the largest flux of resources within a plant and therefore should have been selected to maximize benefits to plants. Yet, it is unclear why some species like temperate grasses have such high root length density (RLD). Either the slow rate of diffusion of inorganic N in soils or interplant competition could

Joseph M. Craine

2006-01-01

409

Localised ABA signalling mediates root growth plasticity  

PubMed Central

Two recent reports show that cellular abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, together with other phytohormone signalling pathways, is crucial for salt-regulated root growth dynamics. Here we discuss these findings and place them in a broader framework on how cellular hormone signalling regulates root growth plasticity in response to environmental cues.

Ding, Zhaojun; De Smet, Ive

2013-01-01

410

Boron Uptake by Excised Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

At 2 C, all boron accumulated by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta) remains in the free space; i.e. active uptake is nil at this temperature. Three component fractions of free space B were apparent: (a) a surface contaminant film of B on blotted roots, (b) water free space B, and (c) B reversibly bound in the cell walls. A stoichiometric release of H+ from the roots in the presence of B indicated that B was bound by borate complexes with polysaccharides in the cell walls. Polysaccharide-borate complexes are much less stable than those of monosaccharides, and the bound B fraction could be readily removed by rinsing the roots in the presence of a monomeric polyol possessing the necessary cis-diol configuration. Cell wall material separated from excised barley roots had a B binding capacity 66% greater than that of intact roots. A 30-minute rinse in distilled H2O or 0.5 mm CaSO4 was required to remove all cell wall-bound B from the roots after a 30-minute uptake period. Thus, although B in the contaminant surface film and the water free space is rinsed from the roots within 10 minutes, a 30-minute rinse is essential if all reversibly accumulated B is to be removed from the free space.

Bowen, John E.; Nissen, Per

1976-01-01

411

Soil organic matter mobilization by root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the different soil organic matter mobilisation by agrarian (Zeamais: cultivars Paolo and Sandek) and forest (Picea abies Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.) root exudates, three different soils (Dystric Spodic Cambisol – S1, Haplic Luvisol – S2 and Calcaric Cambisol – S3) have been considered. Treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates, soil organic

S Nardi; G Concheri; D Pizzeghello; A Sturaro; R Rella; G Parvoli

2000-01-01

412

Seasonal unit root characteristics of disaggregated output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests for unit roots and cointegration have been extended to enable tests for seasonal units and more importantly tests for seasonal cointegration between series with common seasonals. To this end seasonal unit root tests are applied to unadjusted New Zealand GDP data and its disaggregated components. These, tests reveal that while aggregate GDP clearly exhibits a constant seasonal pattern a

R. Stuart McDougall

1996-01-01

413

Sheaths of the spinal nerve roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the permeability of normal spinal nerve root sheaths around dorsal and ventral roots in the rat. In vivo studies were performed using Evans bluealbumin and lanthanum chloride as tracers. The Evans blue-albumin complex is macromolecular in size and lanthanum ions are small and easily visible in the electron microscope. Both tracers were

C. Å. V. Pettersson

1993-01-01

414

Banana root and soil health project - Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banana plant forms an adventitious root system that is dependent on soil physical, chemical and biological properties to function efficiently. A pot experiment demonstrated that increasing soil compaction was able to significantly reduce the weight of banana roots and shoots. However, in the presence of Radopholus similis the effects of soil compaction were obscured, due to the significant reduction

Tony Pattison; Linda Smith; Philip Moody; John Armour; Kim Badcock; Jenny Cobon; Velupillai Rasiah; Stewart Lindsay

415

Rooting Ability of Redberry Juniper Sprouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.; Cupressaceae) sprout rooting ability was evaluated following their mechanical dislodgement from the shrub bases of a random sample of a Rolling Plains population. The objectives of the evaluation were to determine if dislodged sprouts are capable of producing adventitious roots and establishing as individual plants. Twenty-five sprouting shrubs were slashed then top removed with chain

Yvonne Warren; Carlton Britton

416

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether

T. C. Hales; C. R. Ford; T. Hwang; J. M. Vose; L. E. Band

2009-01-01

417

Laminated Root Rot in Western North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gib., is a serious root disease affecting Douglas-fir and other commercially important species of conifers in northwestern North America. This report gives an overview of the disease as it occurs in t...

W. G. Thies R. N. Sturrock

1995-01-01

418

Root Coverage Technique with Enamel Matrix Derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various periodontal plastic surgical techniques are employed in obtaining root coverage. Recently, the use of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been reported in such treatment. We report 2 cases of root coverage surgery with a coronally positioned flap in combination with EMD (CPFEMD) and connective tissue graft in combination with EMD (CTGEMD). Case 1: The patient was a 25-year-old

Takafumi Moriyama; Shinya Matsumoto; Takemi Makiishi

2009-01-01

419

Localised ABA signalling mediates root growth plasticity.  

PubMed

Two recent reports show that cellular abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, together with other phytohormone signalling pathways, is crucial for salt-regulated root growth dynamics. Here we discuss these findings and place them in a broader framework on how cellular hormone signalling regulates root growth plasticity in response to environmental cues. PMID:24035235

Ding, Zhaojun; De Smet, Ive

2013-09-11

420

ADVANCING FINE ROOT RESEARCH WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, it is clear from the literature that there is still wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhi...

421

Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required. PMID:9242125

Love, R M

1996-08-01

422

An Apomixis-Gene’s View on Dandelions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In asexual organisms, the clone constitutes a level above the individual. Most dandelions (Taraxacum officinale\\u000a s.l.) reproduce asexually through apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds. A clone can be seen as a superorganism that is\\u000a born, that growths, degenerates and eventually dies. Apomixis in dandelions is controlled by a few dominant genes, the so\\u000a called apomixis-genes. This implies that there should

Peter Van Dijk; Hans de Jong; Kitty Vijverberg; Arjen Biere

2010-01-01

423

Evidence for gibberellin-like substances in phloem exudate of higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of sieve-tube sap were obtained as honeydew from aphids feeding on three species of higher plants. The honeydew was extracted, chromatographed and tested in several bioassays for the presence of gibberellin-like substances. The bioassay results indicated that gibberellin-like substances were translocated in the phloem of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), broad bean (Vicia faba) and willow (Salix viminalis). Results obtained with

G. V. Hoad; M. R. Bowen

1968-01-01

424

Anthocyanin-producing dandelion callus as a chalcone synthase source in recombinant polyketide reductase assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple-coloured dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) callus cultures producing anthocyanin pigments were established on a cytokinin-rich medium under the light. When the cells were placed in the dark, only grey cells proliferated. Anthocyanin productivity of these cells was partially restored in the light. The major pigment was identified as cyanidin 3-(6?-malonylglucoside). The lower stem of the original plant contained the same pigment.

Tomoyoshi Akashi; Norio Saito; Hiroshi Hirota; Shin-Ichi Ayabe

1997-01-01

425

Alien dandelion reduces the seed-set of a native congener through frequency-dependent and one-sided effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conservation biology, increasing numbers of studies have focused on reproductive interference (RI) between a native species\\u000a and related aliens. However, few studies have examined the frequency dependence of RI, despite of its key importance to invasiveness.\\u000a Here, we report for the first time frequency-dependent RI in a pair of native and alien dandelions: Taraxacum japonicum and T. officinale, respectively.

Koh-Ichi Takakura; Takayoshi Nishida; Takashi Matsumoto; Sachiko Nishida

2009-01-01

426

Root hair-specific expansins modulate root hair elongation in rice.  

PubMed

Root hair growth requires intensive cell-wall modification. This study demonstrates that root hair-specific expansin?As, a sub-clade of the cell wall-loosening expansin proteins, are required for root hair elongation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). We identified a gene encoding EXPA17 (OsEXPA17) from a rice mutant with short root hairs. Promoter::reporter transgenic lines exhibited exclusive OsEXPA17 expression in root hair cells. The OsEXPA17 mutant protein (OsexpA17) contained a point mutation, causing a change in the amino acid sequence (Gly104?Arg). This amino acid alteration is predicted to disrupt a highly conserved disulfide bond in the mutant. Suppression of OsEXPA17 by RNA interference further confirmed requirement for the gene in root hair elongation. Complementation of the OsEXPA17 mutant with other root hair EXPAs (OsEXPA30 and Arabidopsis EXPA7) can restore root hair elongation, indicating functional conservation of these root hair EXPAs in monocots and dicots. These results demonstrate that members of the root hair EXPA sub-clade play a crucial role in root hair cell elongation in Graminaceae. PMID:21309868

ZhiMing, Yu; Bo, Kang; XiaoWei, He; ShaoLei, Lv; YouHuang, Bai; WoNa, Ding; Ming, Chen; Hyung-Taeg, Cho; Ping, Wu

2011-03-21

427

Effect of partial root excision on transpiration, root hydraulic conductance and leaf growth in wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

Removal of four out of five roots did not lower transpiration and stomatal conductivity of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) seedlings. Water content of mature expanded leaf lamina remained constant at control levels. The results suggest that the only remaining root was capable to supply the shoot with water. This was evidenced by an increase in hydraulic conductivity of the root system following partial root excision measured at low subatmospheric pressures induced by vacuum. In the absence of a hydrostatic gradient, water flow from reduced root system was initially not higher than from an intact system, but increased subsequently. ABA content was increased in roots 1 h after partial root excision, which might contribute to the increase in hydraulic conductivity. PMID:15051049

Vysotskaya, Lidia B; Arkhipova, Tatyana N; Timergalina, Leila N; Dedov, Aleksandr V; Veselov, Stanislav Yu; Kudoyarova, Guzel R

2004-03-01

428

Variation of the Linkage of Root Function with Root Branch Order  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence has shown strong linkage of root function with root branch order. However, it is not known whether this linkage is consistent in different species. Here, root anatomic traits of the first five branch order were examined in five species differing in plant phylogeny and growth form in tropical and subtropical forests of south China. In Paramichelia baillonii, one tree species in Magnoliaceae, the intact cortex as well as mycorrhizal colonization existed even in the fifth-order root suggesting the preservation of absorption function in the higher-order roots. In contrast, dramatic decreases of cortex thickness and mycorrhizal colonization were observed from lower- to higher-order roots in three other tree species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Acacia auriculiformis and Gordonia axillaries, which indicate the loss of absorption function. In a fern, Dicranopteris dichotoma, there were several cortex layers with prominently thickened cell wall and no mycorrhizal colonization in the third- and fourth-order roots, also demonstrating the loss of absorptive function in higher-order roots. Cluster analysis using these anatomic traits showed a different classification of root branch order in P. baillonii from other four species. As for the conduit diameter-density relationship in higher-order roots, the mechanism underpinning this relationship in P. baillonii was different from that in other species. In lower-order roots, different patterns of coefficient of variance for conduit diameter and density provided further evidence for the two types of linkage of root function with root branch order. These linkages corresponding to two types of ephemeral root modules have important implication in the prediction of terrestrial carbon cycling, although we caution that this study was pseudo-replicated. Future studies by sampling more species can test the generality of these two types of linkage.

Chen, Zhengxia; Zeng, Hui

2013-01-01

429

Auxin-induced inhibition of lateral root initiation contributes to root system shaping in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The hormone auxin is known to inhibit root elongation and to promote initiation of lateral roots. Here we report complex effects of auxin on lateral root initiation in roots showing reduced cell elongation after auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the promotion of lateral root initiation by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was reduced as the IAA concentration was increased in the nanomolar range, and IAA became inhibitory at 25 nM. Detection of this unexpected inhibitory effect required evaluation of root portions that had newly formed during treatment, separately from root portions that existed prior to treatment. Lateral root initiation was also reduced in the iaaM-OX Arabidopsis line, which has an endogenously increased IAA level. The ethylene signaling mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3, the auxin transport mutants aux1-7 and eir1/pin2, and the auxin perception/response mutant tir1-1 were resistant to the inhibitory effect of IAA on lateral root initiation, consistent with a requirement for intact ethylene signaling, auxin transport and auxin perception/response for this effect. The pericycle cell length was less dramatically reduced than cortical cell length, suggesting that a reduction in the pericycle cell number relative to the cortex could occur with the increase of the IAA level. Expression of the DR5:GUS auxin reporter was also less effectively induced, and the AXR3 auxin repressor protein was less effectively eliminated in such root portions, suggesting that decreased auxin responsiveness may accompany the inhibition. Our study highlights a connection between auxin-regulated inhibition of parent root elongation and a decrease in lateral root initiation. This may be required to regulate the spacing of lateral roots and optimize root architecture to environmental demands. PMID:21105922

Ivanchenko, Maria G; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

2010-10-15

430

An inexpensive rhizotron design for two-dimensional, horizontal root ...  

Treesearch

Title: An inexpensive rhizotron design for two-dimensional, horizontal root ... that supports two-dimensional, horizontal root growth measurements over time ... and (3) acquiring novel rooting data that can be input to a plant growth model.

431

76 FR 51430 - Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Revocation of Registration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug Enforcement Administration Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Revocation of Registration...issued an Order to Show Cause to Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Registrant), of American...Registration BR9610571, issued to Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc., be, and it hereby...

2011-08-18

432

7 CFR 318.13-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nipple fruits (Solanum mamosum). Gardenia (cut blooms). Ginger bracts (Zingiber mioga). Ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis). Jesuit's nut (Trapa bicornis, T. natans). Kudzu...

2009-01-01

433

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

2012-01-01

434

Infection of Narcissus Roots by Aphelenchoides subtenuis  

PubMed Central

The widespread destruction of commercially grown bulbs of Narcissus tazetta papyraceus (Paper White) has been reported in Israel. This phenomenon is usually characterized by a premature yellowing of the foliage, accompanied by root rot and dark, sunken basal plates. This study confirmed thatAphelenchoides subtenuis is the main cause of the basal plate disease of Narcissus. In contrast to other Aphelenchoides species, which feed on stems or leaves, A. subtenuis penetrates Narcissus roots. In our experiments, in winter (6 to 8 weeks after penetration), nematodes laid their eggs in the root parenchymal cells without inducing obvious symptoms on foliage or roots. Toward spring, juveniles became numerous throughout the parenchymal cells of the root cortex. Consequently, the root system collapsed rapidly, at the usual peak of bulb and foliage production. Bulbs of infected plants were small and weighed less than those of uninfected plants, and foliage became necrotic prematurely. At that time, in field conditions, secondary elements like Fusarium penetrate the bulb and cause it to rot, given this syndrome the common name of basal plate disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Aphelenchoides species as a root pathogen.

Mor, M.; Spiegel, Y.

1993-01-01

435

Infection of Narcissus Roots by Aphelenchoides subtenuis.  

PubMed

The widespread destruction of commercially grown bulbs of Narcissus tazetta papyraceus (Paper White) has been reported in Israel. This phenomenon is usually characterized by a premature yellowing of the foliage, accompanied by root rot and dark, sunken basal plates. This study confirmed thatAphelenchoides subtenuis is the main cause of the basal plate disease of Narcissus. In contrast to other Aphelenchoides species, which feed on stems or leaves, A. subtenuis penetrates Narcissus roots. In our experiments, in winter (6 to 8 weeks after penetration), nematodes laid their eggs in the root parenchymal cells without inducing obvious symptoms on foliage or roots. Toward spring, juveniles became numerous throughout the parenchymal cells of the root cortex. Consequently, the root system collapsed rapidly, at the usual peak of bulb and foliage production. Bulbs of infected plants were small and weighed less than those of uninfected plants, and foliage became necrotic prematurely. At that time, in field conditions, secondary elements like Fusarium penetrate the bulb and cause it to rot, given this syndrome the common name of basal plate disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Aphelenchoides species as a root pathogen. PMID:19279798

Mor, M; Spiegel, Y

1993-09-01

436

Scalable encryption using alpha rooting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.

Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.

2008-05-01

437

Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.  

PubMed

Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction. PMID:23299674

Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

2013-01-01

438

Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture  

PubMed Central

Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants.

Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

2013-01-01

439

Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. Methods The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Key Results Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. Conclusions The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

Ilina, Elena L.; Logachov, Anton A.; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P.; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N.

2012-01-01

440

Estimating root respiration, microbial respiration in the rhizosphere, and root-free soil respiration in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that respiration measurements made using both the basal and excised-root respiration methods would allow us to quantify three important components of soil respiration: root respiration (Rroot), microbial respiration in the rhizosphere (Rrhizo), and root-free soil respiration (Rrfs). Root respiration determined by the basal method was approximately one-third greater than root respiration determined by the excised-root method (52 versus

Daniel L Kelting; James A Burger; Gerry S Edwards

1998-01-01

441

The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum.  

PubMed

A contribution of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on inhabiting the 5-HT3 receptor complex had been shown. In the present study a possible interaction of some compounds of the volatile oil with the 5-HT3 receptor system expressed in N1E-115 cells and with the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum was investigated. The volatile oil was obtained by steam distillation and fractionated using a silica gel column resulting in five fractions. Compounds of the fractions were identified by GC-MS. The influence of the volatile oil, its fractions and pure components on serotonin-induced [14C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells was measured indicating the inhibitory interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor channel system. Most potent inhibitors of cation influx were the volatile oil, fraction 4, beta-pinene, terpinolene, alpha-copaene and alpha-phellandrene. The volatile oil and fractions 1 and 4 were not able to significantly influence either serotonin (10 microM)-induced maximum contraction of the rat ileum or the second phase of the biphasic contraction 2.5 min after serotonin addition. However, beta-pinene, terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene reduced both contractions. In conclusion, the volatile oil and distinct compounds such as terpinolene, beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene interact with 5-HT3 receptor channel system and possess an antispasmodic effect at the rat ileum. PMID:17511060

Riyazi, A; Hensel, A; Bauer, K; Geissler, N; Schaaf, S; Verspohl, E J

2007-04-01

442

Rapid analysis of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. by improved solvent-free microwave extraction with three types of microwave-absorption medium.  

PubMed

A new method of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials has been studied. By adding a microwave-absorption medium (MAM) to a reactor, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was improved and can be used to extract essential oils from dried plant material without pretreatment. With a microwave irradiation power of 85 W it took only approximately 30 min to extract the essential oils completely. The whole extraction process is simple, rapid, and economical. Three types of MAM, iron carbonyl powder (ICP), graphite powder (GP), and activated carbon powder (ACP), and two types of dried plant material, Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc., were studied. The results were compared with those obtained by use of conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), and the conclusion drawn was that improved SFME was a feasible means of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials, because there were few differences between the composition of the essential oils extracted by improved SFME and by the other methods. PMID:17047940

Wang, Ziming; Wang, Lu; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Lan; Yu, Yong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi

2006-09-19

443

Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system  

PubMed Central

The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (AL:AR). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (AR) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (gs) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (kr) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (?L) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (–0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (–1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately –0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by –0.15 MPa (–1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at –1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, gs of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35–20 mmol vine?1 s?1 during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (kr) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa?1 s?1 during that same time period. The changes in kr could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root segments. Thus, the manner in which drought tolerance was conveyed to the drought-sensitive clone appeared to arise from deep root proliferation during the hottest and driest part of the season, rather than through changes in xylem structure, xylem density or stomatal regulation. This information can be useful to growers on a site-specific basis in selecting rootstocks for grape clonal material (scions) grafted to them.

Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R.; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

2011-01-01

444

Modulation of root branching by a coumarin derivative  

PubMed Central

A healthy root system is crucial to plant growth and survival. To maintain efficiency of root function, plants have to dynamically modulate root system architecture through various adaptive mechanisms such as lateral root formation to respond to a changing and diversified soil environment. Exogenous application of a coumarin derivative, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), in Arabidopsis thaliana inhibits seed germination by mainly reducing primary root growth. UDP-glycosyltransferases play an integral role in the biochemical mechanism of 4-MU detoxification in plant roots.1 However, 4-MU treatment also dramatically led to increased lateral root initiation, elongation and density. Moreover, marked root bending at the root-hypocotyl junction and auxin redistribution appeared to contribute to the 4-MU-mediated lateral root formation. We propose that 4-MU would serve as a useful chemical tool to study auxin-mediated root branching.

Li, Xiang; Gao, Ming-Jun

2011-01-01

445

Building and tracking root shapes.  

PubMed

An algorithm aiming at robust and simultaneous registrations of a sequence of 3-D shapes was recently presented by Jacq et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 55, no. 5, 2008]. This algorithm has to carry out an implicit representation of their common root shape (RS). A particular emphasis was put on the median consensus shape, which is a specific type of RS. Unlike this previous study, mainly focusing on the algorithm foundations while dealing with very specific applications examples, this paper attempts to show the versatility of the RS concept through a set of three problems involving a wider scope of application. The first problem copes with the design of prosthetic cortical plates for the hip joint. It shows how an explicit reconstruction of the RS, coming with its consensus map, could bring out an intermediary anatomical support from which pragmatic choices could be made, thereby performing a tradeoff between morphological, surgical, and production considerations. The second problem addresses in vivo real-time shoulder biomechanics through a miniature 3-D video camera. This new protocol implicitly operates through RS tracking of the content of virtual spotlights. It is shown that the current medical-oriented protocol, while operating within expert offices through low-cost equipments, could challenge high-end professional equipments despite some limitations of the 3-D video cameras currently available. The last problem deals with respiratory motions. This is an auxiliary measurement required by some medical imaging systems that can be handled as a basic application case of the former new protocol. PMID:19457742

Jacq, Jean-José; Schwartz, Cédric; Burdin, Valérie; Gérard, Romain; Lefèvre, Christian; Roux, Christian; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

2009-05-19

446

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

447

Root apex transition zone as oscillatory zone.  

PubMed

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-10-02

448

Root Secretions and Growth of Tree Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of root secretions has been studied largely with relation to herbaceous vegetation; both negative and positive effects were pointed out. In silviculture considerable attention is being given to this problem in cultivating mixed plantations. Stu...

L. S. Saveleva T. L. Isaeva

1965-01-01

449

LCD Root Simulation and Analysis Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

M. Iwasaki

2001-01-01

450

LCD ROOT Simulation and Analysis Tools  

SciTech Connect

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

Iwasaki, Masako

2001-02-08

451

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

452

Hydraulic conductivity in roots of ponderosa pine infected with black-stain (Leptographium wageneri) or annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) root disease.  

PubMed

Roots from healthy and diseased mature ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., trees were excavated from a site near Burns, Oregon. The diseased trees were infected with black-stain root disease, Leptographium wageneri Kendrick, or annosus root disease, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., or both. Axial hydraulic conductivity of the roots was measured under a positive head pressure of 5 kPa, and the conducting area was stained with safranin dye to determine specific conductivity (k(s)). In diseased roots, only 8-12% of the cross-sectional xylem area conducted water. Resin-soaked xylem completely restricted water transport and accounted for 13-16% of the loss in conducting area. In roots with black-stain root disease, 17% of the loss in conducting area was associated with unstained xylem, possibly resulting from occlusions or embolisms. Based on the entire cross-sectional area of infected roots, the k(s) of roots infected with black-stain root disease was 4.6% of that for healthy roots, whereas the k(s) of roots infected with annosus root disease was 2.6% of that for healthy roots. Although these low values were partly the result of the presence of a large number of diseased roots (72%) with no conducting xylem, the k(s) of functional xylem of diseased roots was only 33% of that for healthy roots. The low k(s) values of functional xylem in diseased roots may be caused by fungus induced occlusions preceding cavitation and embolism of tracheids. The k(s) of disease-free roots from diseased trees was only 70% of that for healthy roots from healthy trees. The disease-free roots had the same mean tracheid diameter and tissue density as the healthy roots, suggesting that the lower k(s) in disease-free roots of diseased trees may also have been caused by partial xylary occlusions. PMID:12651373

Joseph, Gladwin; Kelsey, Rick G.; Thies, Walter G.

1998-05-01

453

Healing of root resorption: a case report.  

PubMed

External resorption is sequelae of necrotic periodontal membrane over a large area of root following an injury to the tooth. This usually occurs after severe dental injuries such as intrusion, severe luxations or exarticulation injuries complicated by a prolonged extra oral period. This case report presents a clinical and radiographic follow up (13 months) of treatment of inflammatory external root resorption on maxillary central incisor using Vitapex. Gradual healing of resorption was observed radiographically with no tenderness or pathological mobility. PMID:12739683

Bhat, Sham S; Sharan, S S; Madan, Imneet

2003-01-01

454

Mycorrhizae are present in cycad roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the roots ofZamia pumila andDioon edule. Seedlings were grown on native, unsterilized soil taken from local pinelands of south Florida, whereZ. pumila occurs naturally. Arbuscules, hyphae, hyphal coils, and vesicles occur in the parenchyma cells of the root cortex, especially\\u000a the half of the cortex next to the stele. Hyphae of the

Jack B. Fisher; Andrew P. Vovides

2004-01-01

455