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Sample records for taraxacum officinale root

  1. Characterisation of antimicrobial extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) using LC-SPE-NMR.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Brunton, N P; Walsh, D; Hewage, C M; McLoughlin, P; Smyth, T J

    2015-04-01

    Plant extracts have traditionally been used as sources of natural antimicrobial compounds, although in many cases, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial efficacy have not been identified. In this study, crude and dialysed extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The methanol hydrophobic crude extract (DRE3) demonstrated the strongest inhibition of microbial growth against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. Normal phase (NP) fractionation of DRE3 resulted in two fractions (NPF4 and NPF5) with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further NP fractionation of NPF4 resulted in two fractions (NPF403 and NPF406) with increased antimicrobial activity. Further isolation and characterisation of compounds in NPF406 using liquid chromatography solid phase extraction nuclear magnetic resonance LC-SPE-NMR resulted in the identification of 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, while the phenolic compounds vanillin, coniferaldehyde and p-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid were also identified respectively. The molecular mass of these compounds was confirmed by LC mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. In summary, the antimicrobial efficacy of dandelion root extracts demonstrated in this study support the use of dandelion root as a source of natural antimicrobial compounds. PMID:25644491

  2. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness

  3. Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Van den Ende, Wim; Michiels, An; Van Wonterghem, Dominik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Van Laere, André

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. Fructan concentrations, 1-SST activities, 1-SST protein, and mRNA concentrations were compared in different organs during vegetative and generative development of T. officinale plants. Expression of 1-SST was abundant in young roots but very low in leaves. 1-SST was also expressed at the flowering stages in roots, stalks, and receptacles. A good correlation was found between northern and western blots showing transcriptional regulation of 1-SST. At the pre-flowering stage, 1-SST mRNA concentrations and 1-SST activities were higher in the root phloem than in the xylem, resulting in the higher fructan concentrations in the phloem. Fructan localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in phloem parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements. However, inulin-like crystals occasionally appeared in xylem vessels. PMID:10806226

  4. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing

  5. Genotypic variation within asexual lineages of Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed Central

    King, L M; Schaal, B A

    1990-01-01

    Restriction site variation in DNA that encodes rRNA (rDNA) was surveyed among 714 offspring within 31 lineages (26 genotypes) of obligate asexually reproducing Taraxacum officinale (dandelions). Although clonal offspring are expected, plants with nonparental rDNA were produced from two parents that were themselves siblings (same genotype). The variation is best characterized by the loss of an EcoRI restriction site that maps to the spacer region in the parental rDNA and is most likely involved in amplification of rare or unique rDNA repeats. In one family, 41 surveyed offspring lacked the EcoRI site. In the other family, only 1 of 26 offspring lost the EcoRI site. Other classes of DNA surveyed, chloroplast DNA and the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene (Adh2), showed no variation. However, offspring with nonparental rDNA also had nonparental alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) restriction fragments. Because somatic mutations in plants can be incorporated into reproductive tissue, we propose that somatic events affecting at least both multicopy rDNA and DNA homologous to the maize Adh1 gene occurred at different developmental times in the two families. An event early in development would result in all variant offspring; an event late in development would result in a single variant offspring. These results support the view that mutation (in the broad sense) influences the level of genotypic variation in asexual organisms, which may facilitate adaptive evolution of asexual species. Images PMID:2300590

  6. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale

    PubMed Central

    de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

  7. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-08-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  9. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  10. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  11. METAL CONTENT OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES IN RELATION TO SOIL CONTAMINATION AND AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R826602)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this `species' a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its ...

  12. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  13. Metal contamination in urban street sediment in Pisa (Italy) can affect the production of antioxidant metabolites in Taraxacum officinale Weber.

    PubMed

    Bretzel, Francesca; Benvenuti, Stefano; Pistelli, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (dandelion) is a very ubiquitous species, and it can grow in urban environments on metal-polluted sediments deposited in the gutters. This study represents a preliminary step to verify the presence of metals in sediments collected in urban streets in Pisa and to assess the alteration in dandelion metabolites in order to understand its adaptation to polluted environments. The soil and sediments were collected at three urban streets and analyzed for total and extractable Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The total values of Pb and Zn in street sediments exceeded the limits for residential areas of soils. Zn was the most mobile of the metals analyzed. Floating cultivations trials were set up with dandelion seedlings and street sediments. The metals were analyzed in roots and leaves. Antioxidant power, anthocyanins, polyphenols, non-protein thiols (NP-TH) and chlorophylls were measured in dandelion leaves. The first two parameters (anthocyanins and antioxidant power) were higher in the polluted samples compared to the control; chlorophyll content was lower in the treated samples, whereas NP-TH showed no differences. NP-TH groups determined in roots were associated with the root content of Zn and Pb. These results indicate that dandelion can tolerate plant stress by altering its metabolite content. PMID:24062063

  14. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. PMID:25682510

  15. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin

    2014-03-15

    In the present study, we investigated the cellulase-assisted extraction and antibacterial activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from the dandelion Taraxacum officinale. The extraction conditions, optimized for improving yield, were as follows: time, 46.11 min; temperature, 54.87 °C; pH, 4.51 and cellulase enzyme, 4000 U/g. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides from dandelion (PD) reached 20.67% (w/w). The sugar content of PD was 95.6% (w/w), and it displayed high antibacterial activity at a concentration of 100mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that PD may be a viable option for use as a food preservative. PMID:24528711

  16. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2016-03-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases. PMID:25270677

  18. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čurlík, Ján; Kolesár, Martin; Ďurža, Ondrej; Hiller, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Contents of potentially toxic elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Mo were determined in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) to show their usefulness as bioindicators of geogenic soil pollution. Both plants were collected on geochemically anomalous soils developed on flysch sedimentary rocks (Paleogene) of Eastern Slovakia, which also are composed of weathered detritus of some ultramafic rocks. Generally, contents of the investigated association of potentially toxic elements are highly increased in these "serpentine"-like soils. Elevated concentrations were detected in both shoots and roots of the plants. The highest values, which exceed world average values for plants, were observed for Ni content. They ranged from 1.7 to 16.3 mg kg(-1) in dandelion and from 1.6 to 22.6 mg kg(-1) in agrimony. Essential elements, such as Mo, Cu, and Mn, were the most concentrated in plants, whereas Co, V, and Cr were the least concentrated. Although the bioindication value of the common dandelion for anthropogenic soil pollution is well known, it is not mentioned for agrimony in literature, and no data exist to indicate the geogenic pollution for both plants. Dandelion and agrimony are widely used as herbal drugs; therefore, our intention also was to point out another fact, namely, possible high uptake of potentially toxic elements by herbal plants growing on similar soils. PMID:26254898

  19. Reduction of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation by Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) extracts in 3T3L1 adipocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    González-Castejón, Marta; García-Carrasco, Belén; Fernández-Dacosta, Raquel; Dávalos, Alberto; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    In this in vitro study, we have investigated the ability of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HPLC analysis of the three plant extracts used in this study-leaf and root extracts and a commercial root powder-identified caffeic and chlorogenic acids as the main phenolic constituents. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride levels analysis showed decreased lipid and triglyceride accumulation, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT assay showing non-toxic effect among the concentrations tested. DNA microarray analysis showed that the extracts regulated the expression of a number of genes and long non-coding RNAs that play a major role in the control of adipogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the dandelion extracts used in this study may play a significant role during adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, and thus, supporting their therapeutic interest as potential candidates for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23956107

  20. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  1. Comparison of different methodologies for detailed screening of Taraxacum officinale honey volatiles.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kranjac, Marina; Radonić, Ani

    2015-02-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by GC-FID/MS were used for screening of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) honey headspace, volatiles and semi-volatiles. The obtained results constitute a breakthrough towards screening of dandelion honey since dominant compounds identified in the extracts were not previously reported for this honey type. Nitriles dominated in the headspace, particularly 3-methylpentanenitrile (up to 29.9%) and phenylacetonitrile (up to 20.9%). Lower methyl branched aliphatic acids and norisoprenoids were relevant minor constituents of the headspace. The extracts contained phenylacetic acid (up to 24.0%) and dehydrovomifoliol (up to 19.3%) as predominant compounds, while 3-methylpentanenitrile and phenylacetonitrile were detected in the extracts in minor abundance. Dehydrovomifoliol can be considered more characteristic for dandelion honey in distinction from phenylacetic acid. Low molecular aliphatic acids, benzene derivatives and an array of higher aliphatic compounds were also found in the extracts. The results of SPE/GC-FID/MS were very similar to USE/GC-FID/MS with the solvent dichloromethane. The use of all applied methodologies was relevant for the comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of dandelion honey volatiles. PMID:25920283

  2. Meiotic recombination in sexual diploid and apomictic triploid dandelions (Taraxacum officinale L.).

    PubMed

    van Baarlen, P; van Dijk, P J; Hoekstra, R F; de Jong, J H

    2000-10-01

    Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Previous studies have demonstrated unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation in the apomictic populations, suggesting the occurrence of genetic segregation in the apomicts and (or) hybridization between sexual and apomictic individuals. In this study we analysed meiosis in both sexual diploid and apomictic triploid plants to find mechanisms that could account for the high levels of genetic variation in the apomicts. Microscopic study of microsporocytes in the triploid apomicts revealed that the levels of chromosome pairing and chiasma formation at meiotic prophase I were lower than in that of the sexual diploids, but still sufficient to assume recombination between the homologues. Nomarski DIC (differential interference contrast) microscopy of optically cleared megasporocytes in the apomicts demonstrated incidental formation of tetrads, which suggests that hybridization can occur in triploid apomicts. PMID:11081973

  3. Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Gulfraz, Muhammad; Ahamd, Dawood; Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz; Qureshi, Rehmatullah; Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Jabeen, Nyla; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz

    2014-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale L is a medicinal plant, which has enormous medicinal values against various types of liver disorders and it has traditionally been used for the treatment of liver problems by people from the South East Asia. Previously we have screened the crude methanolic extract of T. officinale against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Present study was designed to compare the protective effect of ethanolic and n-hexane extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight) along with silymarin (100 mg/kg) a standard drug was administered to experimental animals. It was observed that ethanolic plant extract has significantly reduced the negative effect of CCl4 as compared to n-hexane extract and effect of extract was increased with increasing dose level. Although both leaf extracts decreased the concentration of TBARS, H2O2 and nitrite contents which enhance due to CCl4 toxicity but effect was higher in ethanolic extract. The results clearly indicated that Taraxacum officinale ethanolic leaves extract has better protective effect against CCl4 induced liver tissues toxicity. This claim was also supported by histopathological results obtained during this study and this might be due to presence of various polar phytochemicals that might be more prevent in this extract. PMID:25015447

  4. Novel proline-hydroxyproline glycopeptides from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) flowers: de novo sequencing and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, Alexandra A; Enyenihi, Atim A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Grishin, Eugene V; Odintsova, Tatyana I; Zubarev, Roman A; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2015-09-01

    Two novel homologous peptides named ToHyp1 and ToHyp2 that show no similarity to any known proteins were isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by multidimensional liquid chromatography. Amino acid and mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the peptides have unusual structure: they are cysteine-free, proline-hydroxyproline-rich and post-translationally glycosylated by pentoses, with 5 carbohydrates in ToHyp2 and 10 in ToHyp1. The ToHyp2 peptide with a monoisotopic molecular mass of 4350.3Da was completely sequenced by a combination of Edman degradation and de novo sequencing via top down multistage collision induced dissociation (CID) and higher energy dissociation (HCD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)). ToHyp2 consists of 35 amino acids, contains eighteen proline residues, of which 8 prolines are hydroxylated. The peptide displays antifungal activity and inhibits growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further showed that carbohydrate moieties have no significant impact on the peptide structure, but are important for antifungal activity although not absolutely necessary. The deglycosylated ToHyp2 peptide was less active against the susceptible fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana than the native peptide. Unique structural features of the ToHyp2 peptide place it into a new family of plant defense peptides. The discovery of ToHyp peptides in T. officinale flowers expands the repertoire of molecules of plant origin with practical applications. PMID:26259198

  5. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25647515

  6. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25636882

  7. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C. PMID:25666712

  8. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)κB, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

  9. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs. PMID:25049500

  10. The pattern of genetic variability in apomictic clones of Taraxacum officinale indicates the alternation of asexual and sexual histories of apomicts.

    PubMed

    Majeský, Luboš; Vašut, Radim J; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávníček, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

  11. The Pattern of Genetic Variability in Apomictic Clones of Taraxacum officinale Indicates the Alternation of Asexual and Sexual Histories of Apomicts

    PubMed Central

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Vašut, Radim J.; Kitner, Miloslav; Trávníček, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts. PMID:22870257

  12. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%. PMID:27319152

  13. Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

  14. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P < 0.001). Survival appeared related to the rate of reduction in the aw. The aw also influenced Salmonella survival during storage of ground ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger. PMID:26555517

  15. Isolation and Purification of Water Soluble Proteins from Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) by Two Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Sandovall, A.O.; Andrews, K.; Wahab, A.; Choudhary, M.I.; Ahmed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RI-INBRE Centralized Core Facility was established in 2003 and participates annually in Undergraduate Summer Research Program. It provides students hands on research experience in key technologies in biomedical sciences. We present here the isolation and purification of water soluble proteins from ginger, a rhizome of the plant, Zingiber officinale. It is an important ingredient of species used in traditional South Asian cuisines. In Indian, Pakistani and Chinese folk medicine, ginger is used for gastro-intestinal disorders, nausea, vomiting, inflammatory diseases, muscle and joint pain. Limited studies have been reported on the bioactive proteins from ginger extract. The water soluble proteins were extracted from ginger root and successfully purified to homogeneity by using two-dimensional liquid chromatography (FPLC/RP-HPLC) approach. The ginger root was washed with distilled water; skin removed and then emulsified using an electric blender. Sample was stirred for four days at 4°C with and without protease inhibitor. Purification of a 42kDa protein was achieved by employing gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed phase HPLC. The homogeneity of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Future work will be conducted on the protein characterization using mass spectrometry and Edman protein sequencing. Supported by grant 5P20GM103430 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH, USA.

  16. Identification of a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene highly expressed in the root tissue of Taraxacum kok-saghyz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kazak dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, Tk) is a rubber-producing plant currently being investigated as a source of natural rubber for industrial applications. Like many other isoprenoids, rubber is a downstream product of the mevalonate pathway. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) en...

  17. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  18. A below-ground herbivore shapes root defensive chemistry in natural plant populations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Bont, Zoe; Fricke, Julia; Brillatz, Théo; Aziz, Zohra; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-03-30

    Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below-ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over recent decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale field populations. By cultivating offspring of these populations, we show that both heritable variation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the production of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) is costly in the absence, but beneficial in the presence of M. melolontha, resulting in divergent selection of TA-G. Our results highlight the role of soil-dwelling insects for the evolution of plant defences in nature. PMID:27009228

  19. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale root extract and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Anbalagan, Krishnan; Manosathyadevan, Manoharan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Oh, Sae-Gang; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles with a particle size of 10-20 nm, using Zingiber officinale root extract as a reducing and capping agent. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) were mixed with Z. officinale root extract for the production of silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surface plasmon absorbance spectra of AgNPs and AuNPs were observed at 436-531 nm, respectively. Optimum nanoparticle production was achieved at pH 8 and 9, 1 mM metal ion, a reaction temperature 50 °C and reaction time of 150-180 min for AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) study provides proof for the purity of AgNPs and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images show the diameter of well-dispersed AgNPs (10-20 nm) and AuNPs (5-20 nm). The nanocrystalline phase of Ag and Au with FCC crystal structures have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the respective peaks for the potential biomolecules in the ginger rhizome extract, which are responsible for the reduction in metal ions and synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs showed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial food pathogens. PMID:24668029

  20. Biological feedstock development as part of the domestication and commercialization of Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a potential domestic source of natural rubber and inulin: progress and outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild-collected F0 seed was found to contain a mixture Taraxacum species (i.e., highly variable seedling phenotypes), a likely drag on TKS germplasm enhancement. Also, roots of unselected, wild-collected Taraxacum genotypes were found to contain, on average, 1.4 and 56.4 percent rubber and inulin, re...

  1. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G.; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  2. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  3. Polyphenoloxidase Silencing Affects Latex Coagulation in Taraxacum Species1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

  4. Streptosporangium jiaoheense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium taraxaci sp. nov., actinobacteria isolated from soil and dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Li, Zhilei; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Yao; Li, Jiansong; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T, were isolated from muddy soil collected from a riverbank in Jiaohe and a dandelion root collected from Harbin, respectively. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these two strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T indicated that strain NEAU-Jh1-4T clustered with Streptosporangium nanhuense NEAU-NH11T (99.32 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptosporangium purpuratum CY-15110T (98.30 %) and Streptosporangium yunnanense CY-11007T (97.95 %) and strain NEAU-Wp2-0T clustered with 'Streptosporangium sonchi  ' NEAU-QS7 (99.39 %), 'Streptosporangium kronopolitis' NEAU-ML10 (99.26 %), 'Streptosporangium shengliense' NEAU-GH7 (98.85 %) and Streptosporangium longisporum DSM 43180T (98.69 %). Moreover, morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the two isolates also confirmed their affiliation to the genus Streptosporangium. However, the low level of DNA-DNA hybridization and some phenotypic characteristics allowed the isolates to be differentiated from the most closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-Jh1-4T and NEAU-Wp2-0T represent two novel species of the genus Streptosporangium, for which the name Streptosporangium jiaoheense sp. nov. and Streptosporangium taraxaci sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-Jh1-4T (=CGMCC 4.7213T=JCM 30348T) and NEAU-Wp2-0T (=CGMCC 4.7217T=JCM 30349T), respectively. PMID:27031531

  5. The effect of five Taraxacum species on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Mingarro, D Muñoz; Plaza, A; Galán, A; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M P; Acero, N

    2015-08-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Taraxacum are considered a nutritious food, being consumed raw or cooked. Additionally, these plants have long been used in folk medicine due to their choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This genus, with its complex taxonomy, includes several species that are difficult to distinguish. Its traditional use must be related not only to T. officinale F.H. Wigg., the most studied species, but also to others. The aim of this work is to compare five different common South European species of Taraxacum (T. obovatum (Willd.) DC., T. marginellum H. Lindb., T. hispanicum H. Lindb., T. lambinonii Soest and T. lacistrum Sahlin), in order to find differences between antioxidant and cytotoxic activities among them. Dissimilarities between species in LC/MS patterns, in in vitro and intracellular antioxidant activity and also in the cytotoxicity assay were found. T. marginellum was the most efficient extract reducing intracellular ROS levels although in in vitro assays, T. obovatum was the best free radical scavenger. A relevant cytotoxic effect was found in T. lacistrum extract over HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. PMID:26158347

  6. Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Doug B.; Jacobson, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Forty-three male and female subjects (45-83 years old) with diagnosed primary osteoarthritis of the knee who met the inclusion criteria were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 10% or 20% comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) or a placebo cream. Outcomes of pain, stiffness, and functioning were done on the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants applied the cream 3× a day for 6 weeks and were evaluated every 2 weeks during the treatment. Results Repeated-measures analyses of variance yielded significant differences in all of the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index categories (pain P < .01, stiffness P < .01, daily function P < .01), confirming that the 10% and 20% comfrey-based creams were superior to the reference cream. The active groups each had 2 participants who had temporary and minor adverse reactions of skin rash and itching, which were rapidly resolved by modifying applications. Conclusion Both active topical comfrey formulations were effective in relieving pain and stiffness and in improving physical functioning and were superior to placebo in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee without serious adverse effects. PMID:22014903

  7. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  8. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  9. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  10. Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex. PMID:20533167

  11. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  12. Population Genetics of the Rubber-Producing Russian Dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz).

    PubMed

    McAssey, Edward V; Gudger, Ethan G; Zuellig, Matthew P; Burke, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Russian dandelion, Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS), is a perennial species native to Central Asia that produces high quality, natural rubber. Despite its potential to help maintain a stable worldwide rubber supply, little is known about genetic variation in this species. To facilitate future germplasm improvement efforts, we developed simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers from available expressed-sequence tag (EST) data and used them to investigate patterns of population genetic diversity in this nascent crop species. We identified numerous SSRs (1,510 total) in 1,248 unigenes from a larger set of 6,960 unigenes (derived from 16,441 ESTs) and designed PCR primers targeting 767 of these loci. Screening of a subset of 192 of these primer pairs resulted in the identification of 48 pairs that appeared to produce single-locus polymorphisms. We then used the most reliable 17 of these primer pairs to genotype 176 individuals from 17 natural TKS populations. We observed an average of 4.8 alleles per locus with population-level expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.28 to 0.50. An average pairwise FST of 0.11 indicated moderate but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation, though there was no clear geographic patterning to this differentiation. We also tested these 17 primer pairs in the widespread common dandelion, T. officinale, and a majority successfully produced apparently single-locus amplicons. This result demonstrates the potential utility of these markers for genetic analyses in other species in the genus. PMID:26727474

  13. Population Genetics of the Rubber-Producing Russian Dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz)

    PubMed Central

    McAssey, Edward V.; Gudger, Ethan G.; Zuellig, Matthew P.; Burke, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Russian dandelion, Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS), is a perennial species native to Central Asia that produces high quality, natural rubber. Despite its potential to help maintain a stable worldwide rubber supply, little is known about genetic variation in this species. To facilitate future germplasm improvement efforts, we developed simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers from available expressed-sequence tag (EST) data and used them to investigate patterns of population genetic diversity in this nascent crop species. We identified numerous SSRs (1,510 total) in 1,248 unigenes from a larger set of 6,960 unigenes (derived from 16,441 ESTs) and designed PCR primers targeting 767 of these loci. Screening of a subset of 192 of these primer pairs resulted in the identification of 48 pairs that appeared to produce single-locus polymorphisms. We then used the most reliable 17 of these primer pairs to genotype 176 individuals from 17 natural TKS populations. We observed an average of 4.8 alleles per locus with population-level expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.28 to 0.50. An average pairwise FST of 0.11 indicated moderate but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation, though there was no clear geographic patterning to this differentiation. We also tested these 17 primer pairs in the widespread common dandelion, T. officinale, and a majority successfully produced apparently single-locus amplicons. This result demonstrates the potential utility of these markers for genetic analyses in other species in the genus. PMID:26727474

  14. Comparison of photosynthesis and fluorescent parameters between Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium loddigesii

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-Rong; Zhu, Nan-Nan; Cheng, Li-Li; Yang, Chun-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the photosynthesis and fluorescent parameters between Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium loddigesii, based on which to provide helpful information for the artificial cultivation of these cultivars. Methods: Seeds were placed on the MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L NAA, 2% (w/v) sucrose, 15% (v/v) potato extracts and powered agar (pH 5.8). Two months after germination, seedlings (n = 10) were transferred onto rooting medium containing MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA, 3% (w/v) sucrose, 20% (v/v) potato extracts and 1‰ (w/v) activated carbon (pH 5.8) in a glass bottle (6.5 cm in diameter and 9.5 cm in height) with a white transparent plastic cap. Chlorophyll content was determined using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. In addition, rates of oxygen evolution and uptake were measured. The chlorophyll fluorescence was determined at room temperature using PAM 2000 chlorophyll fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany). Results: From month 5 to month 10, the overall contents of both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were higher in D. loddigesii compared with those in D. officinale. No statistical differences were observed in the apparent photosynthetic rate (APR) between D. loddigesii and D. officinale. No statistical difference was noticed in the Fo, Fm and Fv between D. loddigesii and D. officinale (P > 0.05). Significant increase was noticed in the oxygen consuming in PSI in month-8 and month-10 compared with that of month-6 in D. loddigesii. Nevertheless, in the D. officinale, the oxygen consuming in PSI in month-6 was remarkably increased with those of month-8 and month-10, respectively. Conclusions: The photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters varied in the seedling of D. loddigesii and D. officinale. Such information could contribute to the artificial cultivation of these cultivars. PMID:26550239

  15. [Some worries about Dendrobium officinale industry].

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Lu, Juan; Chen, Xi

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, with the continuous development of the industry of Dendrobium officinale, the technological alliance on CEEUSRO has been established. However, many problems also exposed with the rapid expansion of the industry, such as weak basic research, single species of the product, lack of in-depth studies and difficult to guarantee the quality. Industrial foam was gradually formed. To guard against the D. officinale becoming another "Puer Tea" , the authors believe that the key to sustainable development of the industry is enterprises and research institutes should strengthen basic research, speed up development of application of integrated innovations, government should strengthen guidance, regulate the operation of the market, then protect the quality of D. officinale in the market. PMID:23713266

  16. Zingiber officinale (ginger)--an antiemetic for day case surgery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S; Ruggier, R; Hutchinson, S E

    1993-08-01

    The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide and placebo. In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and 21%) and less than in those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for postoperative antiemetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time until discharge were the same in all groups. There was no difference in the incidence of possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual disturbance between the three groups. Zingiber officinale is an effective and promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case surgery. PMID:8214465

  17. Larvicidal activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement of [10]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin at various concentrations was reached from 24 to 72 h, respectively. Further investigation to determine minimal effective doses of [10]-gingerol and hexahydrocurcumin revealed [10]-gingerol to have a greater maximum larvicidal effect and loss of spontaneous movements than hexahydrocurcumin, mebendazole and albendazole. These constituents of ginger showed effects against DPPH and peroxyl radical under larvicidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as larvicidal agents against A. cantonensis. PMID:20045669

  18. In vitro microrhizome production in Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    PubMed

    Sharma, T R; Singh, B M

    1995-12-01

    Microrhizomes of Zingiber officinale were successfully produced from tissue culture derived shoots by transferring them to liquid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP, 2 mg/l calcium pantothenate, 0.2 mg/l GA3 and 0.05 mg/l NAA for shoot proliferation. After 4 weeks of incubation, the medium was replaced with microrhizome induction medium, consisting of MS salts supplemented with 8 mg/l BAP and 75 g/l sucrose. Microrhizome formation started after 20 d of incubation in stationary cultures at 25+1 ° in the dark. Microrhizomes with 1-4 buds and weighing 73.8 to 459 mg each were harvested after 50-60 d. After storage for 2 months in moist sand at room temperature, 80% of the microrhizomes sprouted producing roots and shoots. PMID:24185791

  19. Structural Diversity in the Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Polyphenol Oxidase Family Results in Different Responses to Model Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E.; Singh, Ratna; Leufken, Christine M.; Inlow, Jennifer K.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are ubiquitous type-3 copper enzymes that catalyze the oxygen-dependent conversion of o-diphenols to the corresponding quinones. In most plants, PPOs are present as multiple isoenzymes that probably serve distinct functions, although the precise relationship between sequence, structure and function has not been addressed in detail. We therefore compared the characteristics and activities of recombinant dandelion PPOs to gain insight into the structure–function relationships within the plant PPO family. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the 11 isoenzymes of dandelion into two evolutionary groups. More detailed in silico and in vitro analyses of four representative PPOs covering both phylogenetic groups were performed. Molecular modeling and docking predicted differences in enzyme-substrate interactions, providing a structure-based explanation for grouping. One amino acid side chain positioned at the entrance to the active site (position HB2+1) potentially acts as a “selector” for substrate binding. In vitro activity measurements with the recombinant, purified enzymes also revealed group-specific differences in kinetic parameters when the selected PPOs were presented with five model substrates. The combination of our enzyme kinetic measurements and the in silico docking studies therefore indicate that the physiological functions of individual PPOs might be defined by their specific interactions with different natural substrates. PMID:24918587

  20. Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Adewunmi, C O; Oguntimein, B O; Furu, P

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the major constituents of Zingiber officinale responsible for its molluscicidal activity and the effect of the active component on different stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Gingerol and shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity on Biomphalaria glabrata. Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia and cercariae in B. glabrata and mice, respectively, indicating that the molluscicide is capable of interrupting schistosome transmission at a concentration lower than its molluscicidal concentrations. PMID:2236291

  1. Two New Isomers of Palmityl-4-hydroxycinnamate from Flowers of Taraxacum Species.

    PubMed

    Dudáš, Matej; Vilková, Mária; Béres, Tibor; Repcák, Miroslav; Mártonfi, Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Two isomers, (Z)- and (E)-palmityl 4-hydroxycinnamate [hexadecyl(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate and hexadecyl(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate] were isolated for the first time from ligulate flowers of Taraxacum linearisquameum Soest (sect. Taraxacum). The highest amount of these compounds was detected in pollen grains; 0.26 mg/100 mg DW of the (E)-isomer and 0.096 mg/100 mg DW of the (Z)-isomer. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of HPLC-ESI-Qtof-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Their presence was confirmed in other species of Taraxacum, but they were not found in the male - sterile triploid agamospermous taxon T. parnassicum. PMID:27534130

  2. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  3. In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sabita; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

    2010-01-01

    The growing demand for flower extracts in perfume trade can primarily be met by increasing flower production and multiplying planting material. The major commercial aromatic flower yielding plants including Jasminum officinale L., a member of the Family Oleaceae have drawn the attention of a large section of the concerned sectors leading to a thrust upon developing advanced propagation technologies for these floral crops, in addition to conventional nature-dependent agro-techniques. This chapter describes concisely and critically, a protocol developed for in vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale by shoot regeneration from existing as well as newly developed adventitious axillary buds via proper phytohormonal stimulation. To start with nodal segments as explants, March-April is the most ideal time of the year when planting material suitable for in vitro multiplication is abundantly available. Prior to inoculation of explants in the culture medium, special care is needed to reduce microbial contamination by spraying on selected spots of the donor plant with anti-microbial agents 24 h prior to collection; treatment with antiseptic solution after final cleaning and surface sterilization by treating explants with mercuric chloride. Inoculated explants are free from brown leaching from cut ends by two consecutive subcultures within 48 h in MS basal medium. Multiplication of shoots, average 4-5 at each node, takes place in MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L NAA, and 40 g/L sucrose over a period of 8 weeks. For elongation of regenerated shoots, cultures are transferred to MS medium, supplemented with a single growth hormone, kinetin at 2.0 mg/L. Emergence and elongation of roots from shoot base is facilitated by placing on the notch of a filter paper bridge. The hardened in vitro propagated plants are able to grow normally in soil like other conventionally propagated Jasminum officinale. PMID:20099096

  4. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l−1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

  5. Deposition of callose in young ovules of two Taraxacum species varying in the mode of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Krystyna; Kościńska-Pająk, Maria; Antolec, Renata; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    Although callose occurs during megasporogenesis in most flowering plants, the knowledge about its general function and the mechanisms by which the callose layer is formed in particular places is still not sufficient. The results of previous studies suggest a total lack of callose in the ovules of diplosporous plants in which meiosis is omitted or disturbed. This report is the first documentation of callose events in dandelions ovules. We demonstrated the pattern of callose deposition during the formation of megaspores through diplospory of Taraxacum type and during normal meiotic megasporogenesis in apomictic triploid Taraxacum atricapillum and amphimictic diploid Taraxacum linearisquameum. We found the presence of callose in the megasporocyte wall of both diplosporous and sexual dandelions. However, in a diplosporous dandelion, callose predominated at the micropylar pole of megaspore mother cell (MMC) which may be correlated with abnormal asynaptic meiosis and may indicate diplospory of the Taraxacum type. After meiotic division, callose is mainly deposited in the walls between megaspores in tetrads and in diplodyads. In subsequent stages, callose gradually disappears around the chalazal functional megaspore. However, some variations in the pattern of callose deposition within tetrad may reflect variable positioning of the functional megaspore (FM) observed in the ovules of T. linearisquameum. PMID:24938673

  6. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

  7. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  8. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  9. Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla.

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    The ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis in the short and the long term are considered, based on two closely related apomictic genera: Taraxacum (dandelion) and Chondrilla (skeleton weed). In both genera apomicts have a wider geographical distribution than sexuals, illustrating the short-term ecological success of apomixis. Allozymes and DNA markers indicate that apomictic populations are highly polyclonal. In Taraxacum, clonal diversity can be generated by rare hybridization between sexuals and apomicts, the latter acting as pollen donors. Less extensive clonal diversity is generated by mutations within clonal lineages. Clonal diversity may be maintained by frequency-dependent selection, caused by biological interactions (e.g. competitors and pathogens). Some clones are geographically widespread and probably represent phenotypically plastic 'general-purpose genotypes'. The long-term evolutionary success of apomictic clones may be limited by lack of adaptive potential and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although apomictic clones may be considered as 'evolutionary dead ends', the genes controlling apomixis can escape from degeneration and extinction via pollen in crosses between sexuals and apomicts. In this way, apomixis genes are transferred to a new genetic background, potentially adaptive and cleansed from linked deleterious mutations. Consequently, apomixis genes can be much older than the clones they are currently contained in. The close phylogenetic relationship between Taraxacum and Chondrilla and the similarity of their apomixis mechanisms suggest that apomixis in these two genera could be of common ancestry. PMID:12831477

  10. Phenolic profile and antioxidant potential of wild watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.).

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profile, antioxidant potential and pigment contents of wild watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) were studied to assess the potential for future studies and its applications in neutraceuticals and bioactive functional ingredients. Different extracts of watercress (roots, stem and leaves) were analysed for pigment composition, total phenolic contents, and radical scavenging activity. The phenolic profile of the leaves and roots was studied using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Results showed that total phenolic compounds in all samples were higher in the methanolic extracts than its corresponding aqueous extracts. The RSA of methanolic extracts was higher than aqueous extracts. Fourteen phenolic compounds were identified in the leaves, where coumaric acid and its derivatives, caftaric acid and quercetin derivatives were present in higher amounts. In roots, a total of 20 compounds was tentatively identified, with coumaric acid and its derivatives, sinapic acid, caftaric acid and quercetin derivatives were the major phenolic compounds. In conclusion, watercress has significant antioxidant activity and contains important phenolic compounds, which could be of potential biological interest. PMID:26636002

  11. [Molecular characterization of a HMG-CoA reductase gene from a rare and endangered medicinal plant, Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ji-Tao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-03-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in mavalonic acid pathway, which is the first committed step for isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. However, it still remains unclear whether HGMR gene plays a role in the isoprenoid biosynthesis in Dendrobium officinale, an endangered epiphytic orchid species. In the present study, a HMGR encoding gene, designed as DoHMGR1 (GenBank accession JX272632), was identified from D. officinale using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods, for the first time. The full length cDNA of DoHMGR1 was 2 071 bp in length and encoded a 562-aa protein with a molecular weight of 59.73 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.18. The deduced DoHMGR1 protein, like other HMGR proteins, constituted four conserved domains (63-561, 147-551, 268-383 and 124-541) and two transmembrane motifs (42-64 and 85-107). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that DoHMGR1 had high identity (67%-89%) to a number of HMGR genes from various plants and was closely related to Vanda hybrid cultivar, rice and maize monocots. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoHMGR1 was expressed in the three included organs. The transcripts were the most abundant in the roots with 2.13 fold over that in the leaves, followed by that in the stems with 1.98 fold. Molecular characterization of DoHMGR1 will be useful for further functional elucidation of the gene involving in isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway in D. officinale. PMID:24961116

  12. Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquiterpenes from ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Denyer, C V; Jackson, P; Loakes, D M; Ellis, M R; Young, D A

    1994-05-01

    The dried rhizomes of Indonesian ginger, Zingiber officinale, were investigated for antirhinoviral activity in the plaque reduction test. Fractionation by solvent extraction, solvent partition, and repeated chromatography guided by bioassay, allowed the isolation of several sesquiterpenes with antirhinoviral activity. The most active of these was beta-sesquiphellandrene [2] with an IC50 of 0.44 microM vs. rhinovirus IB in vitro. PMID:8064299

  13. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    PubMed Central

    van Breemen, Richard B.; Tao, Yi; Li, Wenkui

    2010-01-01

    Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX). Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen a chloroform partition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibited COX-2 with IC50 values of 32 μM, 17.5 μM and 7.5 μM, respectively. No inhibition of COX-1 was detected. Therefore, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1, which can explain, in part, anti-inflammatory properties of ginger. PMID:20837112

  14. Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol. PMID:19719054

  15. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiwei; Li, Yunrong; Tao, Shengchang; Wei, Gang; Huang, Yuechun; Chen, Dongfeng; Wu, Chengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharide (DOPA) from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2) of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2) could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity. PMID:27248989

  16. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  17. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  18. Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Musiał, Krystyna; Swiątek, Piotr; Tuleja, Monika; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    An evolutionary trend to reduce "unnecessary costs" associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the female gametophyte have dealt with amphimictic angiosperms. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast to amphimictic plants, synergids in apomictic embryo sacs do not form a filiform apparatus. We compared the synergid structure in two dandelions from sect. Palustria: the amphimictic diploid Taraxacum tenuifolium and the apomictic tetraploid, male-sterile Taraxacum brandenburgicum. Synergids in both species possessed a filiform apparatus. In T. brandenburgicum, both synergids persisted for a long time without any degeneration, in spite of the presence of an embryo and endosperm. We propose that the persistent synergids in apomicts may play a role in the transport of nutrients to the embryo. PMID:23974526

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Shao, Qingsong; Li, Yonghua; Yao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast sequence of Dendrobium officinale, an endangered and economically important traditional Chinese medicine, was reported and characterized. The genome size is 152,018 bp, with 37.5% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,284 bp are separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 84,944 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 14,506 bp). The complete cp DNA contains 83 protein-coding genes, 39 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Fourteen genes contained one or two introns. PMID:25103425

  20. Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Kurczyńska, Ewa; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous organelles and profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and active Golgi dictyosomes with vesicles that contained fibrillar material. At the beginning of the differentiation process of the periendothelial zone, the cells were connected by primary plasmodesmata. However, during the differentiation and the thickening of the cell walls (mucilage deposition), the plasmodesmata become elongated and associated with cytoplasmic bridges. The cytoplasmic bridges may connect the protoplast to the plasmodesmata through the mucilage layers in order to maintain cell-to-cell communication during the differentiation of the periendothelial zone cells. PMID:26454638

  1. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks. PMID:25775797

  2. [Variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts content of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiao-xian; Guo, Ying-ying; Si, Jin-ping; Wu, Ling-shang; Wang, Lin-hua

    2014-12-01

    To reveal the variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract contents of Dendrobium officinale, the polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents of three D. officinale strains were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method, respectively. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts and their total content were significantly different among D. officinale samples collected in different periods, and the variations were closely related to the phenology of D. officinale. Additionally, the quality variation of polysaccharides was closely related to the flowering of D. officinale, while the alcohol-soluble extracts was closely associated to the formation and germination of buds. According to the dynamic variation of these two compounds, it is more reasonable to harvest D. officinale at biennials pre-bloom than at specific harvesting month considering polysaccharides content. It is better to harvest before the germination of buds considering alcohol-soluble extracts. While with regards to both polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract, it is better to harvest this plant at the period from the sprouting to pre-bloom next year. PMID:25898575

  3. [Effect of strains and parts on amino acids of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-peng; Guo, Ying-ying; Iu, Jing-jing; Si, Jin-ping; Wu, Ling-shang; Zhang, Xin-feng

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to reveals the variations of Dendrobium officinale amino acids in different strains and parts for breeding excellent varieties, and providing scientific basis for the expanding of medicinal or edible parts. The contents of 17 amino acids in 11 strains of D. officinale were determined by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis method. The total amino acids content of leaves was from 6.76 to 7.97 g per 100 g, and the stems was from 1.61 to 2.44 g per 100 g. As the content of amino acids in leaves was significantly higher than that of stems, and the composition was close to the ideal protein standard proposed by FAO/WHO. The leaves of D. officinale had the good prospect for the development of functional foods. The 9 x 66 strain which with high yield and polysaccharide content had the highest amino acids content both in stems and leaves, indicated crossbreeding could improve the quality of varieties. Compared the amino acids content of D. officinale in two main harvest periods, the harvest time has a significant impact on amino acids content of D. officinale. This study demonstrates that the harvesting time of D. officinale stems is suitable for leaves as well, which is the period before bolssom. PMID:26281581

  4. Effect of Poloxamer on Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chitra, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) plant is one of the well-known medicinal plants. Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The poloxamer 188 polymer and the plant extract of Z. officinale have been used to prepare the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a green synthesis route. The Z. officinale plant extract has been used as a reducing agent, while the poloxamer 188 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure AgNPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape, size and morphologies of the AgNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The elemental composition of AgNPs was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs has been investigated using three human pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The poloxamer 188 protected AgNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the Z. officinale extract AgNPs. PMID:27398519

  5. Rapid and sensitive identification of the herbal tea ingredient Taraxacum formosanum using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2015-01-01

    Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

  6. Rapid and Sensitive Identification of the Herbal Tea Ingredient Taraxacum formosanum Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2015-01-01

    Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

  7. Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

  8. [Analysis of inorganic elements in hydroponic Taraxacum mongolicum grown under different spectrum combinations by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-li; Morewane, M B; Xue, Xu-zhang; Guo, Wen-zhong; Wang, Li-chun

    2015-02-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which fluorescence and LED emitting spectra of different bands were used as the sole light source for plant growth. Effects of spectral component on the growth of dandelion were studied and the contents of ten inorganic elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B in dandelion were analyzed by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Under the condition of similar photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), single R or combined spectrums of FLRB were beneficial for biomass accumulation, while single B was the contrary; (2) Macroelements content ratio in Taraxacum mongolicum grown under FLwas K:Ca:P:Mg : Na=79.74:32.39:24.32:10.55:1.00, microelements content ratio was Fe:Mn:B:Zn:Cu = 9.28:9.71:3.82:2.08:1.00; (3) Red light (peak at 660 nm) could promote the absorptions of Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, while absorption of Cu was not closely related to spectral conditions; (4) Thehighest accumulation of Ca, Na, Mn and Zn were obtained in aerial parts of Taraxacum mongolicum plants grown under pure red spectrum R, while the accumulation of the rest six elements reached the highest level under the mixed spectrum FLRB. PMID:25970924

  9. ABA-stimulated SoDOG1 expression is after-ripening inhibited during early imbibition of germinating Sisymbrium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Matilla, Angel J; García-Ramas, Cristina; Rodríguez-Gacio, María Del Carmen

    2015-12-01

    DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (AtDOG1) was the first gene identified as dormancy-associated, but its physiological role in germination is far from being understood. Here, an orthologue of AtDOG1 in Sisymbrium officinale (SoDOG1; KM009050) is being reported. Phylogenetically, the SoDOG1 gene is included into the dicotyledonous group together with DOG1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (EF028470), Brassica rapa (AC189537), Lepidium papillosum (JX512183, JX512185) and Lepidium sativum (GQ411192). The SoDOG1 expression peaked at the onset of the silique maturation stage and there was presence of SoDOG1-mRNA in the freshly collected viable dry seed (i.e. AR0). The SoDOG1 transcripts were also found in other organs, such as open and closed flowers and to a lesser degree in roots and stems. We have previously reported in S. officinale seeds in which sensu stricto germination is positively affected by nitrate and both testa and micropylar endosperm ruptures are temporally separated. In dry viable seeds, the SoDOG1-mRNA level in three different after-ripening (AR) status was AR0 ≈ AR7 (optimal AR) < AR27 (optimal AR was almost lost). The presence of nitrate in the AR0 seed imbibition medium markedly decreased the SoDOG1 expression during sensu stricto germination. However, the nitrate stimulated the SoDOG1 expression during imbibition of AR7 compared to AR0. At the early AR0 seed imbibition (3-6 h), exogenous ABA provoked a very strong stimulation of the SoDOG1 expression. AR inhibits ABA-induced SoDOG1 expression during early germination and gibberellins (GA) can partially mimic this AR effect. A view on the integration of all found results in the sensu stricto germination of S. officinale was conducted. PMID:26046653

  10. Antibacterial Studies and Effect of Poloxamer on Gold Nanoparticles by Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chitra, K; Reena, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2015-07-01

    Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The Zin- giber officinale (Z. officinale) is one of the well-known medicinal plants. The poloxamer188 and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale have been used to synthesize the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by a green approach. The Z. officinale extract has been used as a reducing agent while the polox- amerl88 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape and size of the AuNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of AuNPs has also been confirmed by UV-Visible spectral, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of the green synthesized AuNPs has been investigated on the three human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The poloxamer188 protected AuNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the standard tetracycline (TA). PMID:26373065

  11. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine. PMID:26614455

  12. Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Taghiabadi, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion. PMID:21874635

  13. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  14. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:26983198

  15. Ginger root--a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Bone, M E; Wilkinson, D J; Young, J R; McNeil, J; Charlton, S

    1990-08-01

    The effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an antiemetic agent was compared with placebo and metoclopramide in 60 women who had major gynaecological surgery in a double-blind, randomised study. There were statistically significantly fewer recorded incidences of nausea in the group that received ginger root compared with placebo (p less than 0.05). The number of incidences of nausea in the groups that received either ginger root or metoclopramide were similar. The administration of antiemetic after operation was significantly greater in the placebo group compared to the other two groups (p less than 0.05). PMID:2205121

  16. Two new dendrocandins with neurite outgrowth-promoting activity from Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Shou-Jin; Luo, Huai-Rong; Cui, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2015-01-01

    Two new bibenzyl derivatives, dendrocandin T (1) and dendrocandin U (2), together with eight known bibenzyls, were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium officinale. Those compounds were sent for the first time for central nervous system-related bioassay and the results indicated that compounds 3, 4, and 5 have a certain degree of neurite outgrowth-promoting activity, and compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 also have weak activity. The results indicated that D. officinale used as health food and traditional Chinese medicine "Tiepi Shihu" has a health function of neurotrophic effects. PMID:25289696

  17. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    PubMed

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination. PMID:25409244

  18. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  19. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  20. Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Bartolomeo, S; Cannatelli, M A; Di Campli, E; Procopio, F; Grande, R; Marzio, L; Alonzo, V

    2006-03-01

    Propolis and Zingiber officinale have been shown to be specifically targeted against Helicobacter pylori strains, to possess antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antitumoral activity and to be used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. Considering that these natural products could potentially serve as novel therapeutic tools also in combination with an antibiotic, the aim of this work was to evaluate their effect when combined with clarithromycin on clinical H. pylori isolates (n = 25), characterized in respect to both clarithromycin susceptibility and the presence of the cagA gene. The results showed that the combinations of propolis extract + clarithromycin and Z. officinale extract + clarithromycin exhibited improved inhibition of H. pylori with synergistic or additive activity. Interestingly, the susceptibility to combinations was significantly independent of the microbial clarithromycin susceptibility status. Only one H. pylori strain showed antagonism towards the Z. officinale extract + clarithromycin combination. The data demonstrate that combinations of propolis extract + clarithromycin and Z. officinale extract + clarithromycin have the potential to help control H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:16521108

  1. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qing; Jiao, Chunyan; Sun, Shiwei; Song, Cheng; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi; Fan, Honghong; Zhu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium methanol/water phase were mainly sugars and glycosides, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols. D. officinale and D. huoshanense and their growth years were distinguished by cluster analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Eleven metabolites that contributed significantly to this differentiation were subjected to t-tests (P<0.05) to identify biomarkers that discriminate between D. officinale and D. huoshanense, including sucrose, glucose, galactose, succinate, fructose, hexadecanoate, oleanitrile, myo-inositol, and glycerol. Metabolic profiling of the chemical compositions of Dendrobium species revealed that the polysaccharide content of D. huoshanense was higher than that of D. officinale, indicating that the D. huoshanense was of higher quality. Based on the accumulation of Dendrobium metabolites, the optimal harvest time for Dendrobium was in the third year. This initial metabolic profiling platform for Dendrobium provides an important foundation for the further study of secondary metabolites (pharmaceutical active ingredients) and metabolic pathways. PMID:26752292

  2. Species-specific AFLP markers for identification of Zingiber officinale, Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Majumder, P B; Sen Mandi, S

    2011-01-01

    The Zingiber genus, which includes the herbs known as gingers, commonly used in cooking, is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is Zingiber officinale (garden ginger), which is often adulterated with other less-potent Zingiber sp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for the Zingiber sp in order to facilitate their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for three Zingiber species. Sixteen collections (six of Z. officinale, five of Z. montanum, and five of Z. zerumbet) were used in the study. Seven selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 837 fragments were produced by these primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all three Zingiber species (91 for Z. officinale, 82 for Z. montanum, and 55 for Z. zerumbet). The dendogram analysis generated from AFLP patterns showed that Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet are phylogenetically closer to each other than to Z. officinale. The AFLP fingerprints of the Zingiber species could be used to authenticate Zingiber sp-derived drugs and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs. PMID:21341214

  3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is

  4. ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

  5. Roots Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  6. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae. PMID:25831098

  7. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs. PMID:8134409

  8. Laticifer-Specific cis-Prenyltransferase Silencing Affects the Rubber, Triterpene, and Inulin Content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum12[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M.; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis. PMID:22238421

  9. Comfrey root: from tradition to modern clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Christiane

    2013-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) has been used over many centuries as a medicinal plant. In particular, the use of the root has a longstanding tradition. Today, several randomised controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety. Comfrey root extract has been used for the topical treatment of painful muscle and joint complaints. It is clinically proven to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling of muscles and joints in the case of degenerative arthritis, acute myalgia in the back, sprains, contusions and strains after sports injuries and accidents, also in children aged 3 years and older. This paper provides information on clinical trials, non-interventional studies and further literature published on comfrey root till date. PMID:23224633

  10. Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress arising from peroxidation of membrane biomolecules and high levels of Fe have been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and other brain disorder. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and the production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. The present study compares the protective properties of two varieties of ginger [red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)] on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Incubation of the brain tissue homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain. However, the aqueous extract from both varieties of ginger caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the aqueous extract of red ginger had a significantly higher inhibitory effect on both Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain homogenates than that of white ginger. This higher inhibitory effect of red ginger could be attributed to its significantly higher phytochemical content, Fe(2+) chelating ability, OH scavenging ability and reducing power. However, part of the mechanisms through which the extractable phytochemicals in ginger (red and white) protect the brain may be through their antioxidant activity, Fe(2+) chelating and OH scavenging ability. Therefore, oxidative stress in the brain could be potentially managed/prevented by dietary intake of ginger varieties (red ginger and white ginger rhizomes). PMID:20598871

  11. Square Root +

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  12. Element-tracing of mineral matters in Dendrobium officinale using ICP-MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nannan; Han, Shen; Yang, Chunning; Qu, Jixu; Sun, Zhirong; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Rare studies have been performed to trace the mineral elements in Dendrobium officinale. In this study, we aim to trace the mineral elements in D. officinale collected from ten geographical locations in China. ICP-MS system was used for simultaneous determination of mineral elements. Principal component analysis was performed using the obtained data in the quantification of mineral contents. Cluster analysis was performed using the Ward's method. Several of essential microelments were detected in D. officinale, including ferrum (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Among these elements, three elements (i.e. Fe, Mn and Zn) were highly and simultaneously detected in the D. officinale collected from the ten locations. The level of Ni was positively associated with that of Zn (r = 0.986, P < 0.01). The level of titanium (Ti) was positively associated with that of V (r = 0.669, P < 0.05), and negatively associated with Cr (r = -0.710, P < 0.05). In addition, the level of Mn was positively associated with that of barium (r = 0.749, P < 0.05). Further, the level of Fe was positively associated with that of Ni (r = 0.664, P < 0.05), Zn (r = 0.742, P < 0.05), and rare earth elements (r = 0.847, P < 0.01), respectively. Three eigenvalues explained about 86.60 % of the total variance, which contributed significantly to the explanation of cumulative variance. Cluster analysis indicated the cultivars were categorized into 3 clusters. Ni, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ti and rare earth elements were designated as the characteristic elements. Cultivars collected from Yulin, Menghai, and Shaoguan ranked the top 3 in the comprehensive scores, indicating the content of the mineral elements was comparatively higher in these locations. PMID:27429889

  13. First genetic linkage map of Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin based on AFLP, SSR, COS and EST-SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Marina; Hernandez, Monica; Remondegui, Naroa; Huvenaars, Koen; van Dijk, Peter; Ritter, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) has been studied in many occasions as a possible alternative source for natural rubber production of good quality and for inulin production. Some tire companies are already testing TKS tire prototypes. There are also many investigations on the production of bio-fuels from inulin and inulin applications for health improvement and in the food industry. A limited amount of genomic resources exist for TKS and particularly no genetic linkage map is available in this species. We have constructed the first TKS genetic linkage map based on AFLP, COS, SSR and EST-SSR markers. The integrated linkage map with eight linkage groups (LG), representing the eight chromosomes of Russian dandelion, has 185 individual AFLP markers from parent 1, 188 individual AFLP markers from parent 2, 75 common AFLP markers and 6 COS, 1 SSR and 63 EST-SSR loci. Blasting the EST-SSR sequences against known sequences from lettuce allowed a partial alignment of our TKS map with a lettuce map. Blast searches against plant gene databases revealed some homologies with useful genes for downstream applications in the future. PMID:27488242

  14. First genetic linkage map of Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin based on AFLP, SSR, COS and EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Arias, Marina; Hernandez, Monica; Remondegui, Naroa; Huvenaars, Koen; van Dijk, Peter; Ritter, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) has been studied in many occasions as a possible alternative source for natural rubber production of good quality and for inulin production. Some tire companies are already testing TKS tire prototypes. There are also many investigations on the production of bio-fuels from inulin and inulin applications for health improvement and in the food industry. A limited amount of genomic resources exist for TKS and particularly no genetic linkage map is available in this species. We have constructed the first TKS genetic linkage map based on AFLP, COS, SSR and EST-SSR markers. The integrated linkage map with eight linkage groups (LG), representing the eight chromosomes of Russian dandelion, has 185 individual AFLP markers from parent 1, 188 individual AFLP markers from parent 2, 75 common AFLP markers and 6 COS, 1 SSR and 63 EST-SSR loci. Blasting the EST-SSR sequences against known sequences from lettuce allowed a partial alignment of our TKS map with a lettuce map. Blast searches against plant gene databases revealed some homologies with useful genes for downstream applications in the future. PMID:27488242

  15. Identification of a Taraxacum brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor protein that is localized on rubber particles and promotes rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Laibach, Natalie; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Two protein families required for rubber biosynthesis in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum have recently been characterized, namely the cis-prenyltransferases (TbCPTs) and the small rubber particle proteins (TbSRPPs). The latter were shown to be the most abundant proteins on rubber particles, where rubber biosynthesis takes place. Here we identified a protein designated T. brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor (TbREF) by using mass spectrometry to analyze rubber particle proteins. TbREF is homologous to the TbSRPPs but has a molecular mass that is atypical for the family. The promoter was shown to be active in laticifers, and the protein itself was localized on the rubber particle surface. In TbREF-silenced plants generated by RNA interference, the rubber content was significantly reduced, correlating with lower TbCPT protein levels and less TbCPT activity in the latex. However, the molecular mass of the rubber was not affected by TbREF silencing. The colloidal stability of rubber particles isolated from TbREF-silenced plants was also unchanged. This was not surprising because TbREF depletion did not affect the abundance of TbSRPPs, which are required for rubber particle stability. Our findings suggest that TbREF is an important component of the rubber biosynthesis machinery in T. brevicorniculatum, and may play a role in rubber particle biogenesis and influence rubber production. PMID:25809497

  16. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  17. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  18. Discrimination of the rare medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale based on naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Wang, Fangfei; Wang, Yunqiang; Li, Xuelan; Wang, Airong; Wang, Chunlan; Guo, Shunxing

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for discriminating Dendrobium officinale from four of its close relatives Dendrobium chrysanthum, Dendrobium crystallinum, Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium devonianum based on chemical composition analysis. We analyzed 62 samples of 24 Dendrobium species. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that the four low molecular weight compounds 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin), 3,4-dihydroxy-4',5-dime-thoxybibenzyl (DDB-2), 3',4-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxybibenzyl (gigantol), and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzy (moscatilin), were common in the genus. The phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to quantify polysaccharides, and the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides was determined by gas chromatography. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to differentiate among the five closely related species based on the chemical composition analysis. This proved to be a simple and accurate approach for discriminating among these species. The results also showed that the polysaccharide content, the amounts of the four low molecular weight compounds, and the mannose to glucose ratio, were important factors for species discriminant. Therefore, we propose that a chemical analysis based on quantification of naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides is effective for identifying D. officinale. PMID:23233224

  19. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms. PMID:26347778

  20. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms. PMID:26347778

  1. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. PMID:27131730

  2. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

  3. Protective effect of the extracts from Cnidium officinale against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide via antioxidant effect.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Hee Kyeong; Ju, So Yeong; Hong, Se Chul; Lee, Jeong Rak; Chung, Gyu Young; Lim, Jae Hwan; Jeong, Hyung Jin

    2009-03-01

    The dried rhizomes of Cnidium officinale are used as herbal drugs in the treatment of pain, inflammation, menstrual disturbance and antivitamin deficiency disease, and also act as a blood pressure depressant. In addition, there are several reports suggesting that they have pharmacological properties to tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, and that they act as an inhibitor of high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells. However, little has been known about the functional role of the extracts from C. officinale on oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis caused by ROS. In this work, we have investigated the DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and intracellular ROS scavenging capacity, and Fe(2+) chelating activity of the extracts from C. officinale. In addition, we evaluated whether the extracts are capable of reducing H(2)O(2)-induced DNA and cell damage in the human skin fibroblast cell. These extracts showed a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging capacity and a protective effect on DNA damage and the lipid peroxidation causing the cell damage by ROS. These antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects of the extracts on DNA and cell damage may further explain that C. officinale is useful as a herbal medicine for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:19101603

  4. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  5. Potential Alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on Lead-Induced Testicular Toxicity: an Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hesham Noaman

    2015-01-01

    Natural, products were studied to combat reproductive alterations of lead. The current work aimed to disclose the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale to alleviate lead acetate induced toxicity. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was considered control, group 2 received 200 mg/l PbAc water, group 3 received 50 mg/kg/rat of C. vulgaris extract and 200 mg/l PbAc water, and group 4 received 100 mg/kg/rat of Z. officinale and 200 mg/l PbAc water for 90 days. Testis samples were subjected to ultrastructural examination. It was observed that PbAc caused degenerative alterations in the spermatogenic series in many tubules, with a loss of germ cells and vacuoles inside the cytoplasm and between the germ cells. Mitochondria exhibited ballooning, with lost cristae and widening of the interstitial tissue, while nuclear envelopes of primary spermatocytes were broken up, and axonemes of the mid-pieces of the sperms were distorted. With the treatment with C. vulgaris or Z. officinale, there were noticeable improvements in these modifications. It was concluded that both C. vulgaris and Z. officinale represent convincing medicinal components that may be used to ameliorate testicular toxicity in those exposed to lead in daily life with superior potentials revealed by C. vulgaris due to its chelating action. PMID:26975142

  6. Structure analysis of a heteropolysaccharide from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. and anticomplementary activity of its sulfated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, MiaoMiao; Wu, Jianjun; Shi, Songshan; Chen, Yonglin; Wang, Huijun; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-11-01

    A homogenous water-soluble polysaccharide, DPSW-A, with a deduced chemical structure was extracted from the herb Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. Moreover, 80.813-kDa DPSW-A is composed of three types of monosaccharide, namely rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose, at a molar ratio of 1.0:10.7:11.9. The main chain of DPSW-A contains Terminal-Galp, 1,3-Galp, 1,6-Galp, 1,3,6-Galp, and 1,2,4-Rhap; the branched chain contains Terminal-Araf, 1,5-Araf, and 1,3,5-Araf. The sulfated derivatives prepared from DPSW-A showed inhibitory effects on complement activation through the classical pathway (CH50: Sul-DPSW-A, 3.94±0.43μg/mL; heparin, 104.40±3.82μg/mL) and alternative pathway (AP50: Sul-DPSW-A, 42.76±0.46μg/mL; heparin, 43.42±0.22μg/mL). Mechanism studies indicated that Sul-DPSW-A inhibited complement activation by blocking C1q, C1r, C1s, and C9, but not C2, C3, C4, and C5. In addition, Sul-DPSW-A displayed limited anticoagulant effects. These results suggest that Sul-DPSW-A prepared from DPSW-A is valuable for treating diseases caused by excessive complement system activation. PMID:27516270

  7. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recomm...

  8. Roots and Root Function: Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

  9. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo depigmenting activity of raspberry ketone from Rheum officinale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry. PMID:21954327

  10. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd.; Mallick, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program. PMID:24600309

  12. 10-Shogaol, an Antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for Skin Cell Proliferation and Migration Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-αβ (PDGF-αβ) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent. PMID:22408422

  13. De Novo transcriptome assembly of Zingiber officinale cv. Suruchi of Odisha.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Zingiber officinale Rosc., known as ginger, is an Asian crop, popularly used in every household kitchen and commercially used in bakery, beverage, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study deals with de novo transcriptome assembly of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi by next generation sequencing methodology. From the analysis 10.9 GB raw data was obtained which can be available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761185. We identified 41,969 transcripts using Trinity RNA-Seq from ginger rhizome of Suruchi variety from Odisha. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 8404 bp with a total length of 3,96,40,526 bp and N50 of 1251 bp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi released for Odisha state of India which will help molecular biologists to develop genetic markers for identification of cultivars. PMID:27408817

  14. Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

  15. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:27437089

  16. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-07-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:27437089

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Dendrobium officinale and its Application to the Identification of Genes Associated with Polysaccharide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxia; He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zeng, Songjun; Zhang, Xinhua; Yu, Zhenming; Xia, Haoqiang; Duan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most important Chinese medicinal herbs. Polysaccharides are one of the main active ingredients of D. officinale. To identify the genes that maybe related to polysaccharides synthesis, two cDNA libraries were prepared from juvenile and adult D. officinale, and were named Dendrobium-1 and Dendrobium-2, respectively. Illumina sequencing for Dendrobium-1 generated 102 million high quality reads that were assembled into 93,881 unigenes with an average sequence length of 790 base pairs. The sequencing for Dendrobium-2 generated 86 million reads that were assembled into 114,098 unigenes with an average sequence length of 695 base pairs. Two transcriptome databases were integrated and assembled into a total of 145,791 unigenes. Among them, 17,281 unigenes were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways while 135 unigenes were involved in fructose and mannose metabolism. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the majority of genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes. Furthermore, 430 glycosyltransferase and 89 cellulose synthase genes were identified. Comparative analysis of both transcriptome databases revealed a total of 32,794 differential expression genes (DEGs), including 22,051 up-regulated and 10,743 down-regulated genes in Dendrobium-2 compared to Dendrobium-1. Furthermore, a total of 1142 and 7918 unigenes showed unique expression in Dendrobium-1 and Dendrobium-2, respectively. These DEGs were mainly correlated with metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, 170 DEGs belonged to glycosyltransferase genes, 37 DEGs were related to cellulose synthase genes and 627 DEGs encoded transcription factors. This study substantially expands the transcriptome information for D. officinale and provides valuable clues for identifying candidate genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and elucidating the mechanism of polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26904032

  18. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs. PMID:27605763

  19. Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Sang-Buem; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2011-03-01

    The leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of Z. officinale leaves. The Z. officinale essential oil yield was 0.26%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were Camphene (5.26%), Phellandrene (6.58%), Zingiberene (36.48%), Geranial (4.32%), β-gurjunene (2.74%), and Citronellol β-sesguiphellandrene (12.31%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 46.38 ppm and an LC(90) value of 84.32 ppm. Also, Camphene (≥95.0%), Phellandrene (≥95.0%), Zingiberene (≥95.0%), Geranial (≥95.0%), β-gurjunene (≥97.0%), and Citronellol (≥95.0%) were tested against the F21 laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Zingiberene (≥95.0%) and Citronellol (≥95.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 99.55 ppm and 141.45 ppm. This indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:20568951

  20. Characterization of the alkaline/neutral invertase gene in Dendrobium officinale and its relationship with polysaccharide accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Cao, X F; Si, J P; Chen, Z Y; Duan, C L

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines, and polysaccharide is its main active ingredient. Many studies have investigated the synthesis and accumulation mechanisms of polysaccharide, but until recently, little was known about the molecular mechanism of how polysaccharide is synthesized because no related genes have been cloned. In this study, we cloned an alkaline/neutral invertase gene from D. officinale (DoNI) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. DoNI was 2231 bp long and contained an open reading frame that predicted a 62.8-kDa polypeptide with 554-amino acid residues. An alkaline/neutral invertase conserved domain was predicted from this deduced amino acid sequence, and DoNI had a similar deduced amino acid sequence to Setaria italica and Oryza brachyantha. We also found that DoNI expression in different tissues was closely related to DoNI activity, and more importantly, polysaccharide level. Our results indicate that DoNI is associated with polysaccharide accumulation in D. officinale. PMID:27173310

  1. Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as Green Chemical on Yield and Sensorial Quality in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) Under Soilless Culture

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gilda; Moggia, Claudia; Osses, Ingrid Jennifer; Álvaro, Juan Eugenio; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of peroxyacetic acid on the productivity of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) cultivated hydroponically using a constant nutritive solution. Green chemistry in protected horticulture seeks compatibility with the environment through the creation of biodegradable byproducts. In hydroponics, appropriate doses of peroxyacetic mixtures deliver these byproducts while also oxygenating the roots. Watercress producers who recirculate the nutritive solution can use these mixtures in order to increase oxygenation in the hydroponic system. The experiment took place between August and December 2009, beginning with the planting of the watercress seeds and concluding with the completion of the sensory panels. A completely random design was used, including three treatments and four repetitions, with applications of 0, 20 and 40 mg L−1 of the peroxyacetic mixture. Measured variables were growth (plant height, leaf length and stem diameter), yield (weight per plant and dry matter) and organoleptic quality (color and sensory panel). The application of 40 mg L−1 of the peroxyacetic mixture had a greater effect on the growth and development of the plants, which reached an average height of 29.3 cm, stem diameter of 3.3 mm and leaf length of 7.6 cm, whereas the control group reached an average height of only 20.2 cm, stem diameter of 1.9 mm and leaf length of 5.7 cm. The application of the peroxyacetic mixtures resulted in an improvement in growth parameters as well as in yield. Individual weights achieved using the 40 mg L−1 dose were 1.3 g plant−1 in the control group and 3.4 g plant−1 in the experimental group (62% yield increase). Sensory analysis revealed no differences in organoleptic quality. PMID:22272143

  2. Use of peroxyacetic acid as green chemical on yield and sensorial quality in Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) under soilless culture.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gilda; Moggia, Claudia; Osses, Ingrid Jennifer; Alvaro, Juan Eugenio; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of peroxyacetic acid on the productivity of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) cultivated hydroponically using a constant nutritive solution. Green chemistry in protected horticulture seeks compatibility with the environment through the creation of biodegradable byproducts. In hydroponics, appropriate doses of peroxyacetic mixtures deliver these byproducts while also oxygenating the roots. Watercress producers who recirculate the nutritive solution can use these mixtures in order to increase oxygenation in the hydroponic system. The experiment took place between August and December 2009, beginning with the planting of the watercress seeds and concluding with the completion of the sensory panels. A completely random design was used, including three treatments and four repetitions, with applications of 0, 20 and 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture. Measured variables were growth (plant height, leaf length and stem diameter), yield (weight per plant and dry matter) and organoleptic quality (color and sensory panel). The application of 40 mg L(-1) of the peroxyacetic mixture had a greater effect on the growth and development of the plants, which reached an average height of 29.3 cm, stem diameter of 3.3 mm and leaf length of 7.6 cm, whereas the control group reached an average height of only 20.2 cm, stem diameter of 1.9 mm and leaf length of 5.7 cm. The application of the peroxyacetic mixtures resulted in an improvement in growth parameters as well as in yield. Individual weights achieved using the 40 mg L(-1) dose were 1.3 g plant(-1) in the control group and 3.4 g plant(-1) in the experimental group (62% yield increase). Sensory analysis revealed no differences in organoleptic quality. PMID:22272143

  3. Nitrate-induced early transcriptional changes during imbibition in non-after-ripened Sisymbrium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Barral, Nestor; Matilla, Angel J; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María

    2013-08-01

    We have here demonstrated for the first time that nitrate not only accelerates testa rupture of non- AR seeds but also modifies expression pattern of the cell-wall remodeling proteins (mannanases; SoMAN6 and SoMAN7) and key genes belonging to metabolism and signaling of ABA (SoNCED6, SoNCED9, SoCYP707A2 and SoABI5) and GAs (SoGA3ox, SoGA20ox, SoGA2ox and SoRGL2). These results were obtained during Sisymbrium officinale seed imbibition in the absence of endosperm rupture. Exogenous ABA induced a notable inhibition of testa rupture in both absence and presence of nitrate being this effect sharply reversed by GA(4+7). However, nitrate was capable to provoke testa rupture in absence of ABA synthesis. The expression of SoMAN6 and SoMAN7 were positively altered by nitrate. Although ABA synthesis seems apparent at the start of non-AR seed imbibition, taken together the results of SoNCED6, SoNCED9 and SoCYP707A2 expression seem to suggest that nitrate leads to a strong net ABA decrease. Likewise, nitrate positively affected the SoABI5 expression when the SoNCED9 expression was also stimulated. By contrast, at the early and final of imbibition, nitrate clearly inhibited the SoABI5 expression. The expression of SoGA2ox6 and SoGA3ox2 are strongly inhibited by nitrate whereas of SoGA20ox6 was stimulated. On the other hand, SoRGL2 transcript level decreased in the presence of nitrate. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that the nitrate signaling is already operative during the non-AR S. officinale seeds imbibition. The nitrate, in cross-talk with the AR network likely increases the favorable molecular conditions that trigger germination. PMID:23106241

  4. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  5. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  6. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  7. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. PMID:26522239

  8. Intestinal immunomodulating activity and structural characterization of a new polysaccharide from stems of Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Xie, Song-Zi; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2016-06-15

    A homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (DOP-W3-b) with a high intestinal immunomodulating activity was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium officinale through a bioactivity-guided sequential isolation procedure based on the screening of Peyer's patch-mediated immunomodulating activity. Oral administration experiments of mice showed that DOP-W3-b could effectively regulate intestinal mucosal immune activity by changing intestinal mucosal structures, promoting the secretions of cytokines from Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and increasing the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the lamina propria. Structure analysis indicated that DOP-W3-b was composed of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 4.5 with a relatively low molecular weight of 1.543 × 10(4) Da, and its repeat unit contained a backbone consisting of β-(1→4)-d-Manp, β-(1→4)-d-Glcp and β-(1→3,6)-d-Manp residues, a branch consisting of β-(1→4)-d-Manp, β-(1→4)-d-Glcp and terminal β-d-Glcp, and O-acetyl groups attached to O-2 of β-(1→4)-d-Manp. These results suggested that DOP-W3-b was a new polysaccharide with an essential potential for modulating body's immune functions. PMID:27225227

  9. In vivo antigenotoxic activity of watercress juice (Nasturtium officinale) against induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Natalia A; Ariagno, Julia I; López Nigro, Marcela M; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; de los A Gette, María; Petenatti, Elisa; Palaoro, Luis A; Carballo, Marta A

    2013-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the genotoxicity as well as possible protective activity against damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) of the aqueous juice of watercress (Nasturtium officinale, W.T. Aiton) in vivo. Male and female Swiss mice 7-8 weeks old (N = 48) were treated by gavage with 1 g kg(-1) body weight and 0.5 g kg(-1) body weight of watercress juice during 15 consecutive days. Genotoxicity and its possible protective effect were tested by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in bone marrow. In addition, biopsies of the bladder, epididymis and testicles of mice were performed to extend the experimental design. Watercress juice per se did not induce genetic damage according to the comet assay and micronucleus study, exhibiting a protective activity against CP (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The comparative analysis of bladder histological changes obtained in the watercress plus CP group against those treated with CP alone suggests a probable protective effect. Further studies are needed in order to establish the protective role of watercress juice against DNA damage. PMID:22488040

  10. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-06-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans. PMID:23612703

  11. Inhibitory effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Pinto, Aldo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2004-04-23

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizome) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, including dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhoea. In the present study we evaluated the effect of this herbal remedy on the contractions induced by electrical stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine in the isolated rat ileum. Ginger (0.01-1000 microg/ml) inhibited both EFS- and acetylcholine-evoked contractions, being more potent in inhibiting the contractions induced by EFS. The depressant effect of ginger on EFS-induced contractions was reduced by the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5) M), but unaffected by the alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (10(-7) M), the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (10(-6) M), the opioid antagonist naloxone (10(-6) M) or by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (3 x 10(-4) M). Zingerone (up to 3 x 10(-4) M), one of the active ingredients of ginger, did not possess inhibitory effects. It is concluded that ginger possesses both prejunctional and postjunctional inhibitory effects on ileal contractility; the prejunctional inhibitory effect of ginger on enteric excitatory transmission could involve a capsazepine-sensible site (possibly vanilloid receptors). PMID:15050426

  12. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) as an adjuvant in cancer treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M M; Haniadka, R; Chacko, P P; Palatty, P L; Baliga, M S

    2011-01-01

    Despite acquiring a strong understanding of the molecular basis and advances in treatment, cancer is the second major cause of death in the world. In clinics, the stagedependent treatment strategies may include surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatments like hormonotherapy and chemotherapy, which are associated with side effects. The use of traditional herbal medicine in cancer patients is on a rise, as it is believed that these medications are non toxic and alleviate the symptoms of cancer, boost the immune system, or may tackle the cancer itself. Since antiquity the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe commonly known as ginger (family Zingiberaceae) have widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Additionally, ginger also has a long history of medicinal use in various cultures for treating common colds, fever, to aid digestion, treat stomach upset, diarrhoea, nausea, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal complications and dizziness. Preclinical studies have also shown that ginger possesses chemopreventive and antineoplastic properties. It is also reported to be effective in ameliorating the side effects of γ-radiation and of doxorubicin and cisplatin; to inhibit the efflux of anticancer drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to possess chemosensitizing effects in certain neoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this review is to address observations on the role of ginger as adjuvant to treatment modalities of cancer. Emphasis is also placed on the drawbacks and on future directions for research that will have a consequential effect on cancer treatment and cure. PMID:22006742

  13. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:23550785

  14. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins. PMID:18706468

  15. Effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi Garcia; Grespan, Renata; Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Filho, Benicio Alves de Abreu; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    The antifungal activity of ginger essential oil (GEO; Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was evaluated against Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEO was determined by micro-broth dilution. The effects of GEO on fumonisin and ergosterol production were evaluated at concentrations of 500-5000 μg/mL in liquid medium with a 5mm diameter mycelial disc of F. verticillioides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the predominant components of GEO were α-zingiberene (23.9%) and citral (21.7%). GEO exhibited inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2500 μg/mL, and 4000 and 5000 μg/mL reduced ergosterol biosynthesis by 57% and 100%, respectively. The inhibitory effect on fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) production was significant at GEO concentrations of 4000 and 2000 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the inhibition of fungal biomass and fumonisin production was dependent on the concentration of GEO. These results suggest that GEO was able to control the growth of F. verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin production. PMID:23871071

  16. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Chu-Yan; Liu, Hua-Zhen; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wu, Ya-Yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-Ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693

  17. An approach towards optimization of the extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants from ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Mandal, Nilrudra; Dey, Apurba; Mondal, Biswanath

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to maximize the extraction of polyphenols from ginger (Zingiber officinale) through the statistical optimization of three influential process parameters ethanol (EtOH) proportion (%), temperature (°C) and extraction time (min). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to design experiments and study the interaction effects of these parameters on the extraction process. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for the analysis of regression coefficient, prediction of equation and case statistics. The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of polyphenols from each gram of ginger were found to be 75 % aqueous EtOH, 40 °C temperature and extraction time of 60 min respectively. The order of relative importance of these three parameters was: EtOH > time > temperature. Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenols using optimized parameters was also determined by DPPH assay. DPPH radical scavenging activity of ginger extract was compared with Vitamin C and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT). Finally, this study revealed a cost effective analytical model to maximize the extraction of polyphenols from ginger with higher antioxidant activity. It was also concluded that at lower concentration ethanolic extract of ginger possess high antioxidant activity in comparison with synthetic antioxidants like vitamin C or BHT and thus it can be applicable as potent natural antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries for the preparation of functional food. PMID:26396324

  18. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shao-zhen; Liang, Chu-yan; Liu, Hua-zhen; Zhu, Dong-mei; Wu, Ya-yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693

  19. In vivo wound healing effects of Symphytum officinale L. leaves extract in different topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, L U; Reis, P G; Barbosa, L C O; Saúde-Guimarães, D A; Grabe-Guimarães, A; Mosqueira, V C F; Carneiro, C M; Silva-Barcellos, N M

    2012-04-01

    The present work evaluates wound healing activity of leaves extracts of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) incorporated in three pharmaceutical formulations. Wound healing activity of comfrey was determined by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound in rat model, using allantoin as positive control. Three topical formulations, carbomer gel, glycero-alcoholic solution and O/W emulsion (soft lotion) were compared. The histological analysis of the healing process shows significant differences in treatment, particularly on its intensity and rate. The results indicate that emulsion containing both extracts, commercial and prepared, induced the largest and furthest repair of damaged tissue. This could be evidenced from day 3 to 28 by increase in collagen deposition from 40% to 240% and reduction on cellular inflammatory infiltrate from 3% to 46%. However, 8% prepared extract in emulsion presented the best efficacy. This work clearly demonstrates that comfrey leaves have a wound healing activity. The O/W emulsion showed to be the vehicle most effective to induce healing activity, particularly with extracts obtained from comfrey leaves collected in Minas Gerais state in Brazil. It shows the best efficacy to control the inflammatory process and to induce collagen deposition at 8% concentration. PMID:22570943

  20. [Field experiment of F1 generation and superior families selection of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Based on randomized block design of experiment, agronomic traits and yields of 14 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the differences in agronomic traits and yields among families were significant, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Families of 6b x 2a, 9 x 66 and 78 x 69 were selected with the remarkable superiority of yields, agronomic traits and product customization. Correlation analysis between agronomic traits and yields showed that plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, blade length and blade width were all significantly correlated with biological yields and economic yields. Among which, stem diameter, leaf number and blade length were the most significant, and an optimal linear regression model could be established. When the number of shoots was fewer than 4.5, both biological yields and economic yields increased with the increasing number of shoots, but it could not much affect yields when the number of shoots was larger than 4.5. Shoots number, stem diameter and leaf index were basic stability when compared biennial traits to annual, which could be used for early selection. PMID:24558865

  1. Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, A; Brask, T; Kambskard, J; Hentzer, E

    1988-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized placebo trial, the effect of the powdered rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was tested on seasickness. Eighty naval cadets, unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas reported during voyages on the high seas, symptoms of seasickness every hour for 4 consecutive hours after ingestion of 1 g of the drug or placebo. Ginger root reduced the tendency to vomiting and cold sweating significantly better than placebo did (p less than 0.05). With regard to vomiting, a modified Protection Index (PI) = 72% was calculated. Remarkably fewer symptoms of nausea and vertigo were reported after ginger root ingestion, but the difference was not statistically significant. For all symptom categories, PI = 38% was calculated. PMID:3277342

  2. Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

  3. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold. PMID:19747700

  4. Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rajeev, Antappa Govindaraju; Palatty, Princy L; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar S

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant advances and development of novel anti-emetics, nausea and vomiting (emesis) is a major side-effect of cancer chemotherapy. At times, severe nausea and vomiting may also lead to reduction in adherence to the treatment regimen, and this will concomitantly affect the patient's survival. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, is globally an important spice. It has been used for centuries in the Indian, Chinese, Arabic, Tibetan, Unani, and Siddha systems of traditional medicine to treat nausea and vomiting induced by different stimuli. Preclinical studies with experimental animals (dogs and rats) have shown that the various extracts of ginger and the ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Gingerol, the active principle, is also shown to possess anti-emetic effects in minks. However, with regard to humans, while most studies have been supportive of the preclinical observations, a few have been contradictory. The exact mechanism responsible for the anti-emetic effects of ginger is unknown; however, the ginger phytochemicals, especially 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol, may function as a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) antagonist, NK1 antagonist, antihistaminic, and possess prokinetic effects. The present review for the first time attempts to address the anti-emetic observations and the variability in response of the anti-emetic effects of ginger in cancer chemotherapy. An attempt is also made to address the lacunae in the published studies and emphasize aspects that need further investigations for ginger to be of use in clinics as an anti-emetic agent in the future. PMID:22540971

  5. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. PMID:25475843

  6. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  7. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

  8. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract’s effects on biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after

  9. Dandelion

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov Key References Dandelion. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June 9, 2009. Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  10. [Comparison on polysaccharide content and PMP-HPLC fingerprints of polysaccharide in stems and leaves of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gui-Fen; Pang, Min-Xia; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu

    2014-03-01

    In order to provide scientific basics for exploitation and sufficient application of Dendrobium officinale leaves resources, the phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content. The monosaccharides were derivated by PMP and the derivatives were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and the contents of mannose and glucose were determined simultaneously. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2004A) was employed to generate the mean chromatogram and similarity analysis of the samples was carried out. The results demonstrated that polysaccharide content, monosaccharide compositions and composition ratio had an obvious difference between stems and leaves. The polysaccharide content of stems was higher than that of leaves. Monosaccharide composition in leaf was significantly different from that in stem. The polysaccharide from stems was composed of mannose and glucose, however the polysaccharide of leaves was acid heteropolysaccharide and was mainly composed of five monosaccharides, including mannose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The similarity value of the 14 batches was above 0.9, indicating that similarity of fingerprints among different samples was high. The study can provide evidence for expanding the medicinal parts of D. officinale. PMID:25204167

  11. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) serum glucose and urea concentrations, increased (p<0.05) serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for β-cell dysfunction (HOMA-β) while the level of creatinine and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were not affected. Histological examination of the pancreas and kidney revealed restoration of the structural derangements caused by streptozotocin in the polyphenol extracts treated diabetic rats compared to the control groups. Therefore, polyphenols from Zingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats. PMID:26349770

  12. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    PubMed

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

  13. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. PMID:23905021

  14. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  15. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  16. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

  17. Taraxacum mongolicum extract exhibits a protective effect on hepatocytes and an antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus in animal and human cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Guan, Rong-Fa; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhao, Yu

    2014-04-01

    In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically-injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that TME at 50-100 µg/ml improved D-galactosamine (D-GalN), thioacetamide (TAA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-injured rat hepatocytes, and produced protection rates of 42.2, 34.6 and 43.8% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, TME at 1-100 µg/ml markedly inhibited DHBV DNA replication. Additionally, TME at 25-100 µg/ml reduced HBsAg and HBeAg levels and produced inhibition rates of 91.39 and 91.72% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. TME markedly inhibited HBV DNA replication at 25-100 µg/ml. The results demonstrate the potent antiviral effect of T. mongolicum against HBV effect. The protective of TME effect on hepatocytes may be achieved by its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antiviral properties of TME may contribute to blocking protein synthesis steps and DNA replication. Furthermore, major components of TME were quantificationally analyzed. These data provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of TME in the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:24481875

  18. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  19. Protective Effect of Zingiber Officinale against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis Is Mediated through Downregulating the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB/IĸB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Iman H; El-Desouky, M A; Hozayen, Walaa G; Abd el Aziz, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    No ideal hepatoprotective agents are available in modern medicine to effectively prevent liver disorders. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the potential of Zingiber officinale in the regression of liver fibrosis and its underlining mechanism of action. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats received CCl4 (2 ml/kg/2 times/week; i.p.), with and without 300 or 600 mg/kg Z. officinale extract daily through oral gavage. To assess the protective effect of Z. officinale, liver function parameters, histopathology, inflammatory markers and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB)/IĸB pathways were analyzed. Results demonstrate that Z. officinale extract markedly prevented liver injury as evident by the decreased liver marker enzymes. Concurrent administration of Z. officinale significantly protected against the CCl4-induced inflammation as showed by the decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as the downregulation of the NF-ĸB)/IĸB and TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways in CCl4-administered rats. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the protective effect of Z. officinale against rat liver fibrosis could be explained through its ability to modulate the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB)/IĸB signaling pathways. PMID:26551763

  20. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  1. Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dyab, Ahmad K; Yones, Doaa A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z; Hassan, Tasneem M

    2016-07-01

    Giardiosis is one of the common parasitic diarrhoea in humans, especially in children, worldwide. Many drugs are used for its treatment, but there is evidence of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and unpleasant side effects. Natural products are good candidates for discovering more effective anti-giardial compounds. This study evaluated the activity of extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (curcumin) against Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. Giardia cyst suspension was prepared from children faecal specimens. For the in vitro experiment, 1, 10 and 50 mg⁄mL dichloromethane extracts of ginger and curcumin separately were incubated with Giardia cysts for 5, 10, 30 and 60 min. The viability was distinguished by 0.1 % eosin and a haemocytometer. For the in vivo experiments, Balb/c mice were infected with Giardia cyst suspension containing 10,000 cysts/mL. Infected mice were administered 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ginger and curcumin extracts separately for 7 days post-infection. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated by faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts and histopathological examination of the small intestine. In vitro ginger extract had a higher significant effect on cyst viability than curcumin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo ginger (more effective) and curcumin extracts significantly treated infected mice, and this was evidenced by the faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts reduction, in addition to evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damages induced by Giardia infection. Z. officinale and C. longa extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiosis. PMID:26984104

  2. Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

    2012-06-20

    Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 μg/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 μg/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 μg/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 μg/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 μg/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 μg/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation. PMID:22656126

  3. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

  4. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C(18) cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C(18) column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0-6.8% and 2.0-7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7-7.4% and 1.5-8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  5. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  6. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations. PMID:25627826

  7. Weeds ability to phytoremediate cadmium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Parsa, Mehdi; Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan Rashed; Rahimi, Salman; Mijani, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method to other technologies to clean up the soil, air and water pollution by heavy metals is phytoremediation. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, in 2014 to determine the potential absorption of cadmium by Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane), Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade), Abutilon theophrasti (Velvetleaf) and Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion). The type of experiment was completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The soil in pot was treated with different rates of CdCl2.H2O (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Cd/kg soil) and the plants were sown. With increasing concentration levels, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots of all plant species were reduced. The reduction severity was ranked according the following order, P. oleracea > A. theophrasti > S. nigrum > T. officinale. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), Translocation factor (TF) and Translocation efficiency (TE%) was ranked according the following order, T. officinale > S. nigrum > A. theophrasti > P. oleracea. The results of this study revealed that T. officinale and S. nigrum are effective species to phytoremediate Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26125671

  8. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  9. Using Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  10. Armillaria root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  11. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  12. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  13. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  14. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

  15. Diversity in global gene expression and morphology across a watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) germplasm collection: first steps to breeding.

    PubMed

    Payne, Adrienne C; Clarkson, Graham J J; Rothwell, Steve; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a nutrient intense, leafy crop that is consumed raw or in soups across the globe, but for which, currently no genomic resources or breeding programme exists. Promising morphological, biochemical and functional genomic variation was identified for the first time in a newly established watercress germplasm collection, consisting of 48 watercress accessions sourced from contrasting global locations. Stem length, stem diameter and anti-oxidant (AO) potential varied across the accessions. This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis. Variation in global gene expression was investigated using an Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray gene chip, using the commercial control (C), an accession selected for dwarf phenotype with a high AO potential (dwarfAO, called 'Boldrewood') and one with high AO potential alone. A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism. In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress. This study provides the first analysis of natural variation across the watercress genome and has identified important underpinning information for future breeding for enhanced anti-carcinogenic properties and morphology traits in this nutrient-intense crop. PMID:26504575

  16. Diversity in global gene expression and morphology across a watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) germplasm collection: first steps to breeding

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Adrienne C.; Clarkson, Graham J.J.; Rothwell, Steve; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a nutrient intense, leafy crop that is consumed raw or in soups across the globe, but for which, currently no genomic resources or breeding programme exists. Promising morphological, biochemical and functional genomic variation was identified for the first time in a newly established watercress germplasm collection, consisting of 48 watercress accessions sourced from contrasting global locations. Stem length, stem diameter and anti-oxidant (AO) potential varied across the accessions. This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis. Variation in global gene expression was investigated using an Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray gene chip, using the commercial control (C), an accession selected for dwarf phenotype with a high AO potential (dwarfAO, called ‘Boldrewood’) and one with high AO potential alone. A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism. In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress. This study provides the first analysis of natural variation across the watercress genome and has identified important underpinning information for future breeding for enhanced anti-carcinogenic properties and morphology traits in this nutrient-intense crop. PMID:26504575

  17. Inhibition of gastric H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Siddaraju, Mugur N; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2007-03-01

    Ulcer is a common global problem characterized by acute gastric irritability, bleeding, etc. due to either increased gastric cell proton potassium ATPase activity (PPA) or perturbation of mucosal defence. Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a major ulcerogen in addition to oxidative stress and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this paper, we report ginger-free phenolic (GRFP) and ginger hydrolysed phenolic (GRHP) fractions of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as potent inhibitors of PPA and H. pylori growth. GRFP and GRHP inhibited PPA at an IC(50) of 2.9 +/- 0.18 and 1.5 +/- 0.12 microg/mL, exhibiting six- to eight-fold better potency over lansoprazole. GRFP is constituted by syringic (38%), gallic (18%) and cinnamic (14%) acids and GRHP by cinnamic (48%), p-coumaric (34%) and caffeic (6%) acids as major phenolic acids. GRFP and GRHP further exhibited free radical scavenging (IC(50) 1.7 +/- 0.07 and 2.5 +/- 0.16), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 3.6 +/- 0.21 and 5.2 +/- 0.46), DNA protection (80% at 4 microg) and reducing power abilities (80-338 U/g) indicating strong antioxidative properties. GRFP and GRHP may thus be potential in-expensive multistep blockers against ulcer. PMID:17295419

  18. Zingiber officinale (ginger) compounds have tetracycline-resistance modifying effects against clinical extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hsi-An; Huang, Wan-Chun; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chien, Hsin-Ju; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-12-01

    Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) is a growing and serious nosocomial infection worldwide, such that developing new agents against it is critical. The antimicrobial activities of the rhizomes from Zingiber officinale, known as ginger, have not been proven in clinical bacterial isolates with extensive drug-resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of four known components of ginger, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, against clinical XDRAB. All these compounds showed antibacterial effects against XDRAB. Combined with tetracycline, they showed good resistance modifying effects to modulate tetracycline resistance. Using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, these four ginger compounds demonstrated antioxidant properties, which were inhibited by MnO₂, an oxidant without antibacterial effects. After the antioxidant property was blocked, their antimicrobial effects were abolished significantly. These results indicate that ginger compounds have antioxidant effects that partially contribute to their antimicrobial activity and are candidates for use in the treatment of infections with XDRAB. PMID:20564496

  19. Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasuko; Goto, Hirozo; Kizu, Haruhisa; Okamoto, Tadashi; Asano, Naoki; Hollinshead, Jackie; Nash, Robert J; Adachi, Isao

    2006-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Scientific research has gradually verified the antidiabetic effects of ginger. Especially gingerols, which are the major components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes including the effect of enhancement against insulin-sensitivity. Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. The assay for aldose reductase inhibitors in ginger led to the isolation of five active compounds including 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (2) and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were good inhibitors of recombinant human aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 19.2 +/- 1.9 and 18.5 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds significantly suppressed not only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes but also lens galactitol accumulation in 30% of galactose-fed cataract rat model. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the applicable side alkyl chain length and the presence of a C3 OCH3 group in the aromatic ring are essential features for enzyme recognition and binding. These results suggested that it would contribute to the protection against or improvement of diabetic complications for a dietary supplement of ginger or its extract containing aldose reductase inhibitors. PMID:16939321

  20. Muco-bioadhesive containing ginger officinale extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Haghpanah, Parya; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Zarghami, Amin; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral mucosal lesions in the general population. Various treatment modalities have been used; but no specific therapy proved to be definitive. Ginger Officinale (ginger) indicated to have anti-inflammatory properties in herbal medicine. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ginger containing bioadhesive in the treatment of aphthous ulcers. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 15 patients were enrolled. The clinical efficacy of the mucoadhessive on pain, inflammatory zone and ulcer's diameter in the test period was compared with that of the base treatment and no treatment periods during 10 days of study. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed on day 5 between placebo (using base bioadhesives) and without treatment periods at the first phase of the study (4.53 vs. 3.27; P=0.038. ( Reduction in inflamed halo diameters was significant on day 1 between without treatment and ginger containing bioadhesives )46.73 vs 28.67; P=0.044). Other variables such as the diameter of ulcers did not indicate any significant differences in both periods. Conclusion: This study indicated that ginger bioadhesive is capable to relieve pain of RAS. However, its efficacy on ulcer diameter, inflamed halo and healing time was not significantly different compared to the results of the placebo received period. PMID:26221489

  1. Evaluation of Chloropicrin as a Soil Fumigant against Ralstonia solanacarum in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m−2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. PMID:24618853

  2. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

  3. Dose-Response Analysis of Factors Involved in Germination and Secondary Dormancy of Seeds of Sisymbrium officinale

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The germination of seeds of Sisymbrium officinale is light- and nitrate dependent. A close interaction between the effects of light and nitrate on germination has been reported previously (HWM Hilhorst, CM Karssen [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 591-597). In this study, a detailed dose-response analysis of the light-induced germination during induction of secondary dormancy is presented. Germination in water dropped from 90 to 0% after a dark incubation of 15°C of approximately 160 hours. In the presence of 25 millimolar KNO3, the decrease in germination level was delayed. At 24-hour intervals fluence-response curves were obtained in the presence of 25 millimolar KNO3. With increasing length of the preincubation period, fluence-response curves shifted along the abscissa to the right. After 120 hours the maximal germination level started to decline. The fluence-response curves were simulated by using formulations from receptor occupancy theory for a simple bimolecular reaction in which the reaction partners were Pfr and its tentative receptor X. A good simulation was obtained when cooperativity of the binding of Pfr to X was assumed. The experimental curve parameters could then be interpreted as binding parameters. PMID:16667801

  4. Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

    2001-03-01

    Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1). PMID:11455660

  5. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

  6. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. PMID:27474591

  7. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    PubMed

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. PMID:27596388

  8. Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation. PMID:25880800

  9. Is there a missing link? Effects of root herbivory on plant-pollinator interactions and reproductive output in a monocarpic species.

    PubMed

    Ghyselen, C; Bonte, D; Brys, R

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can have a major influence on plant fitness. The direct impact of herbivory on plant reproductive output has long been studied, and recently also indirect effects of herbivory on plant traits and pollinator attraction have received increasing attention. However, the link between these direct and indirect effects has seldom been studied. In this study, we investigated effects of root herbivory on plant and floral traits, pollination success and reproductive outcome in the monocarpic perennial Cynoglossum officinale. We exposed 119 C. officinale plants to a range of root herbivore damage by its specialist herbivore Mogulones cruciger. We assessed the effect of herbivory on several plant traits, pollinator foraging behaviour and reproductive output, and to elucidate the link between these last two we also quantified pollen deposition and pollen tube growth and applied a pollination experiment to test whether seed set was pollen-limited. Larval root herbivory induced significant changes in plant traits and had a negative impact on pollinator visitation. Infested plants were reduced in size, had fewer flowers and received fewer pollinator visits at plant and flower level than non-infested plants. Also, seed set was negatively affected by root herbivory, but this could not be attributed to pollen limitation since neither stigmatic pollen loads and pollen tube growth nor the results of the hand-pollination experiment differed between infested and non-infested plants. Our observations demonstrate that although herbivory may induce significant changes in flowering behaviour and resulting plant-pollinator interactions, it does not necessarily translate into higher rates of pollen limitation. The observed reductions in reproductive output following infection can mainly be attributed to higher resource limitation compared to non-infested plants. PMID:25731922

  10. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  11. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  12. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  13. Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

    2001-12-01

    Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

  14. Pythium Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium root rot is a disease that is found in agricultural and nursery soils throughout the United States and Canada. It is caused by several Pythium species, and the symptoms are typified by leaf or needle chlorosis, stunting, root rot, and plant death. The disease is favored by wet soils, overc...

  15. Root-knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) can reduce crop yields worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological and molecular features for distinguishing the ten major previously described root-knot nematode ...

  16. The Roots of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Yetta M.

    This review of research with children aged two to six on their reading, writing, and oral language development speaks of five roots of a tree of literate life that require nourishment in the soil of a written language environment. The roots discussed are the development of print awareness in situational contexts, the development of print awareness…

  17. Cylindrocarpon root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocarpon root rot of alfalfa has been found sporadically in Canada and the northern United States. The etiology of this disease is not fully understood, but the priority for research has not been high because of its infrequent occurrence. The infected area of the root initially has a water-soa...

  18. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  19. Trees and Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    Constructing a family history can be significant in helping persons understand and appreciate the root system that supports and sustains them. Oral history can be a valuable resource in family research as Alex Haley demonstrated in writing "Roots." The major difficulty of using oral tradition in tracing a family history is that family members with…

  20. Sugarbeet root aphid on postharvest root storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarbeet root aphid (SBRA), Pemphigus betae Doane, is a serious insect pest of sugarbeet in several North American sugarbeet production areas; however, it is rarely an economic pest in the Red River Valley (RRV). In 2012 and 2013, all RRV factory districts were impacted by SBRA outbreaks, and ...

  1. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  2. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. PMID:26177929

  3. Effects of crude extracts from medicinal herbs Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale on growth and proliferation of human brain cancer cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    Hitherto, limited clinical impact has been achieved in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBMs). Although phytochemicals found in medicinal herbs can provide mankind with new therapeutic remedies, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials. Therefore, combinations of several agents at once are gaining increasing attractiveness. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crude alkaloid (CAERS) and flavonoid (CFEZO) extracts prepared from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale, respectively, on the growth of human GBM cell line, U251. R. stricta and Z. officinale are traditionally used in folkloric medicine and have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Combination of CAERS and CFEZO treatments synergistically suppressed proliferation and colony formation and effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis in U251 cells. Apoptosis induction was mediated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, increased Bax : Bcl-2 ratio, enhanced activities of caspase-3 and -9, and PARP-1 cleavage. CAERS and CFEZO treatments decreased expression levels of nuclear NF-κBp65, survivin, XIAP, and cyclin D1 and increased expression level of p53, p21, and Noxa. These results suggest that combination of CAERS and CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of GBM. PMID:25136570

  4. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  5. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  6. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. PMID:20002065

  7. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  8. Reading with Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret I.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends a method of teaching Russian vocabulary that focuses on new words in context and on their structure: root, prefix, suffix, sound changes, and borrowings. Sources for teachers are given in the bibliography. (LMO)

  9. Roots in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Cody, M L

    1986-09-01

    In 1727 the pioneer vegetation scientist Stephen Hales realized that I much that was of importance to his subject material took place below on ground. A good deal of descriptive work on plant roots and root systems was done in the subsequent two centuries; in crop plants especially, the gross morphology of root systems was well known by the early 20th century. These descriptive studies were extended to natural grasslands by Weaver and his associates and to deserts by Cannon by the second decade of this century, but since that time the study of subterranean growth form appears to have lapsed, as a recent review by Kummerow indicates. Nevertheless, growth form is an important aspect of plant ecology, and subterranean growth form is especially relevant to the study of vegetation in and areas (which is the main subject of this commentary). Moreover, there is a real need for more research to be directed towards understanding plant root systems in general. PMID:21227785

  10. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres. PMID:25795090

  11. The phenomenology of rooting.

    PubMed

    Kerievsky, Bruce Stephen

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the attractions of passionate involvement in wanting particular outcomes, which is popularly known as rooting. The author's lifelong personal experience is the source of his analysis, along with the insights provided by spiritual literature and especially the work of Dr. Thomas Hora, with whom the author studied for 30 years. The phrase "choiceless awareness," utilized by J. Krishnamurti, and attained via meditation, is seen as the means of transcending a rooting mode of being in the world. PMID:20165983

  12. Effect of CO2 Enrichment on Synthesis of Some Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol−1) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 μmol mol−1 CO2. Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO2 concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol−1). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes > stems > leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO2. The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol−1) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 μmol Fe (II)/g) and α-tocopherol (953 μmol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 μmol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant

  13. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

    2013-03-01

    Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for

  14. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  15. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. RESULTS: Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 μg/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 μg/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 μg/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin

  16. The root economics spectrum: divergence of absorptive root strategies with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D.; Wang, J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X.; Deng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Plant roots usually vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum (RES), depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root strategies as predicted from the RES shift with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven contrasting plant species for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (< 247 μm diameter) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a~range of root traits closely related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed that trait relationships for thin absorptive roots followed the expectations from the RES while no clear trait relationships were found in support of the RES for thick absorptive roots. Our results suggest divergence of absorptive root strategies in relation to root diameter, which runs against a single economics spectrum for absorptive roots.

  17. Root architecture and root and tuber crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Villordon, Arthur Q; Ginzberg, Idit; Firon, Nurit

    2014-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that optimization of root architecture for resource capture is vital for enabling the next green revolution. Although cereals provide half of the calories consumed by humans, root and tuber crops are the second major source of carbohydrates globally. Yet, knowledge of root architecture in root and tuber species is limited. In this opinion article, we highlight what is known about the root system in root and tuber crops, and mark new research directions towards a better understanding of the relation between root architecture and yield. We believe that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems. PMID:24630073

  18. Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Rendon, Pedro; Hernandez, Emilio; Salgado, Sergio; McInnis, Donald; Villalobos, Ethel; Liedo, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed) or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males (reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed. PMID:14503584

  19. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  20. Identification and concentration of some flavonoid components in Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) varieties by a high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-09-01

    Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%), and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1%) as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed high activities (65.7%) in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine. PMID:20877219

  1. The seasonal dynamics of yeast communities in the rhizosphere of soddy-podzolic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubtsova, Yu. V.; Glushakova, A. M.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2007-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast was studied in the rhizosphere of two plant species (Ajuga reptans L. and Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) in a forb-birch forest on soddy-podzolic soil. Eurybiont phyllobasidial cryptococci and red-pigmented phytobionts Rhodotorula glutinis were found to predominate in the phyllosphere of these plants, whereas the typical pedobionts Cryptococcus terricola and Cr. podzolicus occurred on the surface of roots and in the rhizosphere. The seasonal changes in the number and species composition of the yeast communities in the rhizosphere were more smooth as compared to those in the phyllosphere. In the period of active vegetation of the plants, the phytobiont yeasts develop over their whole surface, including the rhizoplane. Their number on the aboveground parts of the plants was significantly lower than that of the pedobiont forms. Thus, the above-and underground parts of the plants significantly differed in the composition of the dominant species of epiphytic yeasts.

  2. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  3. "Roots": Medium and Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnamon, Keneth

    A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison of the…

  4. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  5. Great Plains Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

  6. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

  7. Fine root turnover: a story of root production and root phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M. L.; Adams, T. S.; Smithwick, E. A.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fine root turnover in terrestrial ecosystems partially controls carbon flow from plants into soils as well the amount of roots available for nutrient and water uptake. However, we have poor understanding of basic patterns and variability in fine root turnover. We address this shortfall through the use of a heuristic model and analysis of a multi-year minirhizotron dataset exploring the impacts of fine root phenology and production on fine root turnover rates across 12 temperate tree species in a common garden experiment. The heuristic model allowed us to calculate fine root turnover given different patterns of root production and different fine root lifespans. Using the model we found that patterns of phenology characterized by a single, concentrated peak resulted in slower calculated root turnover rates while broader and bi-modal production patterns resulted in faster turnover rates. For example, for roots with median lifespans of 91 days, estimates of root turnover increased from 1.5 yr-1 to 4.0 yr-1 between the pattern of concentrated root production and the pattern with root production spread equally throughout the year. Turnover rates observed in the common garden ranged from 0.75 yr-1 to 1.33 yr-1 and 0.93 yr-1 to 2.14 yr-1 when calculated as annual production divided by maximum standing root crop or average standing root crop, respectively. Turnover varied significantly across species and interannual variability in root production and turnover was high. Patterns of root phenology observed at the common garden included concentrated root production in late spring as well as several examples of bi-modal and broader patterns of root production with roots produced across spring, summer and fall. Overall, both phenology and total root production impacted estimates of root turnover, particularly for short-lived fine roots with median lifespans of less than one year. Our results suggest that better understanding fine root phenology and production will improve our

  8. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  9. Root canal retained restorations: 3. Root-face attachments.

    PubMed

    Dummer, P M; Edmunds, D H; Gidden, J R

    1990-10-01

    It has been common practice for many years to use retained roots to provide support and stability for partial or full dentures. The retention of such overdentures is greatly enhanced if the remaining roots are modified and restored with posts and root-face attachments. The final article in this series on root canal retained restorations classifies and describes some of the root-face attachments currently available, and also describes a number of prefabricated post systems with integral overdenture attachments. Guidelines for clinical and laboratory procedures are given. PMID:2097234

  10. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots.

    PubMed

    Shen, W H; Petit, A; Guern, J; Tempé, J

    1988-05-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928