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1

Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise Search the Consumer Updates ... Scientists are working to develop breakthrough therapies for pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest cancers affecting both men ...

2

Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Edmund T. Rolls1  

E-print Network

memory that can occur with normal aging. Citation: Rolls ET, Dempere-Marco L, Deco G (2013) HoldingHolding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism Edmund T. Rolls1 *, Laura Dempere January 10, 2013; Accepted March 5, 2013; Published April 16, 2013 Copyright: Ă? 2013 Rolls et al

Deco, Gustavo

3

Influence of Holding Time on Shape Recovery in a Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape-memory polymers have attracted a lot of interest in recent years. A shape-memory polymer can be deformed and fixed into a temporary shape and subsequently made to recover its original shape when a suitable stimulus is applied. This is accomplished by means of a thermomechanical cycle called programming. Programming can be performed in a stress- or strain-controlled mode. The thermomechanical conditions of the programming affect shape-memory properties differently in each programming mode. One of the parameters which significantly affects shape-memory properties in a stress-controlled procedure is stress-holding time ( t H) at high temperature. This paper studies how stress-holding time affects the most significant shape-memory properties under successive thermomechanical cycles. The experiments were conducted using two different programming temperatures in the vicinity of the T g. The shape-recovery ratio decreased dramatically with cycling even when the holding time was just a few seconds, however, the impact of the stress-holding time depends on the temperature at which it has been applied. Shape-fixity ratio and switching temperature were also studied, but stress-holding time and successive cycles do not seem to affect either of these factors.

Santiago, David; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

2014-07-01

4

Influence of strain-holding conditions on shape recovery and secondary-shape forming in polyurethane-shape memory polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found in previous work on the thermomechanical properties of the polyurethane-shape memory polymer foam that the shape fixity and shape recovery become imperfect and that secondary-shape forming appears, depending on the strain-holding conditions. The main factors of the strain-holding conditions which affect the secondary-shape forming are the holding temperature, holding time and holding strain. In the present study,

H. Tobushi; S. Hayashi; K. Hoshio; N. Miwa

2006-01-01

5

NEUROIMAGING, BEHAVIORAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MEMORY TARGETING  

E-print Network

of three cognitive systems in the brain: se- mantic memory, episodic memory, and a context maintenance on memory organization can be carried out by any brain area that has both a relatively stable patternNEUROIMAGING, BEHAVIORAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MEMORY TARGETING Sean Matthew Polyn

Polyn, Sean

6

Upgrading the sleeping brain with targeted memory reactivation  

E-print Network

Upgrading the sleeping brain with targeted memory reactivation Delphine Oudiette and Ken A. Paller help elucidate the mecha- nisms of memory preservation in the human brain. `When from a long information is stored in the brain contribute to memory consolidation (see Glossary) [1,2]. With respect

Reber, Paul J.

7

Deformation rate-, hold time-, and cycle-dependent shape-memory performance of Veriflex-E resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape-memory polymers have attracted great interest in recent years for application in reconfigurable structures (for instance morphing aircraft, micro air vehicles, and deployable space structures). However, before such applications can be attempted, the mechanical behavior of the shape-memory polymers must be thoroughly understood. The present study represents an assessment of viscous effects during multiple shape-memory cycles of Veriflex-E, an epoxy-based, thermally triggered shape-memory polymer resin. The experimental program is designed to explore the influence of multiple thermomechanical cycles on the shape-memory performance of Veriflex-E. The effects of the deformation rate and hold times at elevated temperature on the shape-memory behavior are also investigated.

McClung, Amber J. W.; Tandon, Gyaneshwar P.; Baur, Jeffery W.

2013-02-01

8

The influence of shape-holding conditions on shape recovery of polyurethane-shape memory polymer foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermomechanical properties of polyurethane-shape memory polymer (SMP) foams and the influence of shape-holding conditions on shape recovery were investigated experimentally. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (1) By cooling the foam down to below the glass transition temperature Tg after compressive deformation above Tg, stress decreases and the deformed shape is fixed. By heating the shape-fixed foam

H. Tobushi; R. Matsui; S. Hayashi; D. Shimada

2004-01-01

9

A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

1995-01-01

10

Neural conflict-control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli.  

PubMed

According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. PMID:24108799

Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

2015-03-01

11

Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection.  

PubMed

Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

2014-01-01

12

Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection  

PubMed Central

Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

2014-01-01

13

Targeted Memory Reactivation During Slow Wave Sleep Facilitates Emotional Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the mechanisms by which auditory targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during slow wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of emotionally negative and neutral memories. Design: Each of 72 (36 negative, 36 neutral) picture-location associations were encoded with a semantically related sound. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in SWS, before picture-location recall was examined in a final test. Setting: Manchester Sleep Laboratory, University of Manchester. Participants: 15 adults (3 male) mean age = 20.40 (standard deviation ± 3.07). Interventions: TMR with auditory cues during SWS. Measurements and Results: Performance was assessed by memory accuracy and recall response times (RTs). Data were analyzed with a 2 (sound: replayed/not replayed) × 2 (emotion: negative/neutral) repeated measures analysis of covariance with SWS duration, and then SWS spindles, as the mean-centered covariate. Both analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction for RTs but not memory accuracy. Critically, SWS duration and SWS spindles predicted faster memory judgments for negative, relative to neutral, picture locations that were cued with TMR. Conclusions: TMR initiates an enhanced consolidation process during subsequent SWS, wherein sleep spindles mediate the selective enhancement of reactivated emotional memories. Citation: Cairney SA; Durrant SJ; Hulleman J; Lewis PA. Targeted memory reactivation during slow wave sleep facilitates emotional memory consolidation. SLEEP 2014;37(4):701-707. PMID:24688163

Cairney, Scott A.; Durrant, Simon J.; Hulleman, Johan; Lewis, Penelope A.

2014-01-01

14

Modeling criterion shifts and target checking in prospective memory monitoring.  

PubMed

Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the reasons for this cost effect. This study uses diffusion model analysis to decompose monitoring processes in the PM paradigm. Across 4 experiments, performing a PM task increased latencies in an ongoing lexical decision task. A large portion of this effect was explained by consistent increases in boundary separation; additional increases in nondecision time emerged in a nonfocal PM task and explained variance in PM performance (Experiment 1), likely reflecting a target-checking strategy before and after the ongoing decision (Experiment 2). However, we found that possible target-checking strategies may depend on task characteristics. That is, instructional emphasis on the importance of ongoing decisions (Experiment 3) or the use of focal targets (Experiment 4) eliminated the contribution of nondecision time to the cost of PM, but left participants in a mode of increased cautiousness. The modeling thus sheds new light on the cost effect seen in many PM studies and suggests that people approach ongoing activities more cautiously when they need to remember an intended action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25151245

Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J

2015-01-01

15

Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

Haddad, Omar

2013-01-01

16

Behavioral Array Mapping into Multiport Memories Targeting Low Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-chip memories are typically used during behavioral synthesis to store large arrays that do not fit into on-chip registers. An important power-optimization problem that arises in this context is the minimization of signal transitions on the off-chip buses connecting the ASIC and the memory. We address the problem of system power reduction through transition count minimization on the multiported memory's

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt

1997-01-01

17

Targeted enhancement of cortical-hippocampal brain networks and associative memory.  

PubMed

The influential notion that the hippocampus supports associative memory by interacting with functionally distinct and distributed brain regions has not been directly tested in humans. We therefore used targeted noninvasive electromagnetic stimulation to modulate human cortical-hippocampal networks and tested effects of this manipulation on memory. Multiple-session stimulation increased functional connectivity among distributed cortical-hippocampal network regions and concomitantly improved associative memory performance. These alterations involved localized long-term plasticity because increases were highly selective to the targeted brain regions, and enhancements of connectivity and associative memory persisted for ~24 hours after stimulation. Targeted cortical-hippocampal networks can thus be enhanced noninvasively, demonstrating their role in associative memory. PMID:25170153

Wang, Jane X; Rogers, Lynn M; Gross, Evan Z; Ryals, Anthony J; Dokucu, Mehmet E; Brandstatt, Kelly L; Hermiller, Molly S; Voss, Joel L

2014-08-29

18

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition  

PubMed Central

Suppressing retrieval of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show that excluding memories from awareness not only modulates medial temporal lobe regions involved in explicit retention, but also neocortical areas underlying unconscious expressions of memory. Using repetition priming in visual perception as a model task, we found that excluding memories of visual objects from consciousness reduced their later indirect influence on perception, literally making the content of suppressed memories harder for participants to see. Critically, effective connectivity and pattern similarity analysis revealed that suppression mechanisms mediated by the right middle frontal gyrus reduced activity in neocortical areas involved in perceiving objects and targeted the neural populations most activated by reminders. The degree of inhibitory modulation of the visual cortex while people were suppressing visual memories predicted, in a later perception test, the disruption in the neural markers of sensory memory. These findings suggest a neurobiological model of how motivated forgetting affects the unconscious expression of memory that may be generalized to other types of memory content. More generally, they suggest that the century-old assumption that suppression leaves unconscious memories intact should be reconsidered. PMID:24639546

Gagnepain, Pierre; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

2014-01-01

19

A Framework for Cognitive Interventions Targeting Everyday Memory Performance and Memory Self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

The human brain has the potential for self-renewal through adult neurogenesis, which is the birth of new neurons. Neural plasticity implies that the nervous system can change and grow. This understanding has created new possibilities for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, as individuals age, they have decreased confidence, or memory self-efficacy, which is directly related to their everyday memory performance. In this article, a developmental account of studies about memory self-efficacy and nonpharmacologic cognitive intervention models is presented and a cognitive intervention model, called the cognitive behavioral model of everyday memory, is proposed. PMID:19065089

McDougall, Graham J.

2009-01-01

20

Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

2006-01-01

21

Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing. PMID:25352803

De Fockert, Jan W.; Leiser, Jaclyn

2014-01-01

22

Multiple-target tracking: A role for working memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the cognitive processes associated with target tracking, a dual-task experiment was carried out in which participants undertook a dynamic multiple-object tracking task first alone and then again, concurrently with one of several secondary tasks, in order to investigate the cognitive processes involved. The research suggests that after designated targets within the visual field have attracted preattentive

Roy Allen; Peter Mcgeorge; David G. Pearson; Alan Milne

2006-01-01

23

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

24

Cache memories  

E-print Network

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

25

Hold It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate the special shapes, holding structures and holding behaviors that real organisms use in streams, rivers, creeks or coast intertidal zones to avoid being swept away by moving water. Learners then create their own "animal" with holding adaptations. The activity includes drawings that detail helpful equipment such as bug boxes and dip nets, as well as instructions for making a milk-carton observation tray and flow-through trough.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

26

Targeting Atmospheric Simulation Algorithms for Large Distributed Memory GPU Accelerated Computers  

SciTech Connect

Computing platforms are increasingly moving to accelerated architectures, and here we deal particularly with GPUs. In [15], a method was developed for atmospheric simulation to improve efficiency on large distributed memory machines by reducing communication demand and increasing the time step. Here, we improve upon this method to further target GPU accelerated platforms by reducing GPU memory accesses, removing a synchronization point, and better clustering computations. The modification ran over two times faster in some cases even though more computations were required, demonstrating the merit of improving memory handling on the GPU. Furthermore, we discover that the modification also has a near 100% hit rate in fast on-chip L1 cache and discuss the reasons for this. In concluding, we remark on further potential improvements to GPU efficiency.

Norman, Matthew R [ORNL

2013-01-01

27

Dissociable Frontal Controls during Visible and Memory-guided Eye-Tracking of Moving Targets  

PubMed Central

When tracking visible or occluded moving targets, several frontal regions including the frontal eye fields (FEF), dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) are involved in smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). To investigate how these areas play different roles in predicting future locations of moving targets, twelve healthy college students participated in a smooth pursuit task of visual and occluded targets. Their eye movements and brain responses measured by event-related functional MRI were simultaneously recorded. Our results show that different visual cues resulted in time discrepancies between physical and estimated pursuit time only when the moving dot was occluded. Visible phase velocity gain was higher than that of occlusion phase. We found bilateral FEF association with eye-movement whether moving targets are visible or occluded. However, the DLPFC and ACC showed increased activity when tracking and predicting locations of occluded moving targets, and were suppressed during smooth pursuit of visible targets. When visual cues were increasingly available, less activation in the DLPFC and the ACC was observed. Additionally, there was a significant hemisphere effect in DLPFC, where right DLPFC showed significantly increased responses over left when pursuing occluded moving targets. Correlation results revealed that DLPFC, the right DLPFC in particular, communicates more with FEF during tracking of occluded moving targets (from memory). The ACC modulates FEF more during tracking of visible targets (likely related to visual attention). Our results suggest that DLPFC and ACC modulate FEF and cortical networks differentially during visible and memory-guided eye tracking of moving targets. PMID:19434603

Ding, Jinhong; Powell, David; Jiang, Yang

2009-01-01

28

Attention blinks for selection, not perception or memory: reading sentences and reporting targets.  

PubMed

In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an attentional blink, and does it affect both tasks? Here, sentence report was combined with report of two target words (Experiments 1 and 2) or two inserted target digits, Arabic numerals or word digits (Experiments 3 and 4). When participants reported only the targets an attentional blink was always observed. When they reported both the sentence and targets, sentence report was quite accurate but there was an attentional blink in picking out the targets when they were part of the sentence. When targets were extra digits inserted in the sentence there was no blink when viewers also reported the sentence. These results challenge some theories of the attentional blink: Blinks result from online selection, not perception or memory. PMID:22022894

Potter, Mary C; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

2011-12-01

29

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

30

Neuroligin-associated microRNA-932 targets actin and regulates memory in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) control levels of mRNA expression during experience-related remodelling of the brain. Here we use an associative olfactory learning paradigm in the honeybee Apis mellifera to examine gene expression changes in the brain during memory formation. Brain transcriptome analysis reveals a general downregulation of protein-coding genes, including asparagine synthetase and actin, and upregulation of ncRNAs. miRNA-mRNA network predictions together with PCR validation suggest miRNAs including miR-210 and miR-932 target the downregulated protein-coding genes. Feeding cholesterol-conjugated antisense RNA to bees results in the inhibition of miR-210 and of miR-932. Loss of miR-932 impairs long-term memory formation, but not memory acquisition. Functional analyses show that miR-932 interacts with Act5C, providing evidence for direct regulation of actin expression by an miRNA. An activity-dependent increase in miR-932 expression may therefore control actin-related plasticity mechanisms and affect memory formation in the brain. PMID:25409902

Cristino, Alexandre S; Barchuk, Angel R; Freitas, Flavia C P; Narayanan, Ramesh K; Biergans, Stephanie D; Zhao, Zhengyang; Simoes, Zila L P; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

2014-01-01

31

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

1997-10-07

32

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1997-01-01

33

Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... mind works a lot like a computer. Your brain puts information it judges to be important into "files." When you remember something, you pull up a file. Memory doesn't always work perfectly. As people grow ...

34

Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

2010-01-01

35

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

36

Bridging neurocognitive aging and disease modification: targeting functional mechanisms of memory impairment.  

PubMed

Risk for Alzheimer's disease escalates dramatically with increasing age in the later decades of life. It is widely recognized that a preclinical condition in which memory loss is greater than would be expected for a person's age, referred to as amnestic mild cognitive impairment, may offer the best opportunity for intervention to treat symptoms and modify disease progression. Here we discuss a basis for age-related memory impairment, first discovered in animal models and recently isolated in the medial temporal lobe system of man, that offers a novel entry point for restoring memory function with the possible benefit in slowing progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20088811

Gallagher, M; Bakker, A; Yassa, M A; Stark, C E L

2010-05-01

37

Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism  

PubMed Central

Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R–coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism. PMID:23983264

de Souza Silva, Maria A.; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Frölich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P.; Müller, Christian P.; Schäble, Sandra

2013-01-01

38

Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the DA D1-type receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n=97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits), and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT×DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMTValVal individuals, but impaired target detection in COMTMet carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMTValVal) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMTMet carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory. PMID:24144248

Smith, Christopher T.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

39

More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity  

PubMed Central

The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process. PMID:24599946

Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

40

Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naďve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC? memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- ?, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

2007-01-01

41

Targeting antigens to CD180 rapidly induces antigen-specific IgG, affinity maturation, and immunological memory  

PubMed Central

Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag–anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report that targeting Ag to a receptor expressed on both B cells and DCs, the TLR orphan receptor CD180, in the absence of adjuvant rapidly induced IgG responses that were stronger than those induced by Ag in alum. Ag conjugated to anti-CD180 (Ag-?CD180) induced affinity maturation and Ab responses that were partially T cell independent, as Ag-specific IgGs were generated in CD40- and T cell–deficient mice. After preimmunization with Ag-?CD180 and boosting with soluble Ag, both WT and CD40 knockout (KO) mice rapidly produced Ag-specific IgG-forming cells, demonstrating that Ag–anti-CD180 induces immunological memory. The potent adjuvant effect of Ag-?CD180 required Ag to be coupled to anti-CD180 and the responsive B cells to express both CD180 and an Ag-specific B cell receptor. Surprisingly, CD180 Ag targeting also induced IgG Abs in BAFF-R KO mice lacking mature B cells and in mice deficient in interferon signaling. Targeting Ag to CD180 may be useful for therapeutic vaccination and for vaccinating the immune compromised. PMID:24019553

Chaplin, Jay W.; Chappell, Craig P.

2013-01-01

42

Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both ?-amyloid production and clearance.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and A? production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit A? production by suppressing ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote A? clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased A? formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

2013-08-01

43

The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L. E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. "Cognition, 93", 75-97]. This conflicts with earlier results showing…

Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

2010-01-01

44

Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders  

PubMed Central

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

Aggleton, John P.

2014-01-01

45

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

46

Visual Targets Aren’t Irreversibly Converted to Motor Coordinates: Eye-Centered Updating of Visuospatial Memory in Online Reach Control  

PubMed Central

Counter to current and widely accepted hypotheses that sensorimotor transformations involve converting target locations in spatial memory from an eye-fixed reference frame into a more stable motor-based reference frame, we show that this is not strictly the case. Eye-centered representations continue to dominate reach control even during movement execution; the eye-centered target representation persists after conversion to a motor-based frame and is continuously updated as the eyes move during reach, and is used to modify the reach plan accordingly during online control. While reaches are known to be adjusted online when targets physically shift, our results are the first to show that similar adjustments occur in response to changes in representations of remembered target locations. Specifically, we find that shifts in gaze direction, which produce predictable changes in the internal (specifically eye-centered) representation of remembered target locations also produce mid-transport changes in reach kinematics. This indicates that representations of remembered reach targets (and visuospatial memory in general) continue to be updated relative to gaze even after reach onset. Thus, online motor control is influenced dynamically by both the external and internal updating mechanisms. PMID:24643008

Thompson, Aidan A.; Byrne, Patrick A.; Henriques, Denise Y. P.

2014-01-01

47

Selective pharmacogenetic inhibition of mammalian target of Rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) blocks long-term synaptic plasticity and memory storage  

PubMed Central

Both the formation of long-term memory (LTM) and late-long-term potentiation (L-LTP), which is thought to represent the cellular model of learning and memory, require de novo protein synthesis. The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) integrates information from various synaptic inputs and its best characterized function is the regulation of translation. Although initial studies have shown that rapamycin reduces L-LTP and partially blocks LTM, recent genetic and pharmacological evidence indicating that mTORC1 promotes L-LTP and LTM is controversial. Thus, the role of mTORC1 in L-LTP and LTM is unclear. To selectively inhibit mTORC1 activity in the adult brain, we used a “pharmacogenetic” approach that relies on the synergistic action of a drug (rapamycin) and a genetic manipulation (mTOR heterozygotes, mTOR+/? mice) on the same target (mTORC1). Although L-LTP and LTM are normal in mTOR+/? mice, application of a low concentration of rapamycin—one that is subthreshold for WT mice—prevented L-LTP and LTM only in mTOR+/? mice. Furthermore, we found that mTORC1-mediated translational control is required for memory reconsolidation. We provide here direct genetic evidence supporting the role of mTORC1 in L-LTP and behavioral memory. PMID:21307309

Stoica, Loredana; Zhu, Ping Jun; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Hongyi; Kozma, Sara C.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

2011-01-01

48

Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper

Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

2006-01-01

49

Sparse and distributed coding of episodic memory in neurons of the human hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Neurocomputational models hold that sparse distributed coding is the most efficient way for hippocampal neurons to encode episodic memories rapidly. We investigated the representation of episodic memory in hippocampal neurons of nine epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring as they discriminated between recently studied words (targets) and new words (foils) on a recognition test. On average, single units and multiunits exhibited higher spike counts in response to targets relative to foils, and the size of this effect correlated with behavioral performance. Further analyses of the spike-count distributions revealed that (i) a small percentage of recorded neurons responded to any one target and (ii) a small percentage of targets elicited a strong response in any one neuron. These findings are consistent with the idea that in the human hippocampus episodic memory is supported by a sparse distributed neural code. PMID:24979802

Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.; Jang, Yoonhee; Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Kuhn, Joel R.; Smith, Kris A.; Treiman, David M.; Steinmetz, Peter N.

2014-01-01

50

Targeting adenovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of targeted viral vectors to localize gene transfer to specific cell types holds many advantages over conventional, non-targeted vectors currently used in gene therapy. The resulting improvements in gene localization from targeted adenovirus vectors are likely to reduce immunogenicity and toxicity, increase safety, and enable the systemic administration of these vectors for multiple indications including cancer, cardiovascular disease,

T J Wickham

2000-01-01

51

Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.  

PubMed

During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25445999

Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

2014-10-17

52

Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The "early-maturing system" (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the…

Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

2009-01-01

53

Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act  

PubMed Central

At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

54

Accuracy and Confidence of Visual Short-Term Memory Do Not Go Hand-In-Hand: Behavioral and Neural Dissociations  

PubMed Central

Currently influential models of working memory posit that memory content is highly accessible to conscious inspection. These models predict that metacognition of memory performance should go hand-in-hand with the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. To test this view, we investigated how visual information presented during the maintenance period affects VSTM accuracy and confidence. We used a delayed cue–target orientation discrimination task in which participants were asked to hold in memory a grating, and during the maintenance period a second memory cue could be presented. VSTM accuracy of the first memory cue was impaired when the orientation of the second memory cue was sufficiently different. However, participants' response confidence was reduced whenever the second memory cue was presented; thus VSTM accuracy and confidence were dissociated. In a second experiment, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to investigate the causal role of this region in VSTM metacognition. Relative to the sham condition, anodal tDCS induced a general reduction in confidence ratings but did not affect VSTM accuracy. Overall, these results indicate that our metacognition of memory performance is influenced by factors other than the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. PMID:24663094

Bona, Silvia; Silvanto, Juha

2014-01-01

55

Inferior Temporal, Prefrontal, and Hippocampal Contributions to Visual Working Memory Maintenance and Associative Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher order cognition depends on the ability to recall information from memory and hold it in mind to guide future behavior. To specify the neural mechanisms underlying these processes, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activity during the performance of a visual associative memory task and a visual working memory task. Activity within category-selective subregions of

Charan Ranganath; Michael X. Cohen; Cathrine Dam; Mark D'Esposito

2004-01-01

56

Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor of Kv1.3 Channels for Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel is a novel target for immunomodulation of autoreactive effector memory T (TEM) cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We describe the characterization of the novel peptide ShK(L5) that contains l-phosphotyrosine linked via a nine-atom hydrophilic linker to the N terminus of the ShK peptide from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. ShK(L5) is a highly specific Kv1.3 blocker that exhibits 100-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 (Kd = 69 pM) over Kv1.1 and greater than 250-fold selectivity over all other channels tested. ShK(L5) suppresses the proliferation of human and rat TEM cells and inhibits interleukin-2 production at picomolar concentrations. Naive and central memory human T cells are initially 60-fold less sensitive than TEM cells to ShK(L5) and then become resistant to the peptide during activation by up-regulating the calcium-activated KCa3.1 channel. ShK(L5) does not exhibit in vitro cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines and is negative in the Ames test. It is stable in plasma and when administered once daily by subcutaneous injection (10 ?g/kg) attains “steady state” blood levels of ?300 pM. This regimen does not cause cardiac toxicity assessed by continuous EKG monitoring and does not alter clinical chemistry and hematological parameters after 2-week therapy. ShK(L5) prevents and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suppresses delayed type hypersensitivity in rats. ShK(L5) might prove useful for therapy of autoimmune disorders. PMID:15665253

Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Wulff, Heike; Singh, Satendra; Nugent, Daniel; Crossley, George; Khaytin, Ilya; Calabresi, Peter A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Gutman, George A.; Chandy, K. George

2008-01-01

57

Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.  

PubMed

The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

Gil-Gómez de Liańo, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-01-01

58

Shareholder Cross-holdings and Their Effect on Acquisition Jarrad Harford  

E-print Network

. Further, we examine the influence of these cross-holdings on bidder managers' selection of acquisition targets. Some institutional investors of the bidder have large cross- holdings in the target in an average acquisition, and there is a significant number of deals in which a majority of bidder institutions does

Hickman, Mark

59

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

60

Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

Mayet, René

2006-07-01

61

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

Forgetfulness; Amnesia; Impaired memory; Loss of memory; Amnestic syndrome; Dementia - memory loss ... or severe illness, including brain surgery Transient global amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause ...

62

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

63

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

64

Structured representations in visual working memory  

E-print Network

How much visual information can we hold in mind at once? A large body of research has attempted to quantify the capacity of visual working memory by focusing on how many individual objects or visual features can be actively ...

Brady, Timothy F

2011-01-01

65

Transparency and International Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does country transparency affect international portfolio investment? We examine this question by constructing new measures of transparency and by making use of a unique microdata set on portfolio holdings of emerging market funds around the world. We distinguish between government and corporate transparency. There is clear evidence that funds systematically invest less in less transparent countries. Moreover, funds have a

R. GASTON GELOS; SHANG-JIN WEI

2005-01-01

66

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

2009-01-01

67

Specific requirement of NMDA receptors for long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila ellipsoid body.  

PubMed

In humans and many other animals, memory consolidation occurs through multiple temporal phases and usually involves more than one neuroanatomical brain system. Genetic dissection of Pavlovian olfactory learning in Drosophila melanogaster has revealed multiple memory phases, but the predominant view holds that all memory phases occur in mushroom body neurons. Here, we demonstrate an acute requirement for NMDA receptors (NMDARs) outside of the mushroom body during long-term memory (LTM) consolidation. Targeted dsRNA-mediated silencing of Nmdar1 and Nmdar2 (also known as dNR1 or dNR2, respectively) in cholinergic R4m-subtype large-field neurons of the ellipsoid body specifically disrupted LTM consolidation, but not retrieval. Similar silencing of functional NMDARs in the mushroom body disrupted an earlier memory phase, leaving LTM intact. Our results clearly establish an anatomical site outside of the mushroom body involved with LTM consolidation, thus revealing both a distributed brain system subserving olfactory memory formation and the existence of a system-level memory consolidation in Drosophila. PMID:17982450

Wu, Chia-Lin; Xia, Shouzhen; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wang, Huaien; Chen, Ying-Hsiu; Leong, Daniel; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Tully, Tim

2007-12-01

68

No Holds Barred Issue 26  

E-print Network

1| (BUI lips rw^ (HSU raw NO HOLDS BARRED Issue No. TWENTY-SIX This issue features... BLAKE'S 7 WARNING: This fanzine contains same-sex, aduit-oriented material. It will not knowingly... relaxant?" Avon paused, both hands resting lightly on Toreth's thigh. This time the smile was an odd half-curve of the lips, which didn't bring any warmth to his eyes. "System flexibility. We don't have the luxury of assuming all our potential clients...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

69

A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

70

On the Clash of Martyrological Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when students holding rival though indirect memories of past conflicts confront each other in the same classroom? What are the kinds of political and pedagogical approaches necessary for mediating such "clashes of martyrological memories" in the same educational space? And why is critical theory inept at offering resolutions for the…

Jansen, Jonathan D.

2009-01-01

71

The evolution of episodic memory  

PubMed Central

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

2013-01-01

72

Unconditional Room Temperature Quantum Memory  

E-print Network

Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionising computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80$^o$C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. In order to unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state independent verification using conditional variance and signal transfer coefficients.

M. Hosseini; G. Campbell; B. M. Sparkes; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

2014-12-29

73

Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's  

E-print Network

1 of 7 Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's View Financial Aid Accept/Decline Aid Scholarships Financial Aid HOLDS and TO DO's 1. At least once a week, check both the Holds and the To Do List for any financial aid TO DO's. Click on the details arrows at the bottom of each section for more information. Back

Barrash, Warren

74

Gordon Wu, Hopewell Holdings Ltd.  

SciTech Connect

Asia`s leading power industry torchbearer remains Gordon Wu, chairman of Hopewell Holdings Ltd., the huge investment, construction and engineering conglomerate based in Hong Kong. Hopewell is parent company to Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA), one of the largest independent power producers (IPP) in the world today. Despite his key role, Wu is unassuming. He knows what his company, through his able leadership, has achieved and what it can do for the region. His ambitions are bold, but they have, with no notable exceptions, always borne fruit. It is these and other business attributes that make Gordon Wu this year`s choice among financial executives polled for Independent Energy`s 1j995 {open_quotes}Executive of the year{close_quotes} Award.

Starke, K.

1995-07-01

75

Do working memory-driven attention shifts speed up visual awareness?  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color cue in WM and to subsequently perform a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task by reporting either of two different-colored circles (presented to the left and right of fixation with a variable temporal interval) as having the first onset. One of the two TOJ circles could match the memory cue in color. We found that awareness of the temporal order of the circle onsets was not affected by the contents of WM, even when participants were explicitly informed that one of the TOJ circles would always match the WM contents. The null effect of WM on TOJs was not due to an inability of the memory-matching item to capture attention, since response times to the target in a follow-up experiment were improved when it appeared at the location of the memory-matching item. The present findings suggest that WM-driven attention shifts cannot accelerate phenomenal awareness of matching stimuli in the visual field. PMID:21837542

Pan, Yi; Cheng, Qiu-Ping

2011-11-01

76

New Joint Program Announced by FDA and NCI Holds Promise for Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today a new joint research and clinical program that holds great promise for developing better and more targeted treatments for cancer.

77

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

78

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

79

The influence of working memory on visual search for emotional facial expressions.  

PubMed

In visual search tasks, an angry face surrounded by happy faces is more rapidly detected compared with a happy face surrounded by angry faces. This is called the anger superiority effect. The anger superiority effect has been mainly related to automatic attentional effects, but top-down mechanisms may also influence this effect. In a series of studies, we investigated the influence of holding emotional information in working memory (WM) on the anger superiority effect. In multiple experiments, participants were generally faster to find an angry target with happy distractors compared to a happy target with angry distractors. However, this anger superiority effect was diminished when holding angry information in WM, whereas the effect was still observed when holding happy information. These effects were not observed when participants did not remember emotional information other than the color of the emotional stimuli. The data indicate that enhanced processing of distractor facial expressions was observed when they matched the content of WM, facilitating target detection. However, when the contents of WM and distractor faces differed, the processing of distractor faces and detection of a target face were delayed. These results suggest that the anger superiority effect is modulated by top-down effects of WM and that interactions between contents of WM and perception of facial expressions determine the enhancement or reduction of the anger superiority effect. PMID:24999613

Moriya, Jun; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-10-01

80

Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory.  

PubMed

Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system. PMID:25354971

Rutters, Femke; Kumar, Sanjay; Higgs, Suzanne; Humphreys, Glyn W

2015-02-01

81

Automatic Hand Hold Detection in Natural Conversation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a motion-energy-based method of detecting hand holds in videos of natural conversations. The holds are found by classifying hand motions extracted from videos using computer vision techniques. We describe a set of heuristics for judging when a hold is detected and present empirical analysis of the efficacy of our algorithm against real video data that has been hand-coded

Robert Bryll; Francis Quek; Anna Esposito

82

Stretching transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing abstraction for programming multi-core systems. Potential target applications for TM, such as business software and video games, are likely to involve complex data structures and large transactions, requiring specific software solutions (STM). So far, however, STMs have been mainly evaluated and optimized for smaller scale benchmarks. We revisit the main STM design choices from

Aleksandar Dragojevi?; Rachid Guerraoui; Michal Kapalka

2009-01-01

83

Cognitive memory.  

PubMed

Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA. Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. PMID:23453302

Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

2013-05-01

84

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

85

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

86

Dendritic Hold and Read: A Gated Mechanism for Short Term Information Storage and Retrieval  

PubMed Central

Two contrasting theories have been proposed to explain the mechanistic basis of short term memory. One theory posits that short term memory is represented by persistent neural activity supported by reverberating feedback networks. An alternate, more recent theory posits that short term memory can be supported by feedforward networks. While feedback driven memory can be implemented by well described mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, little is known of possible molecular and cellular mechanisms that can implement feedforward driven memory. Here we report such a mechanism in which the memory trace exists in the form of glutamate-bound but Mg2+-blocked NMDA receptors on the thin terminal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Because glutamate dissociates from subsets of NMDA receptors very slowly, excitatory synaptic transmission can leave a silent residual trace that outlasts the electrical activity by hundreds of milliseconds. Read-out of the memory trace is possible if a critical level of these bound-but-blocked receptors accumulates on a dendritic branch that will allow these quasi-stable receptors to sustain a regenerative depolarization when triggered by an independent gating signal. This process is referred to here as dendritic hold and read (DHR). Because the read-out of the input is not dependent on repetition of the input and information flows in a single-pass manner, DHR can potentially support a feedforward memory architecture. PMID:22629416

Yang, Sunggu; Liang, Conrad W.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Alger, Bradley E.; Thompson, Scott M.; Tang, Cha-Min

2012-01-01

87

Dendritic hold and read: a gated mechanism for short term information storage and retrieval.  

PubMed

Two contrasting theories have been proposed to explain the mechanistic basis of short term memory. One theory posits that short term memory is represented by persistent neural activity supported by reverberating feedback networks. An alternate, more recent theory posits that short term memory can be supported by feedforward networks. While feedback driven memory can be implemented by well described mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, little is known of possible molecular and cellular mechanisms that can implement feedforward driven memory. Here we report such a mechanism in which the memory trace exists in the form of glutamate-bound but Mg(2+)-blocked NMDA receptors on the thin terminal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Because glutamate dissociates from subsets of NMDA receptors very slowly, excitatory synaptic transmission can leave a silent residual trace that outlasts the electrical activity by hundreds of milliseconds. Read-out of the memory trace is possible if a critical level of these bound-but-blocked receptors accumulates on a dendritic branch that will allow these quasi-stable receptors to sustain a regenerative depolarization when triggered by an independent gating signal. This process is referred to here as dendritic hold and read (DHR). Because the read-out of the input is not dependent on repetition of the input and information flows in a single-pass manner, DHR can potentially support a feedforward memory architecture. PMID:22629416

Santos, Mariton D; Mohammadi, Michael H; Yang, Sunggu; Liang, Conrad W; Kao, Joseph P Y; Alger, Bradley E; Thompson, Scott M; Tang, Cha-Min

2012-01-01

88

Increasing Eye Contact by Head-Holding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the effectiveness of a head holding procedure for establishing eye contact with a three-year-old developmentally delayed child who had not acquired the response via positive reinforcement techniques. A multiple baseline across four behaviors demonstrated that the head holding procedure substantially increased eye contact for…

Altman, Karl; Krupsaw, Randall

1982-01-01

89

School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012

2012-01-01

90

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1997-12-30

91

Holdings as a Measure of Journal Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that compared holdings figures from the OCLC database to productivity measures from the "Journal Citation Reports" section of "Science Citation Index" and publisher circulation figures to determine whether there is a systematic relationship between easily gathered holdings and circulation figures and less easily obtained…

Wallace, Danny P.; Boyce, Bert R.

1989-01-01

92

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

SciTech Connect

A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1996-12-31

93

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

SciTech Connect

A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

Barth, Clyde H. (Ballston Lake, NY); Cramer, Charles E. (Schenectady, NY)

1997-01-01

94

Central and Peripheral Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Amyloid Precursor Protein Improves Learning and Memory and Reduces Neuroinflammatory Cytokines in Tg2576 (APPswe) Mice  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The World Health Organization estimates that there are currently 18 million people worldwide living with AD and that number is expected to double by early 2025. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid betaprotein precursor (A?PP) that can decrease A?PP expression and amyloid beta protein (A?) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress and restores brain-to-blood efflux of A? in SAMP8 mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of this A?PP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. The Tg2576 overproduces human A?, develops age-related learning and memory deficits, and exhibits oxidative damage in the brain. First, we administered the A?PP antisense centrally into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2 week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with A?PP antisense 3 times at two week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze foot shock avoidance, novel object recognition and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue was collected for evaluation of A?PP, A?, and expression of cytokines and chemokines. A?PP antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. A?PP antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze the mice which received OL-1 A?PP antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant reduction of A?PP signal and a reduction of measures of neuroinflammation. The current findings support the therapeutic potential of OL-1 A?PP antisense. PMID:24577464

Farr, Susan A.; Erickson, Michelle A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

2014-01-01

95

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

96

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

97

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29

98

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

99

Quantum memory Quantum memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

2012-06-01

100

Wechsler memory scale indices of brain pathology.  

PubMed

The present study reported on preliminary findings of two experimental forms of Wechsler Memory Scale subtest analyses that show promise as screening procedures for neurologically impaired Ss. Both methods discriminated the organic Ss for controls with 70% accuracy. Both methods compare "hold" subtest scores to "don't hold" subtest scores by the use of a regression equation, a procedure that attempts to compensate for the lack of standard scores. The reasons why the regression equation that uses digits score as a hold criterion is regarded as potentially the more useful were discussed. PMID:1194429

Kljaji?

1975-10-01

101

Spatiotemporal characteristics of dynamic feature binding in visual working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that visual working memory can hold a set of four to five coherent object representations. As a test of this proposal, I devised a paradigm called multiple object permanence tracking (MOPT) that measures memory for feature-location binding in dynamic situations. Observers were asked to detect any feature switch in the middle of a regular rotation of

Jun Saiki

2003-01-01

102

Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home Advanced Illness: Holding On and Letting Go Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our ... fate, then I accept it with dignity." Letting Go As death nears, many people feel a lessening ...

103

76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

2011-04-12

104

The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the cash holdings of REITs are examined with the view that the REIT industry should yield new information\\u000a regarding the drivers of corporate cash policy due to their unique operating conditions. The availability of REIT line of\\u000a credit data also allows us to test the association between cash holdings and line of credit access and use. Data

William G. Hardin; Michael J. Highfield; Matthew D. Hill; G. Wayne Kelly

2009-01-01

105

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

106

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

107

Emotional memory and psychopathology.  

PubMed Central

A leading model for studying how the brain forms memories about unpleasant experiences is fear conditioning. A cumulative body of work has identified major components of the neural system mediating this form of learning. The pathways involve transmission of sensory information from processing areas in the thalamus and cortex to the amygdala. The amygdala's lateral nucleus receives and integrates the sensory inputs from the thalamic and cortical areas, and the central nucleus provides the interface with motor systems controlling specific fear responses in various modalities (behavioural, autonomic, endocrine). Internal connections within the amygdala allow the lateral and central nuclei to communicate. Recent studies have begun to identify some sites of plasticity in the circuitry and the cellular mechanisms involved in fear conditioning. Through studies of fear conditioning, our understanding of emotional memory is being taken to the level of cells and synapses in the brain. Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved. PMID:9415924

Ledoux, J E; Muller, J

1997-01-01

108

Fidelity of neural reactivation reveals competition between memories.  

PubMed

Remembering an event from the past is often complicated by the fact that our memories are cluttered with similar events. Though competition is a fundamental part of remembering, there is little evidence of how mnemonic competition is neurally represented. Here, we assessed whether competition between visual memories is captured in the relative degree to which target vs. competing memories are reactivated within the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC). To assess reactivation, we used multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data, quantifying the degree to which retrieval events elicited patterns of neural activity that matched those elicited during encoding. Consistent with recent evidence, we found that retrieval of visual memories was associated with robust VOTC reactivation and that the degree of reactivation scaled with behavioral expressions of target memory retrieval. Critically, competitive remembering was associated with more ambiguous patterns of VOTC reactivation, putatively reflecting simultaneous reactivation of target and competing memories. Indeed, the more weakly that target memories were reactivated, the more likely that competing memories were later remembered. Moreover, when VOTC reactivation indicated that conflict between target and competing memories was high, frontoparietal mechanisms were markedly engaged, revealing specific neural mechanisms that tracked competing mnemonic evidence. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that neural reactivation captures competition between individual memories, providing insight into how well target memories are retrieved in the present and how likely competing memories will be remembered in the future. PMID:21436044

Kuhl, Brice A; Rissman, Jesse; Chun, Marvin M; Wagner, Anthony D

2011-04-01

109

Place memory in crickets  

PubMed Central

Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

2008-01-01

110

Consolidating memories.  

PubMed

Our own experiences, as well as the findings of many studies, suggest that emotionally arousing experiences can create lasting memories. This autobiographical article provides a brief summary of the author's research investigating neurobiological systems responsible for the influence of emotional arousal on the consolidation of lasting memories. The research began with the finding that stimulant drugs enhanced memory in rats when administered shortly after training. Those findings suggested the possibility that endogenous systems activated by arousal might influence neural processes underlying memory consolidation. Subsequent findings that adrenal stress hormones activated by learning experiences enhance memory consolidation provided strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. Other findings suggest that the enhancement is induced by stress hormone activation of the amygdala. The findings also suggest that the basolateral amygdala modulates memory consolidation via its projections to brain regions involved in processing different aspects and forms of memory. This emotional-arousal-activated neurobiological system thus seems to play an important adaptive role in insuring that the strength of our memories will reflect their emotional significance. PMID:25559113

McGaugh, James L

2015-01-01

111

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

112

Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

2013-01-01

113

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

114

Frequency components in breath holding experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy has been used to investigate changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced by hypercapnia challenges, such as carbon dioxide CO2 inhalation and breath holding. The aim of this study was to investigate CO2 pressure changes dependence of frequency spectrum of cerebral hemodynamic oscillations during breath holding task. Measurements of the relative changes in concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]) and oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2]) are performed on nine healthy subjects during three breath holdings of 30 seconds (s.) interleaved with 90 s. of normal breathing. Power spectra are computed by continuous wavelet transform and averaged for normal and hold episodes. The percent change values between hold and normal episodes are given for frequency peaks at (0.035 Hz), where a 17% higher increase was observed for PC of [Hb] on the right side compared to left side,while this value was at 64.8% for [HbO2] . Similarly, for a peak at 0.11 Hz these values were 54.5% and 9.5% for [Hb] and [HbO2] PCs, respectively. The smallest changes were observed for breathing freq. range (around 0.2 Hz) where the values are -72% and 55.8% for [Hb] and [HbO2], respectively.

Akin, Ata; Emir, Uzay E.; Kalsin, Serhan; Sayli, Omer

2005-04-01

115

Sterile Immunity to Malaria after DNA Prime/Adenovirus Boost Immunization Is Associated with Effector Memory CD8+T Cells Targeting AMA1 Class I Epitopes  

PubMed Central

Background Fifteen volunteers were immunized with three doses of plasmid DNA encoding P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and boosted with human adenovirus-5 (Ad) expressing the same antigens (DNA/Ad). Four volunteers (27%) demonstrated sterile immunity to controlled human malaria infection and, overall, protection was statistically significantly associated with ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? activities to AMA1 but not CSP. DNA priming was required for protection, as 18 additional subjects immunized with Ad alone (AdCA) did not develop sterile protection. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to identify correlates of protection, recognizing that DNA-priming may induce different responses than AdCA alone. Among protected volunteers, two and three had higher ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to CSP and AMA1, respectively, than non-protected volunteers. Unexpectedly, non-protected volunteers in the AdCA trial showed ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to AMA1 equal to or higher than the protected volunteers. T cell functionality assessed by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 likewise did not distinguish protected from non-protected volunteers across both trials. However, three of the four protected volunteers showed higher effector to central memory CD8+ T cell ratios to AMA1, and one of these to CSP, than non-protected volunteers for both antigens. These responses were focused on discrete regions of CSP and AMA1. Class I epitopes restricted by A*03 or B*58 supertypes within these regions of AMA1 strongly recalled responses in three of four protected volunteers. We hypothesize that vaccine-induced effector memory CD8+ T cells recognizing a single class I epitope can confer sterile immunity to P. falciparum in humans. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that better understanding of which epitopes within malaria antigens can confer sterile immunity and design of vaccine approaches that elicit responses to these epitopes will increase the potency of next generation gene-based vaccines. PMID:25211344

Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R.; Farooq, Fouzia; Ganeshan, Harini; Belmonte, Maria; Kim, Yohan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Huang, Jun; McGrath, Shannon; Abot, Esteban; Limbach, Keith; Shi, Meng; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter; Chuang, Ilin; Tamminga, Cindy; Epstein, Judith E.; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

116

12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.  

...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

2014-01-01

117

12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

2011-01-01

118

12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

2012-01-01

119

12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

2013-01-01

120

12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

2010-01-01

121

46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Electrical circuits in cargo holds. 148.435 Section...Requirements § 148.435 Electrical circuits in cargo holds. During transport...reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold...

2011-10-01

122

46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.  

... 2014-10-01 false Electrical circuits in cargo holds. 148.435 Section...Requirements § 148.435 Electrical circuits in cargo holds. During transport...reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold...

2014-10-01

123

The Role of Working Memory Representations in the Control of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that target templates are stored visual working memory and used to guide attention during visual search. However, observers can search efficiently even if working memory is filled to capacity by a concurrent task. The idea that target templates are stored in working memory receives support primarily from studies of nonhuman primates in which the target varies from

Geoffrey F. Woodman; Steven J. Luck; Jeffrey D. Schall

2007-01-01

124

12 CFR 238.54 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...72, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2014-01-01

125

12 CFR 238.54 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...72, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2013-01-01

126

Memory reconsolidation.  

PubMed

The formation, storage and use of memories is critical for normal adaptive functioning, including the execution of goal-directed behavior, thinking, problem solving and decision-making, and is at the center of a variety of cognitive, addictive, mood, anxiety, and developmental disorders. Memory also significantly contributes to the shaping of human personality and character, and to social interactions. Hence, understanding how memories are formed, stored, retrieved, modified, updated and used potentially impacts many areas in human life, including mental health. PMID:24028957

Alberini, Cristina M; Ledoux, Joseph E

2013-09-01

127

The effect of friction in the hold down post spherical bearings on hold down post loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of friction at the connection of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt and the mobile launch platform (MLP) hold down posts was analyzed. A simplified model of the shuttle response during the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) buildup was constructed. The model included the effect of stick-slip friction for the rotation of the skirt about the spherical bearing. Current finite element models assume the joint is completely frictionless in rotation and therefore no moment is transferred between the skirt and the hold down posts. The model was partially verified against test data and preliminary parameter studies were performed. The parameter studies indicated that the coefficient of friction strongly influenced the moment on the hold down posts. The coefficient of friction had little effect on hold down post vertical loads, however. Further calibration of the model is necessary before the effect of friction on the hold down post horizontal loads can be analyzed.

Richardson, James A.

1990-01-01

128

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter  

...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

2014-01-01

129

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

2013-01-01

130

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

2012-01-01

131

78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI...days after the application was received. All dates and deadlines in this notice...

2013-10-29

132

77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc....

2012-05-11

133

Engineering a memory with LTD and LTP.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that memories are encoded by modification of synaptic strengths through cellular mechanisms such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). However, the causal link between these synaptic processes and memory has been difficult to demonstrate. Here we show that fear conditioning, a type of associative memory, can be inactivated and reactivated by LTD and LTP, respectively. We began by conditioning an animal to associate a foot shock with optogenetic stimulation of auditory inputs targeting the amygdala, a brain region known to be essential for fear conditioning. Subsequent optogenetic delivery of LTD conditioning to the auditory input inactivates memory of the shock. Then subsequent optogenetic delivery of LTP conditioning to the auditory input reactivates memory of the shock. Thus, we have engineered inactivation and reactivation of a memory using LTD and LTP, supporting a causal link between these synaptic processes and memory. PMID:24896183

Nabavi, Sadegh; Fox, Rocky; Proulx, Christophe D; Lin, John Y; Tsien, Roger Y; Malinow, Roberto

2014-07-17

134

A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

1987-01-01

135

Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

2008-01-01

136

Access versus Holdings: Document Delivery Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of access versus holdings of academic library materials and the performance of document-delivery services focuses on work at the University of Liverpool (United Kingdom) that is investigating existing and future document supply services, including costs. Expresses concern regarding the low level of subject coverage by many of the…

Boyle, Frances; Davies, Mary

1999-01-01

137

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2014-01-01

138

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2011-01-01

139

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2012-01-01

140

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2013-01-01

141

Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

2014-01-01

142

The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

1996-01-01

143

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention · Welcome! · Instructor ­ Dr. Coulson ­ Email: coulson Attention ­ Divided Attention ­ Automaticity ­ Attentional Capture · Immediate Memory ­ Sensory Memory ­ Short-Term Memory ­ Working Memory · Long-Term Memory ­ Levels of Processing ­ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

144

POW Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

Science Update;

2004-07-12

145

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

146

Memory Access Schemes for Configurable Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the Memory Architecture for Reconfigurable Com- puters (MARC), a scalable, device-independent memory interface that supports both irregular (via configurable caches) and regular accesses (via pre-fetching stream buffers). By hiding specifics behind a consistent abstract interface, it is suitable as a target environment for automatic hardware compilation.

Holger Lange; Andreas Koch

2000-01-01

147

Toll-like receptors as pharmacological targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLRs represent attractive drug targets for the modulation of the immune response and hold promising applications for the treatment of infection and inflammation as well as for the development of vaccine adjuvants. Two main strategies for targeting TLRs seem to be promising for drug development: targeting TLRs with synthetic agonists or antagonists and targeting the protein-protein interaction involved in the

Bruno Conti; Christopher N. Davis; M. Margarita Behrens; Julius Rebek; Tamas Bartfai

148

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities introduce redundancies that make the input more compressible. The current

Timothy F. Brady; Talia Konkle; George A. Alvarez

2009-01-01

149

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

150

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

2009-01-01

151

Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

2010-01-01

152

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting [Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E.

Maria Wimber; Roland Marcus Rutschmann; Mark W. Greenlee

2008-01-01

153

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting [Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E.

Maria Wimber; Roland Marcus Rutschmann; Mark W. Greenlee; Karl-heinz Bäuml

2009-01-01

154

Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain.  

PubMed

Recent data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in memory consolidation and help to transmit acquired memories even across generations in a Lamarckian manner. Drugs that target the epigenetic machinery were found to enhance memory function in rodents and ameliorate disease phenotypes in models for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Chorea Huntington, Depression or Schizophrenia. In this review, I will give an overview on the current knowledge of epigenetic processes in memory function and brain disease with a focus on Morbus Alzheimer as the most common neurodegenerative disease. I will address the question whether an epigenetic therapy could indeed be a suitable therapeutic avenue to treat brain diseases and discuss the necessary steps that should help to take neuroepigenetic research to the next level. PMID:24719207

Fischer, Andre

2014-05-01

155

MPI+OPENMP IMPLEMENTATION OF MEMORY-SAVING PARALLEL PIC APPLICATIONS ON HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTED-SHARED MEMORY  

E-print Network

MPI+OPENMP IMPLEMENTATION OF MEMORY-SAVING PARALLEL PIC APPLICATIONS ON HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTED-SHARED MEMORY ARCHITECTURES Sergio Briguglio, Giuliana Fogaccia and Gregorio Vlad Associazione EURATOM for the development of memory- saving parallel Particle-in-cell simulation codes, targeted to hierarchical distributed

Vlad, Gregorio

156

77 FR 48550 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates, IL; Notice of Affirmative...India; and that the workers at the Hoffman Estates, Illinois facility are...justify reconsideration of the U.S. Department of Labor's prior decision. The...

2012-08-14

157

78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...supervision and regulation automation services...such as staff training and automation services. In determining...Holding Company Act and the Home Owners Loan Act and...10(c)(9)(C) of the Home Owners' Loan Act...

2013-08-23

158

Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Episodic memory,and semantic memory,are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory,functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

159

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2011-04-01

160

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2014-04-01

161

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2013-04-01

162

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2012-04-01

163

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2010-04-01

164

Source Memory in the Real World: A Neuropsychological Study of Flashbulb Memory  

PubMed Central

A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events. PMID:16183624

DAVIDSON, PATRICK S. R.; COOK, SHAUN P.; GLISKY, ELIZABETH L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE; RAPCSAK, STEVEN Z.

2008-01-01

165

Effect of Working Memory Availability on Visual Attention in Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was designed to test working memory on drivers' endogenous control of attention. Studies in simple laboratory settings showed that working memory was crucial for maintaining task priorities and attention to relevant stimuli. A modified Posner's cue-target paradigm, consisting of spatially predictive endogenous cues and targets, was implemented in a driving simulator. Participants were to follow and remember the

Seth Redenbo; Yi-Ching Lee

166

What-Where-When Memory in the Rodent Odor Span Task.  

PubMed

While the Odor Span Task (OST) was developed to assess working memory in rodents, it appears that odor ("What") and time since an odor was last reinforced ("When") jointly control responding in the OST. The OST uses an incrementing non-match to sample procedure such that the number of stimuli to remember increases during the session; the rodent is trained to remember stimuli within a session but not between sessions. We used a variation of the OST to add a "Where" dimension to the task to examine whether rodents could learn to respond to scents based on contextual cues as well. In Experiment 1, 6 rats well-trained on the OST procedure were exposed to four target scents in a holding cage before the OST session began [What-Where-When (WWW) condition]. When these target scents appeared in the OST, rats treated them as novel scents despite their being previously encountered that day; WWW responding was comparable to baseline (BL) responding. Controls were implemented to account for relative familiarity: frequency of target presentation and time since the target odor was presented. On both types of control probes, rats typically responded to target scents less than during WWW or BL conditions, took longer to make a response, and visited more comparison stimuli. In Experiment 2, the study was replicated adding reinforcement delivery for responding to pre-session presentation of target stimuli. Subjects were the same 6 rats plus 2 additional rats also well-trained on the OST. Results were similar to those from Experiment 1. These data indicate that the variables controlling performance on the OST task include What stimulus is presented, Where (i.e., in which location) it was presented, and When it was presented. Thus, the OST-probe methodology may provide a useful vehicle for the study of episodic-like memory processes in non-humans. PMID:25242825

Branch, Carrie L; Galizio, Mark; Bruce, Katherine

2014-08-01

167

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

168

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible.†† In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory.†† It argues that developments in painting during the period – especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

169

Memory Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the current storm over what constitutes truth – non-fiction – and what is “made up” – fictional – my fascination with the flexibility of memory is suddenly more than a little apropos. Current literary events notwithstanding, I grew up under a dark veil of depression, which seemingly “erased” my childhood. It wasn’t until I delved into

Anne M. McDermott

2006-01-01

170

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

171

KU Libraries holdings featured in political discourse  

E-print Network

12/5/13 KU Libraries holdings featured in political discourse www.lib.ku.edu/paul/ 1/1 Contact Us KU Libraries Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (785) 864-8983 PROVIDING ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF IDEAS KU Libraries The University of Kansas Libraries Libraries... Home Articles & Databases Catalog: books & more E-journals Research by Subject Course Reserves Library Pages A-Z Images KU ScholarWorks KU Digital Collections Hours My Account Request Articles, Books,… Friends & Benefactors Suggestions KU Libraries...

2008-01-01

172

MASKER MASKER TARGET TARGET TARGET  

E-print Network

from a large speech database (Ives et al,2005). The original speech is from one speaker Probabilitycorrect -6 dB 0 dB Listeners were presented with two phrases of concurrent speech syllables. The masker syllables coincided with the second and third target syllables. The speech syllables were taken

Ives, D. Timothy

173

Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

2005-01-01

174

Cortical Memory The cortical memory appears to compute in time steps of about 200 millisec-  

E-print Network

action. The decision may be thought of as a branch in a program. The action may be overt as in reaching for a target, or covert as in simulating the reach internally. States of the memory are coded hierarchically

Ballard, Dana H.

175

Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

2014-12-01

176

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus  

E-print Network

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

Squire, Larry R.

177

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana  

E-print Network

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies · MRAM · PCRAM · FeRAM · ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

178

47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.  

... 2014-10-01 false Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. 20.22 Section 20...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.22 Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. (a)...

2014-10-01

179

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2010-04-01

180

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

...2014-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2014-04-01

181

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2011-04-01

182

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2013-04-01

183

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2012-04-01

184

50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7 Wildlife and Fisheries...OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal...

2013-10-01

185

50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7 Wildlife and Fisheries...OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal...

2012-10-01

186

Vise to hold bones or other irregular objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vise with stationary vee-shaped jaw and segmented notched jaw for holding irregular shaped objects is described. Operation of the device and specific application to holding bones are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Dowell, R. H.

1972-01-01

187

Views of First Nation elders on memory loss and memory care in later life.  

PubMed

Little is known about Indigenous communities and dementia and Elders have not been involved as advisors or participants in most research to date. This exploratory research sought to address this gap through a constructivist grounded theory project on the views of First Nation Elders on memory loss and memory care in later life, conducted in collaboration with decision-makers from the local Health Authority and Elders from three First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Elders served as advisors to this research and research agreements were negotiated and signed with each community. Data collection occurred through a series of sharing circles and interviews with a total of 21 Elders, four of whom were experiencing memory loss, and two community members. Four themes arose through the constant comparative data analysis process: Being Secwepemc, growing older, losing memory, and supporting one another. These themes indicate that memory loss and memory care in First Nation communities has changed over the past century, including the causes attributed to memory loss in later life and community responses to those affected. Elders hold differing views about memory loss, including the traditional--'going through the full circle' [of life]--and the shémá [white] way--'your dementia', with the latter being much more common. This research indicates the importance of protecting and reviving traditional knowledge and ways of life in order to prevent 'your dementia' and avoid the adoption of health care practices that may be culturally unsafe for First Nation Elders. PMID:20593232

Hulko, Wendy; Camille, Evelyn; Antifeau, Elisabeth; Arnouse, Mike; Bachynski, Nicole; Taylor, Denise

2010-12-01

188

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

189

TARGETing "When" and "Where"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Drosophila, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to be crucial for learning and memory, but whether this represents a developmental or a specific effect has not been resolved. Research with a new targeting system that allows both spatial and temporal control of gene expression shows that expression of rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, in the mushroom bodies of adult flies is necessary and sufficient to rescue the learning defect of rutabaga mutant. This demonstrates an acute role for Rutabaga in learning and memory.

Yalin Wang (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV); Yi Zhong (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV)

2004-02-17

190

Imagine that: Self-Imagination Improves Prospective Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated that “self-imagination” – a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) – enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerized general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e. ongoing task) and press the “1” key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e. prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a “self-imagination effect (SIE)” in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:22150451

Grilli, Matthew D.; McFarland, Craig P.

2012-01-01

191

Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

2000-01-01

192

12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold...required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is...calendar year-end financial data provided by the member to...calculation of each member's minimum stock holdings is to be used...

2013-01-01

193

12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold...required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is...calendar year-end financial data provided by the member to...calculation of each member's minimum stock holdings is to be used...

2011-01-01

194

12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

...increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold...required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is...calendar year-end financial data provided by the member to...calculation of each member's minimum stock holdings is to be used...

2014-01-01

195

12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold...required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is...calendar year-end financial data provided by the member to...calculation of each member's minimum stock holdings is to be used...

2010-01-01

196

12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold...required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is...calendar year-end financial data provided by the member to...calculation of each member's minimum stock holdings is to be used...

2012-01-01

197

46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical circuits in cargo holds. 148.435...Special Requirements § 148.435 Electrical circuits in cargo holds. During...with a reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold...

2013-10-01

198

Robust Holding Control of Two Cooperating Robot Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we deal with the adaptive load sharing for two cooperating manipulators to hold a common object robustly. The task vectors to describe the task are first summarized, and a hybrid control scheme for the simultaneous control of the holding forces and the carrying positions is presented. Within this framework, the robust holding problem is analyzed with paying

Masaru Uchiyama; Toshiaki Yamashita

1991-01-01

199

Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

Oneill, R. W. (inventor)

1975-01-01

200

21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?  

...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold...

2010-04-01

204

21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold...

2012-04-01

205

Memory on the move  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes how, competing for the US $ 11 billion portable electronic device memory market are several venerable but revitalized memory systems as well as new storage technologies: flash memory cards; PC memory cards; and small disk drives. Flashers, a relatively young technology contain one or more nonvolatile solid-state memory chips. They have no moving parts and retain data

R. M. Sherwin

2001-01-01

206

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

207

Memory Systems Doug Burger  

E-print Network

Memory Systems Doug Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison A computer's memory system and produces. A perfect memory system is one that can supply immediately any datum that the CPU requests. This ideal memory is not practically implementable, however, as the three factors of memory capacity, speed

Burger, Doug

208

Cross-Cultural Differences in Memory: The Role of Culture-Based Stereotypes About Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which cultural stereotypes about aging contribute to age differences in memory performance is investigated by comparing younger and older Anglophone Canadians to demographically matched Chinese Canadians, who tend to hold more positive views of aging. Four memory tests were administered. In contrast to B. Levy and E. Langer's (1994) findings, younger adults in both cultural groups outperformed

Carolyn Yoon; Lynn Hasher; Fred Feinberg; Tamara A. Rahhal; Gordon Winocur

2000-01-01

209

A practical flow-sensitive and context-sensitive C and C++ memory leak detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a static analysis tool that can automatically find memory leaks and deletions of dangling pointers in large C and C++ applications.We have developed a type system to formalize a practical ownership model of memory management. In this model, every object is pointed to by one and only one pointer, which holds the exclusive right and obligation to

David L. Heine; Monica S. Lam

2003-01-01

210

Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual working memory provides an essential link between perception and higher cognitive functions, allowing for the active maintenance of information about stimuli no longer in view. Research suggests that sustained activity in higher-order prefrontal, parietal, inferotemporal and lateral occipital areas supports visual maintenance, and may account for the limited capacity of working memory to hold up to 3-4 items. Because

Stephenie A. Harrison; Frank Tong

2009-01-01

211

The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

2010-01-01

212

The role of protein synthesis in memory consolidation: Progress amid decades of debate  

E-print Network

The role of protein synthesis in memory consolidation: Progress amid decades of debate Pepe J of consolidation theory holds that protein synthesis is required to produce the synaptic modification needed for long-term memory storage. Protein synthesis inhibitors have played a pivotal role in the development

Grau, James

213

TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.  

PubMed

Memory formation requires de novo protein synthesis, and memory disorders may result from misregulated synthesis of critical proteins that remain largely unidentified. Plasma membrane ion channels and receptors are likely candidates given their role in regulating neuron excitability, a candidate memory mechanism. Here we conduct targeted molecular monitoring and quantitation of hippocampal plasma membrane proteins from mice with intact or impaired contextual fear memory to identify putative candidates. Here we report contextual fear memory deficits correspond to increased Trpc3 gene and protein expression, and demonstrate TRPC3 regulates hippocampal neuron excitability associated with memory function. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for enhanced contextual fear memory reported herein following knockdown of TRPC3 in hippocampus. Collectively, TRPC3 modulates memory and may be a feasible target to enhance memory and treat memory disorders. PMID:25513972

Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hope, Kevin A; Hoffmann, Brian; Chong, Jayhong A; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; O'Connell, Kristen M; Tryba, Andrew K; Greene, Andrew S; Savio Chan, C; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

2015-03-15

214

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

215

Analyses of Markov decision process structure regarding the possible strategic use of interacting memory systems.  

PubMed

Behavioral tasks are often used to study the different memory systems present in humans and animals. Such tasks are usually designed to isolate and measure some aspect of a single memory system. However, it is not necessarily clear that any given task actually does isolate a system or that the strategy used by a subject in the experiment is the one desired by the experimenter. We have previously shown that when tasks are written mathematically as a form of partially observable Markov decision processes, the structure of the tasks provide information regarding the possible utility of certain memory systems. These previous analyses dealt with the disambiguation problem: given a specific ambiguous observation of the environment, is there information provided by a given memory strategy that can disambiguate that observation to allow a correct decision? Here we extend this approach to cases where multiple memory systems can be strategically combined in different ways. Specifically, we analyze the disambiguation arising from three ways by which episodic-like memory retrieval might be cued (by another episodic-like memory, by a semantic association, or by working memory for some earlier observation). We also consider the disambiguation arising from holding earlier working memories, episodic-like memories or semantic associations in working memory. From these analyses we can begin to develop a quantitative hierarchy among memory systems in which stimulus-response memories and semantic associations provide no disambiguation while the episodic memory system provides the most flexible disambiguation, with working memory at an intermediate level. PMID:19129935

Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

2008-01-01

216

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

Verschelde, Jan

217

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

218

Modulation of alpha power at encoding and retrieval tracks the precision of visual short-term memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to hold information in mind is strictly limited. We sought to understand the relationship between oscillatory brain activity and the allocation of resources within visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants attempted to remember target arrows embedded among distracters and used a continuous method of responding to report their memory for a cued target item. Trial-to-trial variability in the absolute circular accuracy with which participants could report the target was predicted by event-related alpha synchronization during initial processing of the memoranda and by alpha desynchronization during the retrieval of those items from VSTM. Using a model-based approach, we were also able to explore further which parameters of VSTM-guided behavior were most influenced by alpha band changes. Alpha synchronization during item processing enhanced the precision with which an item could be retained without affecting the likelihood of an item being represented per se (as indexed by the guessing rate). Importantly, our data outline a neural mechanism that mirrors the precision with which items are retained; the greater the alpha power enhancement during encoding, the greater the precision with which that item can be retained. PMID:25210151

Poliakov, E.; Stokes, M. G.; Woolrich, M. W.; Mantini, D.

2014-01-01

219

Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect.  

PubMed

Shape memory polymers are materials that can memorize temporary shapes and revert to their permanent shape upon exposure to an external stimulus such as heat, light, moisture or magnetic field. Such properties have enabled a variety of applications including deployable space structures, biomedical devices, adaptive optical devices, smart dry adhesives and fasteners. The ultimate potential for a shape memory polymer, however, is limited by the number of temporary shapes it can memorize in each shape memory cycle and the ability to tune the shape memory transition temperature(s) for the targeted applications. Currently known shape memory polymers are capable of memorizing one or two temporary shapes, corresponding to dual- and triple-shape memory effects (also counting the permanent shape), respectively. At the molecular level, the maximum number of temporary shapes a shape memory polymer can memorize correlates directly to the number of discrete reversible phase transitions (shape memory transitions) in the polymer. Intuitively, one might deduce that multi-shape memory effects are achievable simply by introducing additional reversible phase transitions. The task of synthesizing a polymer with more than two distinctive and strongly bonded reversible phases, however, is extremely challenging. Tuning shape memory effects, on the other hand, is often achieved through tailoring the shape memory transition temperatures, which requires alteration in the material composition. Here I show that the perfluorosulphonic acid ionomer (PFSA), which has only one broad reversible phase transition, exhibits dual-, triple-, and at least quadruple-shape memory effects, all highly tunable without any change to the material composition. PMID:20220846

Xie, Tao

2010-03-11

220

Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.  

PubMed

Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

2014-07-01

221

Development of Visual Working Memory Precision in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and empirical innovation to investigate instead the…

Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M.; Husain, Masud

2012-01-01

222

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

223

Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

2008-01-01

224

Memory Training in the Community Aged: Effects on Depression, Memory Complaint, and Memory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of memory and growth training groups on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Results indicated that both training groups significantly reduced concerns about memory and resulted in improved memory performance. (Author)

Zarit, Steven H.; And Others

1981-01-01

225

A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

2010-01-01

226

Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

2008-01-01

227

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm˛, the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm˛. Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm˛/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm˛ in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm˛, a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

228

Immunological Memory is Associative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that immunological memory is in the same class of associative memories as Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory , Albus's Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer , and Marr's Theory of the Cerebellar Cortex . This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature from a sparse sampling of a huge input space by recognition units (B and T cells

Derek J. Smith; Stephanie Forrest; Alan S. Perelson

1998-01-01

229

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-print Network

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

230

CS7910 Homework 7 1. Does the revenue equivalence theorem hold even when bidders are risk-averse? Explain.  

E-print Network

CS7910 Homework 7 1. Does the revenue equivalence theorem hold even when bidders are risk network capacity). Each bidder i is interested in obtaining a set of edges that constitute a path from some source node si to some target node ti. Any path will give the bidder the same value vi. Receiving

Allan, Vicki H.

231

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

232

Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

Schueler, Robert M.

2008-01-01

233

Seeking the Neural Substrates of Visual Working Memory Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a critical site of working memory storage in monkeys and humans. Recent reviews of the human lesion literature and recent neuroimaging results, however, challenge this view. To test these alternatives, we used event-related fMRI to trace the retention of working memory representation of target faces across three delay periods that

Bradley R. Postle; T. Jason Druzgal; Mark D'Esposito

2003-01-01

234

Parallelization of Benchmarks for Scalable Shared-Memory Multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work identifies practical compiling techniques for scalable shared memory machines. For this, we have fo- cused on experimental studies using a real machine and representative codes. In the experiments, we transformed conventional codes to shared memory codes using several existing techniques and ran the output on the target machine to evaluate those techniques and to identify where improve- ment

Yunheung Paek; Angeles G. Navarro; Emilio L. Zapata; David A. Padua

1998-01-01

235

Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

2008-01-01

236

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

237

A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

2008-01-01

238

Water holding of biochar amended SE Coastal Plain soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because southeastern Coastal Plain soils are sandy, poorly aggregated, and low in organic matter, they have low water holding capacities. Water holding can be improved with biochar amendments that have the potential to increase aggregation and provide a medium of water storage in the char. Changes i...

239

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

240

Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

241

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

242

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

243

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

244

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

245

12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking...App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC...

2010-01-01

246

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Purpose and Rationale is to: To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations. While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provi...

247

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose and Rationale: 1) To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes that may be necessary to the current regulations. 2) While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provid...

248

35. REDUCTION PLANT HOLDING TANKS View just to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. REDUCTION PLANT - HOLDING TANKS View just to the right of Photo No. 34. Note holding tanks for fish awaiting reduction, and cement bases (in front of tanks) for dryers and power units (right). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

249

Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

Crawford, R. P.

1967-01-01

250

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

251

Subsequent memory effects in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate subsequent memory (SM) effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10min later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. We found evidence for subsequent memory (SM, subsequently remembered>subsequently forgotten) effects on regional brain activation in both groups but with distinct patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in controls demonstrated SM activation in both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and fusiform cortex (FF), whereas patients showed SM effects only in the FF. There were no significant between group differences in MTL activation; however, patients demonstrated greater FF activation than controls. Notably, greater FF activation during successful encoding was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Exploratory whole brain analyses in patients demonstrated SM activation in the occipital pole, lateral occipital cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and fusiform cortex; whereas in controls there was no significant activation that survived correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that patients, particularly those with prominent negative symptoms, may activate FF as a compensatory strategy to promote successful encoding, with relatively less reliance on MTL recruitment. PMID:25453165

Collier, Azurii K; Wolf, Daniel H; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

2014-12-30

252

Memory Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

1995-01-01

253

Virginia Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

254

[Memory disturbances in schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The recent literature on memory disorders in schizophrenic persons is reanalysed. The present interest in memory disorders as a core symptom of cognitive changes in schizophrenia derives from the fact that brain imaging methods have revealed a reduction of substance in the regions surrounding the lateral ventricles. Given this localisation, schizophrenics should suffer from pronounced memory deficits. The paper addresses (1) the role of memory disorders in an overall view of cognitive losses, (2) the pattern of memory losses (verbal vs non-verbal, short-term memory vs long-term memory, implicit vs explicit memory etc.) and (3) recent investigations based on simultaneous use of imaging procedures (fNMR, PET) and cortical activation during memory tasks. A survey of the literature renders it likely that frontal functions play an essential role in the type of memory deficits found among schizophrenics. Thus, a purely temporal localisation is unlikely. The reduced learning efficiency which accounts for most of the schizophrenics' cognitive problems points to a working memory disturbance. On the basis of these results, a model for the memory disorders of schizophrenics is developed. The model covers recent literature on working memory as well as neural network models of schizophrenic disorders. However, a differential psychopathological symptom and syndrome analysis remains a prerequisite for reducing the great variance of the schizophrenics' performance in memory tasks. The importance of cognitive rehabilitation for sociopsychiatric efforts aimed at re-integrating mentally ill persons should not be underestimated. PMID:8851379

Brand, A; Hildebrandt, H; Scheerer, E

1996-02-01

255

Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on V and Wolfe (2012)  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on Võ and Wolfe that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object the distractor later became the target. Instead of being strongly constrained by task, visual memory is applied

Hollingworth, Andrew

256

COMeT: Continuous Online Memory Test Musfiq Rahman, Bruce R. Childers and Sangyeun Cho  

E-print Network

COMeT: Continuous Online Memory Test Musfiq Rahman, Bruce R. Childers and Sangyeun Cho Computer. We present the challenges and design for an approach, called Continuous Online Memory Testing (COMeT), that targets chip multiprocessors. COMeT tests memory health simultaneously with application execution

Cho, Sangyeun

257

Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

2011-01-01

258

Examples of Holdings Reports and Decisions Using the American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the resolutions reached in converting Indiana University Libraries serials holdings information to the format specified in the 1980 American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level (ANSI). It is noted that this project was part of the development--by OCLC--of…

Charbonneau, Gary; And Others

259

12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...555, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2014-01-01

260

12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...555, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2011-01-01

261

12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...555, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2013-01-01

262

12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...555, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2010-01-01

263

12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) The holding company received a rating of satisfactory...555, and the holding company does not propose to...consider whether the performance by the applicant...consideration includes an evaluation of the financial and...subsidiaries, and of any company to be acquired,...

2012-01-01

264

Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory  

E-print Network

Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a cost­effective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

265

How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory ‘object-recall’ task?  

PubMed Central

This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory (VSTM) object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76), and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30) adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised two or four real world objects (the memory load) presented sequentially, each for 650 ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000 ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented two or four memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors) vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors) were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants) when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items), false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets), slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits. PMID:25653615

Sapkota, Raju P.; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina

2015-01-01

266

KCNQ Channels Regulate Age-Related Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body ?/?neurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment. PMID:23638087

Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R.; Hodge, James J. L.

2013-01-01

267

Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control.  

PubMed

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance. PMID:23908639

Sütterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

2013-01-01

268

Shape Memory Mechanics of an Elastic Memory Composite Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantially more attention has been given in the past to shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics than to shape memory polymers because unreinforced shape memory polymers have much lower stiffness and recovery force potential than shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics. However, when incorporated into a fiber-reinforced composite, both the stiffness and the recovery force of a shape

Erik R. Abrahamson; Mark S. Lake; Naseem A. Munshi; Ken Gall

2003-01-01

269

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening  

E-print Network

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

Tomkins, Andrew

270

Examination of the bidirectional influences of leisure activity and memory in old people: a dissociative effect on episodic memory.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationships between different types of social and cognitive activities and different types of episodic and semantic memory. A total of 794 adult men and women from five age cohorts (aged 65-85 at baseline), participating in the longitudinal Betula project on ageing, memory, and health, were included in the study. The participants were studied over 10 years (1995-2005) in three waves. Recognition and recall were used as episodic memory tasks, and knowledge and verbal fluency as semantic memory tasks. The results, after controlling for age, gender, education, and some diseases, including heart disease and hypertension, as covariates, showed unidirectional effects of social activity on episodic memory on all test occasions (? = .10). Also, episodic memory predicted change in cognitive activity for all test waves (? = .21-.22). Findings suggest that social activity can be seen as protective factor against memory decline. It also seems that episodic memory performance is a predictor of cognitive activity in old people. However, the opposite direction does not hold true. PMID:25040007

Mousavi-Nasab, S-M-Hossein; Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2014-08-01

271

Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare. PMID:24782810

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

2014-01-01

272

Working memory and planning during sentence production.  

PubMed

Speakers retrieve conceptual, syntactic and lexical information in advance of articulation during sentence production. What type of working memory (WM) store is used to hold the planned information before speaking? To address this question, we measured onset latencies when subjects produced sentences that began with either a complex or a simple initial noun phrase, while holding semantic, phonological or spatial information in WM. Although we found that subjects had longer onset latencies for sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase, showing a phrasal scope of planning, the magnitude of this complexity effect was not affected by any type of WM load. However, subjects made more syntactic errors (but not lexical errors) for sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase, suggesting that advance planning for these phrases occurs at a syntactic rather than lexical-semantic level, which may account for the lack of effect with various types of WM load in the current study. PMID:25216074

Martin, Randi C; Yan, Hao; Schnur, Tatiana T

2014-10-01

273

The Role of Memory Reactivation during Wakefulness and Sleep in Determining Which Memories Endure  

PubMed Central

Consolidation makes it possible for memories of our daily experiences to be stored in an enduring way. We propose that memory consolidation depends on the covert reactivation of previously learned material both during sleep and wakefulness. Here we tested whether the operation of covert memory reactivation influences the fundamental selectivity of memory storage—of all the events we experience each day, which will be retained and which forgotten? We systematically manipulated the value of information learned by 60 young subjects; they learned 72 object-location associations while hearing characteristic object sounds, and a number on each object indicated the reward value that could potentially be earned during a future memory test. Recall accuracy declined to a greater extent for low-value than for high-value associations after either a 90 min nap or a 90 min wake interval. Yet, via targeted memory reactivation of half of the low-value associations using the corresponding sounds, these memories were rescued from forgetting. Only cued associations were rescued when sounds were applied during wakefulness, whereas the entire set of low-value associations was rescued from forgetting when the manipulation occurred during sleep. The benefits accrued from presenting corresponding sounds show that covert reactivation is a major factor determining the selectivity of memory consolidation in these circumstances. By extension, covert reactivation may determine the ultimate fate of our memories, though wake and sleep reactivation might play distinct roles in this process, the former helping to strengthen individual, salient memories, and the latter strengthening, while also linking, categorically related memories together. PMID:23575863

Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W.; Creery, Jessica D.; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

274

Memory formation and memory alterations: 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, novel alternative.  

PubMed

Agonists and antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) or receptor7 (5-HT7) might improve memory and/or reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, the current work summarizes recent reviews and findings involving these receptors. Evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in conditions, such as memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficit in preclinical studies, as well as in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades; likewise, the modulation of 5-HT6 drugs on memory seems to be accompanied with neural changes. Moreover, 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain areas mediating memory, including the cortex, hippocampus (e.g., Zola-Morgan and Squire, 1993) and raphe nuclei; however, the role of these receptors on memory has yet to be fully explored. Hence, findings and reviews are summarized in this work. Evidence suggests that both 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists might have promnesic and anti-amnesic effects. These effects seem to be dependent on the basal level of performance, i.e., normal or impaired. Available evidence suggests that a potential utility of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor in mild-to-moderate AD patients and other memory dysfunctions as therapeutic targets. PMID:24698823

Meneses, Alfredo

2014-01-01

275

Superior T memory stem cell persistence supports long-lived T cell memory  

PubMed Central

Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell–like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells. PMID:23281401

Lugli, Enrico; Dominguez, Maria H.; Gattinoni, Luca; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Bolton, Diane L.; Song, Kaimei; Klatt, Nichole R.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Vaccari, Monica; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Franchini, Genoveffa; Roederer, Mario

2013-01-01

276

Superior T memory stem cell persistence supports long-lived T cell memory.  

PubMed

Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell-like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells. PMID:23281401

Lugli, Enrico; Dominguez, Maria H; Gattinoni, Luca; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K; Bolton, Diane L; Song, Kaimei; Klatt, Nichole R; Brenchley, Jason M; Vaccari, Monica; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Waldmann, Thomas A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Franchini, Genoveffa; Roederer, Mario

2013-02-01

277

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of thinking, learning, and remembering—can affect memory. Doctors use ... increasing impairment of memory and other aspects of thinking that are sufficiently severe to impair day-to- ...

278

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... recruited 37 healthy men and women who underwent brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test ... a low flavanol group. After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers ...

279

Drifting absence :: drafting memory  

E-print Network

The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

Kuhn, Marlene Eva

2006-01-01

280

Diabetes and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes and Memory HealthDay December 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Exercise and Physical Fitness Memory Nutrition Transcript Another big reason to eat healthy ...

281

Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

Parasuraman, Raja

282

Formation and nonvolatile memory characteristics of multilayer nickel-silicide NCs embedded in nitride layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provided the formation and memory effects of nonvolatile multilayer nickel-silicide nanocrystal memory in this study. This proposed structure can efficiently improve the drawbacks of current floating gate and single-layer nanocrystal memories for the next-generation nonvolatile memory application. The charge trapping layer of multilayer structure was deposited by sputtering a commixed target (Ni0.3Si0.7) in the argon and nitrogen ambiance,

Wei-Ren Chen; Ting-Chang Chang; Jui-Lung Yeh; S. M. Sze; Chun-Yen Chang

2008-01-01

283

77 FR 61330 - Policies Regarding Mobile Spectrum Holdings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 [WT Docket...Spectrum Holdings AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...merger in any relevant market satisfying the test, guided by the overarching...

2012-10-09

284

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

285

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

286

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

287

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

288

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

289

50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine...

2010-10-01

290

76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company...Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION...3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

2011-04-12

291

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

292

7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...account of the Board, the quantity of almonds necessary to meet his reserve obligation...the Board of responsibility to so hold almonds. Upon demand of the Board...

2010-01-01

293

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2013-10-01

294

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was designed to explore relations among reading skills; metareading, or knowledge about reading; memory; and metamemory, or knowledge about memory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability (good vs. poor readers), operativity, and grade level (second and fourth). Significant but low correlations were obtained between metareading and reading, metamemory and memory, metareading and

Diana M. Byrd; Barry Gholson

1985-01-01

295

Memory Loss Chapter 6  

E-print Network

Part II Memory Loss 129 #12;#12;Chapter 6 Generalized Conditionalization Up to this point we have to help CLF model two types of certainty-loss stories: stories in- volving memory loss and stories-sensitivity, (PEP) does almost no work in modeling stories involving memory loss. So we will proceed in stages: We

Fitelson, Branden

296

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

297

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

298

Memory and the Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

Conway, Martin A.

2005-01-01

299

The Impulse Memory Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulse is a memory system architecture that adds an optional level of address indirection at the memory controller. Applications can use this level of indirection to remap their data structures in memory. As a result, they can control how their data is accessed and cached, which can improve cache and bus utilization. The Impulse design does not require any mod-

Lixin Zhang; Zhen Fang; Michael Parker; Binu K. Mathew; Lambert Schaelicke; John B. Carter; Wilson C. Hsieh; Sally A. Mckee

2001-01-01

300

Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.  

PubMed

Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

2012-06-01

301

Abnormal frontal and parietal activity during working memory updating in post-traumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the timing and scalp topography of working memory in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was designed to investigate ERPs associated with a specific working memory updating process. ERPs were recorded from 10 patients and 10 controls during two visual tasks where (a) targets were a specific word or (b) targets were

Darren L. Weber; C. Richard Clark; Alexander C. McFarlane; Kathryn A. Moores; Philip Morris; Gary F. Egan

2005-01-01

302

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1–4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on the speed of performing the ongoing task. In

Gilles O. Einstein; Mark A. McDaniel; Ruthann Thomas; Sara Mayfield; Hilary Shank; Nova Morrisette; Jennifer Breneiser

2005-01-01

303

Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation  

SciTech Connect

Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

Sarkar, A.; Rano, R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

2007-07-01

304

Rehearsing biological motion in working memory: an EEG study.  

PubMed

Holding biological motion (BM), the movements of animate entities, in working memory (WM) is important to our daily social life. However, how BM is maintained in WM remains unknown. The current study investigated this issue and hypothesized that, analogous to BM perception, the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is involved in rehearsing BM in WM. To examine the MNS hypothesis of BM rehearsal, we used an EEG index of mu suppression (8-12 Hz), which has been linked to the MNS. Using a change detection task, we manipulated the BM memory load in three experiments. We predicted that mu suppression in the maintenance phase of WM would be modulated by the BM memory load; moreover, a negative correlation between the number of BM stimuli in WM and the degree of mu suppression may emerge. The results of Experiment 1 were in line with our predictions and revealed that mu suppression increased as the memory load increased from two to four BM stimuli; however, mu suppression then plateaued, as WM could only hold, at most, four BM stimuli. Moreover, the predicted negative correlation was observed. Corroborating the findings of Experiment 1, Experiment 2 further demonstrated that once participants used verbal codes to process the motion information, the mu suppression or modulation by memory load vanished. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the findings in Experiment 1 were not limited to one specific type of stimuli. Together, these results provide evidence that the MNS underlies the process of rehearsing BM in WM. PMID:25061930

Gao, Zaifeng; Bentin, Shlomo; Shen, Mowei

2015-01-01

305

77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM Solutions, Inc., Gold Star Tutoring Services Inc., and GPS Industries, Inc.; Order...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gold Star Tutoring Services, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2012-11-16

306

Quantum random access memory  

E-print Network

A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially less gates, and leads to an exponential decrease in the power needed for addressing. A quantum optical implementation is presented.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2008-03-26

307

Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose–volume histograms were calculated, and the volumes of heart/lung irradiated to given doses were assessed. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) mean and maximum doses were calculated, together with tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for lung and heart. Results For all patients a reduction of at least 16% in lung mean dose and at least 20% in irradiated pulmonary volumes was observed when DIBH was applied. Heart and LAD maximum doses were decreased by more than 78% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pneumonitis and long term cardiac mortality were also reduced by about 11% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pericarditis were zero for both DIBH and FB. Conclusion Delivering radiation in DIBH conditions the dose to the surrounding normal structures could be reduced, in particular heart, LAD and lung, due to increased distance between target and heart, and to reduced lung density. PMID:24423396

2013-01-01

308

Flexible Kernel Memory  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

309

Generating memory with vaccination.  

PubMed

The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines. PMID:19637203

Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

2009-08-01

310

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

311

Recognition and Memory for Briefly Presented Scenes  

PubMed Central

Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13?ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500?ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1?s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory. PMID:22371707

Potter, Mary C.

2012-01-01

312

Fixation duration surpasses pupil size as a measure of memory load in free viewing  

PubMed Central

Oculomotor behavior reveals, not only the acquisition of visual information at fixation, but also the accumulation of information in memory across subsequent fixations. Two candidate measures were considered as indicators of such dynamic visual memory load: fixation duration and pupil size. While recording these measures, we displayed an arrangement of 3, 4 or 5 targets among distractors. Both occurred in various orientations. Participants searched for targets and reported whether in a subsequent display one of them had changed orientation. We determined to what extent fixation duration and pupil size indicate dynamic memory load, as a function of the number of targets fixated during the search. We found that fixation duration reflects the number of targets, both when this number is within and above the limit of working memory capacity. Pupil size reflects the number of targets only when it exceeds the capacity limit. Moreover, the duration of fixations on successive targets but not on distractors increases whereas pupil size does not. The increase in fixation duration with number of targets both within and above working memory capacity suggests that in free viewing fixation duration is sensitive to actual memory load as well as to processing load, whereas pupil size is indicative of processing load only. Two alternative models relating visual attention and working memory are considered relevant to these results. We discuss the results as supportive of a model which involves a temporary buffer in the interaction of attention and working memory. PMID:25653606

Meghanathan, Radha Nila; van Leeuwen, Cees; Nikolaev, Andrey R.

2015-01-01

313

CB2 Cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic target-what does the future hold?  

PubMed

The past decades have seen an exponential rise in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, comprising CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids. The primary focus of this review is the CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors have been the subject of considerable attention, primarily due to their promising therapeutic potential for treating various pathologies while avoiding the adverse psychotropic effects that can accompany CB1 receptor-based therapies. With the appreciation that CB2-selective ligands show marked functional selectivity, there is a renewed opportunity to explore this promising area of research from both a mechanistic as well as a therapeutic perspective. In this review, we summarize our present knowledge of CB2 receptor signaling, localization, and regulation. We discuss the availability of genetic tools (and their limitations) to study CB2 receptors and also provide an update on preclinical data on CB2 agonists in pain models. Finally, we suggest possible reasons for the failure of CB2 ligands in clinical pain trials and offer possible ways to move the field forward in a way that can help reconcile the inconsistencies between preclinical and clinical data. PMID:25106425

Dhopeshwarkar, Amey; Mackie, Ken

2014-10-01

314

Mouse Studies Show Gene Therapy Method Holds Promise in Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels for Destruction  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers have reported the development of a novel method for delivering a therapeutic gene specifically to the blood vessels of tumors in mice. Once delivered, the gene produces a protein that damages the blood vessels and disrupts the blood flow to tumors, but not to the surrounding tissue.

315

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

316

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

Addis, Donna Rose

317

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

318

Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

2010-07-01

319

Overdistribution in source memory.  

PubMed

Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

2012-03-01

320

Remembering in contradictory minds: disjunction fallacies in episodic memory.  

PubMed

Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying logically impossible combinations of episodic states (e.g., as being a target and a distractor). Consistent with this idea, memory disjunction fallacies were repeatedly detected in a series of experiments, at the level of individuals as well as at the level of groups. Disjunction fallacies varied as a function of manipulations that should affect description-dependency, such as type of test cue, immediate versus delayed testing, word frequency, and emotional valence. Response bias, as well as description-dependency, contributed to disjunction fallacies, as predicted by fuzzy-trace theory's retrieval model. The significance of these findings for memory is that a new form of episodic distortion, description-dependent memory, has been added to the 2 traditional forms (forgetting and false memory). The significance for probability judgment is that disjunction fallacies, which have customarily been explained as by-products of memory retrieval, may be wholly or partly due to the uncontrolled influence of response bias. PMID:20438268

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Aydin, C

2010-05-01

321

Effect of ohmic heating of soymilk on urease inactivation and kinetic analysis in holding time.  

PubMed

To verify the effect of the ohmic heating on the urease activity in the soymilk, the ohmic heating methods with the different electrical field conditions (the frequency and the voltage ranging from 50 to 10 kHz and from 160 to 220 V, respectively) were employed. The results showed that if the value of the urease activity measured with the quantitative spectrophotometry method was lower than 16.8 IU, the urease activity measured with the qualitative method was negative. The urease activity of the sample ohmically heated was significantly lower than that of the sample conventionally heated (P < 0.01) at the same target temperature. It was concluded that the electrical field enhanced the urease inactivation. In addition, the inactivation kinetics of the urease in the soymilk could be described with a biphasic model during holding time at a target temperature. Thus, it was concluded that the urease in the soymilk would contain 2 isoenzymes, one is the thermolabile fraction, the other the thermostable fraction, and that the thermostable isoenzyme could not be completely inactivated when the holding time increased, whether the soymilk was cooked with the conventional method or with the ohmic heating method. Therefore, the electric field had no effect on the inactivation of the thermostable isoenzyme of the urease. PMID:25603896

Li, Fa-De; Chen, Chen; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Peng

2015-02-01

322

41 CFR 102-41.120 - How long must we hold unclaimed personal property before disposition?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hold unclaimed personal property before disposition? 102-41.120 Section 102-41...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 41-DISPOSITION OF SEIZED, FORFEITED, VOLUNTARILY...hold unclaimed personal property before disposition? You must generally hold...

2010-07-01

323

77 FR 29643 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a bank holding company by continuing to control King Family GNB, L.P...application, King Family GNB, L.P...a bank holding company by continuing...addition, King Family VB, L.P...a bank holding company by...

2012-05-18

324

46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing...Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces...

2011-10-01

325

46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing...Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces...

2012-10-01

326

46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing...Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces...

2010-10-01

327

46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.  

... 2014-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing...Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces...

2014-10-01

328

46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing...Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces...

2013-10-01

329

75 FR 16094 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC...Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor...North American Hydro Holdings, LLC...Upper Peninsula Power Company, 700 N...North American Hydro Holdings,...

2010-03-31

330

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2011-10-01

331

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2011-10-01

332

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2010-10-01

333

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2013-10-01

334

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2014-10-01

335

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2012-10-01

336

77 FR 5865 - China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading February...of China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd...investors require a suspension of trading in the...of China Agro-Technology Holdings...

2012-02-06

337

21 CFR 111.460 - What requirements apply to holding in-process material?  

...CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.460 What requirements apply to holding in-process material?...

2014-04-01

338

21 CFR 111.460 - What requirements apply to holding in-process material?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.460 What requirements apply to holding in-process material?...

2010-04-01

339

Editorial: Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical and neurophysiological bases of memory have been significantly advanced by integrative approaches bridging previously existing gaps between individual neuroscientific disciplines. The time- and content-based division of memory has been widely accepted: episodic and semantic memory, procedural memory and priming are frequently used terms. On the anatomical side, a division into forms of memory dependent on the limbic system

Hans J. Markowitsch

1998-01-01

340

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

341

13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

342

Sputter target  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

1980-01-01

343

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique for eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memory allocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on a sequence of training inputs to ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

344

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

345

Bosonic Memory Channels  

E-print Network

We discuss a Bosonic channel model with memory effects. It relies on a multi-mode squeezed (entangled) environment's state. The case of lossy Bosonic channels is analyzed in detail. We show that in the absence of input energy constraints the memory channels are equivalent to their memoryless counterparts. In the case of input energy constraint we provide lower and upper bounds for the memory channel capacity.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Stefano Mancini

2005-06-17

346

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

347

Thinking and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Remembering the past is crucially important for cognitive functions, such as anticipating and planning future activities or\\u000a thinking about one’s own self. In Tulving’s hierarchy of long-term memory systems, episodic memory is the highest one that\\u000a is most likely uniquely human. One of the characteristics of episodic memory is the ability to mentally travel into the past\\u000a and the future.

Matthias Brand; Hans J. Markowitsch

348

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

349

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

350

Early and late stages of working-memory maintenance contribute differentially to long-term memory formation.  

PubMed

The present paper investigated the role of early and late stages of working-memory maintenance, which have been suggested to differentially contribute to long-term memory formation. In experiment 1, we administered a delayed-match-to-sample task, requiring participants to remember line drawings of non-sense three-dimensional stimuli. In the delay phase, participants were either presented with a fixation cross (for 2 or 9s) or with one of two different interference tasks, varying in visual overlap with the target. The interference task was presented 1.5, 4.5 or 7.5s after target offset. Early interfering and early probing disproportionately affected performance on an unexpected subsequent recognition-memory task compared to later interference or probing. This was not modulated by the type of interference task. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the formation of a holistic internal code of the target may be a gradual process. An analogous delayed-match-to-sample task was administered, with interference after 0.5, 2.5 or 4.5s after target offset. The early and middle interference condition similarly disproportionately affected performance compared to later interference. Hence, the present results support the view of a functional dissociation between early and late stages of working-memory maintenance and that early working-memory processes contribute particularly to long-term memory formation. PMID:23584559

Bergmann, Heiko C; Kiemeneij, Anne; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

2013-06-01

351

76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0097] Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...Commission'') has accepted from Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc. (``Healthcare Technology''), subject to final...

2011-11-03

352

Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.  

PubMed Central

Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

Kihlstrom, J F

1997-01-01

353

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

354

Autobiographical odor memory.  

PubMed

This overview focuses on autobiographical odor memory and how information evoked by the olfactory sense may differ from memories evoked by visual or verbal information. Three key topics are addressed: (a) age distributions of evoked memories; (b) phenomenological experience; and (c) semantic processing. Current evidence suggests that memories triggered by olfactory information are localized to the first decade of life (< 10 years) rather than to young adulthood (10-30 years) which is the typical finding for memories evoked by verbal and visual information. Further, empirical evidence indicates that odor evoked memories are more emotional, associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories evoked by other sensory cues. Finally, previous observations of a significant impact of semantic influences on olfactory processing may also be generalized to retrieval of odor evoked autobiographical information. Specifically, both the age distribution and phenomenological qualities are affected by explicit knowledge of the odor cue. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings indicates that personal memories evoked by olfactory information are different from memories evoked by verbal or visual information. PMID:19686154

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan

2009-07-01

355

[MRO] Oligocrystalline Shape Memory Alloys  

E-print Network

Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture ...

Chen, Ying

356

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION  

E-print Network

completed. Initial work is with pink salmon because the two-year cycle of this species permits quick the rigors of ocean life. The concept of incubating salmon eggs in a carefully controlled gravel environmentGRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION Robert M. Burnett Fis hery b i 0 log

357

Occupational Choice and Multiple Job Holding in Rural Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the occupational choice behaviour of individuals in rural Gujarat in Western India. It examines the economic rationale for holding single or multiple jobs and undertaking self or wage employment. The analysis suggests that persons who undertake multiple jobs are younger, less educated, are faced with lower wage rates and live further away from towns. The influence of

Jeemol Unni

1996-01-01

358

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

359

Augmenting OAI-PMH Repository Holdings Using Search Engine APIs  

E-print Network

- related web resources, not with focused crawling, but by us- ing the search engine (SE) APIs directly. WeAugmenting OAI-PMH Repository Holdings Using Search Engine APIs Martin Klein, Michael L. Nelson Libraries, Repos- itory Enhancement, Search Engine API 1. INTRODUCTION The NASA ASDC (http

Nelson, Michael L.

360

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

361

www.ohsuhealth.com/cancer Enrollment on Hold  

E-print Network

www.ohsuhealth.com/cancer Enrollment on Hold Open for Enrollment Key In Development 08/09/2013 Head plus cetuximab versus chemo radiotherapy No Trials Currently Available Non-Surgical HPV positive HPV Available Post-op Intervention Surgery Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Salivary Gland Cancer IRB#8092

Chapman, Michael S.

362

www.ohsu.com/cancer Enrollment on Hold  

E-print Network

www.ohsu.com/cancer Enrollment on Hold Open for Enrollment Key In Development05/16/2014 Metastatic Castrate Resistant IRB# 8791 Phase II study involving ARN- 509 + ADT Advanced Prostate IRB# 5254: Phase II degarelix IRB# 9892 Phase III study comparing ADT + Bicalutamide to ADT + TAK-700 IRB# 9204: Stand Up

Chapman, Michael S.

363

Highway robbery: complementary monopoly and the hold-up problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the hold-up problem in the context of the Cournot–Ellet theory of complementary monopoly. The strategic interaction among travelers and two distinct owners of successive segments of a segment road is used as a metaphor for complementary goods that are traded sequentially. It is shown that when trade occurs double marginalization is eliminated. Furthermore, allowing for strategic placement of

Yossi Feinberg; Morton I. Kamien

2001-01-01

364

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK CELL, OFFGAS CELL, ADSORBER CELL, AND OFFGAS FILTER CELL. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106453. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-P-58. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

365

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS BALLAST. SHOT FROM PORT SIDE TOWARD STARBOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

366

Apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the manipulation of microballoons and more particularly to an apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons in order to more efficiently carry out the filling of the microballoons with a known quantity of gas.

Jorgensen, B.S.

1984-06-05

367

Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells  

E-print Network

Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells Clyde F. Wilson, Garth J exceptional stability in capturing, transporting, and releasing single cells and liposomes 1-12 µm in diameter incorporated into individual cells by elec- troporation, after which nearly all the medium (hundreds

Zare, Richard N.

368

Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds onto the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters.

1985-01-01

369

Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds on to the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device just erected by Ross and Astronaut Sherwood Spring as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters of the Atlantic.

1985-01-01

370

An Assessment of the Wealth Holdings of Recent Widows  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the income disparity between widowed women and similarly aged married couples is well documented, we know far less about widows’ wealth holdings and how they compare to those of other households. Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation are used to investigate the amount and composition of wealth held by four different groups: continuously married women, women

Cathleen D. Zick; Karen Holden

371

Memory-like Responses of Natural Killer Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with the capacity to produce cytokines and kill target cells upon activation. NK cells have long been categorized as members of the innate immune system and as such have been thought to follow the ‘rules’ of innate immunity, including the principle that they have no immunologic memory, a property thought to be strictly limited to adaptive immunity. However, recent studies have suggested that NK cells have the capacity to alter their behavior based on prior activation. This property is analogous to adaptive immune memory; however, some NK cell memory-like functions are not strictly antigen-dependent and can be demonstrated following cytokine stimulation. Here we discuss the recent evidence that NK cells can exhibit properties of immunologic memory, focusing on the ability of cytokines to non-specifically induce memory-like NK cells with enhanced responses to restimulation. PMID:20536571

Cooper, Megan A.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

2010-01-01

372

Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans  

PubMed Central

Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, “base” and “comparison,” separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory. PMID:24449850

Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E.

2014-01-01

373

Familiarity and categorization processes in memory search.  

PubMed

A fundamental distinction in tasks of memory search is whether items receive varied mappings (targets and distractors switch roles across trials) or consistent mappings (targets and distractors never switch roles). The type of mapping often produces markedly different performance patterns, but formal memory-based models that account quantitatively for detailed aspects of the results have not yet been developed and evaluated. Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-retrieval model on its ability to account for memory-search performance involving a wide range of memory-set sizes in both varied-mapping (VM) and consistent-mapping (CM) probe-recognition tasks. The model formalized the idea that both familiarity-based and categorization-based processes operate. The model was required to fit detailed response-time (RT) distributions of individual, highly practiced subjects. A key manipulation involved the repetition of negative probes across trials. This manipulation produced a dramatic dissociation: False-alarm rates increased and correct-rejection RTs got longer in VM, but not in CM. The qualitative pattern of results and modeling analyses provided evidence for a strong form of categorization-based processing in CM, in which observers made use of the membership of negative probes in the "new" category to make old-new recognition decisions. PMID:25240209

Nosofsky, Robert M; Cao, Rui; Cox, Gregory E; Shiffrin, Richard M

2014-12-01

374

Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking". PMID:20972574

Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

2011-04-01

375

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

376

Major memory for microblogs.  

PubMed

Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2013-05-01

377

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

378

Shape Memory Polymer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

2009-01-01

379

Shape memory polymer nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

2002-01-01

380

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

381

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

E-print Network

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that the best strategy is actually to adopt the simple intercept/resend strategy.

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci

2005-04-01

382

How Misinformation Alters Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

1998-01-01

383

Asymmetric bidirectional associative memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a potentially promising model for heteroassociative memories. However, its applications are severely restricted to networks with logical symmetry of interconnections and pattern orthogonality or small pattern size. Although the restrictions on pattern orthogonality and pattern size can be relaxed to a certain extent, all previous efforts are at the cost of increase in connection complexity.

Zong-Ben Xu; Yee Leung; Xiang-Wei He

1994-01-01

384

Ontogeny of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides an overview of the studies which, during the past half century, have demonstrated that capacity for long-term memory increases during development in both animals and man. A variety of behavioral and neurological mechanisms are examined, which might account for the increase in memory during ontogenesis, in order to stimulate research on the relative contributions of these variables to the

Byron A. Campbell; Norman E. Spear

1972-01-01

385

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

386

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

387

Cache-In-Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new technology of Processing-In-Memory now allows relatively large DRAM memory macros to be positioned on the same die with processing logic. Despite the high bandwidth and low latency possible with such macros, more of both is always better. Classical techniques such as caching are typically used for such performance gains, but at the cost of high power. The paper

Jason T. Zawodny; Peter M. Kogge

2001-01-01

388

Memory and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

Johnson, Marcia K.

2006-01-01

389

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

390

Composable memory transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing concurrent programs is notoriously difficult, and is of increasing practical importance. A particular source of concern is that even correctly-implemented concurrency abstractions cannot be composed together to form larger abstractions. In this paper we present a new concurrency model, based on transactional memory, that offers far richer composition. All the usual benefits of transactional memory are present (e.g. freedom

Tim Harris; Simon Marlow; Simon Peyton-Jones; Maurice Herlihy

2005-01-01

391

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... remember until you pass it on. Long-term memory stores information that your brain retains because it is important to you. Basic information remembered includes names of family and friends, your address, as ... Long-term memory can be further divided into explicit, implicit and ...

392

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

393

Memory's Role in Catechesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected…

Williams, Robert Bryan

394

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

395

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

396

Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market  

E-print Network

Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

Nakamura, Tomohiko

2012-01-01

397

Murray Jessen Scholarship Landcare Research has established a scholarship in memory of Soil Scientist Murray  

E-print Network

Murray Jessen Scholarship Landcare Research has established a scholarship in memory of Soil Scientist Murray Jessen who died suddenly in January 2006. This scholarship will be awarded once every three years with the first scholarship awarded in 2008. There is a lack of New Zealanders who hold doctorates

Hickman, Mark

398

Visual working memory for simple and complex features: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual working memory (VWM) allows us to hold visual information briefly in our minds after its disappearance. It is important for bridging the present to the immediate past. Previous neuroscience studies on VWM have shown that several parietal, frontal, and occipitotemporal brain regions subserve this function. Those studies, however, have often focused on VWM for a single property, such as

Joo-Hyun Song; Yuhong Jiang

2006-01-01

399

Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

van der Molen, Mariet J.

2010-01-01

400

Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

401

THE LONG MEMORY STORY OF REAL INTEREST RATES. CAN IT BE SUPPORTED?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This papers finds evidence of fractional integration for a number of monthly ex post real interest rate series using the GPH semiparametric estimator on data from fourteen European countries and the US. However, we pose empirical questions on certain time series requirements that emerge from fractional integration and we find that they do not hold pointing to żspuriousż long memory

Ioannis A. Venetis; Agustín Duarte

2005-01-01

402

Optical quantum memory  

E-print Network

Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied: optical delay lines, cavities, electromagnetically-induced transparency, photon-echo, and off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here we report on the state-of-the-art in the field of optical quantum memory, including criteria for successful quantum memory and current performance levels.

A. I. Lvovsky; B. C. Sanders; W. Tittel

2010-04-16

403

The Arc of synaptic memory  

PubMed Central

The immediate early gene Arc is emerging as a versatile, finely tuned system capable of coupling changes in neuronal activity patterns to synaptic plasticity, thereby optimizing information storage in the nervous system. Here, we attempt to overview the Arc system spanning from transcriptional regulation of the Arc gene, to dendritic transport, metabolism, and translation of Arc mRNA, to post-translational modification, localization, and degradation of Arc protein. Within this framework we discuss the function of Arc in regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics underlying consolidation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor endocytosis underlying long-term depression (LTD) and homeostatic plasticity. Behaviorally, Arc has a key role in consolidation of explicit and implicit forms of memory, with recent work implicating Arc in adaptation to stress as well as maladaptive plasticity connected to drug addiction. Arc holds considerable promise as a “master regulator” of protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, but the mechanisms that modulate and switch Arc function are only beginning to be elucidated. PMID:19690847

Alme, Maria N.; Bittins, Margarethe; Kuipers, Sjoukje D.; Nair, Rajeevkumar R.; Pai, Balagopal; Panja, Debabrata; Schubert, Manja; Soule, Jonathan; Tiron, Adrian; Wibrand, Karin

2009-01-01

404

Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

2012-01-01

405

Instruction Manual MEMORY TELEPHONE  

E-print Network

instructions marked on the product. 3. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Use a damp *Desk/Wall Mountable * Tone/Pulse Switchable Dialing * FLASH * HOLD * Message Waiting Light * Last

406

A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.  

PubMed

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

2012-05-01

407

NOTE: Dosimetric evaluation of inspiration and expiration breath-hold for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning of non-small cell lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare target coverage and lung tissue sparing between inspiration and expiration breath-hold intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective study, seven NSCLC patients gave written consent to undergo both moderate deep inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold computed tomography (CT), which were used to generate five-field IMRT plans. Dose was calculated with a scatter and an inhomogeneity correction algorithm. The percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90), the volume of total lung receiving >= 10 Gy (V10) and >= 20 Gy (V20) and the mean lung dose (MLD) were compared by the Student's paired t-test. Compared with the expiration plans, the mean ± SD reductions for V10, V20 and MLD on the inspiration plans were 4.0 ± 3.7% (p = 0.031), 2.5 ± 2.3% (p = 0.028) and 1.1 ± 0.7 Gy (p = 0.007), respectively. Conversely, a mean difference of 1.1 ± 1.1% (p = 0.044) in PTV90 was demonstrated in favour of expiration. When using IMRT, inspiration breath-hold can reduce the dose to normal lung tissue while expiration breath-hold can improve the target coverage. The improved lung sparing at inspiration may outweigh the modest improvements in target coverage at expiration.

Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hatton, Matthew Q. F.; Ireland, Rob H.

2010-04-01

408

Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory  

E-print Network

The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

C. Chicone; B. Mashhoon

2001-10-24

409

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Noradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Müller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

410

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

411

Is a search template an ordinary working memory? Comparing electrophysiological markers of working memory maintenance for visual search and recognition.  

PubMed

Visual search requires the maintenance of a search template in visual working memory in order to guide attention towards the target. This raises the question whether a search template is essentially the same as a visual working memory representation used in tasks that do not require attentional guidance, or whether it is a qualitatively different representation. Two experiments tested this by comparing electrophysiological markers of visual working memory maintenance between simple recognition and search tasks. For both experiments, responses were less rapid and less accurate in search task than in simple recognition. Nevertheless, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), an index of quantity and quality of visual working memory representations, was equal across tasks. On the other hand, the late positive complex (LPC), which is sensitive to the effort invested in visual working memory maintenance, was greater for the search task than the recognition task. Additionally, when the same target cue was repeated across trials (Experiment 2), the amplitude of visual working memory markers (both CDA and LPC) decreased, demonstrating learning of the target at an equal rate for both tasks. Our results suggest that a search template is qualitatively the same as a representation used for simple recognition, but greater effort is invested in its maintenance. PMID:24878275

Gunseli, Eren; Meeter, Martijn; Olivers, Christian N L

2014-07-01

412

Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Infants’ Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory emerges in infancy and plays a privileged role in subsequent adaptive cognitive development. The neural networks important for the development of working memory during infancy remain unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic fiber tracking to characterize the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles hypothesized to support working memory in 12-month-old infants (n=73). Here we show robust associations between infants’ visuospatial working memory performance and microstructural characteristics of widespread white matter. Significant associations were found for white matter tracts that connect brain regions known to support working memory in older children and adults (genu, anterior and superior thalamic radiations, anterior cingulum, arcuate fasciculus, and the temporal-parietal segment). Better working memory scores were associated with higher FA and lower RD values in these selected white matter tracts. These tract-specific brain-behavior relationships accounted for a significant amount of individual variation above and beyond infants’ gestational age and developmental level, as measured with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Working memory was not associated with global measures of brain volume, as expected, and few associations were found between working memory and control white matter tracts. To our knowledge, this study is among the first demonstrations of brain-behavior associations in infants using quantitative tractography. The ability to characterize subtle individual differences in infant brain development associated with complex cognitive functions holds promise for improving our understanding of normative development, biomarkers of risk, experience-dependent learning and neuro-cognitive periods of developmental plasticity. PMID:22989623

Short, Sarah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Connelly, Mark; Maltbie, Eric; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

2013-01-01

413

The relation between verbal and visuospatial memory and autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more of the basic systems influence the properties of autobiographical memories, little is known about how these cognitive abilities and autobiographical memory are related. To assert whether participants with stronger cognitive abilities also perform better on autobiographical memory tests, participants who completed verbal and visuospatial memory tests also recorded one personal event, which they recalled after a certain interval. Participants who performed well on the verbal memory tests also had better retention for the personal event, providing support for the basic-systems approach to autobiographical memory and preliminary support for the view that people have more memories from adolescence and early adulthood because the memory system works optimally in these lifetime periods. PMID:25460237

Janssen, Steve M J; Kristo, Gert; Rouw, Romke; Murre, Jaap M J

2015-01-01

414

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH FORM A VERTICAL SLOT FOR BOARDS. THESE BOARDS ALSO ENABLED THE FISHERMAN TO SORT THE CATCH BY SPECIES INTO VARIOUS COMPARTMENTS. THE HOLES AT THE BASE OF THE BULKHEAD ALLOWED WATER FROM MELTED ICE TO DRAIN OUT OF THE COMPARTMENT. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

415

Development of an Animal Holding Facility for Space Shuttle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) developed by NASA is described. Besides providing general housing for various animal species, the RAHF is designed to minimize disturbance of the specimens caused by vehicle and mission operations. The RAHF system offers life-sustaining capabilities, such as food, water, and waste removal, as well as environmental control. Modularity of construction to accommodate a variety of small animals and associated instrumentation ensures continued use of RAHF as the sophistication of experiments increases on subsequent missions.

Berry, W. E.; Bowman, G. H.; Jagow, R. B.; Olcott, T. M.

1981-01-01

416

Magnetic Core Memory Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the Principle of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.

Doherty, Frederico A.

417

Gaze holding after anterior-inferior temporal lobectomy.  

PubMed

Eye position-sensitive neurons are found in parietooccipital and anterior-inferior temporal cortex. Putative role of these neurons is to facilitate transformation of reference frame from the retina-fixed to world-fixed coordinates and assure precise action. We assessed the nature of ocular motor disorder in a subject who had selective resection of the right anterior-inferior temporal cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy from cortical dysplasia. The gaze was stable when the subject was viewing straight-ahead, but centrally directed drifts in the eye position were seen during eccentric horizontal gaze holding. Eye-in-orbit position determined drift velocity and its direction. Conjugate and sinusoidal vertical oscillations were also present. Horizontal drifts and vertical oscillations became prominent and disconjugate in the absence of visual cue. The gaze-holding deficit was consistent with impairment in neural integration, but in the absence of cerebellar and visual deficits. We speculate that brainstem neural integrator might receive cortical feedback regarding world-fixed coordinates. Visual system might calibrate this process. Hence the lesion of the anterior-inferior temporal lobe leads to impairment in the function of neural integrator. Vision might be used to calibrate such feedback, hence the lack of visual cue further impairs the function of the neural integrator leading to worsening of gaze-holding deficits. PMID:24847963

Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F

2014-11-01

418

Target discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target discovery, which involves the identification and early validation of disease-modifying targets, is an essential first step in the drug discovery pipeline. Indeed, the drive to determine protein function has been stimulated, both in industry and academia, by the completion of the human genome project. In this article, we critically examine the strategies and methodologies used for both the identification

Mark A. Lindsay

2003-01-01

419

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct.  

PubMed

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Working Memory Index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percentage of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle's (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

Hill, B D; Elliott, Emily M; Shelton, Jill T; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, W Drew

2010-03-01

420

Tutorial on semiconductor memory testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a tutorial introduction to the field of semiconductor memory testing. It begins by describing the structure and operation of the main types of semiconductor memory. The various ways in which manufacturing defects and failure mechanisms can cause erroneous memory behavior are then reviewed. Next we describe the different contexts in which memories are tested together with the

Bruce F. Cockburn

1994-01-01

421

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

E-print Network

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ­ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

Schacter, Daniel

422

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

423

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

424

Memory clinics in context  

PubMed Central

The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

2009-01-01

425

Capture of breeding and wintering shorebirds with leg-hold noose-mats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of effective trapping techniques is important for conservation efforts, as marking and subsequent monitoring of individuals is necessary to obtain accurate estimates of demography, movements, and habitat use. We describe a leg-hold noose-mat trap for capturing breeding and nonbreeding shorebirds. Using this method, we trapped 50 Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus), 2258 Snowy Plovers (C. alexandrinus), 38 Killdeers (C. vociferus), and 64 Dunlins (Calidris alpina) in the western and southern United States. The trap was lightweight, making it easy to transport and set up. It was effective on unvegetated substrates at both coastal and inland sites and could be modified for a variety of habitats. Furthermore, this trap allowed researchers to target specific groups of birds including territorial individuals. Easy removal of birds from traps minimized handling time, stress, and injury

Mehl, K.R.; Drake, K.L.; Page, G.W.; Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.; Thompson, J.E.

2003-01-01

426

Delay-period activities in two subdivisions of monkey inferotemporal cortex during pair association memory task.  

PubMed

The macaque inferotemporal cortex, which is involved in encoding and retrieval of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we compared delay-period activities of the two subdivisions in terms of their signal contents. We recorded single-unit activities from TE and A36 during a delayed pair association task, in which monkeys were required to choose the paired associate of a cue stimulus after a delay period. The stimulus-selective delay-period activities of single neurons were characterized by using partial correlation coefficients of delay-period activities for each cue stimulus with the cue-period responses to that stimulus (cue-holding index, CHI) and with the cue-period responses to its paired associate (pair-recall index, PRI). The delay-period activities of TE neurons preferentially represented the paired associate (PRI, median = 0.54) rather than the cue stimulus itself (CHI, 0.23) (P < 0.001, n = 70), while the delay-period activities of A36 neurons retained both the cue stimulus and its paired associate equivalently (CHI, 0.44; PRI, 0.46) (P = 0.78, n = 38). These results indicate that the signal contents of delay-period activities differ between the two subdivisions: TE mostly represents a sought target that is retrieved from long-term memory, while A36 in addition retains cue-stimulus that is transmitted from earlier visual areas. PMID:14656343

Naya, Yuji; Yoshida, Masatoshi; Takeda, Masaki; Fujimichi, Ryoko; Miyashita, Yasushi

2003-11-01

427

Investigating how implementation intentions improve non-focal prospective memory tasks.  

PubMed

Implementation intentions are a self-regulatory strategy broadly studied in the area of social cognition that can improve realization of one's goals and improve performance on prospective memory tasks. Three experiments, using a non-focal task for which the prospective memory targets were specified at the time of intention formation, investigated whether (and how) implementation intentions can improve non-focal prospective memory performance. An improvement in prospective memory performance was accompanied by an increase in the allocation of conscious resources to the prospective memory task, but not by an increase in perceived importance of the prospective memory task. The third experiment also investigated the effects of implementation intentions on recall of the appropriate action and found that accurate action recall was improved by implementation intentions. Finally, the effect of implementation intention instructions on cognitive processes that underlie non-focal prospective memory performance was investigated using a multinomial model. PMID:24929276

Smith, Rebekah E; McConnell Rogers, Melissa D; McVay, Jennifer C; Lopez, Joshua A; Loft, Shayne

2014-07-01

428

Two Memory Tests for Neuropsychologists--Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale and Recognition Memory Test. Test Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two memory tests for neuropsychologists--the Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale and the Recognition Memory Test--are reviewed, with attention to test administration and technical features. Both tests are considered useful additions to the repertoire of tests of memory function. Implications of and cautions concerning their use in Australia are…

Ord, Geoff

1989-01-01

429

Making a Memory Book  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years old and still energetic. She was a painter and ... a group activity that family members of all ages can participate in, from young children through adults. ...

430

Modelling Immunological Memory  

E-print Network

Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

431

Memory Circuit Fault Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

2013-01-01

432

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-print Network

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01

433

Warship : memorial in antithesis  

E-print Network

This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

1992-01-01

434

Disorders of memory.  

PubMed

This paper reviews disorders of memory. After a brief survey of the clinical varieties of the amnesic syndrome, transient and persistent, selected theoretical issues will be considered by posing a series of questions. (i) What is impaired and what is spared in anterograde amnesia? (ii) Do temporal lobe, diencephalic and frontal lobe amnesias differ? (iii) How independently semantic is semantic memory? (iv) What determines the pattern and extent of retrograde memory loss? (v) Can retrograde amnesia ever be "isolated"? (vi) Does psychogenic amnesia involve the same mechanisms as organic amnesia? (vii) How and when do false memories arise? Commonalities as well as differences across separate literatures will be emphasized, and the case for a more "dynamic" (interactionist) approach to the investigation of amnesia will be advocated. PMID:12244076

Kopelman, Michael D

2002-10-01

435

Hardware Transactional Memory  

E-print Network

This work shows how hardware transactional memory (HTM) can be implemented to support transactions of arbitrarily large size, while ensuring that small transactions run efficiently. Our implementation handles small ...

Lie, Sean

436

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

437

Are recovered memories accurate?  

E-print Network

. Additional research in our laboratory has shown two distinct types of memory errors; semantic based errors which occur due to pre-existing category knowledge, and episodic based errors in which the source of details (list members) are misattributed...

Gerkens, David

2005-08-29

438

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

439

Cultural Memories: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

440

Quantum Channels with Memory  

E-print Network

We present a general model for quantum channels with memory, and show that it is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: any quantum process in which outputs up to some time t do not depend on inputs at times t' > t can be decomposed into a concatenated memory channel. We then examine and present different physical setups in which channels with memory may be operated for the transfer of (private) classical and quantum information. These include setups in which either the receiver or a malicious third party have control of the initializing memory. We introduce classical and quantum channel capacities for these settings, and give several examples to show that they may or may not coincide. Entropic upper bounds on the various channel capacities are given. For forgetful quantum channels, in which the effect of the initializing memory dies out as time increases, coding theorems are presented to show that these bounds may be saturated. Forgetful quantum channels are shown to be open and dense in the set of quantum memory channels.

Dennis Kretschmann; Reinhard F. Werner

2005-05-09

441

Object-Position Binding in Visual Memory for Natural Scenes and Object Arrays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine experiments examined the means by which visual memory for individual objects is structured into a larger representation of a scene. Participants viewed images of natural scenes or object arrays in a change detection task requiring memory for the visual form of a single target object. In the test image, 2 properties of the stimulus were…

Hollingworth, Andrew

2007-01-01

442

Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

2009-01-01

443

COMeT+: Continuous Online Memory Testing with Mutli-threading Extension  

E-print Network

1 COMeT+: Continuous Online Memory Testing with Mutli-threading Extension Musfiq Rahman, Bruce R Testing with Mutli-threading Extension (COMeT+), that targets chip multiprocessors. COMeT+ tests memory exposure to lurking errors. We developed and evaluated an implementation of COMeT+. On the SPEC CPU2006

Cho, Sangyeun

444

Control of Access to Memory: The Use of Task Interference as a Behavioral Probe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed forgetting and prospective memory methods were combined to examine differences in the control of memory access. Between studying two lists of target words, participants were either instructed to forget the first list, or to continue remembering the first list. After study participants performed a lexical decision task with an additional…

Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.; Whitney, Susannah J.

2008-01-01

445

Differentiation and Response Bias in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In differentiation models, the processes of encoding and retrieval produce an increase in the distribution of memory strength for targets and a decrease in the distribution of memory strength for foils as the amount of encoding increases. This produces an increase in the hit rate and decrease in the false-alarm rate for a strongly encoded compared…

Criss, Amy H.

2010-01-01

446

Self-Folding Origami: Shape Memory Composites Activated by Uniform Heating  

E-print Network

materials and tools. The folding mechanism based on the in-plane contraction of a sheet of shape memory polymer is modeled, and parameters for the design of composites that self-fold into target shapes

Wood, Robert

447

What people believe about memory.  

PubMed

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings, and people in general had realistic views about their own memory performance. On other questions, such as the reliability of olfactory as compared with visual and auditory memory, the memory of small children in comparison with that of adults, the likelihood of repression of adult traumatic memories, and on more general questions such as the possibility of training memory and the capacity limitations of long-term memory, a large proportion of the participants expressed views that are less supported by scientific evidence. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16754244

Magnussen, Svein; Andersson, Jan; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana; Endestad, Tor; Goodman, Gail S; Helstrup, Tore; Koriat, Asher; Larsson, Maria; Melinder, Annika; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Rönnberg, Jerker; Zimmer, Hubert

2006-07-01

448

Targeted ?-Therapy  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies have become a viable strategy for the delivery of therapeutic, particle emitting radionuclides specifically to tumor cells to either augment anti-tumor action of the native antibodies or to solely take advantage of their action as targeting vectors. Proper and rational selection of radionuclide and antibody combinations is critical to making radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a standard therapeutic modality due to the fundamental and significant differences in the emission of either ?- and ?-particles. The ?-particle has a short path length (50-80 ?m) that is characterized by high linear energy transfer (?100 keV/?m). Actively targeted ?-therapy potentially offers a more specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to the surrounding normal tissues than ß-emitters. These properties make targeted ?-therapy appropriate therapies to eliminate of minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. RIT using ?-emitters such as 213Bi, 211At, 225Ac, and others has demonstrated significant activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Limited numbers of clinical trials have progressed to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and therapeutic activity of targeted ?-therapy, despite having to traverse complex obstacles. Further advances may require more potent isotopes, additional sources and more efficient means of isotope production. Refinements in chelation and/or radiolabeling chemistry combined with rational improvements of isotope delivery, targeting vectors, molecular targets, and identification of appropriate clinical applications remains as active areas of research. Ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted ?-therapy combined with integration into existing standard of care treatment regimens will determine the clinical utility of this modality. PMID:17992276

Brechbiel, Martin W.

2008-01-01

449

Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of literature shows that one’s working memory (WM) capacity can be expanded through targeted training. Given\\u000a the established relationship between WM and higher cognition, these successful training studies have led to speculation that\\u000a WM training may yield broad cognitive benefits. This review considers the current state of the emerging WM training literature,\\u000a and details both its successes

Alexandra B. Morrison; Jason M. Chein

2011-01-01

450

Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.

1975-01-01

451

Thermal performance of gaseous-helium-purged tank-mounted multilayer insulation system during ground-hold and space-hold thermal cycling and exposure to water vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine (1) the ground-hold and space-hold thermal performance of a multilayer insulation (MLI) system mounted on a spherical, liquid-hydrogen propellant tank and (2) the degradation to the space-hold thermal performance of the insulation system that resulted from both thermal cycling and exposure to moisture. The propellant tank had a diameter of 1.39 meters (4.57ft). The MLI consisted of two blankets of insulation; each blanket contained 15 double-aluminized Mylar radiation shields separated by double silk net spacers. Nineteen tests simulating basic cryogenic spacecraft thermal (environmental) conditions were conducted. These tests typically included initial helium purge, liquid-hydrogen fill and ground-hold, ascent, space-hold, and repressurization. No significant degradation of the space-hold thermal performance due to thermal cycling was noted.

Sumner, I. E.

1978-01-01

452

Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

2012-12-01

453

Does the principle of special relativity really hold?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study starts from a reference frame, Sigma prime for which the pseudo-Euclidean holds, i.e., all laws in Sigma prime have the form of special relativity. The geometry of a reference frame Sigma, moving with constant velocity with regard to Sigma prime, is shown by using the well-known Galilei-transformation for the covariant space-time vector. In Sigma the geometry is different from the pseudo-Euclidean one, i.e., the principle of special relativity does not hold. The velocity of light in Sigma is direction dependent, but the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is demonstrated. Several useful transformation formulas are given. In particular, the Marinov-transformation (1979), as the transformation from the frame Sigma prime to Sigma, and conversely, are obtained. Maxwell's equations and the equations of motion in the reference frame are given. The theory is applied to some examples, e.g., the Doppler effect, the Fizeau experiment, the field of a charged particle, etc. The method can be generalized to an accelerated reference frame Sigma.

Petry, W.

1986-07-01

454

Attentional Control via Parallel Target-Templates in Dual-Target Search  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous search for two targets has been shown to be slower and less accurate than independent searches for the same two targets. Recent research suggests this ‘dual-target cost’ may be attributable to a limit in the number of target-templates than can guide search at any one time. The current study investigated this possibility by comparing behavioural responses during single- and dual-target searches for targets defined by their orientation. The results revealed an increase in reaction times for dual- compared to single-target searches that was largely independent of the number of items in the display. Response accuracy also decreased on dual- compared to single-target searches: dual-target accuracy was higher than predicted by a model restricting search guidance to a single target-template and lower than predicted by a model simulating two independent single-target searches. These results are consistent with a parallel model of dual-target search in which attentional control is exerted by more than one target-template at a time. The requirement to maintain two target-templates simultaneously, however, appears to impose a reduction in the specificity of the memory representation that guides search for each target. PMID:24489793

Barrett, Doug J. K.; Zobay, Oliver

2014-01-01

455

Thermal performance of gaseous-helium-purged tank-mounted multilayer insulation system during ground-hold and space-hold thermal cycling and exposure to water vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine (1) the ground-hold and space-hold thermal performance of a multilayer insulation (MLI) system mounted on a spherical, liquid-hydrogen propellant tank and (2) the degradation to the space-hold thermal performance of the insulation system that resulted from both thermal cycling and exposure to moisture. The propellant tank had a diameter of 1.39 meters (4.57ft).

I. E. Sumner

1978-01-01

456

Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems. PMID:22436011

Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

2012-06-01

457

NR4A nuclear receptors support memory enhancement by histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The formation of a long-lasting memory requires a transcription-dependent consolidation period that converts a short-term memory into a long-term memory. Nuclear receptors compose a class of transcription factors that regulate diverse biological processes, and several nuclear receptors have been implicated in memory formation. Here, we examined the potential contribution of nuclear receptors to memory consolidation by measuring the expression of all 49 murine nuclear receptors after learning. We identified 13 nuclear receptors with increased expression after learning, including all 3 members of the Nr4a subfamily. These CREB-regulated Nr4a genes encode ligand-independent "orphan" nuclear receptors. We found that blocking NR4A activity in memory-supporting brain regions impaired long-term memory but did not impact short-term memory in mice. Further, expression of Nr4a genes increased following the memory-enhancing effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Blocking NR4A signaling interfered with the ability of HDAC inhibitors to enhance memory. These results demonstrate that the Nr4a gene family contributes to memory formation and is a promising target for improving cognitive function. PMID:22996661

Hawk, Joshua D; Bookout, Angie L; Poplawski, Shane G; Bridi, Morgan; Rao, Allison J; Sulewski, Michael E; Kroener, Brian T; Manglesdorf, David J; Abel, Ted

2012-10-01

458

Lifelogging Memory Appliance for People with Episodic Memory Impairment  

E-print Network

. Author Keywords Lifelogging, information overload, Alzheimer's disease, memory impairment, caregiver's disease, a common neurodegenerative disease that affects over 26 million people worldwide): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION Episodic memory impairment (EMI) is the main symptom associated with Alzheimer

Mankoff, Jennifer

459

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique foreliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memoryallocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on asequence of training inputsto find ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

2005-10-26

460

Quantum Channels with Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeatably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then.

Rybár, Tomáš

2012-11-01

461

A Balanced Memory Network  

PubMed Central

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

2007-01-01

462

Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.  

PubMed

Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4?l, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. PMID:25446222

Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

2015-02-01

463

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disposed of such excess business holdings during such...or state securities laws from disposing of such excess business holdings. (iv...of an interest in a business enterprise but...or state securities laws, or in...

2010-04-01

464

78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21...Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods...Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption,'' that appeared in...

2013-08-09

465

12 CFR 225.21 - Prohibited nonbanking activities and acquisitions; exempt bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements of this regulation. (b) Exempt bank holding companies. The following bank holding companies are exempt from the provisions of this subpart: (1) Family-owned companies. Any company that is a “company covered in...

2010-01-01

466

75 FR 68020 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Companies, Inc., and Watco Transportation Services, Inc.-Corporate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Companies, Inc., and Watco Transportation...Services, Inc.--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Watco...Inc. (Holdings), Watco Companies, Inc. (Watco), Watco Transportation...d)(3) for a corporate family transaction. Watco, a...

2010-11-04

467

76 FR 76412 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Mountain Iron Holdings, LLC, Buhl, Minnesota; to become a bank holding company by acquiring...Minnesota, and thereby acquire First National Bank of Buhl, Buhl, Minnesota. Board of Governors of the Federal...

2011-12-07

468

14 CFR 417.218 - Hold-and-resume gate analysis.  

...2014-01-01 false Hold-and-resume gate analysis. 417.218 Section 417.218 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.218 Hold-and-resume gate analysis. (a) For a launch that...

2014-01-01

469

14 CFR 417.218 - Hold-and-resume gate analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Hold-and-resume gate analysis. 417.218 Section 417.218 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.218 Hold-and-resume gate analysis. (a) For a launch that...

2012-01-01

470

14 CFR 417.218 - Hold-and-resume gate analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Hold-and-resume gate analysis. 417.218 Section 417.218 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.218 Hold-and-resume gate analysis. (a) For a launch that...

2013-01-01

471

14 CFR 417.218 - Hold-and-resume gate analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Hold-and-resume gate analysis. 417.218 Section 417.218 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.218 Hold-and-resume gate analysis. (a) For a launch that...

2011-01-01

472

14 CFR 417.218 - Hold-and-resume gate analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hold-and-resume gate analysis. 417.218 Section 417.218 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.218 Hold-and-resume gate analysis. (a) For a launch that...

2010-01-01

473

78 FR 42863 - Rescission of Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whether the action will promote efficiency, competition, and capital...disadvantages, or affect efficiency, competition, and capital...Commission as a Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company; (ii...Supervision as a Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company;...

2013-07-18

474

75 FR 81611 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Holdings, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; to become a bank holding Company by acquiring The Sumitomo Trust and Banking Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan, and thereby acquire Sumitomo Trust and Banking Co. (USA), Hoboken, New Jersey. In connection with...

2010-12-28

475

75 FR 80501 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Holding, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; to become a bank holding Company by acquiring The Sumitomo Trust and Banking Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan, and thereby acquire Sumitomo Trust and Banking Co. (USA), Hoboken, New Jersey. In connection with...

2010-12-22

476

47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13.11 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.11 Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. (a) An...

2010-10-01

477

77 FR 76160 - New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December...accurate information concerning the securities of New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

2012-12-26

478

BOLD Frequency Power Indexes Working Memory Performance  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiology studies routinely investigate the relationship between neural oscillations and task performance. However, the sluggish nature of the BOLD response means that few researchers have investigated the spectral properties of the BOLD signal in a similar manner. For the first time we have applied group ICA to fMRI data collected during a standard working memory task (delayed match-to-sample) and using a multivariate analysis, we investigate the relationship between working memory performance (accuracy and reaction time) and BOLD spectral power within functional networks. Our results indicate that BOLD spectral power within specific networks (visual, temporal-parietal, posterior default-mode network, salience network, basal ganglia) correlated with task accuracy. Multivariate analyses show that the relationship between task accuracy and BOLD spectral power is stronger than the relationship between BOLD spectral power and other variables (age, gender, head movement, and neuropsychological measures). A traditional General Linear Model (GLM) analysis found no significant group differences, or regions that covaried in signal intensity with task accuracy, suggesting that BOLD spectral power holds unique information that is lost in a standard GLM approach. We suggest that the combination of ICA and BOLD spectral power is a useful novel index of cognitive performance that may be more sensitive to brain-behavior relationships than traditional approaches. PMID:23720623

Balsters, Joshua Henk; Robertson, Ian H.; Calhoun, Vince D.

2013-01-01

479

Efficient Memory Shadowing for 64-bit Architectures  

E-print Network

Shadow memory is used by dynamic program analysis tools to store metadata for tracking properties of application memory. The efficiency of mapping between application memory and shadow memory has substantial impact on the ...

Zhao, Qin

2010-01-01

480

Cultural differences on the children's memory scale  

E-print Network

Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

Cash, Deborah Dyer

2009-05-15

481

Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of age, actors reported a higher stability of their memory with

Nathalie Huet; Jean-Claude Marquié; Elisabeth Bacon

2010-01-01

482

Twins dispute memory ownership: A new false memory phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments, we examined a new memory phenomenon: disputed memories, in which people dispute ownership of a memory.\\u000a For example, in one disputed memory each of two twins recollected being sent home from school for wearing too short a skirt,\\u000a although only one of them was actually sent home. In Experiment 1, 20 sets of same-sex adult twins were

Mercedes Sheen; Simon Kemp; David Rubin

2001-01-01

483

Two forms of scene memory guide visual search: Memory for scene context and memory for the binding  

E-print Network

Two forms of scene memory guide visual search: Memory for scene context and memory for the binding City, IA, USA The role of scene memory in visual search was investigated in a preview-search task. Keywords: Visual search; Visual memory; Scene memory; Eye movements; Attention. Recent research has

Hollingworth, Andrew

484

Stress and memory in humans: Twelve years of progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress leads to an enhanced activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in an increased release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. These hormones influence target systems in the periphery as well as in the brain. The present review paper describes the impact of the human stress hormone cortisol on episodic long-term memory. Starting out with our early observation

Oliver T. Wolf

2009-01-01

485

Microdose Induced Data Loss on Floating Gate Memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy ion irradiation of flash memories shows loss of stored data. The fluence dependence is indicative of microdose effects. Other qualitative factors identifying the effect as microdose are discussed. The data is presented, and compared to statistical results of a microdose target-based model.

Guertin, Steven M.; Nguyen, Duc M.; Patterson, Jeffrey D.

2006-01-01

486

Providing Good Memory Cues for People with Episodic Memory Impairment  

E-print Network

{matthew.lee, anind}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease impairs episodic memory and subtly memory, elders, cues, caregiver burden, Alzheimer's Disease 1. INTRODUCTION Recent experiences provide, and living in comfort and security. However, Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes episodic memory impairment (EMI

Mankoff, Jennifer

487

Focus: Molecular Memory Mechanisms of epigenetic memory and addiction  

E-print Network

Review Focus: Molecular Memory Mechanisms of epigenetic memory and addiction Luis M Tuesta1,2,3 & Yi Zhang1,2,3,4,* Abstract Epigenetic regulation of cellular identity and function is at least partly the advances, whether and how epigenetic factors contribute to memory formation is still poorly understood

Zhang, Yi

488

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

489

Zombie Memory: Extending Memory Lifetime by Reviving Dead Blocks  

E-print Network

Zombie Memory: Extending Memory Lifetime by Reviving Dead Blocks Rodolfo Azevedo John D. Davis ABSTRACT Zombie is an endurance management framework that en- ables a variety of error correction-change memory (PCM). Zombie sup- ports both single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) variants

Manasse, Mark S. - Microsoft Research

490

Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories  

E-print Network

Cell Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Data Reliability in Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Cell Programming in Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Challenges for Phase-change Memories . . . . . . . . . . . 8 D. Contributions... LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Shannon capacity (bits per cell) of k-limited codes . . . . . . . . . . 53 II WOM code D with t=2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 III Rates of the time-constrained codes...

Li, Hao

2010-10-12

491

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Ravenbrook Limited, provides a thorough reference guide to memory management regarding computer operating systems. The site keeps you up to date with a news section featuring the latest in the world of memory management. It also features a glossary of more than 400 hundred relevant terms. A list of articles accompanied by a bibliography of books allows beginners to easily research all aspects of the topic. Additionally, the page provides a list of links and also a feedback form to contact the authors. This reference guide acts as a one-stop shop for any and all questions related to memory management. Guides to additional topics are featured through a link at the bottom of the page.

492

Digital Storage (Memory)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Digital Storage, is the fifteenth chapter in Volume IV â??Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: digital memory terms and concepts; modern nonmechanical memory; and historical, nonmechanical memories. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

493

Vietnam Veterans Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

494

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

495

30 CFR 285.106 - Who can hold a lease or grant under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who can hold a lease or grant under this part... General Provisions § 285.106 Who can hold a lease or grant under this part...hold a lease or grant under this part if you can demonstrate that you have the...

2011-07-01

496

78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment...and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared...for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-317), Food and Drug...and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a...

2013-04-26

497

Thou Shalt Buy and Hold Albert Shiryaevy Zuoquan Xuz Xun Yu Zhoux  

E-print Network

Thou Shalt Buy and Hold Albert Shiryaevy Zuoquan Xuz Xun Yu Zhoux This Version: August 5, 2008. These results justify the widely accepted nancial wisdom that one should buy and hold a stock { if it is good{Scholes market, optimal stopping, buy and hold, stock goodness index, value function 1 Introduction

498

Holding water steroid hormones in the African cichlid fish Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae  

E-print Network

Holding water steroid hormones in the African cichlid fish Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae their blood into the surrounding holding water [9,30,36]. The concentration of free steroids in hold- ing water using this technique has been positively related to levels of plasma steroids in a number of fish

Chapman, Lauren J.

499

Design of hybrid spintronic devices at scaled technologies for non-volatile memory applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever-increasing demand for embedding more on- and off-chip memories to increase the bandwidth of high performance systems has led to a significant amount of research directed towards several potential high density memory technologies. With aggressive technology scaling, the researchers are incessantly confronted with various overwhelming challenges associated with the design of low power, ultra-high density and robust memory blocks. An alternative to all currently available memory technologies, spin-transfer torque (STT) Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) offer many desirable memory-attributes. Data non-volatility, unlimited endurance, low power, high performance and high integration capabilities have stimulated an overwhelming interest for STT-MRAM among memory researchers. In an attempt to address the issues associated with parametric process variations and high switching energy consumptions, different genres of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures, memory bit-cells, and architecture are proposed. Unlike state-of-the-art tri-layer MTJ devices, the multi-port/multi-pillar structures provide the option to eliminate the self-conflicting design requirements for memory read, write and hold. Techniques to reduce thermal fluctuation induced delay spreads is discussed for reliable and deterministic magnetic switching characteristics in both in-plane and perpendicular anisotropy devices. The effect of thermal spin-transfer torque on high speed magnetic switching is discussed in the context of designing low power, robust, and reliable MRAM devices. Based on thermally initiated magnonic spin-transfer torque, we propose three new genres of multi-port MRAMs for low energy, high speed, and reliable magnetic switching. The proposition of several new genres of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) based on both electric and thermal spin-transfer torque, the corresponding bit-cells, and memory architectures make STT-MRAM a promising choice as future universal memories.

Mojumder, Niladri Narayan

500

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... all of which can create serious safety concerns. Short-term memory (remembering recent events) is what becomes impaired most ... the case of Alzheimer's disease, so it is short-term memory that is important to assess when there are ...