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Sample records for target memory holds

  1. Hold it! memory affects attentional dwell time

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this effect depended on the ongoing memory context. Specifically, items that were unique in terms of memory status demanded more resources, as measured by a protracted AB. The present findings suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of memory’s effects on attention can be obtained by accounting for an item’s memorial context, as well as its individual item memory strength. Our results provide new evidence that item memory and memory context play a significant role in the temporal allocation of attention. PMID:19001579

  2. Hold-up power supply for flash memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A hold-up power supply for flash memory systems is provided. The hold-up power supply provides the flash memory with the power needed to temporarily operate when a power loss exists. This allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows it to shut down gracefully. The hold-up power supply detects when a power loss on a power supply bus is occurring and supplies the power needed for the flash memory system to temporally operate. The hold-up power supply stores power in at least one capacitor. During normal operation, power from a high voltage supply bus is used to charge the storage capacitors. When a power supply loss is detected, the power supply bus is disconnected from the flash memory system. A hold-up controller controls the power flow from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. The hold-up controller uses feedback to assure that the proper voltage is provided from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. This power supplied by the storage capacitors allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows the flash memory system to shut down gracefully.

  3. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  4. Memory as a new therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver; Lanius, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to demonstrate how an understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in memory provides a basis for; (i) reconceptualizing some mental disorders; (ii) refining existing therapeutic tools; and (iii) designing new ones for targeting processes that maintain these disorders. First, some of the stages which a memory undergoes are defined, and the clinical relevance of an understanding of memory processing by the brain is discussed. This is followed by a brief review of some of the clinical studies that have targeted memory processes. Finally, some new insights provided by the field of neuroscience with implications for conceptualizing mental disorders are presented. PMID:24459414

  5. Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

  6. Emotion Causes Targeted Forgetting of Established Memories

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Bryan A.; Kroes, Marijn C. W.; Fan, Judith E.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least 6 days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval. PMID:21191439

  7. Does working memory load facilitate target detection?

    PubMed

    Fruchtman-Steinbok, Tom; Kessler, Yoav

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increasing working memory (WM) load delays performance of a concurrent task, by distracting attention and thus interfering with encoding and maintenance processes. The present study used a version of the change detection task with a target detection requirement during the retention interval. In contrast to the above prediction, target detection was faster following a larger set-size, specifically when presented shortly after the memory array (up to 400ms). The effect of set-size on target detection was also evident when no memory retention was required. The set-size effect was also found using different modalities. Moreover, it was only observed when the memory array was presented simultaneously, but not sequentially. These results were explained by increased phasic alertness exerted by the larger visual display. The present study offers new evidence of ongoing attentional processes in the commonly-used change detection paradigm. PMID:26705899

  8. Influence of strain-holding conditions on shape recovery and secondary-shape forming in polyurethane-shape memory polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.; Hoshio, K.; Miwa, N.

    2006-08-01

    It was found in previous work on the thermomechanical properties of the polyurethane-shape memory polymer foam that the shape fixity and shape recovery become imperfect and that secondary-shape forming appears, depending on the strain-holding conditions. The main factors of the strain-holding conditions which affect the secondary-shape forming are the holding temperature, holding time and holding strain. In the present study, the influence of the strain-holding conditions on the shape recovery and secondary-shape forming was investigated for the polyurethane-shape memory polymer film. It was found that the secondary-shape forming appears markedly if the holding temperature is higher than the glass transition temperature and does not appear if the holding temperature is lower than the glass transition temperature. The rate of secondary-shape forming increases with an increase in the holding time if the holding temperature is higher than the glass transition temperature. The irrecoverable strain increases in proportion to the holding strain.

  9. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS: HDice-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, M. M.; Bass, C. D.; D`Angelo, A.; Deur, A.; Dezern, G.; Hanretty, C.; Ho, D.; Kageya, T.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Laine, V.; O`Connell, T.; Pastor, O.; Peng, P.; Sandorfi, A. M.; Sokhan, D.; Wei, X.; Zarecky, M.

    2016-04-01

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a 3/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). The device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 T for extended periods. These characteristics enabled multi-month polarization lifetimes for frozen spin HD targets having proton polarization of up to 50% and deuteron up to 27%.

  10. TORC2: a novel target for treating age-associated memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer L.; Huang, Wei; Roman, Gregg; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Memory decline is one of the greatest health threats of the twenty-first century. Because of the widespread increase in life expectancy, 20 percent of the global population will be over 60 in 2050 and the problems caused by age-related memory loss will be dramatically aggravated. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this inevitable process are not well understood. Here we show that the activity of the recently discovered mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) declines with age in the brain of both fruit flies and rodents and that the loss of mTORC2-mediated actin polymerization contributes to age-associated memory loss. Intriguingly, treatment with a small molecule that activates mTORC2 (A-443654) reverses long-term memory (LTM) deficits in both aged mice and flies. In addition, we found that pharmacologically boosting either mTORC2 or actin polymerization enhances LTM. In contrast to the current approaches to enhance memory that have primarily targeted the regulation of gene expression (epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational), our data points to a novel, evolutionarily conserved mechanism for restoring memory that is dependent on structural plasticity. These insights into the molecular basis of age-related memory loss may hold promise for new treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26489398

  11. Autobiographical Memory Disturbances in Depression: A Novel Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Cristiano A.; Carvalho, André F.; Alves, Gilberto S.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Hyphantis, Thomas N.; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a dysfunctional processing of autobiographical memories. We review the following core domains of deficit: systematic biases favoring materials of negative emotional valence; diminished access and response to positive memories; a recollection of overgeneral memories in detriment of specific autobiographical memories; and the role of ruminative processes and avoidance when dealing with autobiographical memories. Furthermore, we review evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of neural circuits activated by the recollection of autobiographical memories in both healthy and depressive individuals. Disruptions in autobiographical memories predispose and portend onset and maintenance of depression. Thus, we discuss emerging therapeutics that target memory difficulties in those with depression. We review strategies for this clinical domain, including memory specificity training, method-of-loci, memory rescripting, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in depression. We propose that the manipulation of the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories in depression might represent a novel yet largely unexplored, domain-specific, therapeutic opportunity for depression treatment. PMID:26380121

  12. Target Context Specification Can Reduce Costs in Nonfocal Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Joana S.; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task…

  13. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    PubMed Central

    Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

  14. A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

  15. Targeting memory improvement in assisted living: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristine N

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tested an intervention designed to improve memory for assisted-living (AL) residents. Seven residents in one Midwestern AL facility participated in a six-session memory program based on qualitative research that identified typical memory challenges of residents (e.g., remembering names, schedules, and appointments). Scores on memory self-efficacy (the Memory Complaint in Age-Associated Impairment) and performance (Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) measures were compared before and after the intervention. Self-efficacy improved significantly after the program (z = 2.37, p = .018) for remembering names, phone numbers, lists of items, and facts. Increases in actual memory performance were not statistically significant. However, three out of seven participants (43%) improved in recalling first and last names. Ongoing testing on larger samples with a control group design is needed to verify effects and determine any effects on daily functioning. This study suggests that cognitive interventions targeting frail elder populations are feasible to provide to older adults in AL. PMID:22073501

  16. Targeting Memory Improvement in Assisted Living: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study tested an intervention designed to improve memory for Assisted Living (AL) residents. Seven residents in one midwestern AL facility participated in a 6-session memory program based on qualitative research that identified typical memory challenges of residents (remembering names, schedules, and appointments). Scores on memory self-efficacy (the Memory Complaint in Age-Associated Impairment [MAC-Q]) and performance (Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) measures were compared before and after the intervention. Self-efficacy improved significantly after the program (z = 2.37, p = .018) for remembering names, phone numbers, lists of items, and facts. Increases in actual memory performance were not statistically significant. However, three out of seven participants (43%) improved in recalling first and/or last names. Ongoing testing on larger samples with a control group design is needed to verify effects and to determine any effects on daily functioning. This study suggests that cognitive interventions targeting frail elder populations are feasible to provide to older adults in AL. PMID:22073501

  17. Modeling Criterion Shifts and Target Checking in Prospective Memory Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2015-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the…

  18. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  19. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Depends on Prior Learning

    PubMed Central

    Creery, Jessica D.; Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: When sounds associated with learning are presented again during slow-wave sleep, targeted memory reactivation (TMR) can produce improvements in subsequent location recall. Here we used TMR to investigate memory consolidation during an afternoon nap as a function of prior learning. Participants: Twenty healthy individuals (8 male, 19–23 y old). Measurements and Results: Participants learned to associate each of 50 common objects with a unique screen location. When each object appeared, its characteristic sound was played. After electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes were applied, location recall was assessed for each object, followed by a 90-min interval for sleep. During EEG-verified slow-wave sleep, half of the sounds were quietly presented over white noise. Recall was assessed 3 h after initial learning. A beneficial effect of TMR was found in the form of higher recall accuracy for cued objects compared to uncued objects when pre-sleep accuracy was used as an explanatory variable. An analysis of individual differences revealed that this benefit was greater for participants with higher pre-sleep recall accuracy. In an analysis for individual objects, cueing benefits were apparent as long as initial recall was not highly accurate. Sleep physiology analyses revealed that the cueing benefit correlated with delta power and fast spindle density. Conclusions: These findings substantiate the use of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) methods for manipulating consolidation during sleep. TMR can selectively strengthen memory storage for object-location associations learned prior to sleep, except for those near-perfectly memorized. Neural measures found in conjunction with TMR-induced strengthening provide additional evidence about mechanisms of sleep consolidation. Citation: Creery JD, Oudiette D, Antony JW, Paller KA. Targeted memory reactivation during sleep depends on prior learning. SLEEP 2015;38(5):755–763. PMID:25515103

  20. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Christopher K.; Maynard, George D.; Kehne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Areas covered Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Expert opinion Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment. PMID:22834476

  1. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  2. Development of a superconducting transverse holding magnet for the HI?S frozen spin target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, P.-N.; Crabb, D. G.; Miskimen, R.; Seely, M.; Weller, H. R.

    2010-06-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of a set of saddle coils used to maintain the spin of a polarized proton target in the transverse direction with respect to the incident gamma-ray beam direction. The transverse coil assembly consists of two racetrack shaped coils formed from a single strand of thin NbTi superconducting wire. Four layers of NbTi per saddle coil were wet wound in a racetrack shape and then installed on a cylindrical support tube and epoxyed to prevent them from moving when the coils were energized. As expected from our model calculation, a set of two saddle coils produced 0.36 T in the middle of the coils with a 25 A current at 4 K, which is 63% of the critical current of the wire. The measured homogeneity of the field over the target volume has a maximum variation from the average value of 0.6%.

  3. Targeting specific molecular pathways holds promise for advanced gallbladder cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bizama, Carolina; García, Patricia; Espinoza, Jaime A; Weber, Helga; Leal, Pamela; Nervi, Bruno; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. The complete surgical resection is the only potentially curative approach in early stage; however, most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages and the response to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is extremely limited, with modest impact in overall survival. The recent progress in understanding the molecular alterations of gallbladder cancer has shown great promise for the development of more effective treatment strategies. This has mainly resulted from the identification of molecular alterations in relevant intracellular signaling pathways-Hedgehog, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Notch, ErbB, MAPK and angiogenesis-which are potential tailored targets for gallbladder cancer patients. This review discusses the recent remarkable progress in understanding the molecular alterations that represent novel prognosis molecular markers and therapeutic targets for gallbladder cancer, which will provide opportunities for research and for developing innovative strategies that may enhance the benefit of conventional chemotherapy, or eventually modify the fatal natural history of this orphan disease. PMID:25639632

  4. Targeting memory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Mario R; Rigby, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Compared to healthy controls, a characteristic feature of patients with T1D is the presence of self-reactive T cells with a memory phenotype. These autoreactive memory T cells in both the CD4(+) and CD8(+) compartments are likely to be long-lived, strongly responsive to antigenic stimulation with less dependence on costimulation for activation and clonal expansion, and comparatively resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs) or downregulation by immune-modulating agents. Persistence of autoreactive memory T cells likely contributes to the difficulty in preventing disease progression in new-onset T1D and maintaining allogeneic islet transplants by regular immunosuppressive regimens. The majority of immune interventions that have demonstrated some success in preserving beta cell function in the new-onset period have been shown to deplete or modulate memory T cells. Based on these and other considerations, preservation of residual beta cells early after diagnosis or restoration of beta cell mass by use of stem cell or transplantation technology will require a successful strategy to control the autoreactive memory T cell compartment, which could include depletion, inhibition of homeostatic cytokines, induction of hyporesponsiveness, or a combination of these approaches. PMID:26370695

  5. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25620694

  6. Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

    2006-01-01

    The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

  7. The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; McVay, Jennifer C.; McConnell, Melissa D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions…

  8. Dnmts and Tet target memory-associated genes after appetitive olfactory training in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Biergans, Stephanie D.; Giovanni Galizia, C.; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation are epigenetic mechanisms involved in memory formation. In honey bees DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) function is necessary for long-term memory to be stimulus specific (i.e. to reduce generalization). So far, however, it remains elusive which genes are targeted and what the time-course of DNA methylation is during memory formation. Here, we analyse how DNA methylation affects memory retention, gene expression, and differential methylation in stimulus-specific olfactory long-term memory formation. Out of 30 memory-associated genes investigated here, 9 were upregulated following Dnmt inhibition in trained bees. These included Dnmt3 suggesting a negative feedback loop for DNA methylation. Within these genes also the DNA methylation pattern changed during the first 24 hours after training. Interestingly, this was accompanied by sequential activation of the DNA methylation machinery (i.e. Dnmts and Tet). In sum, memory formation involves a temporally complex epigenetic regulation of memory-associated genes that facilitates stimulus specific long-term memory in the honey bee. PMID:26531238

  9. Dnmts and Tet target memory-associated genes after appetitive olfactory training in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Biergans, Stephanie D; Giovanni Galizia, C; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation are epigenetic mechanisms involved in memory formation. In honey bees DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) function is necessary for long-term memory to be stimulus specific (i.e. to reduce generalization). So far, however, it remains elusive which genes are targeted and what the time-course of DNA methylation is during memory formation. Here, we analyse how DNA methylation affects memory retention, gene expression, and differential methylation in stimulus-specific olfactory long-term memory formation. Out of 30 memory-associated genes investigated here, 9 were upregulated following Dnmt inhibition in trained bees. These included Dnmt3 suggesting a negative feedback loop for DNA methylation. Within these genes also the DNA methylation pattern changed during the first 24 hours after training. Interestingly, this was accompanied by sequential activation of the DNA methylation machinery (i.e. Dnmts and Tet). In sum, memory formation involves a temporally complex epigenetic regulation of memory-associated genes that facilitates stimulus specific long-term memory in the honey bee. PMID:26531238

  10. The Promoter Targeting Sequence mediates epigenetically heritable transcription memory

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Chen, Qi; Lin, Lan; Zhou, Jumin

    2004-01-01

    Large gene complexes frequently use “specialized” DNA elements to ensure proper regulation of gene activities. The Promoter Targeting Sequence (PTS) from the Abdominal-B locus of the Drosophila Bithorax complex overcomes an insulator, and facilitates, yet restricts, distant enhancers to a single promoter. We found that this promoter-targeting activity is independent of an enhancer's tissue or temporal specificity, and can be remembered in all somatic cells in the absence of promoter activation. It requires an insulator for its establishment, but can be maintained by the PTS in the absence of an insulator. More importantly, the promoter-targeting activity can be remembered after the transgene is translocated to new chromosomal locations. These results suggest that promoter targeting is established independent of enhancer activity, and is maintained epigenetically throughout development and subsequent generations. PMID:15520283

  11. Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Drew, Trafton; Sherman, Ashley; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-11-01

    The resolution of temporal attention is limited in a manner that makes it difficult to identify two targets in short succession. This limitation produces the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), in which processing of a first target (T1) impairs identification of a second target (T2). In the AB literature, there is broad agreement that increasing the time it takes to process T1 leads to a larger AB. One might, therefore, predict that increasing the number of possible T1 identities, or target set, from 1 to 16 would lead to a larger AB. We were surprised to find that this manipulation of T1 difficulty had no influence on AB magnitude. In subsequent experiments, we found that AB magnitude interacts with T1 processing time only under certain circumstances. Specifically, when the T1 task was either well masked or had to be completed online, we found a reliable interaction between AB magnitude and the target set size. When neither of these conditions was fulfilled, there was no interaction between target set size and the AB. Previous research found that when the target set changes from trial to trial, trials with more possible targets elicited a larger AB. In the present study, the target set is held constant, reducing the demands on working memory. Nevertheless, AB magnitude still interacts with target set size, as long as the T1 task cannot be processed offline. Thus, the act of searching memory delays subsequent processing, even when the role of working memory has been minimized. PMID:24961882

  12. Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Trafton; Sherman, Ashley; Boettcher, Sage; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    The resolution of temporal attention is limited in a manner that makes it difficult to identify two targets in short succession. This limitation produces the phenomenon known as the Attentional Blink (AB) in which processing of a first target (T1) impairs identification of a second target (T2). In the AB literature, there is broad agreement that increasing the time it takes to process T1 leads to a larger AB. One might therefore predict that increasing the number of possible T1 identities, or target set, from 1 to 16 would lead to a larger AB. We were surprised to find that this manipulation of T1 difficulty had no influence on AB magnitude. In subsequent experiments, we found that AB magnitude only interacts with T1 processing time under certain circumstances. Specifically, when the T1 task was either well masked or had to be completed online, we found a reliable interaction between AB magnitude and the target set size. When neither of these conditions was fulfilled, there was no interaction between target set size and the AB. Previous research found that when the target set changes from trial to trial, trials with more possible targets elicited a larger AB. In the current study the target set is held constant, reducing the demands on working memory. Nevertheless, AB magnitude still interacts with target set size, as long as the T1 task cannot be processed offline. Thus, the act of searching memory delays subsequent processing, even when the role of working memory has been minimized. PMID:24961882

  13. Targeting Antigen to Clec9A Primes Follicular Th Cell Memory Responses Capable of Robust Recall.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yu; Zaid, Ali; Davey, Gayle M; Mueller, Scott N; Nutt, Stephen L; Zotos, Dimitra; Tarlinton, David M; Shortman, Ken; Lahoud, Mireille H; Heath, William R; Caminschi, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Targeting Ags to dendritic cell (DC) surface receptors can induce a variety of responses depending on the DC type targeted, the receptor targeted, and the adjuvant used. Clec9A (DNGR-1), which is expressed by CD8(+) DCs, has been shown to bind F-actin exposed on damaged cells. Targeting Ag to this receptor in mice and nonhuman primates induces strong humoral immunity even in the absence of adjuvant, a process seen for a few select DC receptors. In contrast with other receptors, however, targeting Clec9A induces long-lived, affinity-matured Ab responses that are associated with efficient CD4(+) T cell responses shown to possess properties of follicular Th cells (TFH). In this article, we provide definitive evidence that Clec9A targeting promotes the development of TFH by showing that responding CD4 T cells express CXCR5, PD1, the TFH transcription factor Bcl6, and the cytokine IL-21, and that these cells localize to germinal centers. Furthermore, we extend studies from the model Ag OVA to the viral Ag glycoprotein D of HSV-1 and examine the capacity of primed TFH to form functional memory. We show that targeting glycoprotein D to Clec9A even in the absence of adjuvant induced long-lived memory CXCR5(+) PD1(hi) CD4(+) T cells that proliferated extensively upon secondary challenge and rapidly developed into effector TFH. This was associated with enhanced germinal center B cell responses and accelerated Ab production. Our study indicates that targeting Ags to Clec9A in the absence of adjuvant routinely generates TFH responses that form long-lived memory capable of robust secondary TFH responses. PMID:26101322

  14. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  15. Targeting Atmospheric Simulation Algorithms for Large Distributed Memory GPU Accelerated Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Computing platforms are increasingly moving to accelerated architectures, and here we deal particularly with GPUs. In [15], a method was developed for atmospheric simulation to improve efficiency on large distributed memory machines by reducing communication demand and increasing the time step. Here, we improve upon this method to further target GPU accelerated platforms by reducing GPU memory accesses, removing a synchronization point, and better clustering computations. The modification ran over two times faster in some cases even though more computations were required, demonstrating the merit of improving memory handling on the GPU. Furthermore, we discover that the modification also has a near 100% hit rate in fast on-chip L1 cache and discuss the reasons for this. In concluding, we remark on further potential improvements to GPU efficiency.

  16. Psychopharmacology and memory.

    PubMed

    Glannon, W

    2006-02-01

    Psychotropic and other drugs can alter brain mechanisms regulating the formation, storage, and retrieval of different types of memory. These include "off label" uses of existing drugs and new drugs designed specifically to target the neural bases of memory. This paper discusses the use of beta-adrenergic antagonists to prevent or erase non-conscious pathological emotional memories in the amygdala. It also discusses the use of novel psychopharmacological agents to enhance long term semantic and short term working memory by altering storage and retrieval mechanisms in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Although intervention in the brain to alter memory as therapy or enhancement holds considerable promise, the long term effects of experimental drugs on the brain and memory are not known. More studies are needed to adequately assess the potential benefits and risks of these interventions. PMID:16446410

  17. Psychopharmacology and memory

    PubMed Central

    Glannon, W

    2006-01-01

    Psychotropic and other drugs can alter brain mechanisms regulating the formation, storage, and retrieval of different types of memory. These include “off label” uses of existing drugs and new drugs designed specifically to target the neural bases of memory. This paper discusses the use of beta?adrenergic antagonists to prevent or erase non?conscious pathological emotional memories in the amygdala. It also discusses the use of novel psychopharmacological agents to enhance long term semantic and short term working memory by altering storage and retrieval mechanisms in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Although intervention in the brain to alter memory as therapy or enhancement holds considerable promise, the long term effects of experimental drugs on the brain and memory are not known. More studies are needed to adequately assess the potential benefits and risks of these interventions. PMID:16446410

  18. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  19. Extending the Memory of Microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Memory increased while retaining real-time capabilities. Extra memory capacity added to microprocessor without increasing memory address length and special transfer instructions by dedicating block of space in main memory to hold addresses of locations in extra memory.

  20. Breath-Hold Target Localization With Simultaneous Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Fast Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Blessing, Manuel; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Arns, Anna; Lohr, Frank; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy for small lung tumors has typically been based on stereotaxy. Cone-beam computed tomography and breath-hold techniques have provided a noninvasive basis for precise cranial and extracranial patient positioning. The cone-beam computed tomography acquisition time of 60 s, however, is beyond the breath-hold capacity of patients, resulting in respiratory motion artifacts. By combining megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photon sources (mounted perpendicularly on the linear accelerator) and accelerating the gantry rotation to the allowed limit, the data acquisition time could be reduced to 15 s. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Synergy 6-MV linear accelerator, with iViewGT as the MV- and XVI as the kV-imaging device, was used with a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Both image sources performed continuous image acquisition, passing an angle interval of 90{sup o} within 15 s. For reconstruction, filtered back projection on a graphics processor unit was used. It reconstructed 100 projections acquired to a 512 x 512 x 512 volume within 6 s. Results: The resolution in the Catphan phantom (CTP528 high-resolution module) was 3 lines/cm. The spatial accuracy was within 2-3 mm. The diameters of different tumor shapes in the thorax phantom were determined within an accuracy of 1.6 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio was 68% less than that with a 180{sup o}-kV scan. The dose generated to acquire the MV frames accumulated to 82.5 mGy, and the kV contribution was <6 mGy. Conclusion: The present results have shown that fast breath-hold, on-line volume imaging with a linear accelerator using simultaneous kV-MV cone-beam computed tomography is promising and can potentially be used for image-guided radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in the near future.

  1. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Calabresi, Peter A.; Allie, Rameeza; Yun, Sung; Pennington, Michael; Beeton, Christine; Chandy, K. George

    2003-01-01

    Through a combination of fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp analysis we have identified a striking alteration in K+ channel expression in terminally differentiated human CCR7–CD45RA– effector memory T lymphocytes (TEM). Following activation, TEM cells expressed significantly higher levels of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 and lower levels of the calcium-activated K+ channel IKCa1 than naive and central memory T cells (TCM). Upon repeated in vitro antigenic stimulation, naive cells differentiated into Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM cells, and the potent Kv1.3-blocking sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus peptide (ShK) suppressed proliferation of TEM cells without affecting naive or TCM lymphocytes. Thus, the Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype is a functional marker of activated TEM lymphocytes. Activated myelin-reactive T cells from patients with MS exhibited the Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM phenotype, suggesting that they have undergone repeated stimulation during the course of disease; these cells may contribute to disease pathogenesis due to their ability to home to inflamed tissues and exhibit immediate effector function. The Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype was not seen in glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin-peptide or ovalbumin-specific and mitogen-activated T cells from MS patients, or in myelin-specific T cells from healthy controls. Selective targeting of Kv1.3 in TEM cells may therefore hold therapeutic promise for MS and other T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:12782673

  2. Pre-Experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and…

  3. Training Improves the Capacity of Visual Working Memory When It Is Adaptive, Individualized, and Targeted

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eunsam; Lee, Hunjae; Yoo, Sang-Ah; Chong, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether training improves the capacity of visual working memory using individualized adaptive training methods. Two groups of participants were trained for two targeted processes, filtering and consolidation. Before and after the training, the participants, including those with no training, performed a lateralized change detection task in which one side of the visual display had to be selected and the other side ignored. Across ten-day training sessions, the participants performed two modified versions of the lateralized change detection task. The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively. Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group. These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted. PMID:25836651

  4. Remembered but Unused: The Accessory Items in Working Memory that Do Not Guide Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2009-01-01

    If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects while they maintained a second item in memory for…

  5. Identifying Molecular Targets for New Drug Development for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: What Does the Future Hold?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    There is an urgent need to develop more effective therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that target the underlying inflammatory disease process. Current therapies with long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids fail to prevent either disease progression or mortality, as they do not suppress the underlying inflammation. With better understanding of the inflammatory and destructive process in the pathophysiology of COPD, several new therapeutic targets have been identified. Several mediator antagonists or inhibitors tested in COPD have so far been disappointing. Broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs may be more effective, and include inhibitors of the proinflammatory enzymes phosphodiesterase-4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus-activated kinases, NF-?B kinase, and PI3kinase-? and -?, but side effects after oral administration are a major limitation; therefore, in future inhaled delivery may be necessary. A new promising approach is reversal of corticosteroid resistance through increasing histone deacetylase-2 activity. This might be achieved by existing treatments such as theophylline, nortriptyline, and macrolides, or more selectively by PI3kinase-? inhibitors. Other treatments in development target oxidative stress, the failure to resolve inflammation, aberrant repair mechanisms, and accelerated lung aging. PMID:26238638

  6. Memory

    MedlinePLUS

    Your mind works a lot like a computer. Your brain puts information it judges to be important into "files." When you remember something, you pull up a file. Memory doesn't always work perfectly. As ...

  7. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  8. The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L.E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. Cognition, 93, 75-97.]. This conflicts with earlier results showing that location estimation is biased relative to the spatial distribution of targets [Spencer, J.P. & Hund, A.M. (2002). Prototypes and particulars: Geometric and experience-dependent spatial categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 16-37.]. Here, we resolve this controversy by using a task based on Huttenlocher et al. (Experiment 4) with minor modifications to enhance our ability to detect experience-dependent effects. Results after the first block of trials replicate the pattern reported in Huttenlocher et al. After additional experience, however, participants showed biases that significantly shifted according to the target distributions. These results are consistent with the Dynamic Field Theory, an alternative theory of spatial cognition that integrates long-term memory traces across trials relative to the perceived structure of the task space. PMID:20116784

  9. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify target of a memory-enhancing compound

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M.; Harding, Heather P.; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates mRNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the N-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wildtype cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity towards its substrate, eIF2, in vitro. Thus ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  10. Targeting HIV latency: resting memory T cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Nadia T; Collins, Kathleen L

    2014-10-01

    Current therapy for HIV effectively suppresses viral replication and prolongs life, but the infection persists due, at least in part, to latent infection of long-lived cells. One favored strategy toward a cure targets latent virus in resting memory CD4(+) T cells by stimulating viral production. However, the existence of an additional reservoir in bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells has been detected in some treated HIV-infected people. This review describes approaches investigators have used to reactivate latent proviral genomes in resting CD4(+) T cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the authors review approaches for clearance of these reservoirs along with other important topics related to HIV eradication. PMID:25189526

  11. Targeting HIV latency: resting memory T cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Nadia T.; Collins, Kathleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Current therapy for HIV effectively suppresses viral replication and prolongs life, but the infection persists due, at least in part, to latent infection of long-lived cells. One favored strategy towards a cure targets latent virus in resting memory CD4+ T cells by stimulating viral production. However, the existence of an additional reservoir in bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells has been detected in some treated HIV-infected people. This review describes approaches investigators have used to reactivate latent proviral genomes in resting CD4+ T cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, we review approaches for clearance of these reservoirs along with other important topics related to HIV eradication. PMID:25189526

  12. Targeted deletion of miR-132/-212 impairs memory and alters the hippocampal transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Katelin F; Sakamoto, Kensuke; Aten, Sydney; Snider, Kaitlin H; Loeser, Jacob; Hesse, Andrea M; Page, Chloe E; Pelz, Carl; Arthur, J Simon C; Impey, Soren; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-02-01

    miR-132 and miR-212 are structurally related microRNAs that have been found to exert powerful modulatory effects within the central nervous system (CNS). Notably, these microRNAs are tandomly processed from the same noncoding transcript, and share a common seed sequence: thus it has been difficult to assess the distinct contribution of each microRNA to gene expression within the CNS. Here, we employed a combination of conditional knockout and transgenic mouse models to examine the contribution of the miR-132/-212 gene locus to learning and memory, and then to assess the distinct effects that each microRNA has on hippocampal gene expression. Using a conditional deletion approach, we show that miR-132/-212 double-knockout mice exhibit significant cognitive deficits in spatial memory, recognition memory, and in tests of novel object recognition. Next, we utilized transgenic miR-132 and miR-212 overexpression mouse lines and the miR-132/-212 double-knockout line to explore the distinct effects of these two miRNAs on the transcriptional profile of the hippocampus. Illumina sequencing revealed that miR-132/-212 deletion increased the expression of 1138 genes; Venn analysis showed that 96 of these genes were also downregulated in mice overexpressing miR-132. Of the 58 genes that were decreased in animals overexpressing miR-212, only four of them were also increased in the knockout line. Functional gene ontology analysis of downregulated genes revealed significant enrichment of genes related to synaptic transmission, neuronal proliferation, and morphogenesis, processes known for their roles in learning, and memory formation. These data, coupled with previous studies, firmly establish a role for the miR-132/-212 gene locus as a key regulator of cognitive capacity. Further, although miR-132 and miR-212 share a seed sequence, these data indicate that these miRNAs do not exhibit strongly overlapping mRNA targeting profiles, thus indicating that these two genes may function in a complex, nonredundant manner to shape the transcriptional profile of the CNS. The dysregulation of miR-132/-212 expression could contribute to signaling mechanisms that are involved in an array of cognitive disorders. PMID:26773099

  13. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  15. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  16. Requirement of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Downstream Effectors in Cued Fear Memory Reconsolidation and Its Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Thu N.; Santini, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)–eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E–eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E–eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E–eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

  17. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  18. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  19. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  20. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 Controls CD8 T Cell Memory Differentiation in a Foxo1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianjun; Tschumi, Benjamin O; Lopez-Mejia, Isabel C; Oberle, Susanne G; Meyer, Marten; Samson, Guerric; Rüegg, Markus A; Hall, Michael N; Fajas, Lluis; Zehn, Dietmar; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Donda, Alena; Romero, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, antigen-specific naive CD8 T cells are activated and differentiate into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor cells (MPECs). The underlying signaling pathways remain largely unresolved. We show that Rictor, the core component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), regulates SLEC and MPEC commitment. Rictor deficiency favors memory formation and increases IL-2 secretion capacity without dampening effector functions. Moreover, mTORC2-deficient memory T cells mount more potent recall responses. Enhanced memory formation in the absence of mTORC2 was associated with Eomes and Tcf-1 upregulation, repression of T-bet, enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, and fatty acid oxidation. This transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming is mainly driven by nuclear stabilization of Foxo1. Silencing of Foxo1 reversed the increased MPEC differentiation and IL-2 production and led to an impaired recall response of Rictor KO memory T cells. Therefore, mTORC2 is a critical regulator of CD8 T cell differentiation and may be an important target for immunotherapy interventions. PMID:26804903

  1. Better working memory for non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for location of social vs. non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n=25) and typically developing children (sibs-TD, n=30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target-type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had better WM for non-social targets as compared to controls. There was no group by stimulus interaction on two non-memory measures. The results suggest that the increased competency of sibs-ASD in WM (creating, updating, and using transient representations) for non-social stimuli distinguishes them from sibs-TD by 9 months of age. This early emerging strength is discussed as a developmental pathway that may have implications for social attention and learning in children at risk for ASD. PMID:20121880

  2. MHC class-I associated phosphopeptides are the targets of memory-like immunity in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Mark; De La Peña, Hugo; Norris, Andrew; Polefrone, Joy; Qian, Jie; English, A. Michelle; Cummings, Kara; Penny, Sarah; Turner, James E.; Cottine, Jennifer; Abelin, Jennifer G; Malaker, Stacy A; Zarling, Angela L; Huang, Hsing-Wen; Goodyear, Oliver; Freeman, Sylvie; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Pratt, Guy; Craddock, Charles; Williams, Michael E; Hunt, Donald F; Engelhard, Victor H

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of signaling pathways involving phosphorylation is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Degradation of phosphoproteins generates cancer-specific phosphopeptides that are associated with MHC-I and II molecules and recognized by T-cells. We identified 95 phosphopeptides presented on the surface of primary hematological tumors and normal tissues, including 61 that were tumor-specific. Phosphopeptides were more prevalent on more aggressive and malignant samples. CD8 T-cell lines specific for these phosphopeptides recognized and killed both leukemia cell lines and HLA-matched primary leukemia cells ex vivo. Healthy individuals showed surprisingly high levels of CD8 T-cell responses against many of these phosphopeptides within the circulating memory compartment. This immunity was significantly reduced or absent in some leukemia patients, which correlated with clinical outcome, and was restored following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These results suggest that phosphopeptides may be targets of cancer immune surveillance in humans, and point to their importance for development of vaccine-based and T-cell adoptive transfer immunotherapies.. PMID:24048523

  3. PTSD-Like Memory Generated Through Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity is Mitigated by a Dual Step Pharmacological Intervention Targeting its Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. J.; Piornedo, Rene R.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic memories have been resilient to therapeutic approaches targeting their permanent attenuation. One of the potentially promising pharmacological strategies under investigation is the search for safe reconsolidation blockers. However, preclinical studies focusing on this matter have scarcely addressed abnormal aversive memories and related outcomes. Methods: By mimicking the enhanced noradrenergic activity reported after traumatic events in humans, here we sought to generate a suitable condition to establish whether some clinically approved drugs able to disrupt the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories in rodents would still be effective. Results: We report that the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was able to induce an inability to restrict behavioral (fear) and cardiovascular (increased systolic blood pressure) responses to the paired context when administered immediately after acquisition, but not 6h later, indicating the formation of a generalized fear memory, which endured for over 29 days and was less susceptible to suppression by extinction. It was also resistant to reconsolidation disruption by the ?2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine or cannabidiol, the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa. Since signaling at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is important for memory labilization and because a dysfunctional memory may be less labile than is necessary to trigger reconsolidation on its brief retrieval and reactivation, we then investigated and demonstrated that pre-retrieval administration of the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine allowed the disrupting effects of clonidine and cannabidiol on reconsolidation. Conclusions: These findings highlight the effectiveness of a dual-step pharmacological intervention to mitigate an aberrant and enduring aversive memory similar to that underlying the post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25539509

  4. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. PMID:24847299

  5. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  6. Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Bessonov, Nikolai; Levin, Michael; Morozova, Nadya; Reinberg, Natalia; Tosenberger, Alen; Volpert, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of work on molecular components required for regenerative repair, we still lack a deep understanding of the ability of some animal species to regenerate their appropriate complex anatomical structure following damage. A key question is how regenerating systems know when to stop growth and remodeling – what mechanisms implement recognition of correct morphology that signals a stop condition? In this work, we review two conceptual models of pattern regeneration that implement a kind of pattern memory. In the first one, all cells communicate with each other and keep the value of the total signal received from the other cells. If a part of the pattern is amputated, the signal distribution changes. The difference fromthe original signal distribution stimulates cell proliferation and leads to pattern regeneration, in effect implementing an error minimization process that uses signaling memory to achieve pattern correction. In the second model, we consider a more complex pattern organization with different cell types. Each tissue contains a central (coordinator) cell that controls the tissue and communicates with the other central cells. Each of them keeps memory about the signals received from other central cells. The values of these signals depend on the mutual cell location, and the memory allows regeneration of the structure when it is modified. The purpose of these models is to suggest possible mechanisms of pattern regeneration operating on the basis of cell memory which are compatible with diverse molecular implementation mechanisms within specific organisms. PMID:26889161

  7. Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Frölich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P; Müller, Christian P; Schäble, Sandra

    2013-09-10

    Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R-coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism. PMID:23983264

  8. Long-lasting enhancements of memory and hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity following multiple-day targeted noninvasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jane X; Voss, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Noninvasive stimulation can alter the function of brain networks, although the duration of neuroplastic changes are uncertain and likely vary for different networks and stimulation parameters. We have previously shown that multiple-day repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can influence targeted hippocampal-cortical networks, producing increased functional MRI connectivity of these networks and concomitant improvements in memory that outlast stimulation by ?24 h. Here, we present new analyses showing that multiple-day targeted stimulation of hippocampal-cortical networks produces even longer-lasting enhancement. The ability to learn novel, arbitrary face-word pairings improved over five consecutive daily stimulation sessions, and this improvement remained robust at follow-up testing performed an average of 15 days later. Furthermore, stimulation increased functional MRI connectivity of the targeted portion of the hippocampus with distributed regions of the posterior hippocampal-cortical network, and these changes in connectivity remained robust at follow-up testing. Neuroplastic changes of hippocampal-cortical networks caused by multiple-day noninvasive stimulation therefore persist for extended periods. These findings have implications for the design of multiple-day stimulation experiments and for the development of stimulation-based interventions for memory disorders. PMID:25639205

  9. Precision medicine at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: clinical next-generation sequencing enabling next-generation targeted therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David M; Solit, David B; Arcila, Maria E; Cheng, Donavan T; Sabbatini, Paul; Baselga, Jose; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Implementing a center-wide precision medicine strategy at a major cancer center is a true multidisciplinary effort and requires comprehensive alignment of a broad screening strategy with a clinical research enterprise that can use these data to accelerate development of new treatments. Here, we describe the genomic screening approach at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing clinical assay for solid tumor molecular oncology designated MSK-IMPACT, and how it enables and supports a large clinical trial portfolio enriched for multi-histology, biomarker-selected, 'basket' studies of targeted therapies. PMID:26320725

  10. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  11. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress. PMID:26025756

  12. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  13. Attention Blinks for Selection, Not Perception or Memory: Reading Sentences and Reporting Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an…

  14. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  15. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both ?-amyloid production and clearance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and A? production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit A? production by suppressing ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote A? clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased A? formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

  16. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the “adult time-window” related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children. PMID:26594157

  17. Stress responses. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify the target of a memory-enhancing compound.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2015-05-29

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates messenger RNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity, and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action, we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the amino-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wild-type cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity toward its substrate, the translation initiation factor eIF2, in vitro. Thus, ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  18. Ultrasound Detection of Myocardial Ischemic Memory Using an E-Selectin Targeting Peptide Amenable to Human Application

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus “ischemic memory” biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24742373

  19. The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L. E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. "Cognition, 93", 75-97]. This conflicts with earlier results showing…

  20. TH-C-12A-11: Target Correlation of a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Y; Walston, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a new surrogate for respiratory motion gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique for left breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients with left-sided breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH CTs to determine whether DIBH was beneficial in reducing heart doses. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CTs were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results: Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for left-sided breast patients using DIBH. Results showed that RPM has poor correlation with target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. This indicates that RPM may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level when used alone. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a better correlation with the actual CW excursion during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommend threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: 3D optical surface imaging serves as a superior target surrogate for the left breast treatment when compared to RPM. Working together with the realtime MV Cine imaging, they ensure accurate patient setup and dose delivery, while minimizing the imaging dose to patients.

  1. Selective Targeting of Human Alloresponsive CD8+ Effector Memory T Cells Based on CD2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lo, D.J.; Weaver, T. A.; Stempora, L.; Mehta, A. K.; Ford, M. L.; Larsen, C. P.; Kirk, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Costimulation blockade, specifically CD28/B7 inhibition with belatacept, is an emerging clinical replacement for calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in allotransplantation. However, there is accumulating evidence that belatacept incompletely controls alloreactive T cells that lose CD28 expression during terminal differentiation. We recently have shown that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept controls costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection in non-human primates. Here, we have investigated the relationship between human alloreactive T cells, costimulation blockade sensitivity and CD2 expression to determine whether these findings warrant potential clinical translation. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we found that CD8+ effector memory T cells are distinctly high CD2 and low CD28 expressors. Alloresponsive CD8+CD2hiCD28− T cells contained the highest proportion of cells with polyfunctional cytokine (IFNγ, TNF and IL-2) and cytotoxic effector molecule (CD107a and granzyme B) expression capability. Treatment with belatacept in vitro incompletely attenuated allospecific proliferation, but alefacept inhibited belatacept-resistant proliferation. These results suggest that highly alloreactive effector T cells exert their late stage functions without reliance on ongoing CD28/B7 costimulation. Their high CD2 expression increases their susceptibility to alefacept. These studies combined with in vivo non-human primate data provide a rationale for translation of an immunosuppression regimen pairing alefacept and belatacept to human renal transplantation. PMID:21070604

  2. Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, John P

    2014-07-01

    Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

  3. Keeping a target in memory does not increase the effect of the Müller-Lyer illusion on saccades.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Anouk J; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-04-01

    The effects of visual contextual illusions on motor behaviour vary largely between experimental conditions. Whereas it has often been reported that the effects of illusions on pointing and grasping are largest when the movement is performed some time after the stimulus has disappeared, the effect of a delay has hardly been studied for saccadic eye movements. In this experiment, participants viewed a briefly presented Müller-Lyer illusion with a target at its endpoint and made a saccade to the remembered position of this target after a delay of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 s. We found that horizontal saccade amplitudes were shorter for the perceptually shorter than for the perceptually longer configuration of the illusion. Most importantly, although the delay clearly affected saccade amplitude, resulting in shorter saccades for longer delays, the illusion effect did not depend on the duration of the delay. We argue that visually guided and memory-guided saccades are likely based on a common visual representation. PMID:26686530

  4. Memory of tolerance and induction of regulatory T cells by erythrocyte-targeted antigens.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alizée J; Kontos, Stephan; Diaceri, Giacomo; Quaglia-Thermes, Xavier; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    New approaches based on induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance are being explored for treatment of autoimmunity and prevention of immunity to protein drugs. Antigens associated with apoptotic debris are known to be processed tolerogenically in vivo. Our group is exploring an approach toward antigen-specific tolerization using erythrocyte-binding antigens, based on the premise that as the erythrocytes circulate, age and are cleared, the erythrocyte surface-bound antigen payload will be cleared tolerogenically along with the eryptotic debris. Here, we characterized the phenotypic signatures of CD8+ T cells undergoing tolerance in response to soluble and erythrocyte-targeted antigen. Signaling through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1), but not through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), was shown to be required for antigen-specific T cell deletion, anergy and expression of regulatory markers. Generation of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in response to erythrocyte-targeted antigens but not soluble antigen at an equimolar dose was observed, and these cells were required for long-term maintenance of immune tolerance in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. Evidence of infectious tolerance was observed, in that tolerance to a one antigenic epitope was able to regulate responses to other epitopes in the same protein antigen. PMID:26511151

  5. Memory of tolerance and induction of regulatory T cells by erythrocyte-targeted antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Alizée J.; Kontos, Stephan; Diaceri, Giacomo; Quaglia-Thermes, Xavier; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    New approaches based on induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance are being explored for treatment of autoimmunity and prevention of immunity to protein drugs. Antigens associated with apoptotic debris are known to be processed tolerogenically in vivo. Our group is exploring an approach toward antigen-specific tolerization using erythrocyte-binding antigens, based on the premise that as the erythrocytes circulate, age and are cleared, the erythrocyte surface-bound antigen payload will be cleared tolerogenically along with the eryptotic debris. Here, we characterized the phenotypic signatures of CD8+ T cells undergoing tolerance in response to soluble and erythrocyte-targeted antigen. Signaling through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1), but not through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), was shown to be required for antigen-specific T cell deletion, anergy and expression of regulatory markers. Generation of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in response to erythrocyte-targeted antigens but not soluble antigen at an equimolar dose was observed, and these cells were required for long-term maintenance of immune tolerance in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. Evidence of infectious tolerance was observed, in that tolerance to a one antigenic epitope was able to regulate responses to other epitopes in the same protein antigen. PMID:26511151

  6. The activation of semantic memory: effects of prime exposure, prime-target relationship, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Steve; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2008-06-01

    Priming facilitation was examined under conditions of brief incremental prime exposures (28, 43, 71, and 199 msec) under masked conditions for two types of lexical relationships (associative-semantic pairs, such as "wolf-fox," and semantic-feature pairs, such as "whale-dolphin") and in two tasks (primed lexical decision and semantic categorization). The results of eight experiments revealed, first, that priming elicits faster response times for semantic-feature pairs. The associative-semantic pairs produced priming only at the longer prime exposures. Second, priming was observed earlier for semantic categorization than for the lexical decision task, in which priming was observed only at the longer stimulus onset asynchronies. Finally, our results allowed us to discredit the congruency hypothesis, according to which priming is due to a common categorical response for the prime and target words. The implications of these results for current theories of semantic priming are discussed. PMID:18604969

  7. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  8. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  9. DOUGLAS LEA MEMORIAL LECTURE: From targets to genes: a brief history of radiosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, G. Gordon

    1996-02-01

    The biological work of Douglas Lea spanned the period from 1934 to his early death in 1947, and during this short period he made important contributions to the theory of radiation action. He interpreted experimental data relating to the effects of radiation on viruses, bacteria, bean roots, etc in terms of the inactivation of discrete targets, which he identified with cellular genes. He thus laid the foundation of much subsequent research. It is now well recognized that mammalian cells differ substantially in radiosensitivity, especially in the low-dose region of the survival curve. The dependence of radiosensitivity on dose rate has been widely studied; this has practical significance for clinical radiotherapy as well as mechanistic implications. Since Lea's time there have been a number of efforts to describe models that can relate cell killing to radiation dose, dose rate, and track structure. So far these have not led to a comprehensive and widely accepted picture. Microdosimetric considerations lead to the concept of differing severity of lesions induced in DNA. Much is known about the sequence of processes that subsequently lead to cell inactivation: this can be divided into phases of induction, processing, and manifestation. Chromosomal events are currently attracting much attention, as they did in Lea's time. Considerable progress has also been made in identifying genes that control the repair of radiation damage. It has been found that mutation is frequently associated with the loss of a large segment of the genome around the damage site and this will have important implications for interactive processes between particle tracks.

  10. MicroRNA-34c Downregulation Ameliorates Amyloid-?-Induced Synaptic Failure and Memory Deficits by Targeting VAMP2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shunze; Wang, Huan; Chen, Kun; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Shutao; Liu, Jian; Li, Xiao; Sun, Xuying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (?22-nucleotide [nt]) noncoding RNAs that regulate biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Dysregulation of specific miRNAs leads to impaired synaptic plasticity resulting in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-? (A?) accumulation is the most important pathogenic factor for AD development. Therefore, focusing on A?-targeted miRNAs may have therapeutic implications for AD. We found that miR-34c, a miRNA that was previously reported to be upregulated in a transgenic AD model and patients, was significantly increased in hippocampal neurons exposed to A?. Western blots and luciferase assay confirmed that increased miR-34c was closely related to VAMP2 reduction. Furthermore, miR-34c blockade upregulated VAMP2 expression and rescued synaptic failure as well as learning and memory deficits caused by A?. The A?-miR-34c-VAMP2 pathway mediates the sustained VAMP2 reduction in AD patients and provides a novel underlying epigenetic mechanism for attenuation of A? toxicity in AD. PMID:26402112

  11. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  12. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can happen in ... begin administering CPR if your child does not resume breathing When to See the Doctor If this ...

  13. NCHEMS Data Holdings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christal, Melodie E.

    Data holdings of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems as of November 30, 1984, are described. For each set of data, the following items are included: name, originating organization, contact person for originating organization, frequency of issue, time span covered by the data, subject matter and scope of the data,…

  14. Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper-g centrifugation significantly decreased gaze holding ability in the vertical plane. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) vertical gaze-holding is less stable than horizontal, (2) gaze-holding to upward targets is less stable than to downward targets, (3) tilt affects gaze holding, and (4) hyper-g affects gaze holding. This difference between horizontal and vertical gaze-holding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity-to-position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. The differences between upward and downward gaze-holding may be ascribed to an inherent vertical imbalance in the vestibular system. Because whole body tilt and hyper-g affects gaze-holding, it is implied that the otolith organs have direct connections to the neural integrator and further studies of astronaut gaze-holding are warranted. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied to normals who maybe exposed to environments which may modify the central integrator and require monitoring, and to evaluate patients with gaze-evoked nystagmus by comparing to the above established normative criteria.

  15. The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets’ locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research. PMID:25339978

  16. Memory CCR6+CD4+ T cells are preferential targets for productive HIV type 1 infection regardless of their expression of integrin ?7.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Patricia; Gosselin, Annie; Wacleche, Vanessa Sue; El-Far, Mohamed; Said, Elias A; Kared, Hassen; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2011-04-15

    HIV type 1 infection is associated with a rapid depletion of Th17 cells from the GALT. The chemokine receptor CCR6 is a marker for Th17 lineage polarization and HIV permissiveness in memory CD4(+) T cells. CCR6(+) T cells have the potential to migrate into the GALT via the gut-homing integrin ?(4)?(7), a newly identified HIV-gp120 binding receptor. In this study, we investigated whether memory T cells coexpressing CCR6 and integrin ?(7) are selective HIV targets and whether retinoic acid (RA)-induced imprinting for gut-homing selectively increases CCR6(+) T cell permissiveness to infection. We demonstrated that ?(7)(-)R6(+) and ?(7)(+)R6(+) compared with ?(7)(-)R6(-) and ?(7)(+)R6(-) T cells were highly permissive to HIV, produced Th17 cytokines, and their frequency was decreased in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected subjects. RA upregulated integrin ?(4) and ?(7) coexpression in both CCR6(+) and CCR6(-) T cells, but increased HIV permissiveness selectively in CCR6(+) T cells via entry (CCR5 upregulation) and postentry mechanisms. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that CCR6, but not the integrin ?(7), is a discriminative marker for memory T cells imprinted with a transcriptional program favorable to HIV replication. Nevertheless, given the ability of integrin ?(7) to regulate cell migration into the GALT and bind HIV-gp120, CCR6(+) T cells coexpressing integrin ?(7) and CCR5 might have an extraordinary ability to disseminate HIV from the portal sites of entry. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of memory CCR6(+) T cell differentiation is critical for the design of new therapeutic strategies that should interfere with viral permissiveness but not Th17 lineage commitment and gut-homing potential in CCR6(+) T cells. PMID:21398606

  17. Holding a grudge

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Eran; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system of bacteria and archaea constitutes a mechanism of acquired adaptive immunity against phages, which is based on genome-encoded markers of previously infecting phage sequences (“spacers”). As a repository of phage sequences, these spacers make the system particularly suitable for elucidating phage-bacteria interactions in metagenomic studies. Recent metagenomic analyses of CRISPRs associated with the human microbiome intriguingly revealed conserved “memory spacers” shared by bacteria in multiple unrelated, geographically separated individuals. Here, we discuss possible avenues for explaining this phenomenon by integrating insights from CRISPR biology and phage-bacteria ecology, with a special focus on the human gut. We further explore the growing body of evidence for the role of CRISPR/Cas in regulating the interplay between bacteria and lysogenic phages, which may be intimately related to the presence of memory spacers and sheds new light on the multifaceted biological and ecological modes of action of CRISPR/Cas. PMID:23439321

  18. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  19. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  20. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-01

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. PMID:26776732

  1. 78 FR 64498 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...) 1 Memorial Drive, Kansas City, Missouri 64198-0001: 1. Adams Dairy Bancshares, Inc., Blue Springs, Missouri; to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of Adams...

  2. Targeting effector memory T cells with alefacept in new onset type 1 diabetes: 12 month results from the T1DAL study

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Mark R; DiMeglio, Linda A; Rendell, Marc S; Felner, Eric I; Dostou, Jean M; Gitelman, Stephen E; Patel, Chetanbabu M; Griffin, Kurt J; Tsalikian, Eva; Gottlieb, Peter A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Sherry, Nicole A; Moore, Wayne V; Monzavi, Roshanak; Willi, Steven M; Raskin, Philip; Moran, Antoinette; Russell, William E; Pinckney, Ashley; Keyes-Elstein, Lynette; Howell, Michael; Aggarwal, Sudeepta; Lim, Noha; Phippard, Deborah; Nepom, Gerald T; McNamara, James; Ehlers, Mario R

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune targeting of the pancreatic beta cells, likely mediated by effector memory T cells (Tems). CD2, a T cell surface protein highly expressed on Tems, is targeted by the fusion protein alefacept, depleting Tems and central memory T cells (Tcms). We hypothesized that alefacept would arrest autoimmunity and preserve residual beta cells in newly diagnosed T1D. Methods The T1DAL study is a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomised T1D patients 12-35 years old within 100 days of diagnosis, 33 to alefacept (two 12-week courses of 15 mg IM per week, separated by a 12-week pause) and 16 to placebo, at 14 US sites. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in mean 2-hour C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) at 12 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00965458. Findings The mean 2-hour C-peptide AUC at 12 months increased by 0.015 nmol/L (95% CI -0.080 to 0.110 nmol/L) in the alefacept group and decreased by 0.115 nmol/L (95% CI -0.278 to 0.047) in the placebo group, which was not significant (p=0.065). However, key secondary endpoints were met: the mean 4-hour C-peptide AUC was significantly higher (p=0.019), and daily insulin use and the rate of hypoglycemic events were significantly lower (p=0.02 and p<0.001, respectively) at 12 months in the alefacept vs. placebo groups. Safety and tolerability were comparable between groups. There was targeted depletion of Tems and Tcms, with sparing of naïve and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interpretation At 12 months, alefacept preserved the 4-hour C-peptide AUC, lowered insulin use, and reduced hypoglycemic events, suggesting a signal of efficacy. Depletion of memory T cells with sparing of Tregs may be a useful strategy to preserve beta cell function in new-onset T1D. PMID:24622414

  3. Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

    2008-01-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

  4. Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

    2008-01-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

  5. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  6. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  7. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor of Kv1.3 Channels for Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Wulff, Heike; Singh, Satendra; Nugent, Daniel; Crossley, George; Khaytin, Ilya; Calabresi, Peter A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Gutman, George A.; Chandy, K. George

    2008-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel is a novel target for immunomodulation of autoreactive effector memory T (TEM) cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We describe the characterization of the novel peptide ShK(L5) that contains l-phosphotyrosine linked via a nine-atom hydrophilic linker to the N terminus of the ShK peptide from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. ShK(L5) is a highly specific Kv1.3 blocker that exhibits 100-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 (Kd = 69 pM) over Kv1.1 and greater than 250-fold selectivity over all other channels tested. ShK(L5) suppresses the proliferation of human and rat TEM cells and inhibits interleukin-2 production at picomolar concentrations. Naive and central memory human T cells are initially 60-fold less sensitive than TEM cells to ShK(L5) and then become resistant to the peptide during activation by up-regulating the calcium-activated KCa3.1 channel. ShK(L5) does not exhibit in vitro cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines and is negative in the Ames test. It is stable in plasma and when administered once daily by subcutaneous injection (10 ?g/kg) attains “steady state” blood levels of ?300 pM. This regimen does not cause cardiac toxicity assessed by continuous EKG monitoring and does not alter clinical chemistry and hematological parameters after 2-week therapy. ShK(L5) prevents and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suppresses delayed type hypersensitivity in rats. ShK(L5) might prove useful for therapy of autoimmune disorders. PMID:15665253

  8. Selective inhibition of CCR7(-) effector memory T cell activation by a novel peptide targeting Kv1.3 channel in a rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Wan-Hong; Han, Song; Peng, Bi-Wen; Yin, Jun; Wu, Ying-Liang; He, Xiao-Hua; Li, Wen-Xin

    2012-08-24

    The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K(+) channel in effector memory T cells serves as a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. In our previous studies, the novel peptide ADWX-1 was designed and synthesized as a specific Kv1.3 blocker. However, it is unclear if and how ADWX-1 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, the administration of ADWX-1 significantly ameliorated the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model by selectively inhibiting CD4(+)CCR7(-) phenotype effector memory T cell activation. In contrast, the Kv1.3-specific peptide had little effect on CD4(+)CCR7(+) cells, thereby limiting side effects. Furthermore, we determined that ADWX-1 is involved in the regulation of NF-κB signaling through upstream protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) in the IL-2 pathway of CD4(+)CCR7(-) cells. The elevated expression of Kv1.3 mRNA and protein in activated CD4(+)CCR7(-) cells was reduced by ADWX-1 engagement; however, an apparent alteration in CD4(+)CCR7(+) cells was not observed. Moreover, the selective regulation of the Kv1.3 channel gene expression pattern by ADWX-1 provided a further and sustained inhibition of the CD4(+)CCR7(-) phenotype, which depends on the activity of Kv1.3 to modulate its activation signal. In addition, ADWX-1 mediated the activation of differentiated Th17 cells through the CCR7(-) phenotype. The efficacy of ADWX-1 is supported by multiple functions, which are based on a Kv1.3(high) CD4(+)CCR7(-) T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway. PMID:22761436

  9. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  10. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  11. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  12. Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

  13. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Deniger, Drew C.; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Widhopf, George F.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E.; Wierda, William G.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  14. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Deniger, Drew C; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M Helen; Figliola, Matthew J; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N; Widhopf, George F; Hurton, Lenka V; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E; Wierda, William G; Kipps, Thomas J; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3? and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with ?-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-? and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  15. What we remember affects how we see: spatial working memory steers saccade programming.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason H; Peterson, Matthew S

    2013-02-01

    Relationships between visual attention, saccade programming, and visual working memory have been hypothesized for over a decade. Awh, Jonides, and Reuter-Lorenz (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 24(3):780-90, 1998) and Awh et al. (Psychological Science 10(5):433-437, 1999) proposed that rehearsing a location in memory also leads to enhanced attentional processing at that location. In regard to eye movements, Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) found that holding a location in working memory affects saccade programming, albeit negatively. In three experiments, we attempted to replicate the findings of Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) and determine whether the spatial memory effect can occur in other saccade-cuing paradigms, including endogenous central arrow cues and exogenous irrelevant singletons. In the first experiment, our results were the opposite of those in Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009), in that we found facilitation (shorter saccade latencies) instead of inhibition when the saccade target matched the region in spatial working memory. In Experiment 2, we sought to determine whether the spatial working memory effect would generalize to other endogenous cuing tasks, such as a central arrow that pointed to one of six possible peripheral locations. As in Experiment 1, we found that saccade programming was facilitated when the cued location coincided with the saccade target. In Experiment 3, we explored how spatial memory interacts with other types of cues, such as a peripheral color singleton target or irrelevant onset. In both cases, the eyes were more likely to go to either singleton when it coincided with the location held in spatial working memory. On the basis of these results, we conclude that spatial working memory and saccade programming are likely to share common overlapping circuitry. PMID:23093301

  16. About sleep's role in memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  17. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  18. Pallid Sturgeon in Holding Tank

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Nine-year-old pallid sturgeon wait in holding tanks for their turn to be evaluated by biologists at CERC.  More than 100 pallid sturgeon made the trip from Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery to Columbia on a snowy December day....

  19. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... adopts FHFA's interim final rule on portfolio holdings, without change. See 74 FR 5609, January 30, 2009. That interim rule adopted the portfolio limits specified in each Enterprise's Senior Preferred Stock...: Effective December 28, 2010, the interim final rule published on January 30, 2009 (74 FR 5609), which...

  20. A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

  1. A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

  2. Memory Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  3. Memory loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss. Such memory loss is due to other diseases. Memory loss can be caused by many things. To ... event Bipolar disorder Depression or other mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia Memory loss may be a sign of dementia . Dementia ...

  4. An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive. PMID:19277115

  5. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  6. Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Pathogenic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Sillivan, Stephanie E.; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A.

    2014-01-01

    Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders. PMID:25642412

  7. Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

  8. A Holding Function for Conflict Probe Appiications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, Dave; Walton, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Conflict Alerts for aircraft in holding patterns are often missed or in error due to fact that holding trajectories are not modeled in Conflict Alert or Conflict Probe logic. In addition, a controller in one sector may not know when aircraft are holding in a neighboring sector. These factors can lead to an increased potential for loss of separation while aircraft are flying in holding patterns. A holding function for conflict probe applications has been developed and tested with air traffic data from Fort Worth Center. The holding function automatically determines when an aircraft enters a holding pattern, builds a holding region around the pattern and then probes the region for conflict with other traffic. The operational concept of use assumes that air traffic controllers are very busy during periods when aircraft are in holding and therefore don't have time to manually enter information which defines a holding pattern and activates conflict probing. For this reason, it is important the holding function automatically detect aircraft in holding and compute a holding region for conflict analysis. The controller is then alerted if other aircraft are predicted to fly through the holding region at the holding altitude.

  9. Stimulation of serotonin 2A receptors facilitates consolidation and extinction of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Ásgeirsdóttir, Herborg N; Cohen, Sarah J; Munchow, Alcira H; Barrera, Mercy P; Stackman, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Excessive fear is a hallmark of several emotional and mental disorders such as phobias and panic disorders. Considerable attention is focused on defining the neurobiological mechanisms of the extinction of conditioned fear memory in an effort to identify mechanisms that may hold clinical significance for remediating aberrant fear memory. Serotonin modulates the acquisition and retention of conditioned emotional memory, and the serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR) may be one of the postsynaptic targets mediating such effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that the 5HT2AR regulates the consolidation and extinction of fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. The influence of 5HT2ARs on memory consolidation was further confirmed with a novel object recognition task. With a trace fear conditioning paradigm, administration of the 5HT2AR agonist TCB-2 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) before the extinction test facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory as compared to vehicle treatment. In contrast, administration of the 5HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed the acquisition of extinction of fear memory. Further, the post-conditioning administration of TCB-2 enhanced contextual and cued fear memory, possibly by facilitating the consolidation of fear memory. Administration of TCB-2 also facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory in delay fear conditioned mice. Stimulation or blockade of 5HT2ARs did not affect the encoding or retrieval of conditioned fear memory. Finally, administration of TCB-2 right after training in an object recognition task enhanced the consolidation of object memory. These results suggest that stimulation of 5HT2ARs facilitates the consolidation and extinction of trace and delay cued fear memory and the consolidation of object memory. Blocking the 5HT2AR impairs the acquisition of fear memory extinction. The results support the view that serotonergic activation of the 5HT2AR provides an important modulatory influence on circuits engaged during extinction learning. Taken together these results suggest that the 5HT2AR may be a potential therapeutic target for enhancing hippocampal and amygdala-dependent memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22722027

  10. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model.

    PubMed

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-15

    Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought. PMID:25747767

  11. Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

  12. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  13. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  14. Constructive memory: past and future

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

  15. Hyperfocusing in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Interactions Between Working Memory and Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Steven J.; McClenon, Clara; Beck, Valerie M.; Hollingworth, Andrew; Leonard, Carly J.; Hahn, Britta; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Gold, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that processing resources are focused more narrowly but more intensely in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) than in healthy control subjects (HCS), possibly reflecting local cortical circuit abnormalities. This hyperfocusing hypothesis leads to the counterintuitive prediction that, although PSZ cannot store as much information in working memory as HCS, the working memory representations that are present in PSZ may be more intense than those in HCS. To test this hypothesis, we used a task in which participants make a saccadic eye movement to a peripheral target and avoid a parafoveal nontarget while they are holding a color in working memory. Previous research with this task has shown that the parafoveal nontarget is more distracting when it matches the color being held in working memory. This effect should be enhanced in PSZ if their working memory representations are more intense. Consistent with this prediction, we found that the effect of a match between the distractor color and the memory color was larger in PSZ than in HCS. We also observed evidence that PSZ hyperfocused spatially on the region surrounding the fixation point. These results provide further evidence that some aspects of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia may be a result of a narrower and more intense focusing of processing resources. PMID:25089655

  16. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-09-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques.

  17. Characteristics of near-death experiences memories as compared to real and imagined events memories.

    PubMed

    Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ--Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  18. Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  19. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record hold. 1235.5 Section 1235.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a) Notification by FHFA. In the event that FHFA is requiring a record hold, FHFA shall notify the...

  20. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live...

  1. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  2. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  3. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  4. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live...

  5. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  6. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live...

  7. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live...

  8. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If...

  9. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live...

  10. Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Kopelman, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the amnesia in these patients. First, we focus on anterograde memory for contextual (spatial and temporal) information. Next, the use of contextual cues in memory retrieval is examined and their role in retrograde amnesia and confabulation. Evidence on the role of contextual cues and associations in working memory is discussed in relation to the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and their dissociation from long-term encoding. Finally, we focus on implicit learning of contextual information in Korsakoff patients. It can be concluded that Korsakoff patients are impaired in the explicit processing of contextual information and in target-context binding, both in long-term (retrograde and anterograde) memory and in working memory. These results extend the context memory deficit hypothesis. In contrast, implicit contextual learning is relatively preserved in these patients. These findings are discussed in relation to evidence of dysfunction of the extended diencephalic-hippocampal memory circuit in Korsakoff's syndrome. PMID:22580849

  11. Memory Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Memory Matters KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Brain & Nervous System > ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  12. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA. Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. PMID:23453302

  13. Immunological memory.

    PubMed

    Gray, D

    1993-01-01

    The past five or six years has seen a resurgence of interest in immunological memory. Areas in which important advances have been made of late or in which problems in understanding persist are covered here: (i) Selection of virgin B cells for entry into the peripheral pool. (ii) Expression of immunoglobulin isotypes and other markers on memory B cells. (iii) Development of memory B cells as a separate lineage from primary response B cells. (iv) Sites of production of memory B cells. (v) Signals that rescue mutating B cells in germinal centers, forming the basis of affinity selection, and programming further differentiation. (vi) The myriad markers of memory T cells, in particular CD45R isoforms. (vii) Selective migration pathways of memory T cells and its possible molecular basis. (viii) The lifespan of memory cells and factors that influence their long-term survival. The data accumulated during this period which have vastly increased our understanding of memory have at the same time highlighted unresolved problems that could block further progress in the field. The thorny question that we cannot at present answer is: How does a memory cell differ from an activated cell and, in the case of T cells, from an effector cell? The problem bears on the interpretation of any study that sets out to correlate memory phenotype with memory function. Immunologists may have donned an intellectual straitjacket in their search for the memory cell. PMID:8476570

  14. The influence of working memory on visual search for emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    In visual search tasks, an angry face surrounded by happy faces is more rapidly detected compared with a happy face surrounded by angry faces. This is called the anger superiority effect. The anger superiority effect has been mainly related to automatic attentional effects, but top-down mechanisms may also influence this effect. In a series of studies, we investigated the influence of holding emotional information in working memory (WM) on the anger superiority effect. In multiple experiments, participants were generally faster to find an angry target with happy distractors compared to a happy target with angry distractors. However, this anger superiority effect was diminished when holding angry information in WM, whereas the effect was still observed when holding happy information. These effects were not observed when participants did not remember emotional information other than the color of the emotional stimuli. The data indicate that enhanced processing of distractor facial expressions was observed when they matched the content of WM, facilitating target detection. However, when the contents of WM and distractor faces differed, the processing of distractor faces and detection of a target face were delayed. These results suggest that the anger superiority effect is modulated by top-down effects of WM and that interactions between contents of WM and perception of facial expressions determine the enhancement or reduction of the anger superiority effect. PMID:24999613

  15. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  16. Montelukast targeting the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 ameliorates A?1-42-induced memory impairment and neuroinflammatory and apoptotic responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin'e; Hu, Meng; Wang, Hao; Hu, Mei; Long, Yan; Miao, Ming-xing; Li, Jia-chang; Wang, Xiao-bing; Kong, Ling-yi; Hong, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Montelukast, known as a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist, is currently used for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Here, we investigated effects of montelukast on neuroinflammatory, apoptotic responses, and memory performance following intracerebral infusions of amyloid-? (A?). The data demonstrated that intracerebroventrical infusions of aggregated A?1-42 (410 pmol/mouse) produced deficits in learning ability and memory, as evidenced by increase in escape latency during acquisition trials and decreases in exploratory activities in the probe trial in Morris water maze (MWM) task, and by decrease in the number of correct choices and increase in latency to enter the shock-free compartment in Y-maze test, and caused significant increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as NF-?B p65, TNF-? and IL-1? as well as pro-apoptotic molecule caspase-3 activation and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 downregulation in hippocampus and cortex. Interestingly, this treatment resulted in upregulation of protein or mRNA of CysLT1R in both hippocampus and cortex. Blockade of CysLT1R by repeated treatment with montelukast (1 or 2 mg/kg, ig, 4 weeks) reduced A?1-42-induced CysLT1R expression and also suppressed A?1-42-induced increments of NF-?B p65, TNF-?, IL-1? and caspase-3 activation, and Bcl-2 downregulation in the hippocampus and cortex. Correspondingly, montelukast treatment significantly improved A?1-42-induced memory impairment in mice, but had little effect on normal mice. Our results show that montelukast may ameliorate A?1-42-induced memory impairment via inhibiting neuroinflammation and apoptosis mediated by CysLT1R signaling, suggesting that CysLT1R antagonism represents a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24456746

  17. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  18. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  19. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  20. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  1. The Evolving Roles of Memory Immune Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Li, Xian C

    2015-10-01

    Memory cells are the products of immune responses but also exert significant impact on subsequent immunity and immune tolerance, thus placing them in a unique position in transplant research. Memory cells are heterogeneous, including not only memory T cells but also memory B cells and innate memory cells. Memory cells are a critical component of protective immunity against invading pathogens, especially in immunosuppressed patients, but they also mediate graft loss and tolerance resistance. Recent studies suggest that some memory cells unexpectedly act as regulatory cells, promoting rather than hindering transplant survival. This functional diversity makes therapeutic targeting of memory cells a challenging task in transplantation. In this article, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of memory cells, focusing on diversity of memory cells and mechanisms involved in their induction and functions. We also provide a broad overview on the challenges and opportunities in targeting memory cells in the induction of transplant tolerance. PMID:26102615

  2. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  3. Amygdala-dependent fear memory consolidation via miR-34a and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Brian George; Goodman, Jared Vega; Ahluwalia, Ranbir; Easton, Audrey Elizabeth; Andero, Raül; Ressler, Kerry James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using an array-based approach after auditory fear-conditioning, and microRNA (miRNA) sponge-mediated inhibition, we identified a role for miR-34a within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in fear memory consolidation. Luciferase assays and bioinformatics suggested the Notch pathway as a target of miR-34a. mRNA and protein levels of Notch receptors and ligands are down-regulated in a time- and learning-specific manner after fear conditioning in the amygdala. Systemic and stereotaxic manipulations of the Notch pathway indicated that Notch signaling in the BLA suppresses fear memory consolidation. Impairment of fear memory consolidation after inhibition of miR-34a within the BLA is rescued by inhibiting Notch signaling. Together, these data suggest that within the BLA, a transient decrease in Notch signaling, via miR-34a regulation, is important for the consolidation of fear memory. This work expands the idea that developmental molecules have roles in adult behavior, and that existing interventions targeting them hold promise for treating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25123309

  4. Should software hold data hostage?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.; Michaels, George S.

    2004-08-01

    Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them into proprietary file and data formats. Although this might make sense from a business perspective, it violates fundamental principles of data ownership and control. Such tactics should not be tolerated by the scientific community. The future of data-intensive biology depends on ensuring open data standards and freely exchangeable file formats. Compared to the engineering and chemistry fields, computers are a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of biological tools. Thus the pool of potential users of biology-oriented software is comparatively small. Biology itself is a broad field with many sub-disciplines, such as neurobiology, biochemistry, genomics and cell biology. This creates the need for task-oriented software tools that necessarily have a small user base. Simultaneously, the task of developing software has become more complex with the need for multi-platform software and increasing user expectations of sophisticated interfaces and a high degree of usability. Writing successful software in such an environment is very challenging, but progress in biology will increasingly depend on the success of companies and individuals in creating powerful new software tools. The trend to open source software could have an enormous impact on biology by providing the large number of specialized analysis tools that are required. Indeed, in the field of bioinformatics, open source software has become pervasive, largely because of the high degree of computer skill necessary for workers in this field. For these tools to be usable by non-specialists, however, requires the development of facile user interfaces and robust environments. This is where some companies have provided real value to the community, building on the foundation of open source software. Outside of genomics and bioinformatics, there is still a critical need for software tools, particularly in areas such as imaging, biochemistry and cell signaling. The computer skills of investigators in these fields is generally more rudimentary, and thus the open source options are much more limited. Commercial software dominates these areas, but open source has the potential to contribute more in the future.

  5. CCD Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliot, Tom; Norris, Dave; Vescelus, Fred

    1987-01-01

    CCD memory device yields over 6.4 x 10 to the eighth power levels of information on single chip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) demonstrated to operate as either read-only-memory (ROM) or photon-programmable memory with capacity of 640,000 bits, with each bit capable of being weighted to more than 1,000 discrete analog levels. Larger memory capacities now possible using proposed approach in conjunction with CCD's now being fabricated, which yield over 4 x 10 to the ninth power discrete levels of information on single chip.

  6. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH. PMID:21774923

  7. RMI-SAMPLE HOLDING TIME REEVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

  8. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Specifically, the program shall describe the method for the continued preservation of electronic records... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record hold. 1732.7 Section 1732.7 Banks and... AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition....

  9. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H. (Ballston Lake, NY); Cramer, Charles E. (Schenectady, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  10. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  11. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to...

  12. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  13. 78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Immtech...

  14. Supportive holding or restraint: terminology and practice.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Karen

    2010-07-01

    The meaning of supportive holding versus restraint in children's nursing has been debated for some time. Supportive holding has been defined as a hold that supports the child through a therapeutic intervention, and restraint as a hold that overpowers the child who may be a danger to themselves or others. Both are conducted in the philosophy of best interest. The Royal College of Nursing (2010) guidance suggests adopting the terms therapeutic holding and restrictive physical intervention. This article was accepted before the new guidance was published. However, with authors still using terms interchangeably, it is important to debate whether there is a clear demarcation in terminology and practice, or whether one is a continuation of the other, differentiated by the degree of force used. PMID:20695309

  15. Apparatus and method for low-temperature training of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  16. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  17. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  18. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 575.14 Section 575.14 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.14 Subsidiary holding companies. (a) Subsidiary holding companies. A mutual holding company may establish a subsidiary holding company as...

  19. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  20. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  1. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  2. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  3. You look familiar, but I don't care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Boettcher, Sage E P; Josephs, Emilie L; Cunningham, Corbin A; Drew, Trafton

    2015-12-01

    In "hybrid" search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets among distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, reaction times (RTs) in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this "familiarity"- operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared-influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase RTs. In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26191615

  4. You look familiar, but I don’t care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Josephs, Emilie L.; Cunningham, Corbin A.; Drew, Trafton

    2015-01-01

    In “hybrid” search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets amongst distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, RTs in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this “familiarity” – operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared – influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase response times (RTs). In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. PMID:26191615

  5. Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT): A Hybridization Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Clinical Assay for Solid Tumor Molecular Oncology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Donavan T; Mitchell, Talia N; Zehir, Ahmet; Shah, Ronak H; Benayed, Ryma; Syed, Aijazuddin; Chandramohan, Raghu; Liu, Zhen Yu; Won, Helen H; Scott, Sasinya N; Brannon, A Rose; O'Reilly, Catherine; Sadowska, Justyna; Casanova, Jacklyn; Yannes, Angela; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Yao, Jinjuan; Song, Wei; Ross, Dara S; Oultache, Alifya; Dogan, Snjezana; Borsu, Laetitia; Hameed, Meera; Nafa, Khedoudja; Arcila, Maria E; Ladanyi, Marc; Berger, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    The identification of specific genetic alterations as key oncogenic drivers and the development of targeted therapies are together transforming clinical oncology and creating a pressing need for increased breadth and throughput of clinical genotyping. Next-generation sequencing assays allow the efficient and unbiased detection of clinically actionable mutations. To enable precision oncology in patients with solid tumors, we developed Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT), a hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing assay for targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 341 key cancer genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors. Barcoded libraries from patient-matched tumor and normal samples were captured, sequenced, and subjected to a custom analysis pipeline to identify somatic mutations. Sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility of MSK-IMPACT were assessed through extensive analytical validation. We tested 284 tumor samples with previously known point mutations and insertions/deletions in 47 exons of 19 cancer genes. All known variants were accurately detected, and there was high reproducibility of inter- and intrarun replicates. The detection limit for low-frequency variants was approximately 2% for hotspot mutations and 5% for nonhotspot mutations. Copy number alterations and structural rearrangements were also reliably detected. MSK-IMPACT profiles oncogenic DNA alterations in clinical solid tumor samples with high accuracy and sensitivity. Paired analysis of tumors and patient-matched normal samples enables unambiguous detection of somatic mutations to guide treatment decisions. PMID:25801821

  6. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  7. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  8. Memory hierarchies map onto the hippocampal long axis in humans.

    PubMed

    Collin, Silvy H P; Milivojevic, Branka; Doeller, Christian F

    2015-11-01

    Memories, similar to the internal representation of space, can be recalled at different resolutions ranging from detailed events to more comprehensive, multi-event narratives. Single-cell recordings in rodents have suggested that different spatial scales are represented as a gradient along the hippocampal axis. We found that a similar organization holds for human episodic memory: memory representations systematically vary in scale along the hippocampal long axis, which may enable the formation of mnemonic hierarchies. PMID:26479587

  9. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  10. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  11. Transactive memory in organizational groups: the effects of content, consensus, specialization, and accuracy on group performance.

    PubMed

    Austin, John R

    2003-10-01

    Previous research on transactive memory has found a positive relationship between transactive memory system development and group performance in single project laboratory and ad hoc groups. Closely related research on shared mental models and expertise recognition supports these findings. In this study, the author examined the relationship between transactive memory systems and performance in mature, continuing groups. A group's transactive memory system, measured as a combination of knowledge stock, knowledge specialization, transactive memory consensus, and transactive memory accuracy, is positively related to group goal performance, external group evaluations, and internal group evaluations. The positive relationship with group performance was found to hold for both task and external relationship transactive memory systems. PMID:14516250

  12. Sterile Immunity to Malaria after DNA Prime/Adenovirus Boost Immunization Is Associated with Effector Memory CD8+T Cells Targeting AMA1 Class I Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R.; Farooq, Fouzia; Ganeshan, Harini; Belmonte, Maria; Kim, Yohan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Huang, Jun; McGrath, Shannon; Abot, Esteban; Limbach, Keith; Shi, Meng; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter; Chuang, Ilin; Tamminga, Cindy; Epstein, Judith E.; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fifteen volunteers were immunized with three doses of plasmid DNA encoding P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and boosted with human adenovirus-5 (Ad) expressing the same antigens (DNA/Ad). Four volunteers (27%) demonstrated sterile immunity to controlled human malaria infection and, overall, protection was statistically significantly associated with ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? activities to AMA1 but not CSP. DNA priming was required for protection, as 18 additional subjects immunized with Ad alone (AdCA) did not develop sterile protection. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to identify correlates of protection, recognizing that DNA-priming may induce different responses than AdCA alone. Among protected volunteers, two and three had higher ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to CSP and AMA1, respectively, than non-protected volunteers. Unexpectedly, non-protected volunteers in the AdCA trial showed ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to AMA1 equal to or higher than the protected volunteers. T cell functionality assessed by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 likewise did not distinguish protected from non-protected volunteers across both trials. However, three of the four protected volunteers showed higher effector to central memory CD8+ T cell ratios to AMA1, and one of these to CSP, than non-protected volunteers for both antigens. These responses were focused on discrete regions of CSP and AMA1. Class I epitopes restricted by A*03 or B*58 supertypes within these regions of AMA1 strongly recalled responses in three of four protected volunteers. We hypothesize that vaccine-induced effector memory CD8+ T cells recognizing a single class I epitope can confer sterile immunity to P. falciparum in humans. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that better understanding of which epitopes within malaria antigens can confer sterile immunity and design of vaccine approaches that elicit responses to these epitopes will increase the potency of next generation gene-based vaccines. PMID:25211344

  13. Unconditional room-temperature quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, M.; Campbell, G.; Sparkes, B. M.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2011-10-01

    Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionizing computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80°C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. To unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state-independent verification using conditional variance and signal-transfer coefficients.

  14. Holding fixture for variable-contour parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynie, C. C.; Packer, P. N.; Zebus, P. P.

    1979-01-01

    Array of vacuum cups on spindles holds parts for safe machining and other processings. Variable-contour part resting on fixture is held firmly enough for machining, coating, or other mechanical treatment.

  15. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to...

  16. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to...

  17. Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home Advanced Illness: Holding On and Letting Go Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our ... fate, then I accept it with dignity." Letting Go As death nears, many people feel a lessening ...

  18. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  19. Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A; Thompson, Tyler H; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca(2+) influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM's may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM's) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM's. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM's, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca(2+) influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

  20. Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A.; Thompson, Tyler; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca2+ influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM’s may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM’s) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM’s. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM’s, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca2+ influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

  1. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  2. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

  3. Type 1 Diabetes Prevention in NOD Mice by Targeting DPPIV/CD26 Is Associated with Changes in CD8+T Effector Memory Subset

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Jorge; Colobran, Roger; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Rodriguez-Fernández, Silvia; Teniente, Aina; Fernández, Marco Antonio; Miñarro, Antoni; Ruiz de Villa, María Carmen; Vives-Pi, Marta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2015-01-01

    CD26 is a T cell activation marker consisting in a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in its extracellular domain. It has been described that DPPIV inhibition delays the onset of type 1 diabetes and reverses the disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of MK626, a DPPIV inhibitor, in type 1 diabetes incidence and in T lymphocyte subsets at central and peripheral compartments. Pre-diabetic NOD mice were treated with MK626. Diabetes incidence, insulitis score, and phenotyping of T lymphocytes in the thymus, spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes were determined after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, as well as alterations in the expression of genes encoding β-cell autoantigens in the islets. The effect of MK626 was also assessed in two in vitro assays to determine proliferative and immunosuppressive effects. Results show that MK626 treatment reduces type 1 diabetes incidence and after 6 weeks of treatment reduces insulitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of T lymphocyte subsets from central and peripheral compartments between treated and control mice. MK626 increased the expression of CD26 in CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) from spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes and in CD8+ T cells from islet infiltration. CD8+TEM cells showed an increased proliferation rate and cytokine secretion in the presence of MK626. Moreover, the combination of CD8+ TEM cells and MK626 induces an immunosuppressive response. In conclusion, treatment with the DPPIV inhibitor MK626 prevents experimental type 1 diabetes in association to increase expression of CD26 in the CD8+ TEM lymphocyte subset. In vitro assays suggest an immunoregulatory role of CD8+ TEM cells that may be involved in the protection against autoimmunity to β pancreatic islets associated to DPPIV inhibitor treatment. PMID:26555789

  4. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Disruptions in autobiographical memory processing in depression and the emergence of memory therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Werner-Seidler, Aliza

    2014-11-01

    Depression is characterized by distinct profiles of disturbance in ways autobiographical memories are represented, recalled, and maintained. We review four core domains of difficulty: systematic biases in favor of negative material; impoverished access and responses to positive memories; reduced access to the specific details of the personal past; and dysfunctional processes of rumination and avoidance around personal autobiographical material. These difficulties drive the onset and maintenance of depression; consequently, interventions targeted at these maladaptive processes have clinical potential. Memory therapeutics is the development of novel clinical techniques, translated from basic research, that target memory difficulties in those with emotional disorders. We discuss prototypical examples from this clinical domain including MEmory Specificity Training, positive memory elaboration, memory rescripting, and the method-of-loci (MoL). PMID:25060510

  6. Memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. PMID:26238360

  7. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  8. Attribute amnesia reflects a lack of memory consolidation for attended information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wyble, Brad

    2016-02-01

    A recently reported phenomenon, termed attribute amnesia, challenged the commonly held belief that attention plays the determining role in controlling how information is remembered, by showing that participants fail to remember a specific attended attribute (e.g., the target-defining color), even when they had just used that attribute to perform a task (Chen & Wyble, 2015a). The main purpose of the present study sought to better understand the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. The results revealed that attribute amnesia was nearly eliminated once participants were forced to store and hold attended information for a brief time, suggesting that this amnesia effect most likely reflects a lack of memory consolidation for an attended attribute that had been processed to some certain level. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect is not particular to the use of location report or the repetition of targets. One additional finding is that amnesia was markedly absent for location memory, indicating an important difference between memories for locations and attributes such as color or identity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348066

  9. Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

  10. Holding Fixture For Making Piezoelectric Acoustic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. Thomas, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Vacuum holding device provides quick and easy method of bonding together two strips of thin film with fast-setting epoxy adhesive. Fixture holds films in place by vacuum while adhesive applied, maintaining uniform bond line between films, providing internal connection port between nickel coats on films for center conductor of coaxial cable, and eliminating need to clean up excessive adhesive. Used to fabricate acoustic sensors for use in ambulatory fetal heart monitors. Potential for other heart-monitoring applications and other applications in which acoustic sensors used.

  11. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging. PMID:26752603

  12. Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Recent data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in memory consolidation and help to transmit acquired memories even across generations in a Lamarckian manner. Drugs that target the epigenetic machinery were found to enhance memory function in rodents and ameliorate disease phenotypes in models for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Chorea Huntington, Depression or Schizophrenia. In this review, I will give an overview on the current knowledge of epigenetic processes in memory function and brain disease with a focus on Morbus Alzheimer as the most common neurodegenerative disease. I will address the question whether an epigenetic therapy could indeed be a suitable therapeutic avenue to treat brain diseases and discuss the necessary steps that should help to take neuroepigenetic research to the next level. PMID:24719207

  13. Task-irrelevant memories rapidly gain attentional control with learning.

    PubMed

    Gunseli, Eren; Olivers, Christian N L; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-03-01

    Although many of our perceptual biases stem from long-term, repeated exposure, current theories of visual search assume a central role for visual working memory (VWM) in guiding attention to target information. Crucially, whether a VWM representation guides attention depends on the relative priority that the memory has within VWM. Here, in a combined visual search/VWM task, we used attentional guidance by irrelevant memories to measure how long a target representation remains prioritized in VWM when observers repeatedly search for the same target. Irrelevant memories started guiding attention already when the target was repeated once, indicating that the target representation rapidly lost priority within VWM as it moved to long-term memory. By showing that training can lead to interference from irrelevant memories, the findings resolve a long-standing paradox on why VWM appears central to, yet at the same time not sufficient nor necessary for attentional guidance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436527

  14. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  15. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  16. Holding fixture for a hot stamping press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A hand held guide for manually positioning a work piece between the anvil rib and tool of a hot die stamping press is described. A groove completed by interchangeable cover plates attached at one end of the guide conforms to a cross sectional dimension common to similar workpieces and, with a force fit, retentively holds each of the workpieces.

  17. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  18. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Specifically, the program shall describe the method for the continued preservation of electronic records... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record hold. 1235.5 Section 1235.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES...

  19. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Specifically, the program shall describe the method for the continued preservation of electronic records... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record hold. 1235.5 Section 1235.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES...

  20. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  1. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  2. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  3. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  4. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  5. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  6. The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

  7. Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mevada, Surekha T.; Al-Mahruqi, Najma; El-Beshlawi, Ismail; El-Shinawy, Mohamed; Zachariah, Mathew; Al-Rawas, Abdul H.; Daar, Shahina; Wali, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2*) is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7–17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15–20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breath-hold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans. PMID:26909218

  8. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  9. Access versus Holdings: Document Delivery Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Frances; Davies, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of access versus holdings of academic library materials and the performance of document-delivery services focuses on work at the University of Liverpool (United Kingdom) that is investigating existing and future document supply services, including costs. Expresses concern regarding the low level of subject coverage by many of the…

  10. Project HOLD: A Secondary Learning Disability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marjorie Sims

    This document discusses Project HOLD, a Title VI-G Child Service Demonstration Center which was established as a cooperative effort between Northeast Louisiana University and the Ouachita Parish School System. The primary purpose of the project is to plan, explore, implement, and refine a program for students in grades 7 through 12 who have been…

  11. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  12. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  13. Fixtures Hold Nuts During Tightening Of Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1993-01-01

    Two fixtures designed for use on cross-head of tensile testing machine simplify adjustments of crosshead to accommodate specimens of various lengths. Two cagelike fixtures hold pairs of nuts, preventing nuts from turning while bolts are tightened. Enable one person acting alone to tighten bolts.

  14. Holding costs for fuel inventories: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.; Pearson, N.

    1989-01-01

    The optimal inventory of a commodity depends in part on how much it costs to hold it. One component of this cost is financial --- the depreciation and interest on the stored commodity. If the future price of the commodity is uncertain, both the depreciation rate and the opportunity cost of funds are expected values. This means that the cost of holding a risky commodity such as fuel oil cannot be observed directly. This report describes a rigorous methodology for estimating the financial component of inventory holding costs. The methodology utilizes prices in the money and commodity markets, all of which are observable. It can be applied to commodities on which forward contracts are traded. The methodology exploits the insight that the inventory decision can be treated as an investment problem. Thus, instead of computing interest and depreciation, the financial component of inventory holding costs can be expressed as the difference between the current spot price of the commodity and the present value of the future spot price.

  15. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheel, Minakshi

    1997-01-01

    The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

  17. Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

  18. Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

  19. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  20. Gender Politics: The Focus on Women in the Memory Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Emily

    2000-01-01

    Examines how the politics of gender have influenced and shaped the modern debates over sexual abuse and memory. Explores the level of scrutiny applied to women accusers, the language used to characterize women within the debate, and why the sexual abuse memories of women have become the specific and focused target of "false memory" proponents and…

  1. Episodically defined organization of visual memory.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Karla; Williams, Carrick

    2015-09-01

    One theory proposed to account for the remarkable capacity and fidelity of visual memory is that visual memories are supported by an underlying structure of conceptual knowledge around which visual information is organized. However, some findings of visual memory learned in visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. This study examines the importance of episodic, task-relevant, visual information in the organizational structure of visual memory. In two experiments, participants learned 36 target objects (750 ms presentation) in serial presentation search tasks, followed by additional searches containing varying numbers of new exemplars of the targets to introduce retroactive interference for the original search targets. Following the search trials, participants completed a 2-AFC memory test. The critical difference between the two experiments was the form of search instructions given. In Experiment 1, search instructions identified targets by color and conceptual category, making a perceptual feature, (i.e., color), relevant to the task, whereas in Experiment 2, the target was defined by the conceptual category alone making the perceptual feature irrelevant. In Experiment 1, memory test results showed that new exemplars that matched learned objects on both color and conceptual category induced more interference (80%) than those matched on conceptual category alone (87%). Experiment 2, in contrast, showed that new exemplar objects that matched only on conceptual category induced the same amount of interference (78%) as those matched on both color and conceptual category (77%). Results indicate that when made task-relevant, perceptual, as well as conceptual, information contributes to the organization of visual long-term memory. However, when made episodically non-relevant, perceptual information does not contribute to memory organization, and memory defaults to conceptual category organization. This finding supports a theory of an episodically defined organizational structure in visual long-term memory that is overlaid upon an underlying conceptual structure. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325768

  2. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971,...

  3. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  4. 26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company income. 1.543-1 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.543-1 Personal holding company income. (a) General rule. The term personal holding company income means the portion of the gross income...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  6. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  7. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  9. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  11. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  12. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  13. Source Memory in the Real World: A Neuropsychological Study of Flashbulb Memory

    PubMed Central

    DAVIDSON, PATRICK S. R.; COOK, SHAUN P.; GLISKY, ELIZABETH L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE; RAPCSAK, STEVEN Z.

    2008-01-01

    A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events. PMID:16183624

  14. Autobiographical Memory in the Angry Self.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lynette; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The impact of anger on autobiographical recall was examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, 76 participants differing in trait anger completed an autobiographical memory task (AMT). In Experiment 2, 50 participants with elevated trait anger were either provoked or not provoked and subsequently completed an AMT. Across both studies, participants with high dispositional anger reported more anger-related memories, describing themselves as the primary agent of anger. In Experiment 2, provoked participants reported more memories describing themselves as the target of anger. These findings highlight the distinct patterns of memory recall associated with trait versus state anger. Findings are discussed in terms of retrieval biases operating in angry individuals and proposals stemming from self-memory system models of autobiographical memory. PMID:27023327

  15. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  16. Biological specimen holding facilities for Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.; Murphy, G. L.; Berry, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of two prototype holding facilities: (1) a unit housing 36 laboratory rats in individual cages, and (2) a unit housing one unrestrained 14-kg rhesus monkey. Both units are environmentally controlled enclosures complete with food, water, and waste-collection equipment. Timer-controlled fluorescent lights in both units permit automatic day-night cycling. Both units are designed to be compatible with Spacelab interfaces and to be operated by NASA payload specialists.

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. B Appendix B to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. B Appendix B to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. B Appendix B to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company...

  20. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and...

  1. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  2. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  3. Graphic Cigarette Warnings May Target Brain's 'Quit Centers'

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Target Brain's 'Quit Centers' Areas linked to emotions, decision-making and memory are triggered, researchers suggest To use ... study showed. These areas are involved in emotion, decision-making and memory, the researchers said. "The amygdala responds ...

  4. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  5. Durable fear memories require PSD-95

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  6. What-Where-When Memory in the Rodent Odor Span Task

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Carrie L.; Galizio, Mark; Bruce, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    While the Odor Span Task (OST) was developed to assess working memory in rodents, it appears that odor (“What”) and time since an odor was last reinforced (“When”) jointly control responding in the OST. The OST uses an incrementing non-match to sample procedure such that the number of stimuli to remember increases during the session; the rodent is trained to remember stimuli within a session but not between sessions. We used a variation of the OST to add a “Where” dimension to the task to examine whether rodents could learn to respond to scents based on contextual cues as well. In Experiment 1, 6 rats well-trained on the OST procedure were exposed to four target scents in a holding cage before the OST session began [What-Where-When (WWW) condition]. When these target scents appeared in the OST, rats treated them as novel scents despite their being previously encountered that day; WWW responding was comparable to baseline (BL) responding. Controls were implemented to account for relative familiarity: frequency of target presentation and time since the target odor was presented. On both types of control probes, rats typically responded to target scents less than during WWW or BL conditions, took longer to make a response, and visited more comparison stimuli. In Experiment 2, the study was replicated adding reinforcement delivery for responding to pre-session presentation of target stimuli. Subjects were the same 6 rats plus 2 additional rats also well-trained on the OST. Results were similar to those from Experiment 1. These data indicate that the variables controlling performance on the OST task include What stimulus is presented, Where (i.e., in which location) it was presented, and When it was presented. Thus, the OST-probe methodology may provide a useful vehicle for the study of episodic-like memory processes in non-humans. PMID:25242825

  7. Loganin improves learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2009-10-01

    Loganin is an iridoid glycoside found in the Flos lonicerae, Fruit cornus, and Strychonos nux vomica. We investigated the effect of loganin on learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and the Morris water maze tests in mice. In the Y-maze test, loganin (40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. In addition, loganin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced impairments measured by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests. A day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), loganin (20 and 40 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased the latency time in the target quadrant. Furthermore, loganin significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Loganin may have anti-amnesic activity that may hold significant therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairments observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19666019

  8. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts. PMID:25351730

  9. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  10. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  11. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  12. Inhibiting the Activity of CA1 Hippocampal Neurons Prevents the Recall of Contextual Fear Memory in Inducible ArchT Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Kim, Karam; Yu, Lily Mae Yee; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Sekine, Yukiko; Okumura, Yuki; Kawano, Masako; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kumar, Deependra; Boyden, Edward S.; McHugh, Thomas J.; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The optogenetic manipulation of light-activated ion-channels/pumps (i.e., opsins) can reversibly activate or suppress neuronal activity with precise temporal control. Therefore, optogenetic techniques hold great potential to establish causal relationships between specific neuronal circuits and their function in freely moving animals. Due to the critical role of the hippocampal CA1 region in memory function, we explored the possibility of targeting an inhibitory opsin, ArchT, to CA1 pyramidal neurons in mice. We established a transgenic mouse line in which tetracycline trans-activator induces ArchT expression. By crossing this line with a CaMKII?-tTA transgenic line, the delivery of light via an implanted optrode inhibits the activity of excitatory CA1 neurons. We found that light delivery to the hippocampus inhibited the recall of a contextual fear memory. Our results demonstrate that this optogenetic mouse line can be used to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying behavior. PMID:26075894

  13. Inhibiting the Activity of CA1 Hippocampal Neurons Prevents the Recall of Contextual Fear Memory in Inducible ArchT Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Kim, Karam; Yu, Lily Mae Yee; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Sekine, Yukiko; Okumura, Yuki; Kawano, Masako; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kumar, Deependra; Boyden, Edward S; McHugh, Thomas J; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The optogenetic manipulation of light-activated ion-channels/pumps (i.e., opsins) can reversibly activate or suppress neuronal activity with precise temporal control. Therefore, optogenetic techniques hold great potential to establish causal relationships between specific neuronal circuits and their function in freely moving animals. Due to the critical role of the hippocampal CA1 region in memory function, we explored the possibility of targeting an inhibitory opsin, ArchT, to CA1 pyramidal neurons in mice. We established a transgenic mouse line in which tetracycline trans-activator induces ArchT expression. By crossing this line with a CaMKII?-tTA transgenic line, the delivery of light via an implanted optrode inhibits the activity of excitatory CA1 neurons. We found that light delivery to the hippocampus inhibited the recall of a contextual fear memory. Our results demonstrate that this optogenetic mouse line can be used to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying behavior. PMID:26075894

  14. The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

  15. The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

  16. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  17. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  18. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  19. Vise to hold bones or other irregular objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Vise with stationary vee-shaped jaw and segmented notched jaw for holding irregular shaped objects is described. Operation of the device and specific application to holding bones are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  20. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  1. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  2. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  3. Spikes not slots: noise in neural populations limits working memory.

    PubMed

    Bays, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    This opinion article argues that noise (randomness) in neural activity is the limiting factor in visual working memory (WM), determining how accurately we can maintain stable internal representations of external stimuli. Sharing of a fixed amount of neural activity between items in memory explains why WM can be successfully described as a continuous resource. This contrasts with the popular conception of WM as comprising a limited number of memory slots, each holding a representation of one stimulus - I argue that this view is challenged by computational theory and the latest neurophysiological evidence. PMID:26160026

  4. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  5. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  6. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  7. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business holdings; certain periods. 53.4943-9...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-9 Business holdings; certain periods. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general. For purposes...

  8. 47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. 20.22... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.22 Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. (a) Applicants for mobile... application consistent with the policies set forth in Policies Regarding Mobile Spectrum Holdings, Report...

  9. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  10. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; certain periods. 53.4943-9...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-9 Business holdings; certain periods. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general. For purposes...

  11. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold. (b)(1)...

  12. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  13. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  14. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  15. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  16. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on...

  20. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  1. TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hope, Kevin A; Hoffmann, Brian; Chong, Jayhong A; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; O'Connell, Kristen M; Tryba, Andrew K; Greene, Andrew S; Savio Chan, C; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

    2015-03-15

    Memory formation requires de novo protein synthesis, and memory disorders may result from misregulated synthesis of critical proteins that remain largely unidentified. Plasma membrane ion channels and receptors are likely candidates given their role in regulating neuron excitability, a candidate memory mechanism. Here we conduct targeted molecular monitoring and quantitation of hippocampal plasma membrane proteins from mice with intact or impaired contextual fear memory to identify putative candidates. Here we report contextual fear memory deficits correspond to increased Trpc3 gene and protein expression, and demonstrate TRPC3 regulates hippocampal neuron excitability associated with memory function. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for enhanced contextual fear memory reported herein following knockdown of TRPC3 in hippocampus. Collectively, TRPC3 modulates memory and may be a feasible target to enhance memory and treat memory disorders. PMID:25513972

  2. Notch in memories: Points to remember.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Swananda; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Memory is a temporally evolving molecular and structural process, which involves changes from local synapses to complex neural networks. There is increasing evidence for an involvement of developmental pathways in regulating synaptic communication in the adult nervous system. Notch signaling has been implicated in memory formation in a variety of species. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Notch underlying memory consolidation remains poorly understood. In this commentary, besides offering an overview of the advances in the field of Notch in memory, we highlight some of the weaknesses of the studies and attempt to cast light on the apparent discrepancies on the role of Notch in memory. We believe that future studies, employing high-throughput technologies and targeted Notch loss and gain of function animal models, will reveal the mechanisms of Notch dependent plasticity and resolve whether this signaling pathway is implicated in the cognitive deficit associated with dementia. PMID:25565152

  3. Notch in memories: Points to remember.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Swananda; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-12-01

    Memory is a temporally evolving molecular and structural process, which involves changes from local synapses to complex neural networks. There is increasing evidence for an involvement of developmental pathways in regulating synaptic communication in the adult nervous system. Notch signaling has been implicated in memory formation in a variety of species. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Notch in memory consolidation remains poorly understood. In this commentary, besides offering an overview of the advances in the field of Notch in memory, we highlight some of the weaknesses of the studies and attempt to cast light on some of the apparent discrepancies on the role of Notch in memory. We believe that future studies, employing high-throughput technologies and targeted Notch loss and gain of function animal models, will reveal the mechanisms of Notch-dependent plasticity and resolve whether this signaling pathway is implicated in the cognitive deficit associated with dementia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656274

  4. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  5. Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

    2008-01-01

    In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

  6. Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

    2008-01-01

    In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

  7. 78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C); \\2\\ 12 U.S.C. 1841(a). A company that, on... to prepare their financial statements in accordance with statutory accounting principles (SAP) and that some of those companies do not prepare GAAP-based financial statements in addition to their...

  8. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, R. W. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  9. Zipf's law holds for phrases, not words.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Lessard, Paul R; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M; Bagrow, James P; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    With Zipf's law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf's law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases. PMID:26259699

  10. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. PMID:26649914

  11. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. PMID:26649914

  12. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Qiu, C.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Poem, E.; Ledingham, P. M.; Walmsley, I. A.; Nunn, J.

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15 ±2 )×10-3 photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5 ±0.5 )%.

  13. Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses. PMID:21943171

  14. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D J; Munns, J H D; Champion, T F M; Qiu, C; Kaczmarek, K T; Poem, E; Ledingham, P M; Walmsley, I A; Nunn, J

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15±2)×10^{-3} photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5±0.5)%. PMID:26991164

  15. 14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  16. Retraining Memory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Rick; Herrmann, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    A variety of memory strategies can be used to retrain an individual's ability to process information in working memory. This article provides step-by-step instructions for various memory encoding strategies. These strategies include training in perceptual grouping of number series, organization, mediation, mental imagery, and associative memory

  17. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  18. Towards Terabit Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm², a very small read energy of 0.1 μW/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

  19. Deep brain stimulation effects on memory.

    PubMed

    Laxton, A W; Sankar, T; Lozano, A M; Hamani, C

    2012-12-01

    As the population of many countries ages, disorders of cognition and memory-such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and dementia associated with Parkinson's Disease-will become a major societal burden. At present, few effective medical therapies against these conditions are available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a potential therapeutic option, because it can directly target and modulate the activity of structures implicated in circuits subserving memory function. In this article, we review the scientific literature to address some of the mechanisms by which DBS may impact memory and cognition. We then summarize the results of recent clinical experience with DBS in AD and Parkinsonian dementia. PMID:23111294

  20. Modulation of alpha power at encoding and retrieval tracks the precision of visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Poliakov, E.; Stokes, M. G.; Woolrich, M. W.; Mantini, D.

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is strictly limited. We sought to understand the relationship between oscillatory brain activity and the allocation of resources within visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants attempted to remember target arrows embedded among distracters and used a continuous method of responding to report their memory for a cued target item. Trial-to-trial variability in the absolute circular accuracy with which participants could report the target was predicted by event-related alpha synchronization during initial processing of the memoranda and by alpha desynchronization during the retrieval of those items from VSTM. Using a model-based approach, we were also able to explore further which parameters of VSTM-guided behavior were most influenced by alpha band changes. Alpha synchronization during item processing enhanced the precision with which an item could be retained without affecting the likelihood of an item being represented per se (as indexed by the guessing rate). Importantly, our data outline a neural mechanism that mirrors the precision with which items are retained; the greater the alpha power enhancement during encoding, the greater the precision with which that item can be retained. PMID:25210151

  1. Targeting intracellular targets.

    PubMed

    Panyam, Jayanth; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2004-07-01

    Many therapeutic agents have intracellular compartments as their site of action. Targeted delivery of these agents to their specific intracellular targets could result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity. Various carriers have been shown useful in targeted delivery of different classes of therapeutic agents. Among these carriers, biodegradable nanoparticles formulated from biocompatible polymers poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polylactide (PLA) have shown the potential for sustained intracellular delivery of different therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss different intracellular targets, barriers to intracellular delivery, mechanism and pathways of intracellular delivery, and various carriers and approaches that have been investigated for intracellular drug delivery. PMID:16305387

  2. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  3. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  4. Mental models students hold of zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information Framework. Most important to this study is the development of the Information Framework, which described the information students knew about zoos.

  5. When does generation enhance memory for location?

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2006-09-01

    Generation is thought to enhance both item-specific and relational processing of generated targets as compared with read words (M. A. McDaniel & P. J. Waddill, 1990). Generation facilitates encoding of the cue-target relation and sometimes boosts encoding of relations across list items. Of interest is whether generation can also increase the encoding of target-location associations. Because the literature on this point is mixed, 3 procedural differences between 2 studies (E. J. Marsh, G. Edelman, & G. H. Bower, 2001; N. W. Mulligan, 2004) were identified and manipulated. A positive generation effect was found for location memory, but this effect was reduced when subjects wrote down the study words and when the filler task involved generation. Generation can enhance location memory in addition to item memory but only if the experimental parameters do not interfere with the processing benefits of generation. PMID:16938059

  6. A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

  7. Utility takeovers and the Holding Company Act. [Effects of repeal or modification

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, B.C.; Mazo, M.E.

    1982-09-30

    This article makes the point that utility managements have led a largely sheltered existence so far as the world of corporate mergers and acquisitions is concerned, thanks to provisions in the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. With repeal or modification of that act they will need to prepare themselves for both aggressive and defensive positions toward potential targets of acquisition and acquirors of their company shares and assets.

  8. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Yunli; Huang, Xu; Lin, Xingfeng; Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  9. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  10. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  11. Subsequent Memory Effects in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Azurii K.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. We found evidence for subsequent memory (SM, subsequently remembered > subsequently forgotten) effects on regional brain activation in both groups but with distinct patterns. Region of interest analyses in controls demonstrated SM activation in both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and fusiform cortex (FF), whereas patients showed SM effects only in the FF. There were no significant between group differences in MTL activation; however, patients demonstrated greater FF activation than controls. Notably, greater FF activation during successful encoding was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Exploratory whole brain analyses in patients demonstrated SM activation in the occipital pole, lateral occipital cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and fusiform cortex; whereas in controls there was no significant activation that survived correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that patients, particularly those with prominent negative symptoms, may activate FF as a compensatory strategy to promote successful encoding, with relatively less reliance on MTL recruitment. PMID:25453165

  12. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24?hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  13. Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

  14. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure.

  15. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F.Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure. PMID:26239505

  16. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions.

    PubMed

    Yau, H M; Yan, Z B; Chan, N Y; Au, K; Wong, C M; Leung, C W; Zhang, F Y; Gao, X S; Dai, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure. PMID:26239505

  17. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  18. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  19. Identifying and characterizing the effects of nutrition on hippocampal memory.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jim M; Baym, Carol L; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-05-01

    In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally, we discuss selected findings from animal and human research on nutrition and the hippocampus and advocate for the role of relational memory tasks in future research. PMID:24829486

  20. To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

  1. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  2. Scene and Position Specificity in Visual Memory for Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how visual representations of individual objects are bound in memory to scene context. Participants viewed a series of naturalistic scenes, and memory for the visual form of a target object in each scene was examined in a 2-alternative forced-choice test, with the distractor object either a different object…

  3. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  4. Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

  5. A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

  6. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  7. Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

  8. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  9. Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Castiello, Umberto; Köster, Egon Peter; Mojet, Jos

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes. PMID:24560690

  10. A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

  11. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions. PMID:22496783

  12. Understanding Memory Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... memory problems—causes and treatments Help for serious memory problems What you need to know Where can I get more information? Words to know ... of Health U.S. Department of Health & Human Services USA.gov

  13. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  14. [Memory and cognitivism].

    PubMed

    Spinetto, M

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this article is to explore the notion of cognitive memory. For that reason we would study the implicit and explicit memory. We would also study the notion of childhood amnesia and trauma. PMID:11780154

  15. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  16. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  17. Optical memory: Phase-change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2015-11-01

    Integrated nano-optical memories may help overcome the limitations of communication speeds and energy costs in electronic chips. Now, using nanoscale phase-change materials researchers have realized the first multi-bit all-optical non-volatile memories with a very small footprint.

  18. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  19. Memories (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Carol; Peters, Donna; Semer, Susie; White, W. Quinn; Scharer, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 46 children's books that explore memories of childhood, memories of love, keepsakes that capture those memories, memorable tales from long ago, memorable journeys, times that are painful to remember, and heroes and heroines who have provided hope and change in a troubled world. (SR)

  20. Origins of Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Keryn; Reese, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Tested predictions of infantile amnesia theory compared with social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory. Found maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition when child was 19 months old uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out.…

  1. Shielding cognition from nociception with working memory.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Valéry; Crombez, Geert; Plaghki, Léon; Mouraux, André

    2013-01-01

    Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, nociceptive stimuli have the capacity to capture attention and interfere with ongoing cognitive activities. Working memory is known to guide the orientation of attention by maintaining goal priorities active during the achievement of a task. This study investigated whether the cortical processing of nociceptive stimuli and their ability to capture attention are under the control of working memory. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed primary tasks on visual targets that required or did not require rehearsal in working memory (1-back vs 0-back conditions). The visual targets were shortly preceded by task-irrelevant tactile stimuli. Occasionally, in order to distract the participants, the tactile stimuli were replaced by novel nociceptive stimuli. In the 0-back conditions, task performance was disrupted by the occurrence of the nociceptive distracters, as reflected by the increased reaction times in trials with novel nociceptive distracters as compared to trials with standard tactile distracters. In the 1-back conditions, such a difference disappeared suggesting that attentional capture and task disruption induced by nociceptive distracters were suppressed by working memory, regardless of task demands. Most importantly, in the conditions involving working memory, the magnitude of nociceptive ERPs, including ERP components at early latency, were significantly reduced. This indicates that working memory is able to modulate the cortical processing of nociceptive input already at its earliest stages, and could explain why working memory reduces consequently ability of nociceptive stimuli to capture attention and disrupt performance of the primary task. It is concluded that protecting cognitive processing against pain interference is best guaranteed by keeping out of working memory pain-related information. PMID:23026759

  2. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. PMID:25100854

  3. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose and Rationale:

    1) To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes that may be necessary to the current regulations.

    2) While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provid...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any business enterprise in which such a foundation, but for section 4943(c)(4), would have had excess... in such business enterprise during such period (unless the combined holdings of the foundation and... combined holdings of the foundation and all disqualified persons in such business enterprise on May...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... any business enterprise in which such a foundation, but for section 4943(c)(4), would have had excess... in such business enterprise during such period (unless the combined holdings of the foundation and... combined holdings of the foundation and all disqualified persons in such business enterprise on May...

  6. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect holding of interests. 25.2701-6 Section 25.2701-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6 Indirect holding of interests. (a) In...

  7. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  8. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106... TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part must also meet the requirements for the MMC on which the endorsement would appear. These requirements...

  9. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106... TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part must also meet the requirements for the MMC on which the endorsement would appear. These requirements...

  10. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106... TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part must also meet the requirements for the MMC on which the endorsement would appear. These requirements...

  11. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106... TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part must also meet the requirements for the MMC on which the endorsement would appear. These requirements...

  12. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106... TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part must also meet the requirements for the MMC on which the endorsement would appear. These requirements...

  13. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amount less than required by sections 6(b), 10(c) and 10(e) of the Act (12 U.S.C. 1426(b), 1430(c), 1430... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... hold. (b)(1) Annual adjustment. A Bank shall calculate annually, in the manner set forth in §...

  14. Water holding of biochar amended SE Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because southeastern Coastal Plain soils are sandy, poorly aggregated, and low in organic matter, they have low water holding capacities. Water holding can be improved with biochar amendments that have the potential to increase aggregation and provide a medium of water storage in the char. Changes i...

  15. 46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold containing the material must be electrically disconnected from the power source at a point outside of the cargo hold. The point of disconnection must be marked to prevent the circuit from being reenergized while the material is on board....

  16. 46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold containing the material must be electrically disconnected from the power source at a point outside of the cargo hold. The point of disconnection must be marked to prevent the circuit from being reenergized while the material is on board....

  17. 46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold containing the material must be electrically disconnected from the power source at a point outside of the cargo hold. The point of disconnection must be marked to prevent the circuit from being reenergized while the material is on board....

  18. 46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold containing the material must be electrically disconnected from the power source at a point outside of the cargo hold. The point of disconnection must be marked to prevent the circuit from being reenergized while the material is on board....

  19. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates…

  1. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... holdings of such a foundation to a percentage equal to the difference between: (A) The percentage of... holdings of all disqualified persons in such business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock)....

  2. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... holdings of such a foundation to a percentage equal to the difference between: (A) The percentage of... holdings of all disqualified persons in such business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock)....

  3. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... holdings of such a foundation to a percentage equal to the difference between: (A) The percentage of... holdings of all disqualified persons in such business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock)....

  4. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates…

  5. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity...

  6. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity...

  7. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity may...

  8. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity...

  9. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  10. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is...

  13. 35. REDUCTION PLANT HOLDING TANKS View just to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. REDUCTION PLANT - HOLDING TANKS View just to the right of Photo No. 34. Note holding tanks for fish awaiting reduction, and cement bases (in front of tanks) for dryers and power units (right). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  14. Refinements to NCHEMS Data Base Software and Holdings, FY82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, CO.

    Holdings of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and fiscal year (FY) 1982 data acquisitions and software enhancements are discussed. NCHEMS holds many years of data from surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, the National Science Foundation, the Bureau of the Census, and the Department…

  15. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial...

  16. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  17. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  18. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... for a Foreign Organization to Acquire a U.S. Bank or Bank Holding Company (FR Y-3F; OMB No. 7100-0119... company, the biographical information requested in the Interagency Biographical and Financial Report FR... Existing Information Collections: The Annual Report of Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-6), The Report...

  19. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... company, the biographical information requested in the Interagency Biographical and Financial Report FR... Existing Information Collections: The Annual Report of Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding...

  20. 17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken from atop the redwood holding tanks at the north end of the building, looking across at the north end of the building. Below can be seen the sluice doors through which the fish flowed to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Purpose and Rationale is to:

    To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations.

    While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provi...

  2. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  7. Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

  8. Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

  9. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  10. Quantum Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (QRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log?N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust QRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially less gates, and leads to an exponential decrease in the power needed for addressing. A quantum optical implementation is presented.

  11. ECT and memory loss.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller. PMID:331969

  12. The neurology of memory.

    PubMed

    Dworetzky, B A

    2001-01-01

    Remembering is an intrinsic and awesome aspect of human function. Memory loss, a common sequela of brain damage, has been studied extensively to understand how the brain encodes, stores and retrieves information. Important anatomic structures for memory have been identified from work in surgical therapy for epilepsy as well as other clinical syndromes where memory loss is a major feature. Beyond clinicoanatomic correlations, current research has focused on synaptic modifications and biochemical processes that underlie changes in neuronal connectivity. As Alzheimer's disease research expands our knowledge of memory, the treatment of other memory disorders will follow. PMID:11373070

  13. Memory of Germinant Stimuli in Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Faeder, James R.; Setlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial spores, despite being metabolically dormant, possess the remarkable capacity to detect nutrients and other molecules in their environment through a biochemical sensory apparatus that can trigger spore germination, allowing the return to vegetative growth within minutes of exposure of germinants. We demonstrate here that bacterial spores of multiple species retain memory of transient exposures to germinant stimuli that can result in altered responses to subsequent exposure. The magnitude and decay of these memory effects depend on the pulse duration as well as on the separation time, incubation temperature, and pH values between the pulses. Spores of Bacillus species germinate in response to nutrients that interact with germinant receptors (GRs) in the spore’s inner membrane, with different nutrient types acting on different receptors. In our experiments, B. subtilis spores display memory when the first and second germinant pulses target different receptors, suggesting that some components of spore memory are downstream of GRs. Furthermore, nonnutrient germinants, which do not require GRs, exhibit memory either alone or in combination with nutrient germinants, and memory of nonnutrient stimulation is found to be more persistent than that induced by GR-dependent stimuli. Spores of B. cereus and Clostridium difficile also exhibit germination memory, suggesting that memory may be a general property of bacterial spores. These observations along with experiments involving strains with mutations in various germination proteins suggest a model in which memory is stored primarily in the metastable states of SpoVA proteins, which comprise a channel for release of dipicolinic acid, a major early event in spore germination. PMID:26604257

  14. 12 CFR 574.8 - Qualified stock issuances by undercapitalized savings associations or holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... savings association, or issued by any savings and loan holding company (other than a bank holding company... (ii) A savings and loan holding company which is not a bank holding company but which controls an... loan holding companies. No savings and loan holding company shall be deemed to control a...

  15. A Memory Advantage for Untrustworthy Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Nicholas O.; Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief…

  16. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  17. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard...., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice Tentatively Approving and Authorizing Transaction. SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws... Company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of the...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws... Company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of the...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD.... 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws... Company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of the...

  1. Examples of Holdings Reports and Decisions Using the American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Gary; And Others

    This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the resolutions reached in converting Indiana University Libraries serials holdings information to the format specified in the 1980 American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level (ANSI). It is noted that this project was part of the development--by OCLC--of…

  2. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  3. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  4. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  5. Rehearsing biological motion in working memory: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zaifeng; Bentin, Shlomo; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Holding biological motion (BM), the movements of animate entities, in working memory (WM) is important to our daily social life. However, how BM is maintained in WM remains unknown. The current study investigated this issue and hypothesized that, analogous to BM perception, the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is involved in rehearsing BM in WM. To examine the MNS hypothesis of BM rehearsal, we used an EEG index of mu suppression (8-12 Hz), which has been linked to the MNS. Using a change detection task, we manipulated the BM memory load in three experiments. We predicted that mu suppression in the maintenance phase of WM would be modulated by the BM memory load; moreover, a negative correlation between the number of BM stimuli in WM and the degree of mu suppression may emerge. The results of Experiment 1 were in line with our predictions and revealed that mu suppression increased as the memory load increased from two to four BM stimuli; however, mu suppression then plateaued, as WM could only hold, at most, four BM stimuli. Moreover, the predicted negative correlation was observed. Corroborating the findings of Experiment 1, Experiment 2 further demonstrated that once participants used verbal codes to process the motion information, the mu suppression or modulation by memory load vanished. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the findings in Experiment 1 were not limited to one specific type of stimuli. Together, these results provide evidence that the MNS underlies the process of rehearsing BM in WM. PMID:25061930

  6. Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E; Cunningham, Tony J; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically related lure words. Moreover, while control subjects remembered true and false words equivalently, stressed subjects remembered more false than true words. These results suggest that stress supports gist memory formation in the DRM task, perhaps by hindering detail-specific processing in the hippocampus. PMID:26670187

  7. Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control

    PubMed Central

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance. PMID:23908639

  8. Affective state and event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Jan; Hepp, Johanna; Klein, Sina A; Silberleitner, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory tasks require the realisation of a delayed intention at the occurrence of a specific target event. The present research investigates how performance in this kind of prospective memory task is influenced by the current affective state. By manipulating participants' mood during intention realisation we tested two competing models of mood effects on memory (i.e., a capacity consuming account and a processing style account). Furthermore, we manipulated the valence of the target event to investigate mood-congruency effects in prospective memory. No evidence was found for a mood-congruency effect, but the results showed that prospective memory performance increased with a sad mood. This effect is consistent with recent theories on mood-dependent processing-style regulation, postulating that a sad mood produces a more analytic and detailed processing style whereas a happy mood produces a more global and less detailed processing style. PMID:21623486

  9. Targeting glutamate uptake to treat alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious public health concern that is characterized by the development of tolerance to alcohol's effects, increased consumption, loss of control over drinking and the development of physical dependence. This cycle is often times punctuated by periods of abstinence, craving and relapse. The development of tolerance and the expression of withdrawal effects, which manifest as dependence, have been to a great extent attributed to neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic and extended amygdala systems. Alcohol affects various neurotransmitter systems in the brain including the adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic systems. Due to the myriad of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems affected by alcohol, the efficacies of current pharmacotherapies targeting alcohol dependence are limited. Importantly, research findings of changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission induced by alcohol self- or experimenter-administration have resulted in a focus on therapies targeting glutamatergic receptors and normalization of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Glutamatergic receptors implicated in the effects of ethanol include the ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA) and some metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regarding glutamatergic homeostasis, ceftriaxone, MS-153, and GPI-1046, which upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions, reduce alcohol intake in genetic animal models of alcoholism. Given the hyperglutamatergic/hyperexcitable state of the central nervous system induced by chronic alcohol abuse and withdrawal, the evidence thus far indicates that a restoration of glutamatergic concentrations and activity within the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala as well as multiple memory systems holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25954150

  10. Electrical Evaluation of RCA MWS5501D Random Access Memory, Volume 2, Appendix a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klute, A.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical characterization and qualification test results are presented for the RCA MWS5001D random access memory. The tests included functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, AC parametric worst-case pattern selection test, determination of worst-case transition for setup and hold times, and a series of schmoo plots. The address access time, address readout time, the data hold time, and the data setup time are some of the results surveyed.

  11. The role of object categories in hybrid visual and memory search

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In hybrid search, observers (Os) search for any of several possible targets in a visual display containing distracting items and, perhaps, a target. Wolfe (2012) found that responses times (RT) in such tasks increased linearly with increases in the number of items in the display. However, RT increased linearly with the log of the number of items in the memory set. In earlier work, all items in the memory set were unique instances (e.g. this apple in this pose). Typical real world tasks involve more broadly defined sets of stimuli (e.g. any “apple” or, perhaps, “fruit”). The present experiments show how sets or categories of targets are handled in joint visual and memory search. In Experiment 1, searching for a digit among letters was not like searching for targets from a 10-item memory set, though searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary alphanumeric characters was like searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary objects. In Experiment 2, Os searched for any instance of N sets or categories held in memory. This hybrid search was harder than search for specific objects. However, memory search remained logarithmic. Experiment 3 illustrates the interaction of visual guidance and memory search when a subset of visual stimuli are drawn from a target category. Furthermore, we outline a conceptual model, supported by our results, defining the core components that would be necessary to support such categorical hybrid searches. PMID:24661054

  12. Nearly extensive sequential memory lifetime achieved by coupled nonlinear neurons.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Taro

    2012-10-01

    Many cognitive processes rely on the ability of the brain to hold sequences of events in short-term memory. Recent studies have revealed that such memory can be read out from the transient dynamics of a network of neurons. However, the memory performance of such a network in buffering past information has been rigorously estimated only in networks of linear neurons. When signal gain is kept low, so that neurons operate primarily in the linear part of their response nonlinearity, the memory lifetime is bounded by the square root of the network size. In this work, I demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a memory lifetime almost proportional to the network size, "an extensive memory lifetime," when the nonlinearity of neurons is appropriately used. The analysis of neural activity revealed that nonlinear dynamics prevented the accumulation of noise by partially removing noise in each time step. With this error-correcting mechanism, I demonstrate that a memory lifetime of order N/logN can be achieved. PMID:22594828

  13. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia–loss of pleasure–and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression. PMID:26441703

  14. Memory enhancement: consolidation, reconsolidation and insulin-like growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Cristina M.; Chen, Dillon Y.

    2012-01-01

    Life and societies would significantly change if memory capacity or persistence in health and disease could be enhanced. It has been known for many years that memory can be improved and strengthened. Substances known to enhance memory include hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and metabolic substrates. Recently, attention has been given to identifying the molecular mechanisms and targets whereby memory enhancement can be achieved. One approach would be to target the physiological changes that are induced by learning and naturally required for memory strengthening via consolidation and reconsolidation. Here we will review approaches that boost memories by targeting the cAMP response element binding protein-CCAAT enhancer binding protein (CREB-C/EBP) pathway and/or its recently identified target gene insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). PMID:22341662

  15. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank; Fiala, David; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  16. Working memory's workload capacity.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-10-01

    We examined the role of dual-task interference in working memory using a novel dual two-back task that requires a redundant-target response (i.e., a response that neither the auditory nor the visual stimulus occurred two back versus a response that one or both occurred two back) on every trial. Comparisons with performance on single two-back trials (i.e., with only auditory or only visual stimuli) showed that dual-task demands reduced both speed and accuracy. Our task design enabled a novel application of Townsend and Nozawa's (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321-359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity. Relative to most other single and dual n-back tasks, performance measures for our task were more reliable, due to the use of a small stimulus set that induced a high and constant level of proactive interference. For a version of our dual two-back task that minimized response bias, accuracy was also more strongly correlated with complex span than has been found for most other single and dual n-back tasks. PMID:25962602

  17. Human learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a source of interdisciplinary stimulation. Research on topics such as memory for spatial location, the relation between memory and affect, and autobiographical memory reminds us that general theories of memory based on studies of verbal materials alone are limited. Investigating how people remember complex natural events should provide us with a larger set of memory phenomena to explain and consequently insight into a wider range of memory principles or a deeper understanding of the ones we already accept (e.g. the role of repetition, encoding specificity), including their functional significance for human behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3548580

  18. IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly and HTRE rig. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1010 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. Astronaut Robert Crippen holds training model of Skylab experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, SMEAT crew commander, holds the training model of Skylab experiment T003, the aerosol analysis test, in this preview of activity the Skylab Medical Experiment Altitude Test (SMEAT).

  1. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. 32. BUCKET POSING OVER CARGO HOLD; NOTE OPERATOR OVER BUCKET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. BUCKET POSING OVER CARGO HOLD; NOTE OPERATOR OVER BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 43. Detail of watertight door in lower hold on aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Detail of water-tight door in lower hold on aft side of bulkhead between ship's caboose and lazarette. This bulkhead is of welded construction, installed late in the vessel's career. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  5. 19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... meeting. The holders of the common stock shall exclusively possess all voting power. Each holder of...

  8. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  9. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  10. Regulatory T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Michael D; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K

    2016-02-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime-challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal-fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  11. Recoding a cocaine-place memory engram to a neutral engram in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Trouche, Stéphanie; Perestenko, Pavel V; van de Ven, Gido M; Bratley, Claire T; McNamara, Colin G; Campo-Urriza, Natalia; Black, S Lucas; Reijmers, Leon G; Dupret, David

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus provides the brain's memory system with a subset of neurons holding a map-like representation of each environment experienced. We found in mice that optogenetic silencing those neurons active in an environment unmasked a subset of quiet neurons, enabling the emergence of an alternative map. When applied in a cocaine-paired environment, this intervention neutralized an otherwise long-lasting drug-place preference, showing that recoding a spatial memory engram can alleviate associated maladaptive behavior. PMID:26900924

  12. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  13. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section 1263.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section 1263.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section 1263.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the...

  16. Precision of working memory for speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sabine; Iverson, Paul; Manohar, Sanjay; Fox, Zoe; Scott, Sophie K; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Memory for speech sounds is a key component of models of verbal working memory (WM). But how good is verbal WM? Most investigations assess this using binary report measures to derive a fixed number of items that can be stored. However, recent findings in visual WM have challenged such "quantized" views by employing measures of recall precision with an analogue response scale. WM for speech sounds might rely on both continuous and categorical storage mechanisms. Using a novel speech matching paradigm, we measured WM recall precision for phonemes. Vowel qualities were sampled from a formant space continuum. A probe vowel had to be adjusted to match the vowel quality of a target on a continuous, analogue response scale. Crucially, this provided an index of the variability of a memory representation around its true value and thus allowed us to estimate how memories were distorted from the original sounds. Memory load affected the quality of speech sound recall in two ways. First, there was a gradual decline in recall precision with increasing number of items, consistent with the view that WM representations of speech sounds become noisier with an increase in the number of items held in memory, just as for vision. Based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), the level of noise appeared to be reflected in distortions of the formant space. Second, as memory load increased, there was evidence of greater clustering of participants' responses around particular vowels. A mixture model captured both continuous and categorical responses, demonstrating a shift from continuous to categorical memory with increasing WM load. This suggests that direct acoustic storage can be used for single items, but when more items must be stored, categorical representations must be used. PMID:25607721

  17. Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Thomas, Ruthann; Mayfield, Sara; Shank, Hilary; Morrisette, Nova; Breneiser, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1-4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on…

  18. Preserved memory monitoring but impaired memory control during episodic encoding in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Elisabeth; Izaute, Marie; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2007-03-01

    Metamemory awareness refers to the ability to monitor and control how well information is processed depending on the loads and needs of the task at hand. There is some evidence that metamemory functions are impaired in schizophrenia at the time of memory retrieval. This study investigated whether patients with schizophrenia exhibit metamemory abnormalities during the encoding of new information. The frequency of item presentation was varied. Both memory control and memory monitoring were assessed using study-time allocation and Judgments of Learning (JOL), respectively. Repeated items were recalled better by both groups, but memory performance was lower in patients than controls. Patients' behavior patterns were abnormal in terms of the study-time allocated for each item according to presentation frequency. Patients' JOLs were lower than those of controls but remained sensitive to item repetition. Patients' predictive values on memory accuracy were no different to those measured in controls. In addition, none of the patients reported using efficient strategies to help memorize target items. The results show a dissociation between memory control, which was impaired, and memory monitoring, which was spared, in patients with schizophrenia during encoding of new information. PMID:17286879

  19. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  20. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  1. Sparse distributed memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, P.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

  2. Memory Load and Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02

  3. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  4. Autobiographical memory dysfunctions in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Talarowska, Monika; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael; Ga?ecki, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a ubiquitous human experience that belongs to long-term declarative memory. It plays interpersonal and intrapsychic functions. The main aim of this study is to present results of contemporary research on AM in recurrent depressive disorders. The available research literature suggests that AM dysfunctions are a precursor and risk factor for recurrent depressive disorders and that they also appear to be a consequence of depressive symptoms in a bidirectional and interacting manner. These data suggest that AM might be a viable therapeutic target for cognitive remediation strategies, given the impact of cognition on diverse clinical outcomes. PMID:26522618

  5. Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories.

    PubMed

    Vuvan, Dominique T; Podolak, Olivia M; Schmuckler, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

  6. Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories

    PubMed Central

    Vuvan, Dominique T.; Podolak, Olivia M.; Schmuckler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

  7. Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Rano, R.

    2007-07-01

    Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

  8. COGNITION-EMOTION INTERACTIONS ARE MODULATED BY WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Lee, Bern G.; Waltz, James A.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Brown, Jaime K.; Gold, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research provides evidence for aberrant cognition-emotion interactions in schizophrenia. In the current study, we aimed to extend these findings by administering the “distractor devaluation” task to 40 individuals with schizophrenia and 32 demographically matched healthy controls. The task consisted of a simple visual search task for neutral faces, followed by an evaluative response made for one of the search items (or a novel item) to determine whether prior attentional selection results in a devaluation of a previously unattended stimulus. We also manipulated working memory demands by preceding the search array with a memory array that required subjects to hold 0, 1, or 2 items in working memory while performing the search array and devaluation task, to determine whether the normative process by which attentional states influence evaluative response is limited by working memory capacity. Results indicated that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated the typical distractor devaluation effect at working memory load 0, suggesting intact evaluative response. However, the devaluation effect was absent at working memory loads of 1 and 2, suggesting that normal evaluative responses can be abolished in people with schizophrenia when working memory capacity is exceeded. Thus, findings provide further evidence for normal evaluative response in schizophrenia, but clarify that these normal experiences may not hold when working memory demands are too high. PMID:22968207

  9. Pattern recognition with parallel associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, Charles K.; Schenk, Toni

    1990-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the feasibility of searching targets in aerial photographs by means of a parallel associative memory (PAM) that is based on the nearest-neighbor algorithm; the Hamming distance is used as a measure of closeness, in order to discriminate patterns. Attention has been given to targets typically used for ground-control points. The method developed sorts out approximate target positions where precise localizations are needed, in the course of the data-acquisition process. The majority of control points in different images were correctly identified.

  10. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  11. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the amygdala, in combination with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, plays an important role in the retrieval of memories for emotional events. The neural regions necessary for online emotional processing also influence emotional memory retrieval, perhaps through the reexperience of emotion during the retrieval process. PMID:17723029

  12. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  13. The role of NPY in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Gøtzsche, C R; Woldbye, D P D

    2016-02-01

    High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region, and NPY receptor subtypes. Thus NPY act as a resilience factor by impairing associative implicit memory after stressful and aversive events, as evident in models of fear conditioning, presumably via Y1 receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, NPY impairs acquisition but enhances consolidation and retention in models depending on spatial and discriminative types of associative explicit memory, presumably involving Y2 receptor-mediated regulations of hippocampal excitatory transmission. Moreover, spatial memory training leads to increased hippocampal NPY gene expression that together with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping the system in balance. Obtaining further insight into memory-related effects of NPY could inspire the engineering of new therapeutics targeting diseases where impaired learning and memory are central elements. PMID:26454711

  14. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    PubMed

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. PMID:23856944

  15. Brain Oscillations Mediate Successful Suppression of Unwanted Memories.

    PubMed

    Waldhauser, Gerd T; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2015-11-01

    To avoid thinking of unwanted memories can be a successful strategy to forget. Studying brain oscillations as measures of local and inter-regional processing, we shed light on the neural dynamics underlying memory suppression. Employing the think/no-think paradigm, 24 healthy human subjects repeatedly retrieved (think condition) or avoided thinking of (no-think condition) a previously learned target memory upon being presented with a reminder stimulus. Think and no-think instructions were delivered by means of a precue that preceded the reminder by 1 s. This allowed us to segregate neural control mechanisms that were triggered by the precue from the effect of suppression on target memory networks after presentation of the reminder. Control effects were reflected in increased power in the theta (5-9 Hz) frequency band in the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and higher long-range alpha (10-14 Hz) phase synchronization. Successful suppression of target memories was reflected in a decrease of theta oscillatory power in the medial temporal lobes and reduced long-range theta phase synchronization emerged after presentation of the reminder. Our results suggest that intentional memory suppression correlates with increased neural communication in cognitive control networks that act in down-regulating local and inter-regional processing related to memory retrieval. PMID:24962991

  16. Working memory capacity and redundant information processing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Michael J.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Donkin, Chris; Finn, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity (WMC) is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task-irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP) task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets) and to-be-ignored (distractor) information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170) completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant-target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85) and low (n = 85) WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory. PMID:26074828

  17. Mobile target ladar ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Jesse L.; DeKruger, David H.; Park, Alden E.

    2001-10-01

    The Mobile Target Acquisition System (MTAS) is an automatic target recognition (ATR) system developed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under funding by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to detect and identify mobile target laser detection and ranging (LADAR) range signatures. The primary objective was to achieve high correct system identification rates for range signatures of relatively low numbers of pixels on target and, at the same time, maintain a low system identification false alarm rate. MTAS met this objective by stressing conservation and efficient exploitation of target information at all levels of processing. Adaptive noise cleaning conserves target information by filtering pixels only when the pixel and its neighbors satisfied the criteria for range dropouts. The MTAS detector holds false alarms to a low level by convolving synthetic templates with the gradient of the range image and fusing the resulting correlation surface with a blob size filter. Mobile target identification fuses 2-D silhouette shape with 3-D (21/2-D) volumetric shape where the mixture of 2- and 3-D shapes is controlled by a single parameter. The match between the measured LADAR range signature and the synthetic range template efficiently and effectively exploits scarce target information by including all target and template pixels in the Fuzzy Tanimoto Distance similarity measure. This system has successfully detected and identified measured mobile LADAR target signatures with 200 pixels on target and greater with a low confuser identification rate and no system clutter identification false alarms.

  18. 26 CFR 53.4943-3 - Determination of excess business holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of excess business holdings. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-3 Determination of excess business holdings. (a) Excess business holdings—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, the term “excess business holdings” means, with respect...

  19. Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose–volume histograms were calculated, and the volumes of heart/lung irradiated to given doses were assessed. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) mean and maximum doses were calculated, together with tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for lung and heart. Results For all patients a reduction of at least 16% in lung mean dose and at least 20% in irradiated pulmonary volumes was observed when DIBH was applied. Heart and LAD maximum doses were decreased by more than 78% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pneumonitis and long term cardiac mortality were also reduced by about 11% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pericarditis were zero for both DIBH and FB. Conclusion Delivering radiation in DIBH conditions the dose to the surrounding normal structures could be reduced, in particular heart, LAD and lung, due to increased distance between target and heart, and to reduced lung density. PMID:24423396

  20. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors as a Therapeutic Target—What Does the Future Hold?

    PubMed Central

    Dhopeshwarkar, Amey

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen an exponential rise in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, comprising CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids. The primary focus of this review is the CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors have been the subject of considerable attention, primarily due to their promising therapeutic potential for treating various pathologies while avoiding the adverse psychotropic effects that can accompany CB1 receptor–based therapies. With the appreciation that CB2-selective ligands show marked functional selectivity, there is a renewed opportunity to explore this promising area of research from both a mechanistic as well as a therapeutic perspective. In this review, we summarize our present knowledge of CB2 receptor signaling, localization, and regulation. We discuss the availability of genetic tools (and their limitations) to study CB2 receptors and also provide an update on preclinical data on CB2 agonists in pain models. Finally, we suggest possible reasons for the failure of CB2 ligands in clinical pain trials and offer possible ways to move the field forward in a way that can help reconcile the inconsistencies between preclinical and clinical data. PMID:25106425

  1. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  2. The Biology of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting evidence and points of view presented by scientists involved in research on the nature of memory. The research of one group supports a chemical basis for memory, while the other group presents evidence supporting an electro-physiological basis. (JR)

  3. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  4. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  5. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  6. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  7. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  8. Shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1983-10-04

    A shape memory alloy is disclosed consisting essentially of, by weight ratio, 2 to 15% aluminium, 0.01 to 3% beryllium and the balance being substantially copper, with impurities being inevitably present in the process of preparation, and a shape memory alloy further including 0.05 to 15% zinc, both including composition ranges which allows cold work.

  9. Novel Magnetic Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jimmy

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic, or more precisely, magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) technology has a potential to be a universal memory, replacing all computer memories, such as SRAM, DRAM, FLASH, or in some cases, even disk drives, with a very important added feature of non-volatility. The MRAM technology will not only enable the "instant on" technology, but also provide radiation hardness, a critical specification for many important applications. However, in all today's MRAM designs, less than 1used for switching the magnetic memory states and over 99% of the power is actually dissipated while delivering the current for magnetic switching. The substantial power consumption is threatening the down size scaling of the technology and preventing from the realization of the technology promises. In this talk, various magnetic memory devices at deep submicron scale will be reviewed and important physical limitations on down size scaling will be discussed. A novel memory device design that consumes significantly less power and much enhanced magnetic stability will be presented for significantly extend the size of the memory element to nanometer scale. The design also eliminates the present one-transistor per bit requirement and enables much higher storage density than today's DRAM. It is argued that understanding micromagnetic behavior is the key to the design of all these magnetic memory devices at deep submicron dimensions.

  10. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  11. Nitric oxide and memory.

    PubMed

    Susswein, Abraham J; Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Hurwitz, Itay

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is widely used in neural circuits giving rise to learning and memory. NO is an unusual neurotransmitter in its modes of release and action. Is its association with learning and memory related to its unusual properties? Reviewing the literature might allow the formulation of a general principle on how NO and memory are related. However, other than confirming that there is indeed a strong association between NO and memory, no simple rules emerge on the role of NO in learning and memory. The effects of NO are not associated with a particular stage or form of memory and are highly dependent on species, strain, and behavior or training paradigm. Nonetheless, a review does provide hints on why NO is associated with learning and memory. Unlike transmitters acting via receptors expressed only in neurons designed to respond to the transmitter, NO is a promiscuous signal that can affect a wide variety of neurons, via many molecular mechanisms. In circuits giving rise to learning and memory, it may be useful to signal some events via a promiscuous messenger having widespread effects. However, each circuit will use the promiscuous signal in a different way, to achieve different ends. PMID:15070489

  12. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  13. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  14. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  15. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  16. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  17. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  18. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  19. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  20. A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…