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1

Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise  

MedlinePLUS

... mail this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise Search the Consumer Updates ... Scientists are working to develop breakthrough therapies for pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest cancers affecting both men ...

2

Holding biological motion information in working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) mechanisms for verbal, spatial, and object information have been extensively examined, yet those for kinetic information are less known. The current study explored the WM capacity and architecture of kinetic information by examining the maintenance of biological motion (BM) stimuli in WM. Human BM is the most salient and biologically significant kinetic information encountered in everyday life. We isolated motion signals of human BM from non-BM sources by using point-light displays as to-be-memorized BM. During a change detection task, we found that, at most, 3 to 4 BM stimuli could be retained in WM (Experiment 1). Next, we found that extra colors, spatial locations, or shapes remembered concurrently with BM stimuli (Experiments 2, 3, and 4, respectively), did not affect BM memory considerably. However, BM memory was affected by a concurrent memory task of non-BM movements (Experiment 5). These results support the hypothesis that an independent storage buffer of WM exists for kinetic information, which can hold up to 3 to 4 motion units. PMID:24842069

Shen, Mowei; Gao, Zaifeng; Ding, Xiaowei; Zhou, Bing; Huang, Xiang

2014-08-01

3

Memory as a new therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

This review aims to demonstrate how an understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in memory provides a basis for; (i) reconceptualizing some mental disorders; (ii) refining existing therapeutic tools; and (iii) designing new ones for targeting processes that maintain these disorders. First, some of the stages which a memory undergoes are defined, and the clinical relevance of an understanding of memory processing by the brain is discussed. This is followed by a brief review of some of the clinical studies that have targeted memory processes. Finally, some new insights provided by the field of neuroscience with implications for conceptualizing mental disorders are presented. PMID:24459414

Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver; Lanius, Ruth

2013-01-01

4

Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

Barbieri, Maureen

1998-01-01

5

Influence of Holding Time on Shape Recovery in a Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape-memory polymers have attracted a lot of interest in recent years. A shape-memory polymer can be deformed and fixed into a temporary shape and subsequently made to recover its original shape when a suitable stimulus is applied. This is accomplished by means of a thermomechanical cycle called programming. Programming can be performed in a stress- or strain-controlled mode. The thermomechanical conditions of the programming affect shape-memory properties differently in each programming mode. One of the parameters which significantly affects shape-memory properties in a stress-controlled procedure is stress-holding time ( t H) at high temperature. This paper studies how stress-holding time affects the most significant shape-memory properties under successive thermomechanical cycles. The experiments were conducted using two different programming temperatures in the vicinity of the T g. The shape-recovery ratio decreased dramatically with cycling even when the holding time was just a few seconds, however, the impact of the stress-holding time depends on the temperature at which it has been applied. Shape-fixity ratio and switching temperature were also studied, but stress-holding time and successive cycles do not seem to affect either of these factors.

Santiago, David; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

2014-07-01

6

Design of internal superconducting holding magnet for the JLAB Hall-B frozen spin polarized target  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of our investigation of a series of internal holding magnets for longitudinal and transverse polarizations. These magnets will be placed inside a polarizing refrigerator designed for frozen spin targets. The studied magnets will provide the holding field in the range 0.3z0.5 T. The total thickness of the superconducting coils is of the order 0.5 mm. The frozen spin target is under construction for use in photo-nuclear experiments in concert with the JLAB Hall-B CLAS detector.

Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Djalali, Chaden; Recalde, Nicolas; Tedeschi, David

2004-07-01

7

A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

1995-01-01

8

Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection  

PubMed Central

Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

2014-01-01

9

Holding in Mind Conflicting Information: Pretending, Working Memory, and Executive Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' recall of the true and pretend identities of an object in pretense was examined along with a battery of executive functioning and working memory tasks. We expected that children would retain separate identities, as well as a link between them, after observing episodes of pretense, and that memory for pretense would be related to…

Albertson, Kathleen; Shore, Cecilia

2008-01-01

10

Risk-targeted selection of agricultural holdings for post-epidemic surveillance: estimation of efficiency gains.  

PubMed

Current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. A better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. In this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in Devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily infection risk and a simple model of probability of discovery of infection during the outbreak. This allows comparison of the system sensitivity (ability to detect infection in the area) of arbitrary, random sampling compared to risk-targeted selection across a full range of sampling budgets. We show that it is possible to achieve 95% system sensitivity by sampling, on average, 945 farms with random sampling and 184 farms with risk-targeted sampling. We also examine the effect of ordering samples by risk to expedite return to a disease-free status. Risk ordering the sampling process results in detection of positive farms, if present, 15.6 days sooner than with randomly ordered sampling, assuming 50 farms are tested per day. PMID:21674022

Handel, Ian G; de C Bronsvoort, Barend M; Forbes, John F; Woolhouse, Mark E J

2011-01-01

11

Does phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) hold promise as a future therapeutic target?  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is the most recently discovered 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. By breaking down both cAMP and cGMP, PDE11A is a critical regulator of intracellular signaling. To date, PDE11A has been implicated to play a role in tumorigenesis, brain function, and inflammation. Here, we consolidate and, where necessary, reconcile the PDE11A literature to evaluate this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target. We compare the results and methodologies of numerous studies that report conflicting tissue expression profiles for PDE11A. We conclude that PDE11A expression is relatively restricted in the body, with reliable expression reported in tissues such as the brain (particularly the hippocampus), the prostate, and the adrenal gland. Each of the four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) appears to exhibit a distinct tissue expression profile and has a unique N-terminal regulatory region, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. Progress has been made in identifying a tool PDE11A inhibitor as well as an activator; however, the functional effects of these pharmacological tools remain to be determined. Importantly, PDE11A knockout mice do exist and appear healthy into late age, suggesting a potential safety window for targeting this enzyme. Considering the implication of PDE11A in disease-relevant biology, the potential to selectively target specific PDE11A variants, and the possibility of either activating or inhibiting the enzyme, we believe PDE11A holds promise as a potential future therapeutic target. PMID:25159071

Kelly, Michy P

2015-01-01

12

Modeling Criterion Shifts and Target Checking in Prospective Memory Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the…

Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

2015-01-01

13

Modeling criterion shifts and target checking in prospective memory monitoring.  

PubMed

Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the reasons for this cost effect. This study uses diffusion model analysis to decompose monitoring processes in the PM paradigm. Across 4 experiments, performing a PM task increased latencies in an ongoing lexical decision task. A large portion of this effect was explained by consistent increases in boundary separation; additional increases in nondecision time emerged in a nonfocal PM task and explained variance in PM performance (Experiment 1), likely reflecting a target-checking strategy before and after the ongoing decision (Experiment 2). However, we found that possible target-checking strategies may depend on task characteristics. That is, instructional emphasis on the importance of ongoing decisions (Experiment 3) or the use of focal targets (Experiment 4) eliminated the contribution of nondecision time to the cost of PM, but left participants in a mode of increased cautiousness. The modeling thus sheds new light on the cost effect seen in many PM studies and suggests that people approach ongoing activities more cautiously when they need to remember an intended action. PMID:25151245

Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J

2015-01-01

14

Searching for targets in visual working memory: investigating a dimensional feature bundle (DFB) model.  

PubMed

The human visual working memory (WM) system enables us to store a limited amount of task-relevant visual information temporally in mind. One actively debated issue in cognitive neuroscience centers around the question of how this WM information is maintained. The currently dominant views advocated by prominent WM models hold that the units of memory are configured either as independent feature representations, integrated bound objects, or a combination of both. Here, we approached this issue by measuring lateralized brain electrical activity during a retro-cue paradigm, in order to track people's ability to access WM representations as a function of the dimensional relation between WM items and task settings. Both factors were revealed to selectively influence WM access: whereas cross relative to intradimensional WM targets gave rise to enhanced contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitudes, localization relative to identification task demands yielded speeded CDA and manual response times. As these dimension-based findings are not reconcilable with contemporary feature- and/or object-based accounts, an alternative view that is based on the hierarchical feature-bundle model is proposed. We argue that WM units may consist of three hierarchically structured levels of representations, with an intermediate dimensionally organized level that mediates between top-level object and lower-level feature representations. PMID:25716303

Töllner, Thomas; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J

2015-03-01

15

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition  

E-print Network

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show

Henson, Rik

16

The GLU that Holds Cancer Together: Targeting GLUtamine Transporters in Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Many cancer cells require exogenous glutamine for proliferation, supply of TCA cycle intermediates, lipid synthesis, mTOR activity, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Jeon and colleagues identify chemotherapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel strategy to target glutamine dependence. PMID:25759015

Moses, Michael A; Neckers, Len

2015-03-01

17

Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

Haddad, Omar

2013-01-01

18

A “Sample-and-Hold” Pulse-Counting Integrator as a Mechanism for Graded Memory Underlying Sensorimotor Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mechanisms behind the induction of cellular cor- relates of memory by sensory input and their contribu- tion to meaningful behavioral changes are largely un- known. We previously reported a graded memory in the form of sensorimotor adaptation in the electromo- tor output of electric fish. Here we show that the mech- anism for this adaptation is a synaptically

Jörg Oestreich; Nikolai C. Dembrow; Andrew A. George; Harold H. Zakon

2006-01-01

19

Emotional target cues eliminate age differences in prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cue saliency is known to influence prospective memory performance, whereby perceptually or conceptually distinct cues facilitate remembering and attenuate adult age-related deficits. The present study investigated whether similar benefits for older adults are also seen for emotional valence. A total of 41 older and 41 younger adults performed a prospective memory task in which the emotional valence of the prospective

Mareike Altgassen; Louise H. Phillips; Julie D. Henry; Peter G. Rendell; Matthias Kliegel

2010-01-01

20

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition  

PubMed Central

Suppressing retrieval of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show that excluding memories from awareness not only modulates medial temporal lobe regions involved in explicit retention, but also neocortical areas underlying unconscious expressions of memory. Using repetition priming in visual perception as a model task, we found that excluding memories of visual objects from consciousness reduced their later indirect influence on perception, literally making the content of suppressed memories harder for participants to see. Critically, effective connectivity and pattern similarity analysis revealed that suppression mechanisms mediated by the right middle frontal gyrus reduced activity in neocortical areas involved in perceiving objects and targeted the neural populations most activated by reminders. The degree of inhibitory modulation of the visual cortex while people were suppressing visual memories predicted, in a later perception test, the disruption in the neural markers of sensory memory. These findings suggest a neurobiological model of how motivated forgetting affects the unconscious expression of memory that may be generalized to other types of memory content. More generally, they suggest that the century-old assumption that suppression leaves unconscious memories intact should be reconsidered. PMID:24639546

Gagnepain, Pierre; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

2014-01-01

21

A Framework for Cognitive Interventions Targeting Everyday Memory Performance and Memory Self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

The human brain has the potential for self-renewal through adult neurogenesis, which is the birth of new neurons. Neural plasticity implies that the nervous system can change and grow. This understanding has created new possibilities for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, as individuals age, they have decreased confidence, or memory self-efficacy, which is directly related to their everyday memory performance. In this article, a developmental account of studies about memory self-efficacy and nonpharmacologic cognitive intervention models is presented and a cognitive intervention model, called the cognitive behavioral model of everyday memory, is proposed. PMID:19065089

McDougall, Graham J.

2009-01-01

22

Systemic Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibits Fear Memory Reconsolidation  

PubMed Central

Background Established traumatic memories have a selective vulnerability to pharmacologic interventions following their reactivation that can decrease subsequent memory recall. This vulnerable period following memory reactivation is termed reconsolidation. The pharmacology of traumatic memory reconsolidation has not been fully characterized despite its potential as a therapeutic target for established, acquired anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is known to be involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We have examined the role of mTOR in traumatic memory reconsolidation. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were injected systemically with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (1 – 40 mg/kg), at various time points relative to contextual fear conditioning training or fear memory retrieval, and compared to vehicle or anisomycin-treated groups (N = 10–12 in each group). Results Inhibition of mTOR via systemic administration of rapamycin blocks reconsolidation of an established fear memory in a lasting manner. This effect is specific to reconsolidation as a series of additional experiments make an effect on memory extinction unlikely. Conclusions Systemic rapamycin, in conjunction with therapeutic traumatic memory reactivation, can decrease the emotional strength of an established traumatic memory. This finding not only establishes mTOR regulation of protein translation in the reconsolidation phase of traumatic memory, but also implicates a novel, FDA-approved drug treatment for patients suffering from acquired anxiety disorders such as PTSD and specific phobia. PMID:18316213

Blundell, Jacqueline; Kouser, Mehreen; Powell, Craig M.

2008-01-01

23

Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink  

E-print Network

Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink Trafton Drew no influence on AB magnitude. In subsequent experiments, we found that AB magnitude interacts with T1 or had to be completed online, we found a reliable interaction between AB magnitude and the target set

24

Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing. PMID:25352803

De Fockert, Jan W.; Leiser, Jaclyn

2014-01-01

25

Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load.  

PubMed

There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing. PMID:25352803

De Fockert, Jan W; Leiser, Jaclyn

2014-01-01

26

Targeted therapies hold out the promise of a new era in cancer treatment, but will we fear cancer any the less? The making of a modern disease.  

E-print Network

Targeted therapies hold out the promise of a new era in cancer treatment, but will we fear cancer-marrow sample taken, but she knows about leukemia. It's cancer of the blood. She's terrified, and she may not just a cancer ward but a cancer world. The ward is what the sociologist Erving Goffman once called

Shapin, Steven

27

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

28

Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets  

SciTech Connect

New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 {micro}m) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling.

Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

1997-03-26

29

Hold It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate the special shapes, holding structures and holding behaviors that real organisms use in streams, rivers, creeks or coast intertidal zones to avoid being swept away by moving water. Learners then create their own "animal" with holding adaptations. The activity includes drawings that detail helpful equipment such as bug boxes and dip nets, as well as instructions for making a milk-carton observation tray and flow-through trough.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

30

Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

2014-01-01

31

Eye movements and visual memory: Detecting changes to saccade targets in scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccade-contingent change detection provides a powerful tool for investigating scene representation and scene memory. In the\\u000a present study, critical objects presented within color images of naturalistic scenes were changed during a saccade toward\\u000a or away from the target. During the saccade, the critical object was changed to another object type, to a visually different\\u000a token of the same object type,

John M. Henderson; Andrew Hollingworth

2003-01-01

32

Remembered but Unused: The Accessory Items in Working Memory that Do Not Guide Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects while they maintained a second item in memory for…

Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

2009-01-01

33

Neuroligin-associated microRNA-932 targets actin and regulates memory in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) control levels of mRNA expression during experience-related remodelling of the brain. Here we use an associative olfactory learning paradigm in the honeybee Apis mellifera to examine gene expression changes in the brain during memory formation. Brain transcriptome analysis reveals a general downregulation of protein-coding genes, including asparagine synthetase and actin, and upregulation of ncRNAs. miRNA-mRNA network predictions together with PCR validation suggest miRNAs including miR-210 and miR-932 target the downregulated protein-coding genes. Feeding cholesterol-conjugated antisense RNA to bees results in the inhibition of miR-210 and of miR-932. Loss of miR-932 impairs long-term memory formation, but not memory acquisition. Functional analyses show that miR-932 interacts with Act5C, providing evidence for direct regulation of actin expression by an miRNA. An activity-dependent increase in miR-932 expression may therefore control actin-related plasticity mechanisms and affect memory formation in the brain. PMID:25409902

Cristino, Alexandre S; Barchuk, Angel R; Freitas, Flavia C P; Narayanan, Ramesh K; Biergans, Stephanie D; Zhao, Zhengyang; Simoes, Zila L P; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

2014-01-01

34

Training Improves the Capacity of Visual Working Memory When It Is Adaptive, Individualized, and Targeted  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated whether training improves the capacity of visual working memory using individualized adaptive training methods. Two groups of participants were trained for two targeted processes, filtering and consolidation. Before and after the training, the participants, including those with no training, performed a lateralized change detection task in which one side of the visual display had to be selected and the other side ignored. Across ten-day training sessions, the participants performed two modified versions of the lateralized change detection task. The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively. Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group. These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted. PMID:25836651

Shin, Eunsam; Lee, Hunjae; Yoo, Sang-Ah; Chong, Sang Chul

2015-01-01

35

Prefrontal pathways target excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related medial temporal cortices  

PubMed Central

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), situated in the caudal part of the medial prefrontal cortex, is involved in monitoring on-going behavior pertaining to memory of previously learned outcomes. How ACC information interacts with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is not well understood. The present study used a multitiered approach to address two questions on the interactions between the ACC and the parahippocampal cortices in the rhesus monkey: 1) What are the presynaptic characteristics of ACC projections to the parahippocampal cortices? 2) What are the postsynaptic targets of the pathway and are there laminar differences in innervation of local excitatory and inhibitory systems? Labeled ACC terminations were quantified in parahippocampal areas TH and TF and a cluster analysis showed that boutons varied in size, with a population of small (? 0.97 ?m) and large (>0.97 ?m) terminations that were nearly evenly distributed in the upper and deep layers. Exhaustive sampling as well as unbiased stereological techniques independently showed that small and large boutons were about evenly distributed within cortical layers in the parahippocampal cortex. Synaptic analysis of the pathway, performed at the electron microscope (EM) showed that while most of the ACC projections formed synapses with excitatory neurons, a significant proportion (23%) targeted presumed inhibitory classes with a preference for parvalbumin (PV+) inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest synaptic mechanisms that may help integrate signals associated with attention and memory. PMID:21281716

Bunce, Jamie G.; Barbas, Helen

2011-01-01

36

Histone post-translational modifications to target memory-related diseases.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms, i.e. the control gene of expression without changing DNA sequence, include DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Aberrant epigenetic modifications are associated with several pathological conditions, including brain diseases, resulting from environmental causes, ageing or genetic factors. The role of histone PTMs, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, has been demonstrated in learning and memory, both in physiological conditions and in neuropathologies. Abnormalities in these modifications or in the machinery that control them are associated with several neurodegenerative, neuro-developmental and psychiatric diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic marks are promising targets to address memory-related diseases and strong efforts are presently focused on pharmacological and genetic approaches to this field. PMID:23448462

Monti, Barbara

2013-01-01

37

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

1997-10-07

38

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1997-01-01

39

Requirement of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Downstream Effectors in Cued Fear Memory Reconsolidation and Its Persistence  

PubMed Central

Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)–eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E–eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E–eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E–eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

Huynh, Thu N.; Santini, Emanuela

2014-01-01

40

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

41

Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\/Objective: This study evaluates the dosimetric benefits and feasibility of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique in the treatment of lung tumors. The technique has two distinct features—deep inspiration, which reduces lung density, and breath-hold, which immobilizes lung tumors, thereby allowing for reduced margins. Both of these properties can potentially reduce the amount of normal lung tissue in the high-dose

Joseph Hanley; Marc M. Debois; Dennis Mah; Gikas S. Mageras; Adam Raben; Kenneth Rosenzweig; Borys Mychalczak; Lawrence H. Schwartz; Paul J. Gloeggler; Wendell Lutz; C. Clifton Ling; Steven A. Leibel; Zvi Fuks; Gerald J. Kutcher

1999-01-01

42

Hopeahainol A attenuates memory deficits by targeting ?-amyloid in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence demonstrates that amyloid beta (A?) elicits mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of the molecules targeting A? is thus of particular significance in the treatment of AD. Hopeahainol A (HopA), a polyphenol with a novel skeleton obtained from Hopea hainanensis, is potentially acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory and anti-oxidative in H(2)O(2)-treated PC12 cells. In this study, we reported that HopA might bind to A?(1-42) directly and inhibit the A?(1-42) aggregation using a combination of molecular dynamics simulation, binding assay, transmission electron microscopic analysis and staining technique. We also demonstrated that HopA decreased the interaction between A?(1-42) and A?-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which in turn reduced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. In addition, HopA was able to rescue the long-term potentiation induction by protecting synaptic function and attenuate memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Our data suggest that HopA might be a promising drug for therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:23107435

Zhu, Xiaolei; Ye, Lan; Ge, Huiming; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Nan; Qian, Lai; Li, Lingling; Liu, Rong; Ji, Shen; Zhang, Su; Jin, Jiali; Guan, Dening; Fang, Wei; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Yun

2013-02-01

43

Bridging neurocognitive aging and disease modification: targeting functional mechanisms of memory impairment.  

PubMed

Risk for Alzheimer's disease escalates dramatically with increasing age in the later decades of life. It is widely recognized that a preclinical condition in which memory loss is greater than would be expected for a person's age, referred to as amnestic mild cognitive impairment, may offer the best opportunity for intervention to treat symptoms and modify disease progression. Here we discuss a basis for age-related memory impairment, first discovered in animal models and recently isolated in the medial temporal lobe system of man, that offers a novel entry point for restoring memory function with the possible benefit in slowing progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20088811

Gallagher, M; Bakker, A; Yassa, M A; Stark, C E L

2010-05-01

44

Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

2005-01-01

45

Binary and ternary NiTi-based shape memory films deposited by simultaneous sputter deposition from elemental targets  

SciTech Connect

The most challenging requirement for depositing NiTi-based shape memory thin films is the control of film composition because a small deviation can strongly shift the transformation temperatures. This article presents a technique to control film composition via adjustment of the power supplied to the targets during simultaneous sputter deposition from separate Ni, Ti, and X (e.g., Hf) targets. After optimization of sputter parameters such as working gas pressure, target-substrate distance, and target power ratio, binary Ni{sub 100-x}Ti{sub x} thin films were fabricated and characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (to measure the film composition and uniformity), in situ x-ray diffraction (to identify the phase structures), and differential scanning calorimetry (to indicate the transformation and crystallization temperatures). To explore the possibility of depositing ternary shape memory NiTi-based thin films with a high temperature transformation >100 deg. C, a Hf target was added to the NiTi deposition system. Annealing was carried out in a high vacuum furnace slightly above the films' crystallization temperatures (500 and 550 deg. C for NiTi and NiTiHf films, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of free-standing films illustrated the dependence of transformation temperatures on film composition: Ap and Mp (referring to the austenitic and martensitic peaks in the DSC curve) were above room temperature in near equiatomic NiTi and Ti-rich films, but below it in Ni-rich films. In NiTiHf films, the transformation temperatures were a function of Hf content, reaching as high as 414 deg. C (Ap) at a Hf content of 24.4 at. %. Atomic force microscopy revealed nanostructure surface morphology of both NiTi and NiTiHf films. Detailed characterization showed that the film properties were comparable with those of NiTi and NiTiHf bulk alloys.

Sanjabi, S.; Cao, Y.Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.; Barber, Z.H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Device Materials Group, Cambridge University, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Device Materials Group, Cambridge University, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2005-09-15

46

More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity  

PubMed Central

The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process. PMID:24599946

Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

47

Growth of TiNiHf shape memory alloy thin films by laser ablation of composite targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ti 1- xNiHf x shape memory alloy thin films with Hf content up to 13.33 at.% were fabricated using a KrF excimer laser ablation system with different composite targets in high vacuum for the first time. As-deposited amorphous Ti 36.63Ni 50.04Hf 13.33 thin film was annealed for crystallization. The phase transformation behaviors of the thin film were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Both the heating and cooling curves exhibited double endotherms and exotherms indicating the presence of R-phase during the phase transformation. The forward martensitic transformation temperature is 31°C, which is consistent with the co-existence of high-temperature parent phase (austenite) and the low-temperature phase (martensite) at room temperature. The lower transition temperatures of the thin film compared with that of bulk material with the same composition was attributed to the refined grain size and the Ni content, which was slightly above 50 at%. The fabrication of TiNiHf shape memory alloy thin films by pulsed laser deposition will contribute to the successful development of microactuators.

Gu, H. D.; You, L.; Leung, K. M.; Chung, C. Y.; Chan, K. S.; Lai, J. K. L.

1998-05-01

48

Ultrasound Detection of Myocardial Ischemic Memory Using an E-Selectin Targeting Peptide Amenable to Human Application  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus “ischemic memory” biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24742373

Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

2014-01-01

49

Improving Intra-Fractional Target Position Accuracy Using a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a surrogate for respiratory gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) for left breast irradiation. Material and Methods Patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH treatment for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography (CT) simulation scans to determine dosimetric benefits from DIBH. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CT scans were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired during treatment for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results Reduction in heart dose can be achieved using DIBH for left breast/chest wall radiation. RPM was shown to have inferior correlation with the actual target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. Therefore, RPM alone may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a superior correlation with the actual target positioning during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommended threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion The RPM system alone may not be sufficient for the required level of accuracy in left-sided breast/CW DIBH treatments. The 3D surface imaging can be used to ensure patient setup and monitor inter- and intra- fractional motions. Furthermore, the target position accuracy during DIBH treatment can be improved by AlignRT as a superior surrogate, in addition to the RPM system. PMID:24853144

Rong, Yi; Walston, Steve; Welliver, Meng Xu; Chakravarti, Arnab; Quick, Allison M.

2014-01-01

50

Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders  

PubMed Central

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

Aggleton, John P.

2014-01-01

51

Portable hand hold device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

52

Removable hand hold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

53

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

54

Visual Targets Aren’t Irreversibly Converted to Motor Coordinates: Eye-Centered Updating of Visuospatial Memory in Online Reach Control  

PubMed Central

Counter to current and widely accepted hypotheses that sensorimotor transformations involve converting target locations in spatial memory from an eye-fixed reference frame into a more stable motor-based reference frame, we show that this is not strictly the case. Eye-centered representations continue to dominate reach control even during movement execution; the eye-centered target representation persists after conversion to a motor-based frame and is continuously updated as the eyes move during reach, and is used to modify the reach plan accordingly during online control. While reaches are known to be adjusted online when targets physically shift, our results are the first to show that similar adjustments occur in response to changes in representations of remembered target locations. Specifically, we find that shifts in gaze direction, which produce predictable changes in the internal (specifically eye-centered) representation of remembered target locations also produce mid-transport changes in reach kinematics. This indicates that representations of remembered reach targets (and visuospatial memory in general) continue to be updated relative to gaze even after reach onset. Thus, online motor control is influenced dynamically by both the external and internal updating mechanisms. PMID:24643008

Thompson, Aidan A.; Byrne, Patrick A.; Henriques, Denise Y. P.

2014-01-01

55

Targeting adenovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of targeted viral vectors to localize gene transfer to specific cell types holds many advantages over conventional, non-targeted vectors currently used in gene therapy. The resulting improvements in gene localization from targeted adenovirus vectors are likely to reduce immunogenicity and toxicity, increase safety, and enable the systemic administration of these vectors for multiple indications including cancer, cardiovascular disease,

T J Wickham

2000-01-01

56

Sparse and distributed coding of episodic memory in neurons of the human hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Neurocomputational models hold that sparse distributed coding is the most efficient way for hippocampal neurons to encode episodic memories rapidly. We investigated the representation of episodic memory in hippocampal neurons of nine epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring as they discriminated between recently studied words (targets) and new words (foils) on a recognition test. On average, single units and multiunits exhibited higher spike counts in response to targets relative to foils, and the size of this effect correlated with behavioral performance. Further analyses of the spike-count distributions revealed that (i) a small percentage of recorded neurons responded to any one target and (ii) a small percentage of targets elicited a strong response in any one neuron. These findings are consistent with the idea that in the human hippocampus episodic memory is supported by a sparse distributed neural code. PMID:24979802

Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.; Jang, Yoonhee; Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Kuhn, Joel R.; Smith, Kris A.; Treiman, David M.; Steinmetz, Peter N.

2014-01-01

57

Impact of IL6 receptor inhibition on human memory B cells in vivo: impaired somatic hypermutation in preswitch memory B cells and modulation of mutational targeting in memory B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor (IL-6R) inhibition by tocilizumab is a novel anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. As IL-6 is a late differentiation factor of B cells the authors asked if IL-6R inhibition impacts on the mutational differentiation of human memory B-cell antigen receptors in vivo.Methods1733 immunoglobulin receptors (IgR) of single cell sorted preswitch and postswitch memory B cells

Khalid Muhammad; Petra Roll; Thomas Seibold; Stefan Kleinert; Hermann Einsele; Thomas Dörner; Hans-Peter Tony

2011-01-01

58

Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper

Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

2006-01-01

59

The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory  

PubMed Central

We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets’ locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research. PMID:25339978

Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

2014-01-01

60

Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The "early-maturing system" (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the…

Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

2009-01-01

61

Targeting effector memory T cells with alefacept in new onset type 1 diabetes: 12 month results from the T1DAL study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune targeting of the pancreatic beta cells, likely mediated by effector memory T cells (Tems). CD2, a T cell surface protein highly expressed on Tems, is targeted by the fusion protein alefacept, depleting Tems and central memory T cells (Tcms). We hypothesized that alefacept would arrest autoimmunity and preserve residual beta cells in newly diagnosed T1D. Methods The T1DAL study is a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomised T1D patients 12-35 years old within 100 days of diagnosis, 33 to alefacept (two 12-week courses of 15 mg IM per week, separated by a 12-week pause) and 16 to placebo, at 14 US sites. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in mean 2-hour C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) at 12 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00965458. Findings The mean 2-hour C-peptide AUC at 12 months increased by 0.015 nmol/L (95% CI -0.080 to 0.110 nmol/L) in the alefacept group and decreased by 0.115 nmol/L (95% CI -0.278 to 0.047) in the placebo group, which was not significant (p=0.065). However, key secondary endpoints were met: the mean 4-hour C-peptide AUC was significantly higher (p=0.019), and daily insulin use and the rate of hypoglycemic events were significantly lower (p=0.02 and p<0.001, respectively) at 12 months in the alefacept vs. placebo groups. Safety and tolerability were comparable between groups. There was targeted depletion of Tems and Tcms, with sparing of naïve and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interpretation At 12 months, alefacept preserved the 4-hour C-peptide AUC, lowered insulin use, and reduced hypoglycemic events, suggesting a signal of efficacy. Depletion of memory T cells with sparing of Tregs may be a useful strategy to preserve beta cell function in new-onset T1D. PMID:24622414

Rigby, Mark R; DiMeglio, Linda A; Rendell, Marc S; Felner, Eric I; Dostou, Jean M; Gitelman, Stephen E; Patel, Chetanbabu M; Griffin, Kurt J; Tsalikian, Eva; Gottlieb, Peter A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Sherry, Nicole A; Moore, Wayne V; Monzavi, Roshanak; Willi, Steven M; Raskin, Philip; Moran, Antoinette; Russell, William E; Pinckney, Ashley; Keyes-Elstein, Lynette; Howell, Michael; Aggarwal, Sudeepta; Lim, Noha; Phippard, Deborah; Nepom, Gerald T; McNamara, James; Ehlers, Mario R

2014-01-01

62

An Introduction to Holdings Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While preparing to migrate from Innovative Interfaces' text-based serials module to its new Millennium Serials product, the author, a manager of technical services operations in a small academic library, found herself faced with a number of decisions regarding how to store holdings information. Holdings data is information about individual items…

Lincicum, Shirley

2004-01-01

63

Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

2008-01-01

64

Chip may hold key to concurrent computing  

SciTech Connect

An experimental chip that incorporates a novel message-routing scheme may hold the key to the second generation of concurrent computers, according to Charles L. Seitz, a pioneer in this form of computing. A professor of computer science at the California Institute of Technology and developer of the Cosmic Cube Architecture for Linking Multiple Processors. Seitz worked with doctoral candidate William J. Dally, who designed and fabricated the Torus Routing Chip - named for its doughnut-shaped topology. Using a scheme similar to virtual computer memory, the chips seeks to overcome a hang-up caused by the very feature that gives concurrent computing schemes their boosted horsepower: large numbers of microprocessor nodes working simultaneously on the same task. Messages running between nodes can get logjammed in single-dimension communication channels, thus deadlocking operation.

Waller, L.

1986-02-03

65

Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

2008-01-01

66

Bar-holding prosthetic limb  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor)

1992-01-01

67

Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor of Kv1.3 Channels for Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel is a novel target for immunomodulation of autoreactive effector memory T (TEM) cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We describe the characterization of the novel peptide ShK(L5) that contains l-phosphotyrosine linked via a nine-atom hydrophilic linker to the N terminus of the ShK peptide from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. ShK(L5) is a highly specific Kv1.3 blocker that exhibits 100-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 (Kd = 69 pM) over Kv1.1 and greater than 250-fold selectivity over all other channels tested. ShK(L5) suppresses the proliferation of human and rat TEM cells and inhibits interleukin-2 production at picomolar concentrations. Naive and central memory human T cells are initially 60-fold less sensitive than TEM cells to ShK(L5) and then become resistant to the peptide during activation by up-regulating the calcium-activated KCa3.1 channel. ShK(L5) does not exhibit in vitro cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines and is negative in the Ames test. It is stable in plasma and when administered once daily by subcutaneous injection (10 ?g/kg) attains “steady state” blood levels of ?300 pM. This regimen does not cause cardiac toxicity assessed by continuous EKG monitoring and does not alter clinical chemistry and hematological parameters after 2-week therapy. ShK(L5) prevents and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suppresses delayed type hypersensitivity in rats. ShK(L5) might prove useful for therapy of autoimmune disorders. PMID:15665253

Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Wulff, Heike; Singh, Satendra; Nugent, Daniel; Crossley, George; Khaytin, Ilya; Calabresi, Peter A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Gutman, George A.; Chandy, K. George

2008-01-01

68

Selective Inhibition of CCR7? Effector Memory T Cell Activation by a Novel Peptide Targeting Kv1.3 Channel in a Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model*  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells serves as a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. In our previous studies, the novel peptide ADWX-1 was designed and synthesized as a specific Kv1.3 blocker. However, it is unclear if and how ADWX-1 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, the administration of ADWX-1 significantly ameliorated the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model by selectively inhibiting CD4+CCR7? phenotype effector memory T cell activation. In contrast, the Kv1.3-specific peptide had little effect on CD4+CCR7+ cells, thereby limiting side effects. Furthermore, we determined that ADWX-1 is involved in the regulation of NF-?B signaling through upstream protein kinase C-? (PKC?) in the IL-2 pathway of CD4+CCR7? cells. The elevated expression of Kv1.3 mRNA and protein in activated CD4+CCR7? cells was reduced by ADWX-1 engagement; however, an apparent alteration in CD4+CCR7+ cells was not observed. Moreover, the selective regulation of the Kv1.3 channel gene expression pattern by ADWX-1 provided a further and sustained inhibition of the CD4+CCR7? phenotype, which depends on the activity of Kv1.3 to modulate its activation signal. In addition, ADWX-1 mediated the activation of differentiated Th17 cells through the CCR7? phenotype. The efficacy of ADWX-1 is supported by multiple functions, which are based on a Kv1.3high CD4+CCR7? T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway. PMID:22761436

Li, Zhi; Liu, Wan-Hong; Han, Song; Peng, Bi-Wen; Yin, Jun; Wu, Ying-Liang; He, Xiao-Hua; Li, Wen-Xin

2012-01-01

69

L3: Memory Hierarchy Optimization I, Locality and Data Placement  

E-print Network

1/15/13 1 L3: Memory Hierarchy Optimization I, Locality and Data Placement CS6235 L3: Memory level description of how to write code to optimize for memory hierarchy ­ More details Wednesday/ textbook/Chapter4-CudaMemoryModel.pdf CS6235 L3: Memory Hierarchy, 1 Targets of Memory

Hall, Mary W.

70

L4: Memory Hierarchy Optimization II, Locality and Data Placement  

E-print Network

1/23/13 1 L4: Memory Hierarchy Optimization II, Locality and Data Placement CS6235 L3: Memory Hierarchy, 1 Overview of Lecture · More on tiling for shared memory and constant memory · ReadingModel.pdf CS6235 L3: Memory Hierarchy, 1 Review: Targets of Memory Hierarchy Optimizations · Reduce

Hall, Mary W.

71

Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.  

PubMed

The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-01-01

72

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

73

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

74

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

75

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2010-07-01

76

Structured representations in visual working memory  

E-print Network

How much visual information can we hold in mind at once? A large body of research has attempted to quantify the capacity of visual working memory by focusing on how many individual objects or visual features can be actively ...

Brady, Timothy F

2011-01-01

77

78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor, Inc., New Generation Holdings, Inc., and Nuevo Financial Center, Inc.; Order...and accurate information concerning the securities of New Generation Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

2013-11-04

78

Marketing Strategies for Agricultural Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of the marketing activities constitutes an important way to increase the holdings' efficiency. They are an assembly of activities, techniques, methods and procedures which have the role of adjusting the agro foods supply to the specific demand. So, becomes possible satisfying the consumers through giving them the goods which they want in the demanded quality and extend, within the

Camelia BURJA; Vasile BURJA

79

About Sleep's Role in Memory  

PubMed Central

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

2013-01-01

80

Hold PO from Further Processing NUFinancials  

E-print Network

Hold PO from Further Processing Function NUFinancials Purchasing Hold of 2 This job aid describes when to use the Hold PO from Further Processing function on non- catalog requisitions. Hold PO from Further Processing should not to be used to pay an invoice after the fact when

Shull, Kenneth R.

81

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

2009-01-01

82

No Holds Barred Issue 1  

E-print Network

. The comparison between. And he had a few strange memories besides that teased at his mind like high tide threatening the sand. "Where'd I get the robe,Vince?" "It's mine. You looked like you were doin' timein your monkey-suit, so I stripped it off you while...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

83

A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

84

On the Clash of Martyrological Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when students holding rival though indirect memories of past conflicts confront each other in the same classroom? What are the kinds of political and pedagogical approaches necessary for mediating such "clashes of martyrological memories" in the same educational space? And why is critical theory inept at offering resolutions for the…

Jansen, Jonathan D.

2009-01-01

85

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Ingrid Waldron

86

The role of visual working memory in attentive tracking of unique objects  

PubMed Central

When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects’ spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit was greater when the distance between distractors and targets was smaller, but was eliminated when the objects changed colors 1 to 4 times per second, even though at any instant they were always uniquely colored. Additionally, tracking uniquely colored objects impaired a secondary color-memory task more than tracking identical objects, and holding several colors in working memory eliminated the advantage of tracking uniquely colored objects. Contrary to previous studies showing that feature information is poorly retained during tracking, these findings indicate that surface properties are stored in visual working memory to facilitate tracking performance. PMID:19968429

Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2009-01-01

87

A Holding Function for Conflict Probe Appiications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conflict Alerts for aircraft in holding patterns are often missed or in error due to fact that holding trajectories are not modeled in Conflict Alert or Conflict Probe logic. In addition, a controller in one sector may not know when aircraft are holding in a neighboring sector. These factors can lead to an increased potential for loss of separation while aircraft are flying in holding patterns. A holding function for conflict probe applications has been developed and tested with air traffic data from Fort Worth Center. The holding function automatically determines when an aircraft enters a holding pattern, builds a holding region around the pattern and then probes the region for conflict with other traffic. The operational concept of use assumes that air traffic controllers are very busy during periods when aircraft are in holding and therefore don't have time to manually enter information which defines a holding pattern and activates conflict probing. For this reason, it is important the holding function automatically detect aircraft in holding and compute a holding region for conflict analysis. The controller is then alerted if other aircraft are predicted to fly through the holding region at the holding altitude.

McNally, Dave; Walton, Joe

2004-01-01

88

The evolution of episodic memory  

PubMed Central

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

2013-01-01

89

Unconditional Room Temperature Quantum Memory  

E-print Network

Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionising computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80$^o$C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. In order to unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state independent verification using conditional variance and signal transfer coefficients.

M. Hosseini; G. Campbell; B. M. Sparkes; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

2015-02-10

90

78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan...regulatory responsibilities of the Board for bank holding companies and savings and loan...or other charges (assessments) from bank holding companies (BHCs) and...

2013-08-23

91

78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan...regulatory responsibilities of the Board for bank holding companies and savings and loan...or other charges (assessments) from bank holding companies and savings and...

2013-04-18

92

Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

2012-01-01

93

Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model.  

PubMed

Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought. PMID:25747767

Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

2015-05-15

94

Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences  

PubMed Central

The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

95

No Holds Barred Issue 25  

E-print Network

to the shaman's words the flames before me blaze up, high and wild. To deliberately step into living flame seems a desperate act yet I know that if I don't, my life will be as barren as a frost-blighted field, as cold as an empty hearth. I take a deep...; How I can act normally around him when just a wisp of dream memory causes tendrils of green fire to lick across my nerves and threaten to rekindle desire's blaze? From all I've seen, he's as straight as I always assumed I was; all that I can...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

96

Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's  

E-print Network

1 of 7 Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's View Financial Aid Accept/Decline Aid Scholarships Financial Aid HOLDS and TO DO's 1. At least once a week, check both the Holds and the To Do List for any financial aid TO DO's. Click on the details arrows at the bottom of each section for more information. Back

Barrash, Warren

97

Gordon Wu, Hopewell Holdings Ltd.  

SciTech Connect

Asia`s leading power industry torchbearer remains Gordon Wu, chairman of Hopewell Holdings Ltd., the huge investment, construction and engineering conglomerate based in Hong Kong. Hopewell is parent company to Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA), one of the largest independent power producers (IPP) in the world today. Despite his key role, Wu is unassuming. He knows what his company, through his able leadership, has achieved and what it can do for the region. His ambitions are bold, but they have, with no notable exceptions, always borne fruit. It is these and other business attributes that make Gordon Wu this year`s choice among financial executives polled for Independent Energy`s 1j995 {open_quotes}Executive of the year{close_quotes} Award.

Starke, K.

1995-07-01

98

Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0?20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20?40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

2013-01-01

99

Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories  

PubMed Central

Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

2013-01-01

100

Memory T Cells in Transplantation.  

PubMed

Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

Su, Charles A; Fairchild, Robert L

2014-09-01

101

Prospective memory: a comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here, we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall". PMID:25101562

Crystal, Jonathon D; Wilson, A George

2015-03-01

102

Non explosive low shock reusable 20 kN hold-down release actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

SENER has developed a Non Explosive Hold-Down Release Actuator: NEHRA (Patented). The mechanism is based on a segmented nut kept in position by a preloaded mechanism. The preloaded mechanism is clamped with a latch than can be triggered by a wire of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). A demonstrator model has been manufactured, assembled and functionally tested. The size developed is

J. Vázquez; Ignacio Bueno

2001-01-01

103

Sericin for resistance switching device with multilevel nonvolatile memory.  

PubMed

Resistance switching characteristics of natural sericin protein film is demonstrated for nonvolatile memory application for the first time. Excellent memory characteristics with a resistance OFF/ON ratio larger than 10(6) have been obtained and a multilevel memory based on sericin has been achieved. The environmentally friendly high performance biomaterial based memory devices may hold a place in the future of electronic device development. PMID:23893500

Wang, Hong; Meng, Fanben; Cai, Yurong; Zheng, Liyan; Li, Yuangang; Liu, Yuanjun; Jiang, Yueyue; Wang, Xiaotian; Chen, Xiaodong

2013-10-11

104

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

105

Beyond a mask and against the bottleneck: retroactive dual-task interference during working memory consolidation of a masked visual target.  

PubMed

While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result, estimates of the time course of working memory consolidation differ more than an order of magnitude. Here, we contrasted these opposing views by examining if and for how long the processing of a masked display of visual stimuli can be disturbed by a trailing 2-alternative forced choice task (2-AFC; a color discrimination task or a visual or auditory parity judgment task). The results showed that the presence of the 2-AFC task produced a pronounced retroactive interference effect that dissipated across stimulus onset asynchronies of 250-1,000 ms, indicating that the processing elicited by the 2-AFC task interfered with the gradual consolidation of the earlier shown stimuli. Furthermore, this interference effect occurred regardless of whether the to-be-remembered stimuli comprised a string of letters or an unfamiliar complex visual shape, and it occurred regardless of whether these stimuli were masked. Conversely, the interference effect was reduced when the memory load for the 1st task was reduced, or when the 2nd task was a color detection task that did not require decision making. Taken together, these findings show that the formation of a durable and consciously accessible working memory trace for a briefly shown visual stimulus can be disturbed by a trailing 2-AFC task for up to several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus has been masked. By implication, the current findings challenge the common view that working memory consolidation involves an immutable central processing bottleneck, and they also make clear that consolidation does not stop when a stimulus is masked. PMID:24364683

Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

2014-06-01

106

Color matching from memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

107

Face-name memory in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects face-name memory, the ability to recognize faces and recall names. Remembering face and name requires a sophisticated cognitive process because of the complexity and similarity among faces and also because of their arbitrary association with names. Assessments of face-name memory can measure episodic and semantic memory performance and are useful for early detection of AD. Improving face-name memory is possible through cognitive interventions targeted to promote procedural memory, which is often preserved until the late stage of AD. This article describes a conceptual model, assessment tools, and strategies for improving face-name memory in persons with AD. PMID:24746673

Tak, Sunghee H; Hong, Song Hee

2014-01-01

108

Automatic Hand Hold Detection in Natural Conversation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a motion-energy-based method of detecting hand holds in videos of natural conversations. The holds are found by classifying hand motions extracted from videos using computer vision techniques. We describe a set of heuristics for judging when a hold is detected and present empirical analysis of the efficacy of our algorithm against real video data that has been hand-coded

Robert Bryll; Francis Quek; Anna Esposito

109

Memory Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. Continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

110

Central and peripheral administration of antisense oligonucleotide targeting amyloid-? protein precursor improves learning and memory and reduces neuroinflammatory cytokines in Tg2576 (A?PPswe) mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid-? protein precursor (A?PP) that can decrease A?PP expression and amyloid-? protein (A?) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress, and restores brain-to-blood efflux of A? in SAMP8 mice. Here, we examined the effects of this A?PP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. We administered the OL-1 antisense into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with OL-1 antisense 3 times at 2-week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze, novel object recognition, and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, brain tissue was collected. OL-1 antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. OL-1 antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze, the mice which received OL-1 antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant reduction of A?PP signal and a reduction of measures of neuroinflammation. The current findings support the therapeutic potential of OL-1 A?PP antisense. PMID:24577464

Farr, Susan A; Erickson, Michelle A; Niehoff, Michael L; Banks, William A; Morley, John E

2014-01-01

111

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

112

Central and Peripheral Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Amyloid Precursor Protein Improves Learning and Memory and Reduces Neuroinflammatory Cytokines in Tg2576 (APPswe) Mice  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The World Health Organization estimates that there are currently 18 million people worldwide living with AD and that number is expected to double by early 2025. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid betaprotein precursor (A?PP) that can decrease A?PP expression and amyloid beta protein (A?) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress and restores brain-to-blood efflux of A? in SAMP8 mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of this A?PP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. The Tg2576 overproduces human A?, develops age-related learning and memory deficits, and exhibits oxidative damage in the brain. First, we administered the A?PP antisense centrally into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2 week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with A?PP antisense 3 times at two week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze foot shock avoidance, novel object recognition and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue was collected for evaluation of A?PP, A?, and expression of cytokines and chemokines. A?PP antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. A?PP antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze the mice which received OL-1 A?PP antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant reduction of A?PP signal and a reduction of measures of neuroinflammation. The current findings support the therapeutic potential of OL-1 A?PP antisense. PMID:24577464

Farr, Susan A.; Erickson, Michelle A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

2014-01-01

113

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1997-12-30

114

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

Barth, Clyde H. (Ballston Lake, NY); Cramer, Charles E. (Schenectady, NY)

1997-01-01

115

Bank holding company diversification and production efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) have been diversifying their businesses increasingly among banking, securities and insurance activities in the recent decades through establishment of Section 20 subsidiaries in earlier years and through formation of financial holding companies after the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA, 1999). This study examines whether BHC diversification is associated with improvement or detriment in its production efficiency. We apply

Elyas Elyasiani; Yong Wang

2012-01-01

116

School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012

2012-01-01

117

RMI-SAMPLE HOLDING TIME REEVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

118

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

119

78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings...control, and for Watco Railroad to directly control, Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AA), a Class III railroad, and...

2013-01-11

120

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29

121

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

1999-01-01

122

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company...

2013-01-01

123

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company...

2014-01-01

124

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company...

2012-01-01

125

Quantum memory Quantum memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

2012-06-01

126

Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH. PMID:21774923

Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

2012-01-01

127

[Tianjin holds family planning conference].  

PubMed

This article reports on the results of a conference on family planning in Tianjin municipality, China. On the basis of a preliminary census, the birth rate in the municipality is expected to reach 15/1000 and the population growth rate 9/1000 in 1979. These figures exceed the target of population growth rate of 6/1000. The high figures are accounted for by the high birth rate in the suburban counties. Late marriage, planned parenthood, and 1 child families are being encouraged. Other measures should be taken to, 1) bring the municipalities birth rate to less than 2/1000, 2) encourage 1 child families in the suburban counties, 3) encourage 50% of the women of child bearing age who already have 1 child to not bear a 2nd child, and 4) encourage 70% of the women of child bearing age who already have 1 child 3 years old not to bear a 2nd child. Propaganda and education are also encouraged in order to inform the masses. PMID:12338061

1979-08-01

128

Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

129

Active hold-down for heat treating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum hold-down is described, for holding a thin film workpiece while it undergoes large temperature changes and corresponding dimensional changes, which permits creep of the workpiece to avoid damage thereto while still holding it on a support surface. The support surface has a multiplicity of holes arranged in a plurality of zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at the holes lying at different zones while it continues to be applied at the other zones, to permit creep of the workpiece at a zone when vacuum is not applied thereto.

Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

130

Mask-holding mechanism for an e-beam x-ray mask writer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high absolute pattern placement accuracy and high throughput in x- ray mask writing, it is very important to firmly hold the mask with little holding deformation and large thermal conduction. For these purposes we have developed a new 'triple-chuck' mask holding mechanism. This triple-chuck mechanism is a hybrid of three-point-contact and conventional electrostatic-chuck holding mechanism, and, as the name implies, it uses three small-area electrostatic chucks. To determine the suitable shape, area, and position of the electrostatic chucks, we performed deformation simulation using the finite element method, and also conducted thermal conduction simulations. The results suggested that the triple-chuck mechanism could attain targets set for an x-ray mask with a feature size of 0.2 micrometers . Accordingly, we installed the new holding mechanism in the EB-X1 writer and found that when holding 3-inch mask (2-mm thick, before bulk etching), there is no microslippage between the mask and holding mechanism when the XY-stage is moved with an acceleration of 0.3 G and the maximum holding deformation is 0.22 micrometers in a 25-mm-square patterning area. This corresponds to the absolute pattern placement accuracy degradation of less than 11 nm in the patterning area. About 30 minutes pass before the mask temperature is within 0.1 degree of the holding-mechanism temperature. This was determined by two different methods: a patterning method and marek detection. These experimental results confirmed the triple-chuck holding mechanism attained the targets set for an x-ray mask with a feature size of 0.2 micrometers .

Kunioka, Tatsuya; Shimazu, Nobuo; Shimizu, Akira; Sakai, Tomoaki; Kuriyama, Youichi

1995-07-01

131

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

132

Specific requirement of NMDA receptors for long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila ellipsoid body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and many other animals, memory consolidation occurs through multiple temporal phases and usually involves more than one neuroanatomical brain system. Genetic dissection of Pavlovian olfactory learning in Drosophila melanogaster has revealed multiple memory phases, but the predominant view holds that all memory phases occur in mushroom body neurons. Here, we demonstrate an acute requirement for NMDA receptors (NMDARs)

Chia-Lin Wu; Shouzhen Xia; Tsai-Feng Fu; Huaien Wang; Ying-Hsiu Chen; Daniel Leong; Ann-Shyn Chiang; Tim Tully

2007-01-01

133

Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

134

12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enterprise and access, upon request, by OFHEO, during a record hold. Such access shall be by reasonable means, consistent with the nature and availability of the records and existing information...

2010-01-01

135

12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Enterprise and access, upon request, by OFHEO, during a record hold. Such access shall be by reasonable means, consistent with the nature and availability of the records and existing information...

2011-01-01

136

Holding fixture for variable-contour parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Array of vacuum cups on spindles holds parts for safe machining and other processings. Variable-contour part resting on fixture is held firmly enough for machining, coating, or other mechanical treatment.

Haynie, C. C.; Packer, P. N.; Zebus, P. P.

1979-01-01

137

Breath-holding spells in infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? Answer A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. PMID:25676645

Goldman, Ran D.

2015-01-01

138

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

139

Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

1995-01-01

140

Non explosive low shock reusable 20 kN hold-down release actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SENER has developed a Non Explosive Hold-Down Release Actuator: NEHRA (Patented). The mechanism is based on a segmented nut kept in position by a preloaded mechanism. The preloaded mechanism is clamped with a latch than can be triggered by a wire of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). A demonstrator model has been manufactured, assembled and functionally tested. The size developed is for a high strength M8 bolt (with an ultimate load about 40000 N, and a nominal preload of 20000 N).

Vázquez, J.; Bueno, Ignacio

2001-09-01

141

Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

2013-01-01

142

Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs.  

PubMed

Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. PMID:25611510

Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T

2015-01-21

143

How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working-memory account.  

PubMed

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing can reduce ratings of the vividness and emotionality of unpleasant memories-hence it is commonly used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. The present experiments compared three accounts of how eye movements produce these benefits. Participants rated unpleasant autobiographical memories before and after eye movements or an eyes stationary control condition. In Experiment 1, eye movements produced benefits only when memories were held in mind during the movements, and eye movements increased arousal, contrary to an investigatory-reflex account. In Experiment 2, horizontal and vertical eye movements produced equivalent benefits, contrary to an interhemispheric-communication account. In Experiment 3, two other distractor tasks (auditory shadowing, drawing) produced benefits that were negatively correlated with working-memory capacity. These findings support a working-memory account of the eye movement benefits in which the central executive is taxed when a person performs a distractor task while attempting to hold a memory in mind. PMID:18565493

Gunter, Raymond W; Bodner, Glen E

2008-08-01

144

Place memory in crickets  

PubMed Central

Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

2008-01-01

145

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

146

Pittsburgh Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By studying the painting "Pittsburgh Memories" by the Black artist Romare Bearden, student in grades K-3 learn that artists use their visual memories of real places and people when they make art. The students also learn how various types of space are depicted in a semi-abstract style. (RM)

Judson, Bay

1986-01-01

147

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

148

Practical memory checking with Dr. Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs to identify and fix due to the delay and non-determinism linking the error to an observable symptom. Dedicated memory checking tools are invaluable for finding these errors. However, such tools are difficult to build, and because they must monitor all memory

Derek Bruening; Qin Zhao

2011-01-01

149

Sterile Immunity to Malaria after DNA Prime/Adenovirus Boost Immunization Is Associated with Effector Memory CD8+T Cells Targeting AMA1 Class I Epitopes  

PubMed Central

Background Fifteen volunteers were immunized with three doses of plasmid DNA encoding P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and boosted with human adenovirus-5 (Ad) expressing the same antigens (DNA/Ad). Four volunteers (27%) demonstrated sterile immunity to controlled human malaria infection and, overall, protection was statistically significantly associated with ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? activities to AMA1 but not CSP. DNA priming was required for protection, as 18 additional subjects immunized with Ad alone (AdCA) did not develop sterile protection. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to identify correlates of protection, recognizing that DNA-priming may induce different responses than AdCA alone. Among protected volunteers, two and three had higher ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to CSP and AMA1, respectively, than non-protected volunteers. Unexpectedly, non-protected volunteers in the AdCA trial showed ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to AMA1 equal to or higher than the protected volunteers. T cell functionality assessed by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 likewise did not distinguish protected from non-protected volunteers across both trials. However, three of the four protected volunteers showed higher effector to central memory CD8+ T cell ratios to AMA1, and one of these to CSP, than non-protected volunteers for both antigens. These responses were focused on discrete regions of CSP and AMA1. Class I epitopes restricted by A*03 or B*58 supertypes within these regions of AMA1 strongly recalled responses in three of four protected volunteers. We hypothesize that vaccine-induced effector memory CD8+ T cells recognizing a single class I epitope can confer sterile immunity to P. falciparum in humans. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that better understanding of which epitopes within malaria antigens can confer sterile immunity and design of vaccine approaches that elicit responses to these epitopes will increase the potency of next generation gene-based vaccines. PMID:25211344

Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R.; Farooq, Fouzia; Ganeshan, Harini; Belmonte, Maria; Kim, Yohan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Huang, Jun; McGrath, Shannon; Abot, Esteban; Limbach, Keith; Shi, Meng; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter; Chuang, Ilin; Tamminga, Cindy; Epstein, Judith E.; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

150

DNA Vaccine Construct Incorporating Intercellular Trafficking and Intracellular Targeting Motifs Effectively Primes and Induces Memory B and T-Cell Responses in Outbred Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a vaccine construct in which a BVP22 domain and an invariant-chain major histocompatibility complex class II-targeting motif capable of enhancing dendritic cell antigen uptake and presentation were fused to a sequence encoding a B- and T-cell antigen from the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and tested whether this construct would prime and expand immune responses in outbred

Waithaka Mwangi; Wendy C. Brown; Christopher J. Davies; Chris J. Howard; Jayne C. Hope; Yoko Aida; Yan Zhuang; Beverly J. Hunter; Guy H. Palmer

2007-01-01

151

Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca2+ influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM’s may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM’s) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM’s. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM’s, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca2+ influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A.; Thompson, Tyler; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

2013-01-01

152

Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca(2+) influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM's may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM's) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM's. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM's, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca(2+) influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A; Thompson, Tyler H; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

2013-12-01

153

Disruptions in autobiographical memory processing in depression and the emergence of memory therapeutics.  

PubMed

Depression is characterized by distinct profiles of disturbance in ways autobiographical memories are represented, recalled, and maintained. We review four core domains of difficulty: systematic biases in favor of negative material; impoverished access and responses to positive memories; reduced access to the specific details of the personal past; and dysfunctional processes of rumination and avoidance around personal autobiographical material. These difficulties drive the onset and maintenance of depression; consequently, interventions targeted at these maladaptive processes have clinical potential. Memory therapeutics is the development of novel clinical techniques, translated from basic research, that target memory difficulties in those with emotional disorders. We discuss prototypical examples from this clinical domain including MEmory Specificity Training, positive memory elaboration, memory rescripting, and the method-of-loci (MoL). PMID:25060510

Dalgleish, Tim; Werner-Seidler, Aliza

2014-11-01

154

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901...Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity may hold under...

2011-10-01

155

T-cell memory responses elicited by yellow fever vaccine are targeted to overlapping epitopes containing multiple HLA-I and -II binding motifs.  

PubMed

The yellow fever vaccines (YF-17D-204 and 17DD) are considered to be among the safest vaccines and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is correlated with protection, although other immune effector mechanisms are known to be involved. T-cell responses are known to play an important role modulating antibody production and the killing of infected cells. However, little is known about the repertoire of T-cell responses elicited by the YF-17DD vaccine in humans. In this report, a library of 653 partially overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the envelope (Env) and nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 to 5 of the vaccine was utilized to perform a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. The T-cell responses were screened ex-vivo by IFN-? ELISPOT assays using blood samples from 220 YF-17DD vaccinees collected two months to four years after immunization. Each peptide was tested in 75 to 208 separate individuals of the cohort. The screening identified sixteen immunodominant antigens that elicited activation of circulating memory T-cells in 10% to 33% of the individuals. Biochemical in-vitro binding assays and immunogenetic and immunogenicity studies indicated that each of the sixteen immunogenic 15-mer peptides contained two or more partially overlapping epitopes that could bind with high affinity to molecules of different HLAs. The prevalence of the immunogenicity of a peptide in the cohort was correlated with the diversity of HLA-II alleles that they could bind. These findings suggest that overlapping of HLA binding motifs within a peptide enhances its T-cell immunogenicity and the prevalence of the response in the population. In summary, the results suggests that in addition to factors of the innate immunity, "promiscuous" T-cell antigens might contribute to the high efficacy of the yellow fever vaccines. PMID:23383350

de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Dhalia, Rafael; Silva, Ana Maria; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Montenegro, Silvia M L; Marques, Ernesto T A

2013-01-01

156

Scalable fault-tolerant distributed shared memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how a state-of-the-art software distributed shared-memory (DSM) protocol can be efficiently extended to tolerate single-node failures. In particular, we extend a home-based lazy release consistency (HLRC) DSM system with independent checkpointing and logging to volatile memory, targeting shared-memory computing on very large LAN-based clusters. In these environments, where global coordination may be expensive, independent checkpointing becomes critical

Florin Sultan; Liviu Iftode; Thu Nguyen

2000-01-01

157

Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others.  

PubMed

Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions. PMID:21515739

Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A

2011-05-01

158

An analysis of the bank holding company  

E-print Network

AN ANALYSIS OF THE BANK HOLDING COMPANY A Thesis by DAVID WILLIAM FACKA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE mont 1969 year Major Subject... Economics AN ANALYSIS OF THE BANK HOLDING COMPANY A Thesis by DAVID WILLIAM FACKA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o Committee) (Head of Department) g, . q~ (Member ) (Member) (M ber) (Member) (Member) Ma 1969 Month T77 A B S T R...

Facka, David William

1969-01-01

159

47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. 20...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.22 Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings....

2014-10-01

160

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana  

E-print Network

Disk Memory 32KB -4MB 4 ns 2GB 60 ns 200 GB 8 ms SoC Board Computer memory Hierarchy USB Flash DriveMemory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

161

Specification state space memory  

E-print Network

Specification state space memory 1/116 #12;Specification state space memory state memory contents 2/116 #12;Specification state space memory int; (0,..20); char; rat state memory contents 3/116 #12;Specification state space memory int; (0,..20); char; rat state memory contents ­2; 15; "A"; 3.14 4/116 #12

Hehner, Eric C.R.

162

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supervisory authority over a financial holding company. An...election to become a financial holding company does...imposing supervisory limitations, restrictions, or prohibitions...has elected to become a financial holding company,...

2010-01-01

163

78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI...days after the application was received. All dates and deadlines in this notice...

2013-10-29

164

77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc....

2012-05-11

165

POW Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

Science Update

2004-07-12

166

The effect of friction in the hold down post spherical bearings on hold down post loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of friction at the connection of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt and the mobile launch platform (MLP) hold down posts was analyzed. A simplified model of the shuttle response during the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) buildup was constructed. The model included the effect of stick-slip friction for the rotation of the skirt about the spherical bearing. Current finite element models assume the joint is completely frictionless in rotation and therefore no moment is transferred between the skirt and the hold down posts. The model was partially verified against test data and preliminary parameter studies were performed. The parameter studies indicated that the coefficient of friction strongly influenced the moment on the hold down posts. The coefficient of friction had little effect on hold down post vertical loads, however. Further calibration of the model is necessary before the effect of friction on the hold down post horizontal loads can be analyzed.

Richardson, James A.

1990-01-01

167

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

168

Memory Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

Exploratorium

2000-01-01

169

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2014-01-01

170

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2013-01-01

171

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2010-01-01

172

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2011-01-01

173

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2012-01-01

174

Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

Mentzer, Nathan

2014-01-01

175

OPTIMAL HOLDING TIMES AT TRANSFER STATIONS  

E-print Network

connecting bus lines. In general, the total expected waiting time function may have multiple local minima that they serve. As a consequence, many travelers must transfer between bus lines to complete their journey based on bus lines in Los Angeles County's Metropolitan Transportation Agency to evaluate holding time

Dessouky, Maged

176

Holding fixture for a hot stamping press  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand held guide for manually positioning a work piece between the anvil rib and tool of a hot die stamping press is described. A groove completed by interchangeable cover plates attached at one end of the guide conforms to a cross sectional dimension common to similar workpieces and, with a force fit, retentively holds each of the workpieces.

Harris, R. P. (inventor)

1983-01-01

177

Comparative Neuroscience Holds Promise for Quiet Revolutions  

E-print Network

Comparative Neuroscience Holds Promise for Quiet Revolutions Theodore H. Bullock are the behavioral, contorted moral- ity, and elaborate rationalization? (The qualifiers are important; it is not the same neuroscience is likely to reach insights so novel as to constitute revolutions in understanding the structure

Belanger, Jim H.

178

A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

1987-01-01

179

Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

2014-01-01

180

The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

1996-01-01

181

Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model  

PubMed Central

How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The early-maturing system (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the late-maturing system (explicit or declarative memory) functions intentionally, with awareness, from late in the first year. Data are presented from research on deferred imitation, sensory preconditioning, potentiation, and context for which this solution cannot account and present an alternative model that eschews the need for multiple memory systems. The ecological model of infant memory development (N. E. Spear, 1984) holds that members of all species are perfectly adapted to their niche at each point in ontogeny and exhibit effective, evolutionarily selected solutions to whatever challenges each new niche poses. Because adults and infants occupy different niches, what they perceive, learn, and remember about the same event differs, but their raw capacity to learn and remember does not. PMID:19209999

Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

2009-01-01

182

Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

Sheel, Minakshi

1997-01-01

183

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

184

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

2009-01-01

185

Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

2010-01-01

186

MPI+OPENMP IMPLEMENTATION OF MEMORY-SAVING PARALLEL PIC APPLICATIONS ON HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTED-SHARED MEMORY  

E-print Network

for the development of memory- saving parallel Particle-in-cell simulation codes, targeted to hierarchical distributedMPI+OPENMP IMPLEMENTATION OF MEMORY-SAVING PARALLEL PIC APPLICATIONS ON HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTED-SHARED MEMORY ARCHITECTURES Sergio Briguglio, Giuliana Fogaccia and Gregorio Vlad Associazione EURATOM

Vlad, Gregorio

187

An analog memory using a CCD memory cell  

E-print Network

. . CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C VITA 34 35 46 54 60 62 63 66 69 71 73 75 78 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Refresh Scheme for Analog Memories 2. Single Electrode CCD . 3. Single Electrode CCD with Depletion... v 5 10 15 20 25 30 Qiny (10 6 C cm 2) Figure 6. Surface Potential versus Charge 10v Bv 4v figure 7. Potential Wells in a CCD tgv 10v iDv figure 8. Potentia'! Wells Holding Charge This model is useful in working with charge coupled devices...

Murray, James Ray

1983-01-01

188

Facilitation of Infants' Recognition Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports four experiments in which infants' recognition memory (defined by novelty preferences) was found to be improved by providing five- to seven-month-old infants with discriminable but related targets during the familiarization period. Facilitation of recognition was found for both photographs of faces and abstract patterns. (JMB)

Fagan, Joseph F., III

1978-01-01

189

Use the call controls To put the call on hold, click Hold.  

E-print Network

calls. You can also plug in any device recommended by your company, such as a USB headset, USB phone and hold the Ctrl key, and click the contacts you want. Then right-click a selected contact, and click

Paulsson, Johan

190

Holding characteristics of fasteners in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satisfactory method was developed for evaluating the holding characteristics of fasteners in bone. Using this method in\\u000a over 100 tests, the ultimate pull-out forces and shear stresses were determined for two sizes of sheet-metal type of screws\\u000a with various interference fits, for a commercial orthopedic self-tapping screw, and for two sizes of machine screws in tapped\\u000a bone, each at

D. Bynum; W. B. Ledbetter; C. L. Boyd; D. R. Ray

1971-01-01

191

Worthington Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

192

Memory clinics  

PubMed Central

Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

2006-01-01

193

A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications.  

PubMed

Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS) are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals) is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a \\"schema\\" that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application \\"schema\\" of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC--INSPIRE). The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application \\"schema\\" that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community. PMID:24893036

Ferrè, Nicola; Kuhn, Werner; Rumor, Massimo; Marangon, Stefano

2014-05-01

194

Disgust- and not fear-evoking images hold our attention.  

PubMed

Even though disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies. The aim of this study was to examine whether fear- and disgust-evoking images would produce different attention bias effects, specifically those related to attention (dis)engagement. Participants were asked to identify a target which was briefly presented around a central image cue, which could either be disgusting, frightening, or neutral. The interval between cue onset and target presentation varied within blocks (200, 500, 800, 1100 ms), allowing us to investigate the time course of attention engagement. Accuracy was lower and reaction times were longer when targets quickly (200 ms) followed disgust-evoking images than when they followed neutral- or fear-evoking images. For the other, longer interval conditions no significant image effects were found. These results suggest that emotion-specific attention effects can be found at very early visual processing stages and that only disgust-evoking images, and not fear-evoking ones, keep hold of our attention for longer. We speculate that this increase in early attention allocation is related to the need to perform a more comprehensive risk-assessment of the disgust-evoking images. The outcomes underline not only the importance of examining the time course of emotion induced attention effects but also the need to look beyond the dimensions of valence and arousal. PMID:23500108

van Hooff, Johanna C; Devue, Christel; Vieweg, Paula E; Theeuwes, Jan

2013-05-01

195

Source Memory in the Real World: A Neuropsychological Study of Flashbulb Memory  

PubMed Central

A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events. PMID:16183624

DAVIDSON, PATRICK S. R.; COOK, SHAUN P.; GLISKY, ELIZABETH L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE; RAPCSAK, STEVEN Z.

2008-01-01

196

GENETIC PROGRAMMING, INDEXED MEMORY, THE HALTING PROBLEM, AND OTHER CURIOSITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic programming (GP) paradigm was designed to evolve functions that are progressively better approximations to some target function. The introduction of memory into GP has opened the Pandora's box which is algorithms. It has been shown that the combination of GP and Indexed Memory can be used to evolve any target algorithm. What has not been shown is the

Astro Teller

197

Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

Schutte, Paul C.

2007-01-01

198

Super Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

2012-06-08

199

Hollow memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

2014-04-01

200

Memory Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the current storm over what constitutes truth – non-fiction – and what is “made up” – fictional – my fascination with the flexibility of memory is suddenly more than a little apropos. Current literary events notwithstanding, I grew up under a dark veil of depression, which seemingly “erased” my childhood. It wasn’t until I delved into

Anne M. McDermott

2006-01-01

201

Memory psychophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between perceptual and cognitive processes has been a topic of increasing interest. This review focuses on the use of techniques and theory drawn from classical psychophysics and applied to the study of mental representation. Several issues including examination of the functions that relate remembered and perceived magnitude to physical intensity, the relationship of memorial to perceptual functions, the

Timothy L. Hubbard

1994-01-01

202

Effects of Memory Load and Distraction on Performance and Event-Related Slow Potentials in a Visuospatial Working Memory Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain electrical activity related to working memory was recorded at 15 scalp electrodes during a visuospatial delayed response task. Participants (N = 18) touched the remembered position of a target on a computer screen after either a 1 or 8 sec delay. These memory trials were compared to sensory trials in which the target remained present throughout the delay and

Gina M. Geffen; Margaret J. Wright; Heather J. Green; Nicole A. Gillespie; David C. Smyth; David M. Evans; Laurence B. Geffen

1997-01-01

203

Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

2014-12-01

204

Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

2005-01-01

205

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much popcorn will our classroom hold? This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting data, prediction, inference, communication, and using number relationships) and applied mathematical process (determining an estimate, using benchmarks, measuring, mapping, etc.) in a meaningful way--getting an authentic glimpse of how these two subjects are inextricably linked.

Katie Rommel-Esham

2007-10-01

206

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

2013-05-15

207

TARGETing "When" and "Where"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Drosophila, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to be crucial for learning and memory, but whether this represents a developmental or a specific effect has not been resolved. Research with a new targeting system that allows both spatial and temporal control of gene expression shows that expression of rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, in the mushroom bodies of adult flies is necessary and sufficient to rescue the learning defect of rutabaga mutant. This demonstrates an acute role for Rutabaga in learning and memory.

Yalin Wang (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV)

2004-02-17

208

Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time  

SciTech Connect

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it`s important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure. This study investigated the current allowable sample holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. In addition to lab spiked samples, groundwater was collected from a well known to contain vinyl chloride. A statistically significant (a = 0.05) decrease in vinyl chloride concentrations was observed over the 14-day holding time. The most significant loss was seen for those samples held the maximum length of time (14 days). No differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during the sampling and handling process. Analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require that multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are required. These findings have implications for the accurate generation of public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

Soule, R.G.; Jones, D.B.A.; Symonik, D.M.; Gerbec, B.A.; Turgeon, D.W. [Minnesota Dept. of Health, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

209

Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

2000-01-01

210

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...decreases, such holdings may not be increased (except as provided under section 4943(c) (5) or (6)). This so-called “downward ratchet rule” is designed to prevent the private foundation from purchasing additional holdings in the...

2010-04-01

211

ISSN 1745-9648 Holding a Candle to Innovation in  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Holding a Candle to Innovation in Concentrating Solar Power Technologies A Study Universität Berlin, Germany. #12;Holding a Candle to Innovation in Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

Feigon, Brooke

212

12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section 925.22 ...HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in...

2010-01-01

213

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...into the tanks terminate in the processing room. (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators. (c) Inlets to holding tanks or vats shall be such as to prevent excessive foaming. (d)...

2014-01-01

214

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...into the tanks terminate in the processing room. (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators. (c) Inlets to holding tanks or vats shall be such as to prevent excessive foaming. (d)...

2011-01-01

215

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...into the tanks terminate in the processing room. (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators. (c) Inlets to holding tanks or vats shall be such as to prevent excessive foaming. (d)...

2012-01-01

216

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...into the tanks terminate in the processing room. (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators. (c) Inlets to holding tanks or vats shall be such as to prevent excessive foaming. (d)...

2010-01-01

217

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2011-04-01

218

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2013-04-01

219

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2014-04-01

220

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2012-04-01

221

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2010-04-01

222

A practical flow-sensitive and context-sensitive C and C++ memory leak detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a static analysis tool that can automatically find memory leaks and deletions of dangling pointers in large C and C++ applications.We have developed a type system to formalize a practical ownership model of memory management. In this model, every object is pointed to by one and only one pointer, which holds the exclusive right and obligation to

David L. Heine; Monica S. Lam

2003-01-01

223

The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

2010-01-01

224

Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Shrum's (1996) heuristic processing model as an explanatory mechanism, we propose that people who hold vivid autobiographical memories for a specific past experience with media violence will overstate the prevalence of real-world crime versus individuals without vivid memories. We also explore the effects of frequency and recency on social reality beliefs. A survey was administered to 207 undergraduate students

Karyn Riddle; W. James Potter; Miriam J. Metzger; Robin L. Nabi; Daniel G. Linz

2011-01-01

225

A space release\\/deployment system actuated by shape memory wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of an innovative hold down\\/release and deployment device actuated by shape memory wires, to be used for the first time for the SMART microsatellite solar wings is shown. The release and deployment mechanisms are actuated by a Shape Memory wire (Nitinol), which allows a complete symmetrical and synchronous release, in a very short time, of

Marino Fragnito; Sergio Vetrella

2002-01-01

226

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

227

TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.  

PubMed

Memory formation requires de novo protein synthesis, and memory disorders may result from misregulated synthesis of critical proteins that remain largely unidentified. Plasma membrane ion channels and receptors are likely candidates given their role in regulating neuron excitability, a candidate memory mechanism. Here we conduct targeted molecular monitoring and quantitation of hippocampal plasma membrane proteins from mice with intact or impaired contextual fear memory to identify putative candidates. Here we report contextual fear memory deficits correspond to increased Trpc3 gene and protein expression, and demonstrate TRPC3 regulates hippocampal neuron excitability associated with memory function. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for enhanced contextual fear memory reported herein following knockdown of TRPC3 in hippocampus. Collectively, TRPC3 modulates memory and may be a feasible target to enhance memory and treat memory disorders. PMID:25513972

Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hope, Kevin A; Hoffmann, Brian; Chong, Jayhong A; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; O'Connell, Kristen M; Tryba, Andrew K; Greene, Andrew S; Savio Chan, C; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

2015-03-15

228

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2014-01-01

229

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2012-01-01

230

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2013-01-01

231

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2011-01-01

232

About HMS Holdings Corp. HMS Holdings Corp. provides end-to-end cost containment services for  

E-print Network

the impact of healthcare reform on clients, through online educational webinars and blogs. Growth Reaches for government and private healthcare payors and sponsors. Operating through several subsidiaries, HMS recovered to other vital IT needs. Keeping Healthcare Financially Healthy Since its founding in 1974, HMS Holdings

Fisher, Kathleen

233

Modulation of alpha power at encoding and retrieval tracks the precision of visual short-term memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to hold information in mind is strictly limited. We sought to understand the relationship between oscillatory brain activity and the allocation of resources within visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants attempted to remember target arrows embedded among distracters and used a continuous method of responding to report their memory for a cued target item. Trial-to-trial variability in the absolute circular accuracy with which participants could report the target was predicted by event-related alpha synchronization during initial processing of the memoranda and by alpha desynchronization during the retrieval of those items from VSTM. Using a model-based approach, we were also able to explore further which parameters of VSTM-guided behavior were most influenced by alpha band changes. Alpha synchronization during item processing enhanced the precision with which an item could be retained without affecting the likelihood of an item being represented per se (as indexed by the guessing rate). Importantly, our data outline a neural mechanism that mirrors the precision with which items are retained; the greater the alpha power enhancement during encoding, the greater the precision with which that item can be retained. PMID:25210151

Poliakov, E.; Stokes, M. G.; Woolrich, M. W.; Mantini, D.

2014-01-01

234

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

235

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

236

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

237

Spatial resolution in visual memory.  

PubMed

Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory. PMID:25112394

Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

2015-04-01

238

Does the method of data detrending matter? A study of the KPSS test against long memory alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the finding of Schmidt, who shows that the consistency of the KPSS test (stationarity against unit root) may no longer hold if it is based on a different data detrending procedure, by considering long memory alternatives.

Jen-je Su

1998-01-01

239

Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

2008-01-01

240

Development of Visual Working Memory Precision in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and empirical innovation to investigate instead the…

Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M.; Husain, Masud

2012-01-01

241

Visual Memory and Imagery Visual Memory  

E-print Network

Procedural ­ general knowledge of general skills Episodic ­ information about experiences #12;22 Visual;35 Sleep Tarnow's theory ­ LTM is stored in dream format Doesn't matter how we learned information. How does sleep affect our memory? #12;36 Sleep = better memory? Sleep benefits memory retention

Majumder, Aditi

242

Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

2006-01-01

243

A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

2010-01-01

244

Recollection can support hybrid visual memory search.  

PubMed

On a daily basis, we accomplish the task of searching our visual environment for one of a number of possible objects, like searching for any one of our friends in a crowd, and we do this with ease. Understanding how attention, perception, and long-term memory interact to accomplish this process remains an important question. Recent research (Wolfe in Psychological Science 23:698-703, 2012) has shown that increasing the number of possible targets one is searching for adds little cost to the efficiency of visual search-specifically, that response times increase logarithmically with memory set size. It is unclear, however, what type of recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection) supports a hybrid visual memory search. Previous hybrid search paradigms create conditions that allow participants to rely on the familiarity of perceptually identical targets. In two experiments, we show that hybrid search remains efficient even when the familiarity of targets is minimized (Experiment 1) and when participants are encouraged to flexibly retrieve target information that is perceptually distinct from the information previously studied (Experiment 2). We propose that such efficient and flexible performance on a hybrid search task may engage a rapid from of recollection (Moscovitch in Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 62:62-79, 2008). We discuss possible neural correlates supporting simultaneous perception, comparison of incoming information, and recollection of episodic memories. PMID:23884688

Guild, Emma B; Cripps, Jenna M; Anderson, Nicole D; Al-Aidroos, Naseem

2014-02-01

245

Optical memory  

DOEpatents

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02

246

[Memory and synaptic plasticity].  

PubMed

Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. PMID:8763628

Maitre, M

1996-01-01

247

Memory Systems Doug Burger  

E-print Network

--at a reasonable cost. The memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers generally contain registers) and virtual memory (on a magnetic or optical disk). Figure 1 shows a memory hierarchy typical of today's (1995 of the hierarchy. The memory hierarchy usually reduces bandwidth requirements by intercepting a fraction

Burger, Doug

248

Memory Hierarchy Configuration Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical study of speed-cost tradeoffs in memory hierarchy design. It develops an optimization criterion by which average access time, i. e., memory system delay, is minimized under a cost constraint for a hierarchy with given memory sizes and access probabilities. Using a power function assumption relating speed and cost of memory units, it is shown that

Terry A. Welch

1978-01-01

249

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

250

Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

2009-01-01

251

Effects of oxytocin on the fear memory reconsolidation.  

PubMed

Oxytoxin (OT) promotes social behavior and reduces anxiety. A great number of studies suggest that OT plays a role in learning and memory processes in animals and humans. Fear memories are rendered labile and prone to modification after reactivation and a restabilization and reconsolidation process is necessary for future memory conservation. This process is crucial for modulation of an existing memory and forms a promising therapeutic target for pathological memory disorders. In this study, we investigated whether a single systemic injection of OT has effects on reconsolidation of fear memories. We found post-reactivation administration of OT impairs reconsolidation of these memories and the impairment effect is reactivation-dependent. Postreactivation short-term fear memories and the learning of new fear memory were unaffected by OT. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of OT in persistently impairing fear memory retention by blocking reconsolidation in rats. OT administration after retrieval of fear memories may open a new avenue to treat pathological memory-related disorders. PMID:25796180

Hou, Yu; Zhao, Liyan; Zhang, Genai; Ding, Lixiang

2015-05-01

252

Epigenetic Priming of Memory Updating during Reconsolidation to Attenuate Remote Fear Memories  

PubMed Central

Summary Traumatic events generate some of the most enduring forms of memories. Despite the elevated lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, effective strategies to attenuate long-term traumatic memories are scarce. The most efficacious treatments to diminish recent (i.e., day-old) traumata capitalize on memory updating mechanisms during reconsolidation that are initiated upon memory recall. Here, we show that, in mice, successful reconsolidation-updating paradigms for recent memories fail to attenuate remote (i.e., month-old) ones. We find that, whereas recent memory recall induces a limited period of hippocampal neuroplasticity mediated, in part, by S-nitrosylation of HDAC2 and histone acetylation, such plasticity is absent for remote memories. However, by using an HDAC2-targeting inhibitor (HDACi) during reconsolidation, even remote memories can be persistently attenuated. This intervention epigenetically primes the expression of neuroplasticity-related genes, which is accompanied by higher metabolic, synaptic, and structural plasticity. Thus, applying HDACis during memory reconsolidation might constitute a treatment option for remote traumata. PMID:24439381

Gräff, Johannes; Joseph, Nadine F.; Horn, Meryl E.; Samiei, Alireza; Meng, Jia; Seo, Jinsoo; Rei, Damien; Bero, Adam W.; Phan, Trongha X.; Wagner, Florence; Holson, Edward; Xu, Jinbin; Sun, Jianjun; Neve, Rachael L.; Mach, Robert H.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Tsai, Li-Huei

2014-01-01

253

The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.  

PubMed

The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. PMID:24933185

Pitsikas, Nikolaos

2015-05-15

254

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

255

Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

Schueler, Robert M.

2008-01-01

256

Task-based working memory guidance of visual attention.  

PubMed

Previous research has established that holding a stimulus in working memory (WM) facilitates the deployment of visual attention to that stimulus relative to other stimuli. The present study examined whether maintaining a specific task in WM would also bias the allocation of attention to the stimuli associated with that task. Participants performed a speeded letter search task while simultaneously keeping in WM one of two task cues shown at the beginning of each trial. The results showed that task-based WM guidance of attention was modulated by response latencies. Whereas the participants with fast reaction times showed little influence of WM contents, the participants with slow reaction times took longer to respond when the letter target appeared in a distractor stimulus consistent with the task cue held in mind. A subsequent Stroop experiment found a larger Stroop interference effect from the participants in the slow group compared with those in the fast group, suggesting that the differential WM effect between the two groups may be associated with an individual's ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information. Taken together, these results expanded the realm of previous research and provided further evidence for a close link between attention and WM. PMID:21264740

Chen, Zhe; Tsou, Brian H

2011-05-01

257

Scene and Position Specificity in Visual Memory for Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether and how visual representations of individual objects are bound in memory to scene context. Participants viewed a series of naturalistic scenes, and memory for the visual form of a target object in each scene was examined in a 2-alternative forced-choice test, with the distractor object either a different object…

Hollingworth, Andrew

2006-01-01

258

Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

2008-01-01

259

A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

2008-01-01

260

Identifying and characterizing the effects of nutrition on hippocampal memory.  

PubMed

In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally, we discuss selected findings from animal and human research on nutrition and the hippocampus and advocate for the role of relational memory tasks in future research. PMID:24829486

Monti, Jim M; Baym, Carol L; Cohen, Neal J

2014-05-01

261

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2011-01-01

262

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2012-01-01

263

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2012-01-01

264

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

265

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2011-01-01

266

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

267

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...217 to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2014-01-01

268

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2014-01-01

269

[Memory transfer in cerebellar motor learning].  

PubMed

Most of our motor skills are acquired through learning. Experiments of gain adaptation of ocular reflexes have consistently suggested that the memory of adaptation is initially formed in the cerebellar cortex, and is transferred to the cerebellar (vestibular) nuclei for consolidation to long-term memory after repetitions of training. We have recently developed a new system to evaluate the motor learning in human subjects using prism adaptation of hand reaching movement, by referring to the prism adaptation of dart throwing of Martin et al. (1996). In our system, the subject views the small target presented in the touch-panel screen, and touches it with his/her finger without direct visual feedback. After 15-30 trials of touching wearing prisms, an adaptation occurs in healthy subjects: they became able to touch the target correctly. Meanwhile, such an adaptation was impaired in patients of cerebellar disease. We have proposed a model of human prism adaptation that the memory of adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and is later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei after repetitions of training. The memory in the cerebellar cortex may be formed and extinguished independently of the memory maintained in the cerebellar nuclei, and these two memories work cooperatively. PMID:23196495

Nagao, Soichi

2012-01-01

270

Retroactive interference effects in implicit memory.  

PubMed

One source of evidence for separate explicit and implicit memory systems is that explicit but not implicit memory is impacted by interference (e.g., Graf & Schacter, 1987). The present experiment examined whether retroactive interference (RI) effects could be obtained in implicit memory when a strong test of RI was used. People studied an original list of word pairs (e.g., COTTON-PRIZE) using the typical RI paradigm. During the interpolated phase, participants studied either interference pairs for which the same cue was re-paired with a different target (e.g., COTTON-PRINT) or novel pairs (e.g., HOST-VASE). RI was tested with the modified opposition cued recall test (Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent-Marshall, 2003). The original-list cue was presented along with the beginning stem of its target (e.g., COTTON-PRI-) and a hint (e.g., not PRINT). RI effects were obtained for explicit and implicit memory. Taken together with prior research finding proactive interference effects in implicit memory, the findings indicate that implicit memory is not immune from retroactive interference. PMID:22329791

Eakin, Deborah K; Smith, Robert

2012-09-01

271

Virginia Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

272

Scratchpad memory: design alternative for cache on-chip memory in embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of on-chip memory selection for computationally intensive applications, by proposing scratch pad memory as an alternative to cache. Area and energy for different scratch pad and cache sizes are computed using the CACTI tool while performance was evaluated using the trace results of the simulator. The target processor chosen for evaluation was AT91M40400.

Rajeshwari Banakar; Stefan Steinke; Bo-Sik Lee; M. Balakrishnan; Peter Marwedel

2002-01-01

273

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

274

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

275

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

276

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

277

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2013-04-01

278

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2014-04-01

279

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2011-04-01

280

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2012-04-01

281

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL  

E-print Network

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL JOHN HAYES CARL SHAPIRO THERESA SULLIVAN* I. STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP: A TROUBLESOME MIX Standard setting raises a variety of antitrust strategy in standard setting, and Shapiro ad- dresses the boundary between cooperative standard setting

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

282

Water holding of biochar amended SE Coastal Plain soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because southeastern Coastal Plain soils are sandy, poorly aggregated, and low in organic matter, they have low water holding capacities. Water holding can be improved with biochar amendments that have the potential to increase aggregation and provide a medium of water storage in the char. Changes i...

283

35. REDUCTION PLANT HOLDING TANKS View just to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. REDUCTION PLANT - HOLDING TANKS View just to the right of Photo No. 34. Note holding tanks for fish awaiting reduction, and cement bases (in front of tanks) for dryers and power units (right). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

284

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

285

Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

286

Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

Crawford, R. P.

1967-01-01

287

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

288

Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

2011-01-01

289

Chromatin inheritance upon Zeste-mediated Brahma recruitment at a minimal cellular memory module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group and trithorax group proteins maintain the memory of repressed and active chromatin states by reg- ulating chromatin of their target genes via DNA sequences termed Polycomb- and trithorax response elements. Since these elements often overlap and are able to convey the memory of both silent and active chromatin through cell division, they were also defined as cellular memory

Jérôme Déjardin; Giacomo Cavalli

2004-01-01

290

Comparison of Kalman and finite memory filtering for gun fire control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite memory filter is developed for gun fire control and compared to a Kalman filter. As opposed to the Kalman filter, the finite memory filter does not require a priori information concerning measurement or target noise statistics. In addition, the finite memory filter was implemented using a new recursive algorithm which dramatically reduces its computational burden. It is shown

F. William Nesline; Paul Zarchan

1978-01-01

291

COMeT: Continuous Online Memory Test Musfiq Rahman, Bruce R. Childers and Sangyeun Cho  

E-print Network

COMeT: Continuous Online Memory Test Musfiq Rahman, Bruce R. Childers and Sangyeun Cho Computer. We present the challenges and design for an approach, called Continuous Online Memory Testing (COMeT), that targets chip multiprocessors. COMeT tests memory health simultaneously with application execution

Cho, Sangyeun

292

Targeted Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide, as well as a common cause of cancer-related death. HCC frequently occurs in the setting of a diseased cirrhotic liver and many patients present at an advanced stage of disease. Together with a poor functional status, this often precludes the use of systemic therapy, especially conventional cytotoxic drugs. Moreover, HCC is known to be a relatively chemo-refractory tumor. There have been many targeted drugs that have shown potential in the treatment of HCC. Many clinical trials have been carried out with many more in progress. They include trials evaluating a single targeted therapy alone, two or more targeted therapy in tandem or a combination of targeted therapy and conventional chemotherapy. In this article, we seek to review some of the more important trials examining the use of targeted therapy in HCC and to look into what the future holds in terms of targeted treatment of HCC. PMID:21994852

Chua, Clarinda W. L.; Choo, Su Pin

2011-01-01

293

The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

2012-12-01

294

Memory beyond expression.  

PubMed

The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

2014-01-01

295

74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING EAST AT LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

296

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory  

E-print Network

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA Center

Schacter, Daniel

297

Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories  

E-print Network

Non-volatile memories are an emerging storage technology with wide applica- tions in many important areas. This study focuses on new storage techniques for flash memories and phase-change memories. Flash memories are currently the most widely used...

Li, Hao

2010-10-12

298

High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

Liu, Yu.

1993-01-01

299

How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory ‘object-recall’ task?  

PubMed Central

This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory (VSTM) object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76), and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30) adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised two or four real world objects (the memory load) presented sequentially, each for 650 ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000 ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented two or four memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors) vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors) were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants) when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items), false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets), slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits. PMID:25653615

Sapkota, Raju P.; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina

2015-01-01

300

Cerebellar contributions to spatial memory.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence for a role for the cerebellum in working memory (WM). The majority of relevant studies has examined verbal WM and has suggested specialisation of the right cerebellar hemisphere for language processing. Our study used theta burst stimulation (TBS) to examine whether there is a converse cerebellar hemispheric specialisation for spatial WM. We conducted two experiments to examine spatial WM performance before and after TBS to mid-hemispheric and lateral locations in the posterior cerebellum. Participants were required to recall the order of presentation of targets on a screen or the targets' order of presentation and their locations. We observed impaired recollection of target order after TBS to the mid left cerebellar hemisphere and reduced response speed after TBS to the left lateral cerebellum. We suggest that these results give evidence of the contributions of the left cerebellar cortex to the encoding and retrieval of spatial information. PMID:25004407

Tomlinson, Simon P; Davis, Nick J; Morgan, Helen M; Bracewell, R Martyn

2014-08-22

301

Bacteria Holding Time and DegradationBacteria Holding Time and Degradation Presented to CA State Water Resources Control Board  

E-print Network

* time Putah Creek ­ Initial StudyPutah Creek ­ Initial Study Lab Sample Site Generic E. coli (cfu/100ml.7 - 0.01 * (hold time hr) ln(E.coli) = 4.6 - 0.008 * (hold time hr) Effect (p at 4 C on generic E. coli and fecal coliform in samples from Putah Creek, Davis, CA. Samples processed

Tate, Kenneth

302

Shielding cognition from nociception with working memory.  

PubMed

Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, nociceptive stimuli have the capacity to capture attention and interfere with ongoing cognitive activities. Working memory is known to guide the orientation of attention by maintaining goal priorities active during the achievement of a task. This study investigated whether the cortical processing of nociceptive stimuli and their ability to capture attention are under the control of working memory. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed primary tasks on visual targets that required or did not require rehearsal in working memory (1-back vs 0-back conditions). The visual targets were shortly preceded by task-irrelevant tactile stimuli. Occasionally, in order to distract the participants, the tactile stimuli were replaced by novel nociceptive stimuli. In the 0-back conditions, task performance was disrupted by the occurrence of the nociceptive distracters, as reflected by the increased reaction times in trials with novel nociceptive distracters as compared to trials with standard tactile distracters. In the 1-back conditions, such a difference disappeared suggesting that attentional capture and task disruption induced by nociceptive distracters were suppressed by working memory, regardless of task demands. Most importantly, in the conditions involving working memory, the magnitude of nociceptive ERPs, including ERP components at early latency, were significantly reduced. This indicates that working memory is able to modulate the cortical processing of nociceptive input already at its earliest stages, and could explain why working memory reduces consequently ability of nociceptive stimuli to capture attention and disrupt performance of the primary task. It is concluded that protecting cognitive processing against pain interference is best guaranteed by keeping out of working memory pain-related information. PMID:23026759

Legrain, Valéry; Crombez, Geert; Plaghki, Léon; Mouraux, André

2013-01-01

303

Memory abstractions for parallel programming  

E-print Network

A memory abstraction is an abstraction layer between the program execution and the memory that provides a different "view" of a memory location depending on the execution context in which the memory access is made. Properly ...

Lee, I-Ting Angelina

2012-01-01

304

Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories  

E-print Network

Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories global, constant, and shared memories Verschelde, 2 April 2014 Introduction to Supercomputing (MCS 572) Device Memories & Matrix Multiplication L-31 2 April 2014 1 / 28 #12;Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories global

Verschelde, Jan

305

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

, 1990). Personal incident memory MEMORY, 2004, 12 (1), 56±74 # 2004 Psychology Press Ltd httpMemory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity

Addis, Donna Rose

306

Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare. PMID:24782810

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

2014-01-01

307

Appearance-Based Inferences Bias Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Previous research varying the trustworthiness of appearance has demonstrated that facial characteristics contribute to source memory. Two studies extended this work by investigating the contribution to source memory of babyfaceness, a facial quality known to elicit strong spontaneous trait inferences. Young adult participants viewed younger and older babyfaced and mature-faced individuals paired with sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the target's facial characteristics. Identifying a source as dominant or submissive was least accurate when participants chose between a target whose behavior was incongruent with facial characteristics and a lure whose face mismatched the target in appearance, but matched the source memory question. In Study 1, this effect held true when identifying older sources, but not own-age, younger sources. When task difficulty was increased in Study 2, the relationship between face-behavior congruence and lure facial characteristics persisted, but it was not moderated by target age even though participants continued to correctly identify fewer older than younger sources. Taken together, these results indicate that trait expectations associated with variations in facial maturity can bias source memory for both own- and other-age faces, although own-age faces are less vulnerable to this bias, as shown in the moderation by task difficulty. PMID:22806429

Cassidy, Brittany S.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Gutchess, Angela H.

2012-01-01

308

Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval.  

PubMed

Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an imagination task supposed to induce a change in mental context, whereas the other half performed a counting task which does not induce such context change. Following presentation of a second list, memory for the original list's target items was tested, either with or without preceding retrieval of the list's nontarget items. Consistent with previous work, preceding nontarget retrieval impaired target recall in the absence of the context change, but improved target recall in its presence. In particular, there was a positive relationship between WMC and the beneficial, but not the detrimental effect of memory retrieval. On the basis of the view that the beneficial effect of memory retrieval reflects context-reactivation processes, the results indicate that individuals with higher WMC are better able to capitalise on retrieval-induced context reactivation than individuals with lower WMC. PMID:24946840

Schlichting, Andreas; Aslan, Alp; Holterman, Christoph; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

2015-07-01

309

Silicon nanocrystal memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an overview of memory structures fabricated by our group by using silicon nanocrystals as storage nodes. These devices show promising characteristics as candidates for future deep-submicron non-volatile memories.

S. Lombardo; B. De Salvo; C. Gerardi; T. Baron

2004-01-01

310

Drifting absence :: drafting memory  

E-print Network

The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

Kuhn, Marlene Eva

2006-01-01

311

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over ... that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for Older Adults? ...

312

Memorial prize winner named.  

PubMed

The Queen's Nursing Institute (QNI) has announced the first recipient of the Philip Goodeve-Docker Memorial Prize, named in memory of a young man who died while raising funds for the charity. PMID:25408015

2014-11-25

313

Uniform Memory Hierarchies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce a model, called the uniform memory hierarchy (UMH) model, which reflects the hierarchical nature of computer memory more accurately than the RAM (random-access-machine) model, which assumes that any item in memory can be accessed with unit cost. In the model memory occurs as a sequence of increasingly large levels. Data are transferred between levels in fixed-size blocks

Bowen Alpern; Larry Carter; Ephraim Feig

1990-01-01

314

T Cell Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell memory induced by prior infection or vaccination provides enhanced protection against subsequent microbial infections.\\u000a The processes involved in generating and maintaining T cell memory are becoming better understood due to recent technological\\u000a advances in identifying memory T cells and monitoring their behavior and function in vivo. Memory T cells develop in response\\u000a to a progressive set of cues—starting

J. Tan; C. Surh

315

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

316

Associative Memory Acceptors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

Card, Roger

317

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors  

E-print Network

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors: Simon Ible, Director of Music, Peninsula Arts, Plymouth University Eduardo R. Miranda, Professor of Computer Music, Plymouth University Sensing Memory As well as creating a platform for music emerging from research, this year's festival will explore the theme of memory

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

318

Memory Consolidation in Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss several lines of evidence refuting the hypothesis that procedural or declarative memories are processed\\/consolidated in sleep. One of the strongest arguments against a role for sleep in declarative memory involves the demonstration that the marked suppression or elimination of REM sleep in subjects on antidepressant drugs or with brainstem lesions produces no detrimental effects on cognition. Procedural memory,

Robert P. Vertes

2004-01-01

319

Stephenson Memorial Concert Series  

E-print Network

Stephenson Memorial Concert Series 1997-1998 #12;Stephenson Memorial Concert Series Dorian Wind Stokes Auditorium The Stephenson Memorial Concert fund was established in 1987 by the late Louis B life. Following his death a few months after his retirement, the concerts also honored their son, John

Baltisberger, Jay H.

320

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

321

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

322

Origins of Autobiographical Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested predictions of infantile amnesia theory compared with social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory. Found maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition when child was 19 months old uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out.…

Harley, Keryn; Reese, Elaine

1999-01-01

323

The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

324

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1-4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on…

Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Thomas, Ruthann; Mayfield, Sara; Shank, Hilary; Morrisette, Nova; Breneiser, Jennifer

2005-01-01

325

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1–4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on the speed of performing the ongoing task. In

Gilles O. Einstein; Mark A. McDaniel; Ruthann Thomas; Sara Mayfield; Hilary Shank; Nova Morrisette; Jennifer Breneiser

2005-01-01

326

Attentional priority determines working memory precision.  

PubMed

Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information. PMID:25240420

Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

2014-12-01

327

Framework for Targeting Banner Advertising On the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints that limit accurate targeting of advertising in traditional media may not hold in cyberspace. This paper presents a model for effectively and efficiently targeting hypermedia-based banner advertisements in an online information service. The model takes advantage of information technology to micro-target banner advertisements based on individual characteristics of users. A simple version of the model, which has the virtue

Katherine Gallagher; Jeffrey Parsons

1997-01-01

328

Bone Drug Holds Promise as Therapy for People with OA  

MedlinePLUS

... Research 2012 January 2012 Bone Drug Holds Promise as Therapy for People with OA Researchers supported by ... But in OA, chondrocytes in the joint behave as they would in bone, maturing excessively and mineralizing ...

329

12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

2011-01-01

330

12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section 225.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

2010-01-01

331

26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding...order to prevent evasion of taxes or clearly to reflect the income...desired the services of A for an entertainment program it planned,...

2010-04-01

332

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

333

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

334

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

335

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

336

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2013-10-01

337

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

338

7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...account of the Board, the quantity of almonds necessary to meet his reserve obligation...the Board of responsibility to so hold almonds. Upon demand of the Board...

2010-01-01

339

Electrical Evaluation of RCA MWS5501D Random Access Memory, Volume 2, Appendix a  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical characterization and qualification test results are presented for the RCA MWS5001D random access memory. The tests included functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, AC parametric worst-case pattern selection test, determination of worst-case transition for setup and hold times, and a series of schmoo plots. The address access time, address readout time, the data hold time, and the data setup time are some of the results surveyed.

Klute, A.

1979-01-01

340

Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.  

PubMed

Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

2012-06-01

341

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

342

Origins of autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

This study tested the predictions of M. L. Howe and M. L. Courage's (1993, 1997) theory of infantile amnesia compared with a social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory development (R. Fivush & E. Reese, 1992; K. Nelson, 1993b). Fifty-eight mother-child dyads were assessed for maternal styles of talking about the past and for children's self-recognition, language production, and nonverbal memory when the children were 19 months old. Children's shared and independent memory reports were then assessed from 19 to 32 months. Maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out. Self-recognition skills also predicted children's later independent memory. These results support a pluralistic account of the origins of autobiographical memory. PMID:10493658

Harley, K; Reese, E

1999-09-01

343

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

344

Pattern recognition with parallel associative memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination is conducted of the feasibility of searching targets in aerial photographs by means of a parallel associative memory (PAM) that is based on the nearest-neighbor algorithm; the Hamming distance is used as a measure of closeness, in order to discriminate patterns. Attention has been given to targets typically used for ground-control points. The method developed sorts out approximate target positions where precise localizations are needed, in the course of the data-acquisition process. The majority of control points in different images were correctly identified.

Toth, Charles K.; Schenk, Toni

1990-01-01

345

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

1992-09-01

346

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

1992-01-01

347

Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose–volume histograms were calculated, and the volumes of heart/lung irradiated to given doses were assessed. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) mean and maximum doses were calculated, together with tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for lung and heart. Results For all patients a reduction of at least 16% in lung mean dose and at least 20% in irradiated pulmonary volumes was observed when DIBH was applied. Heart and LAD maximum doses were decreased by more than 78% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pneumonitis and long term cardiac mortality were also reduced by about 11% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pericarditis were zero for both DIBH and FB. Conclusion Delivering radiation in DIBH conditions the dose to the surrounding normal structures could be reduced, in particular heart, LAD and lung, due to increased distance between target and heart, and to reduced lung density. PMID:24423396

2013-01-01

348

77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM Solutions, Inc., Gold Star Tutoring Services Inc., and GPS Industries, Inc.; Order...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gold Star Tutoring Services, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2012-11-16

349

Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories.  

PubMed

Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

Vuvan, Dominique T; Podolak, Olivia M; Schmuckler, Mark A

2014-01-01

350

Fixation duration surpasses pupil size as a measure of memory load in free viewing  

PubMed Central

Oculomotor behavior reveals, not only the acquisition of visual information at fixation, but also the accumulation of information in memory across subsequent fixations. Two candidate measures were considered as indicators of such dynamic visual memory load: fixation duration and pupil size. While recording these measures, we displayed an arrangement of 3, 4 or 5 targets among distractors. Both occurred in various orientations. Participants searched for targets and reported whether in a subsequent display one of them had changed orientation. We determined to what extent fixation duration and pupil size indicate dynamic memory load, as a function of the number of targets fixated during the search. We found that fixation duration reflects the number of targets, both when this number is within and above the limit of working memory capacity. Pupil size reflects the number of targets only when it exceeds the capacity limit. Moreover, the duration of fixations on successive targets but not on distractors increases whereas pupil size does not. The increase in fixation duration with number of targets both within and above working memory capacity suggests that in free viewing fixation duration is sensitive to actual memory load as well as to processing load, whereas pupil size is indicative of processing load only. Two alternative models relating visual attention and working memory are considered relevant to these results. We discuss the results as supportive of a model which involves a temporary buffer in the interaction of attention and working memory. PMID:25653606

Meghanathan, Radha Nila; van Leeuwen, Cees; Nikolaev, Andrey R.

2015-01-01

351

Cache Basics Cache Performance Memory Organization Virtual Memory Engineering 9859  

E-print Network

-- Computer Architecture Memory Hierarchy Design Dennis Peters1 Fall 2007 1 Based on notes from Dr. R;Cache Basics Cache Performance Memory Organization Virtual Memory Memory hierarchy ­ Why and How slower (due to high decoding time and other reasons). · Therefore, hierarchy of memory: · locate small

Peters, Dennis

352

Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

2010-07-01

353

Memory Benchmarks for SMP-Based High Performance Parallel Computers  

SciTech Connect

As the speed gap between CPU and main memory continues to grow, memory accesses increasingly dominates the performance of many applications. The problem is particularly acute for symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems, where the shared memory may be accessed concurrently by a group of threads running on separate CPUs. Unfortunately, several key issues governing memory system performance in current systems are not well understood. Complex interactions between the levels of the memory hierarchy, buses or switches, DRAM back-ends, system software, and application access patterns can make it difficult to pinpoint bottlenecks and determine appropriate optimizations, and the situation is even more complex for SMP systems. To partially address this problem, we formulated a set of multi-threaded microbenchmarks for characterizing and measuring the performance of the underlying memory system in SMP-based high-performance computers. We report our use of these microbenchmarks on two important SMP-based machines. This paper has four primary contributions. First, we introduce a microbenchmark suite to systematically assess and compare the performance of different levels in SMP memory hierarchies. Second, we present a new tool based on hardware performance monitors to determine a wide array of memory system characteristics, such as cache sizes, quickly and easily; by using this tool, memory performance studies can be targeted to the full spectrum of performance regimes with many fewer data points than is otherwise required. Third, we present experimental results indicating that the performance of applications with large memory footprints remains largely constrained by memory. Fourth, we demonstrate that thread-level parallelism further degrades memory performance, even for the latest SMPs with hardware prefetching and switch-based memory interconnects.

Yoo, A B; de Supinski, B; Mueller, F; Mckee, S A

2001-11-20

354

A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

2012-01-01

355

Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.  

PubMed

Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target. PMID:23356238

Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

2013-07-01

356

Temperature memory effect in amorphous shape memory polymers.  

PubMed

Temperature memory effect (TME) refers to the ability of shape memory polymers (SMPs) to memorize the temperature at which pre-deformation was conducted. In the past few years, this TME was experimentally demonstrated by comparing the applied programming temperature (Td) with a characteristic recovery temperature (Tc), which corresponds to either the maximum recovery stress or free recovery speed. In these well-designed experiments, Tc was observed to be close to Td, which is consistent with the intuitive understanding of 'memorization'. However, since the polymer recovery behavior has been proved to be strongly dependent on various programming and recovery conditions, a new question that whether Tc is always equal to Td in any thermo-temporal conditions remains to be addressed. In this paper, we answered this question by examining the free recovery profile of an acrylate based amorphous SMP. The recovery Tc, which is the temperature with the maximum recovery speed, versus the recovery temperature is shown to be strongly dependent on both programming and recovery conditions. Their detailed influence could be explained by using the reduced time. During a thermomechanical working cycle of SMPs, in addition to the Td, any other thermo-temporal conditions, such as the holding time (th), cooling rate, recovery heating rate (q), etc., can affect the observed Tc by changing the reduced programming or recovery time. In this manner, the relationship between Tc and Td is not uniquely determined. Besides, the TME in SMPs can only be achieved within a given temperature range. Both onset and offset of this temperature range are shown to be influenced by the programming history, but are independent of the recovery conditions. PMID:25354272

Yu, Kai; Qi, H Jerry

2014-12-21

357

Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

2013-01-01

358

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

359

Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

2014-12-01

360

Sputter target  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

1980-01-01

361

Optical mass memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical and magnetic variants in the design of trillion-bit read/write memories are compared and tabulated. Components and materials suitable for a random access read/write nonmoving memory system are examined, with preference given to holography and photoplastic materials. Advantages and deficiencies of photoplastics are reviewed. Holographic page composer design, essential features of an optical memory with no moving parts, fiche-oriented random access memory design, and materials suitable for an efficient photoplastic fiche are considered. The optical variants offer advantages in lower volume and weight at data transfer rates near 1 Mbit/sec, but power drain is of the same order as for the magnetic variants (tape memory, disk memory). The mechanical properties of photoplastic film materials still leave much to be desired.

Bailey, G. A.

1976-01-01

362

78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' FOR...

2013-02-19

363

78 FR 17155 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Correction AGENCY...harvesting, packing, and holding of produce, meaning fruits and vegetables grown...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' The...

2013-03-20

364

78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment...Harvesting, Packing and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' and for its...Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' The...

2013-11-20

365

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2013-10-01

366

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2010-10-01

367

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2012-10-01

368

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2011-10-01

369

46 CFR 32.55-15 - Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for hold spaces-TB/ALL. 32.55-15...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-15 Ventilation for hold spaces—TB/ALL. Hold...

2014-10-01

370

26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company...more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding capital...of the corporation, the personal holding company tax...

2010-04-01

371

78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Training Administration [TA-W-81,317] Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies...applicable to workers and former workers of Dana Holding Company, Power Technologies Group...investigation, I determine that workers of Dana Holding Company, Power Technologies...

2013-01-08

372

17 CFR 240.17i-8 - Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies. 240.17i-8...Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240...Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies. (a) A...

2010-04-01

373

17 CFR 240.17i-6 - Reporting requirements for supervised investment bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reporting requirements for supervised investment bank holding companies. 240.17i-6 Section...Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-6...Reporting requirements for supervised investment bank holding companies. (a) Monthly...

2010-04-01

374

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2011-04-01

375

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2010-04-01

376

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2012-04-01

377

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2013-04-01

378

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2014-04-01

379

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2013-10-01

380

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2014-10-01

381

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2011-10-01

382

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2012-10-01

383

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2012-04-01

384

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2011-04-01

385

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2014-04-01

386

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2013-04-01

387

1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EVERGREEN SCREEN BEHIND MEMORIAL (MEMORIAL NOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EVERGREEN SCREEN BEHIND MEMORIAL (MEMORIAL NOT VISIBLE) - Adams Memorial, Rock Creek Cemetery, Section E, entrance at Webster Street & Rock Creek Church Road Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

388

Astronaut Memorial Space Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A view of the Astronaut Memorial Space Mirror at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The memorial is a national tribute to the 17 American astronauts who gave their lives in the quest to explore space. The memorial has received added attention since the loss of the Columbia crew on February 1, 2003, when they perished in an explosion as they were returning to Earth from mission STS-107. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

2003-01-01

389

Memory Golf Clubs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

1997-01-01

390

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

391

Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving  

E-print Network

We present a theoretical model for calculating the locomotion cost of breath-hold divers. Starting from basic principles of mechanics, we calculate the work that the diver has to provide with propulsion for counterbalance the action of the drag, the buoyant force and the weight during the immersion. The basal metabolic rate and the efficiency to transform chemical energy in propulsion are also considered for the calculation of the total energy cost of a dive. The dependency on the diver and dive characteristics and possible optimisations are analysed and discussed. Our results are compared to observation on different breath-hold diving animals. The model confirms the good adaptation of dolphin for deep dives, and it gives some insights for a possible explanation of the exhalation of air before diving observed in seals. A comparison between predicted and observed swim velocities of different breath-hold mammals confirms the importance of the role of the diving reflex.

Trassinelli, Martino

2015-01-01

392

Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

Grisham, L. R. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2009-04-15

393

Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

Grisham, L. R.

2009-04-01

394

Dissociable Neural Routes to Successful Prospective Memory  

PubMed Central

Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. One account is that top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, self-initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests bottom-up spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention; sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and fMRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional control areas, such as anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

McDaniel, Mark A.; LaMontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

2015-01-01

395

Memory impairment among people who are homeless: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment may interfere with an individual's ability to function independently in the community and may increase the risk of becoming and remaining homeless. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on memory deficits among people who are homeless in order to gain a better understanding of its nature, causes and prevalence. Studies that measured memory functioning as an outcome among a sample of homeless persons were included. Data on sampling, outcome measures, facet of memory explored and prevalence of memory impairment were extracted from all selected research studies. Included studies were evaluated using a critical appraisal process targetted for reviewing prevalance studies. Eleven studies were included in the review. Verbal memory was the most commonly studied facet of memory. Potential contributing factors to memory deficits among persons who are homeless were explored in seven studies. Memory deficits were common among the samples of homeless persons studied. However, there was a great deal of variation in the methodology and quality of the included studies. Conceptualisations of "homelessness" also differed across studies. There is a need for more controlled research using validated neuropsychological tools to evaluate memory impairment among people who are homeless. PMID:24912102

Ennis, Naomi; Roy, Sylvain; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane

2015-07-01

396

Building synthetic memory  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

2013-01-01

397

New Gravitational Memories  

E-print Network

The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

Pasterski, Sabrina; Zhiboedov, Alexander

2015-01-01

398

New Gravitational Memories  

E-print Network

The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

Sabrina Pasterski; Andrew Strominger; Alexander Zhiboedov

2015-02-21

399

The future of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

Marinella, M.

400

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

401

MEMORY TRAINING IN THE COMMUNITY AGED: EFFECTS ON DEPRESSION, MEMORY COMPLAINT, AND MEMORY PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of two types of training programs on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Prior research has suggested that although there are some age differences in memory, the memory complaints of older persons are related to depression and not to actual memory performance. In the present project subjects were randomly assigned

Steven H. Zarit; Dolores Gallagher; Nan Kramer

1981-01-01

402

13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

403

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative...holding period is needed. (c) Accounting treatment. A bank shall...accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (d)...

2012-01-01

404

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative...holding period is needed. (c) Accounting treatment. A bank shall...accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (d)...

2011-01-01

405

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative...holding period is needed. (c) Accounting treatment. A bank shall...accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (d)...

2014-01-01

406

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative...holding period is needed. (c) Accounting treatment. A bank shall...accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (d)...

2013-01-01

407

Speed coupling in hitting a moving target  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to examine how different ball speeds affect the kinematics of hand movements and the accuracy of hitting the targets. An innovative task was designed in the present experiment. Participants (n=12) were asked to hold a handle with their left hand on the smooth surface of a table and try to hit a moving table

Attila J Kovacs

2005-01-01

408

RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory of J. Ronald Miner, an  

E-print Network

RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory from the Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship which resides with the OSU Foundation. The name & Ecological Engineering. DONOR Ron Miner Memorial Bioengineering Scholarship Fund ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Tullos, Desiree

409

The ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. However, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. Here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (Varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz), and Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli). We compare these species across three studies targeting different aspects of spatial memory: recall after a long-delay, learning mechanisms supporting memory and recall of multiple locations in a complex environment. We find that ruffed lemurs, the most frugivorous species, consistently showed more robust spatial memory than the other species across tasks-especially in comparison with sifakas, the most folivorous species. We discuss these results in terms of the importance of considering both ecological and social factors as complementary explanations for the evolution of primate cognitive skills. PMID:24469310

Rosati, Alexandra G; Rodriguez, Kerri; Hare, Brian

2014-07-01

410

Is random access memory random?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

411

Apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the manipulation of microballoons and more particularly to an apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons in order to more efficiently carry out the filling of the microballoons with a known quantity of gas.

Jorgensen, B.S.

1984-06-05

412

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

413

Holding Channel Catfish in Socks with Liquid Oxygen (LOX)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small single-axle trailer was designed and built to hold three 50-gallon liquid oxygen dewars. The unit is small enough to be moved around a commercial channel catfish farm with a pickup truck. It was routinely used to provide supplemental oxygen to remote on-farm locations where channel catfish...

414

Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1991-01-01

415

Brain Damage in Commercial Breath-Hold Divers  

PubMed Central

Background Acute decompression illness (DCI) involving the brain (Cerebral DCI) is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects and Methods Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama) with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions. Results Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years), four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases), white matters (4 cases), the basal ganglia (4 cases), and the thalamus (1 case). Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers. PMID:25115903

Kohshi, Kiyotaka; Tamaki, Hideki; Lemaître, Frédéric; Okudera, Toshio; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Denoble, Petar J.

2014-01-01

416

Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

1984-01-01

417

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

418

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK CELL, OFFGAS CELL, ADSORBER CELL, AND OFFGAS FILTER CELL. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106453. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-P-58. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

419

The high water-holding capacity of petrocalcic horizons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Petrocalcic soil horizons occur in most arid and semi-arid ecosystems around the world, often within the plant rooting zone. Little is known, however, about the water holding characteristic of soils indurated with calcium carbonate. We conducted a replicated experiment to define the soil-water relea...

420

Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

2012-01-01

421

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS BALLAST. SHOT FROM PORT SIDE TOWARD STARBOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

422

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

423

Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows Less than one-third ... March 20, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Triglycerides Vitamin E FRIDAY, March 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- High ...

424

12009 Bechtel Enterprises Holdings, Inc. Preparing for a Game Change  

E-print Network

development and financing · Engineering, procurement, construction, and construction management · Project Metrorail to Dulles Airport · Building highways in Romania and Albania · Constructing major new airport terminal in Louisiana Meeting global demand for energy ©2009 Bechtel Enterprises Holdings, Inc. #12

425

relevant' stimulation. With holding and walking having sensory input  

E-print Network

. Hunziker, U.A., and Barr, R.G. (1986). Increased carrying reduces infant crying: a randomized controlled, including autism, have been reported to have problems with body adjustment during holding [16]. Thus trial. Pediatrics 77, 641­648. 9. St James-Roberts, I., Hurry, J., Bowyer, J., and Barr, R.G. (1995

Frank, Steven A.

426

Astronaut Sidney Gutierrez on flight deck holding Hasselblad camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, pauses on the flight deck during Earth observations on the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Gutierrez holds a 70mm Hasselblad camera. The camera was one of several instruments used during the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) mission to record data on planet Earth.

1994-01-01

427

HOLDING PONDS FOR ADULT SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and downstream trapping facilities are installed in the holding ponds to capture the sexually mature adults on the upstream migration and held either in the stream or improvised ponds until sexually mature without

428

GUIDELINES FOR HOLDING A BAKE SALE I. Introduction  

E-print Network

; and "hazardous food" includes food that contains raw eggs such as salads and custards; dairy products comply with applicable laws in holding a bake sale, including but not limited to the Health Protection the premises from where the food originated have been inspected by a public health inspector; and g. create

429

Financial constraints, real options and corporate cash holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A large body of empirical literature has identified the key drivers of corporate cash holdings. The extant literature posits that the existence of real options significantly influences a firm's demand for liquidity. The literature, however, has relied on indirect proxies to assess this influence. The purpose of this paper is to provide a direct method for assessing this

Cyrus A. Ramezani

2011-01-01

430

The benefits of holding cash: a real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companies need to decide on the optimal amounts of cash to hold. Although this problem has long been acknowledged as a major issue for corporations, new advances in the finance literature have not been fully implemented in this area. We propose here what we believe is the first modelization of a real options approach to determine the financial benefits of

Didier Cossin; Tomas Hricko

2004-01-01

431

Magnetically Operated Holding Plate And Ball-Lock Pin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetically operated holding plate and ball-locking-pin mechanism part of object attached to, or detached from second object. Mechanism includes tubular housing inserted in hole in second object. Plunger moves inside tube forcing balls to protrude from sides. Balls prevent tube from sliding out of second object. Simpler, less expensive than motorized latches; suitable for robotics applications.

Monford, Leo G., Jr.

1992-01-01

432

How Much Equity Does the Government Hold? Alan J. Auerbach  

E-print Network

How Much Equity Does the Government Hold? Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley debate about Social Security in the United States has been the extent to which the federal government should take significant positions in the equity market. But, as this paper shows, the government already

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

433

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION  

E-print Network

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION Robert M. Burnett Fis hery b i 0 log. Instead of incubating eggs in flat trays in the usual manner, scientists at Auke Creek have mixed the eggs that the fry hatch in the small spaces between the pieces of gravel and re- main there until fully incubated

434

Quantum cryptographic network based on quantum memories Computer Science Department, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel  

E-print Network

Quantum cryptographic network based on quantum memories Eli Biham Computer Science Department that these complexity assumptions may not hold for a quantum computer for example, a quantum computer should enable fast , may be broken by quantum computers. These developments enhanced the interest in quantum cryptography

Mor, Tal

435

Reliability mechanisms for file systems using non-volatile memory as a metadata store  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable systems such as cell phones and portable media players commonly use non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) to hold all of their data and metadata, and larger systems can store metadata in NVRAM to increase file system performance by reducing synchronization and transfer overhead between disk and memory data structures. Unfortunately, wayward writes from buggy software and random bit flips may result

Kevin M. Greenan; Ethan L. Miller

2006-01-01

436

Murray Jessen Scholarship Landcare Research has established a scholarship in memory of Soil Scientist Murray  

E-print Network

Murray Jessen Scholarship Landcare Research has established a scholarship in memory of Soil Scientist Murray Jessen who died suddenly in January 2006. This scholarship will be awarded once every three years with the first scholarship awarded in 2008. There is a lack of New Zealanders who hold doctorates

Hickman, Mark

437

Interference within the Focus of Attention: Working Memory Tasks Reflect More than Temporary Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average…

Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W.

2013-01-01

438

Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

van der Molen, Mariet J.

2010-01-01

439

Data and memory optimization techniques for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of the state-of-the-art techniques used in performing data and memory-related optimizations in embedded systems. The optimizations are targeted directly or indirectly at the memory subsystem, and impact one or more out of three important cost metrics: area, performance, and power dissipation of the resulting implementation.We first examine architecture-independent optimizations in the form of code transoformations. We

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Francky Catthoor; Nikil D. Dutt; Koen Danckaert; Erik Brockmeyer; Chidamber Kulkarni; A. Vandercappelle; Per Gunnar Kjeldsberg

2001-01-01

440

Language Comprehension: Archival Memory or Preparation for Situated Action?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Current paradigms study language comprehension,as if archival memory,were its primary function. Subjects only receive linguistic material and are later tested on memory for its contents. In contrast, the two target articles in this issue, Glenberg and Robertson (in press) and Roth (in press), examine comprehension,as if preparing for situated action were its primary function. Besides receiving linguistic materials as

W. Barsalou

1999-01-01

441

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

442

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

443

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

444

Learning & Memory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press has placed online the journal Learning & Memory, an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Online full-text content begins with the May/June 1998 issue; abstracts begin with the September/October, 1995 issue. The journal is produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

445

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

446

The Psychology of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

Alan D. Baddeley

1976-01-01

447

Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

2007-01-01

448

Direct Memory Access Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Memory Access Translation (DMTRANS) is a the­ ory of translation developed at CMT of CMU in which translation is viewd as an integrated part of cognitive pro­ cessing. In this paradigm, understanding in source lan­ guage is a recognition of input in terms of existing knowl­ edge in memory and integration of the input into the mem­ ory. Context

Hideto Tomabechi

1987-01-01

449

Ontogeny of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides an overview of the studies which, during the past half century, have demonstrated that capacity for long-term memory increases during development in both animals and man. A variety of behavioral and neurological mechanisms are examined, which might account for the increase in memory during ontogenesis, in order to stimulate research on the relative contributions of these variables to the

Byron A. Campbell; Norman E. Spear

1972-01-01

450

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

451

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

452

Major memory for microblogs.  

PubMed

Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2013-05-01

453

Research Report Recognition memory  

E-print Network

Research Report Keywords: Oxytocin Recognition memory Remember/know Face Visual object Within-subject Oxytocin is important to social behavior and emotion regulation in humans. Oxytocin's role derives in part from its effect on memory performance. More specifically, previous research suggests that oxytocin

Curran, Tim

454

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

455

Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

1991-01-01

456

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

457

Altering traumatic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can you experimentally contaminate memory for truly traumatic events? We investigated this question in a study in which 80 Russian participants reported on their memories for one of two terrorist bombings. Half the participants recalled the 1999 attacks on Moscow apartment buildings while the others recalled the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. Participants recalled the

Veronika Nourkova; Daniel Bernstein; Elizabeth Loftus

2004-01-01

458

Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market  

E-print Network

Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

Nakamura, Tomohiko

2012-01-01

459

Making Memories Matter  

PubMed Central

This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

2012-01-01

460

Computer memory management system  

DOEpatents

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01

461

Phenomenology of autobiographical memories: The Memory Experiences Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenology of autobiographical memories varies on a number of dimensions: some memories are vivid and others dim; some are emotionally intense and others lack emotional content. The present research sought to develop a psychometrically-sound scale to assess the entire range of dimensions on which autobiographical memories differ. We reviewed the literature on memory experiences and identified 10 relevant dimensions:

Angelina R. Sutin; Richard W. Robins

2007-01-01

462

7 Memories and Processors 7.1 Memory Terminology  

E-print Network

7 Memories and Processors 7.1 Memory Terminology We will not discuss the topic of data storage ectivelyorganized. The important common element of the memories we will study is that they are random access memories, or RAM. This means that each bit of information can be individually stored or retrieved

Frey, Raymond E.

463

Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends  

E-print Network

Chapter 21 Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends on cross of such phenomena are founded on contemporary classification systems for memorial abilities. The category of declarative memory refers to the ability to remember prior autobiographical episodes and complex facts

Reber, Paul J.

464

Memory Slips: Speculations in Australian Anti-Memorial Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we begin to think of memory as not some platonic ideal that is pure or complete, but a periodic process of re-evaluation and reconstruction given present contexts, do our ideas about designing memorials evolve? Time and memory are intertwined. The design work presented and critiqued in this paper tries to negotiate with slippery qualities of memory as a way

Sue-Anne Ware

465

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

466

Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Infants’ Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory emerges in infancy and plays a privileged role in subsequent adaptive cognitive development. The neural networks important for the development of working memory during infancy remain unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic fiber tracking to characterize the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles hypothesized to support working memory in 12-month-old infants (n=73). Here we show robust associations between infants’ visuospatial working memory performance and microstructural characteristics of widespread white matter. Significant associations were found for white matter tracts that connect brain regions known to support working memory in older children and adults (genu, anterior and superior thalamic radiations, anterior cingulum, arcuate fasciculus, and the temporal-parietal segment). Better working memory scores were associated with higher FA and lower RD values in these selected white matter tracts. These tract-specific brain-behavior relationships accounted for a significant amount of individual variation above and beyond infants’ gestational age and developmental level, as measured with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Working memory was not associated with global measures of brain volume, as expected, and few associations were found between working memory and control white matter tracts. To our knowledge, this study is among the first demonstrations of brain-behavior associations in infants using quantitative tractography. The ability to characterize subtle individual differences in infant brain development associated with complex cognitive functions holds promise for improving our understanding of normative development, biomarkers of risk, experience-dependent learning and neuro-cognitive periods of developmental plasticity. PMID:22989623

Short, Sarah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Connelly, Mark; Maltbie, Eric; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

2013-01-01

467

Neural ECM molecules in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory.  

PubMed

Neural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules derived from neurons and glial cells accumulate in the extracellular space and regulate synaptic plasticity through modulation of perisomal GABAergic inhibition, intrinsic neuronal excitability, integrin signaling, and activities of L-type Ca(2+) channels, NMDA receptors, and Rho-associated kinase. Genetic or enzymatic targeting of ECM molecules proved to bidirectionally modulate acquisition of memories, depending on experimental conditions, and to promote cognitive flexibility and extinction of fear and drug memories. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that dysregulation of ECM is linked to major psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and that targeting ECM molecules may rescue cognitive deficits in animal models of these diseases. Thus, the ECM emerged as a key component of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and as an attractive target for developing new generation of synapse plasticizing drugs. PMID:25410353

Senkov, Oleg; Andjus, Pavle; Radenovic, Lidija; Soriano, Eduardo; Dityatev, Alexander

2014-01-01

468

NOTE: Dosimetric evaluation of inspiration and expiration breath-hold for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning of non-small cell lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare target coverage and lung tissue sparing between inspiration and expiration breath-hold intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective study, seven NSCLC patients gave written consent to undergo both moderate deep inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold computed tomography (CT), which were used to generate five-field IMRT plans. Dose was calculated with a scatter and an inhomogeneity correction algorithm. The percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90), the volume of total lung receiving >= 10 Gy (V10) and >= 20 Gy (V20) and the mean lung dose (MLD) were compared by the Student's paired t-test. Compared with the expiration plans, the mean ± SD reductions for V10, V20 and MLD on the inspiration plans were 4.0 ± 3.7% (p = 0.031), 2.5 ± 2.3% (p = 0.028) and 1.1 ± 0.7 Gy (p = 0.007), respectively. Conversely, a mean difference of 1.1 ± 1.1% (p = 0.044) in PTV90 was demonstrated in favour of expiration. When using IMRT, inspiration breath-hold can reduce the dose to normal lung tissue while expiration breath-hold can improve the target coverage. The improved lung sparing at inspiration may outweigh the modest improvements in target coverage at expiration.

Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hatton, Matthew Q. F.; Ireland, Rob H.

2010-04-01

469

Target discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target discovery, which involves the identification and early validation of disease-modifying targets, is an essential first step in the drug discovery pipeline. Indeed, the drive to determine protein function has been stimulated, both in industry and academia, by the completion of the human genome project. In this article, we critically examine the strategies and methodologies used for both the identification

Mark A. Lindsay

2003-01-01

470

Targeted nanocarriers for imaging and therapy of vascular inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular inflammation is a common, complex mechanism involved in pathogenesis of a plethora of disease conditions including ischemia–reperfusion, atherosclerosis, restenosis and stroke. Specific targeting of imaging probes and drugs to endothelial cells in inflammation sites holds promise to improve management of these conditions. Nanocarriers of diverse compositions and geometries, targeted with ligands to endothelial adhesion molecules exposed in inflammation foci

Ann-Marie Chacko; Elizabeth D. Hood; Blaine J. Zern; Vladimir R. Muzykantov

2011-01-01

471

Observed-Score Equating with a Heterogeneous Target Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test equating is a statistical procedure for adjusting for test form differences in difficulty in a standardized assessment. Equating results are supposed to hold for a specified target population (Kolen & Brennan, 2004; von Davier, Holland, & Thayer, 2004) and to be (relatively) independent of the subpopulations from the target population (see…

Duong, Minh Q.; von Davier, Alina A.

2012-01-01

472

Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarative memory. In fact, reactivating a declarative memory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarative memories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval–relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586

Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

2013-01-01

473

Traces of Drosophila Memory  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

Davis, Ronald L.

2012-01-01

474

New targets for DBS.  

PubMed

The specific effect of DBS at high frequency, discovered during a VIM thalamotomy, was extended to the older targets of ablative neurosurgery such as the pallidum, for tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), dyskinesias, essential tremor, as well as the internal capsule to treat psychiatric disorders (OCD). A second wave of targets came from basic research, enabled by the low morbidity, reversibility, and adaptability of DBS. This was the case for the subthalamic nucleus (STN) which improves the triad of dopaminergic symptoms, and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) for gait disorders in PD. The new concepts of the role of basal ganglia in psychiatric disorders indicate the subgenual cortex CG 25 for severe resistant depression, the accumbens nucleus for depression, anorexia nervosa, and addiction, and the thalamus intralaminar nuclei for minimally conscious states. Serendipity and a scientific approach have provided several instances where targets have produced unexpected effects (such as STN in OCD), as well as limbic effects observed during attempts at VMH stimulation for obesity: this might offer a novel way to treat mild cognitive impairment, or memory deficits reported in Alzheimer's disease. While these might provide solutions for as yet unsolved problems, attention must be paid to ethical considerations. PMID:22166437

Benabid, Alim Louis; Torres, Napoleon

2012-01-01

475

Exploiting Memory Hierarchy: The Cache  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Exploiting Memory Hierarchy: The Cache #12;Chapter 5 -- Large and Fast: Exploiting Memory Hierarchy -- 2 Memory Technology Static RAM (SRAM) 0.5ns ­ 2.5ns, $2000 ­ $5000 per GB Dynamic RAM (DRAM Memory Hierarchy -- 3 Principle of Locality Programs access a small proportion of their address space

Huang, Chun-Hsi

476

Sequoia: Programming the Memory Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Sequoia, a programming language designed to facilitate the development of memory hierarchy aware parallel programs that remain portable across modern machines featuring different memory hierarchy configurations. Sequoia abstractly exposes hierarchical memory in the programming model and provides language mechanisms to describe communication vertically through the machine and to localize computation to particular memory locations within it. We have

Kayvon Fatahalian; Timothy J. Knight; Mike Houston; Mattan Erez; Daniel Reiter Horn; Larkhoon Leem; Ji Young Park; Manman Ren; Alex Aiken; William J. Dally; Pat Hanrahan

2006-01-01

477

Associative Memory Processes in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate cognitive deficits in a number of domains, including episodic memory (EM). Memory for both individual items and associations between items is impaired in schizophrenia, with some indication of a more severe deficit in associative memory. Furthermore, such memory impairments have been consistently linked with abnormalities in brain activation during both encoding and retrieval. However, certain experimental

Aaron Bonner-Jackson

2009-01-01

478

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

479

Hybrid Quantum Cellular Automata memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) memory architecture is proposed. The hybrid QCA memory combines the benefit of small area of serial-type memory with the fast access time of parallel-type memory. Its operation is described in detail.

Kanjanawit Yanggratoke; Songphol Kanjanachuchai

2008-01-01

480

Encoding [quiet memories  

E-print Network

in an effort to make the image unclear. The knitted swatches resemble a fence and take the role of protecting the memories. Whether happy or sad, these are the memories and experiences that made me who I am. On the floor, a stack of knitted swatches serves... as the metaphors that are vital to my creative research. Encoding [quiet memories] emphasizes a meticulous transformative process, a meditation on the transient nature of reality, chance and control. Throughout this process, there is a metamorphosis of fabrics...

Brebenel, Elena

2011-04-20

481

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION INTO THREE VERTICAL MOLDS SUBMERGED IN A WATER-FILLED TANK BELOW THE CASTING FLOOR. THE CASTING CREW'S JOBS DURING THIS PHASE OF THE OPERATION INCLUDE REGULATING THE POURING RATE AND MONITORING THE VALVE RODS THAT CONTROL THE WATER SPRAYS ON THE MOLDS. DIFFERENT ALLOYS REQUIRE SPECIFIC POURING SPEEDS AND WATER PRESSURES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

482

Development of an Animal Holding Facility for Space Shuttle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) developed by NASA is described. Besides providing general housing for various animal species, the RAHF is designed to minimize disturbance of the specimens caused by vehicle and mission operations. The RAHF system offers life-sustaining capabilities, such as food, water, and waste removal, as well as environmental control. Modularity of construction to accommodate a variety of small animals and associated instrumentation ensures continued use of RAHF as the sophistication of experiments increases on subsequent missions.

Berry, W. E.; Bowman, G. H.; Jagow, R. B.; Olcott, T. M.

1981-01-01

483

Dual-rate high order hold equivalent controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the computation of a dual-rate high-order-hold discrete equivalent controller. We assume that the continuous-time controller has been already designed in order to meet continuous time-domain and frequency-domain specifications. Dual rate controllers are N-periodic time varying systems, and the lifting technique is utilized to express them as time invariant systems. Several different models are presented (dual-rate

Josep Tornero; M. Tomizuka

2000-01-01

484

Cumulative Innovation, Sampling and the Hold-Up Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

With cumulative innovation and imperfect information about the value of innovations, intellectual property rights can result in hold-up and therefore it may be better not to have them. Extending the basic cumulative innovation model to include 'sampling' by second-stage firms, we find that the lower the cost of sampling, or the larger the differential between high and low value second-stage

Rufus Pollock

2006-01-01

485

Bending strength and holding power of tibial locking screws.  

PubMed

The bending strength and holding power of two types of specially designed tibial locking devices, a both-ends-threaded screw and an unthreaded bolt, were studied and compared with four types of commercially available tibial interlocking screws: Synthes, Howmedica, Richards, and Osteo AG. To test bending strength, the devices were inserted into a high molecular weight polyethylene tube and loaded at their midpoint by a materials testing machine to simulate a three point bending test. Single loading yielding strength and cyclic loading fatigue life were measured. To test holding power, the devices were inserted into tubes made of polyurethane foam, and their tips were loaded axially to measure pushout strength. The devices were tested with two different densities of foam materials and two different sizes of pilot holes. Insertion torque and stripping torque of the screws were measured first. Pushout tests were performed with each screw inserted with a tightness equal to 60% of its stripping torque. Test results showed that the yielding strength and the fatigue life were related closely to the inner diameter of the screws. The stripping torque predicted the pushout strength more reliably than did the insertion torque. All tested devices showed greater holding power in the foam with the higher density and with the smaller pilot holes. The both-ends-threaded screw had the highest pushout strength and a satisfactory fatigue strength. The unthreaded bolt had the highest fatigue strength but only fair holding power. Clinical studies of the use of these two types of locking devices are worthwhile. PMID:11302315

Lin, J; Lin, S J; Chiang, H; Hou, S M

2001-04-01

486

An Examination of Multiple Governance Forces within Bank Holding Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores multiple means of governance and monitoring in bank holding companies and their impact on performance\\u000a and executive compensation. We exploit variables unique to the banking industry to aid in our understanding of this simultaneous\\u000a relationship. Our primary finding is that after controlling for both regulatory oversight and capital market discipline, a\\u000a strong board is associated with higher

Gregory E. Sierra; Eli Talmor; James S. Wallace

2006-01-01

487

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH FORM A VERTICAL SLOT FOR BOARDS. THESE BOARDS ALSO ENABLED THE FISHERMAN TO SORT THE CATCH BY SPECIES INTO VARIOUS COMPARTMENTS. THE HOLES AT THE BASE OF THE BULKHEAD ALLOWED WATER FROM MELTED ICE TO DRAIN OUT OF THE COMPARTMENT. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

488

Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding  

PubMed Central

We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (p<0.05) and 38±2 Torr to 58±2 during HUT60 (p<0.05); SaO2 decreased from 98±1.5% to 95±1.4% supine, and from 97±1.5% to 94±1.7% during HUT60 (p=NS). MSNA showed three distinctive phases - a quiescent phase due to pulmonary stretch associated with decreased MAP, HR, CO and TPR; a second phase of baroreflex-mediated elevated MSNA which was associated with recovery of MAP and HR only during HUT60; CO and peripheral resistance returned to baseline while supine and HUT60; a third phase of further increased MSNA activity related to hypercapnia and associated with increased TPR. Breath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

2011-01-01

489

Mixed-sputter deposition of Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films were mixed-sputter deposited from separate nickel, titanium, and copper targets, providing increased compositional flexibility. Shape memory characteristics, examined for films with 7 at.% Cu and 41–51 at.% Ti, were determined with temperature-controlled substrate-curvature measurements, and the microstructure was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-Ti-Cu films were found to have shape memory properties comparable with bulk

P. Krulevitch; P. B. Ramsey; D. M. Makowiecki; A. P. Lee; M. A. Northrup; G. C. Johnson

1996-01-01

490

Features of glossopharyngeal breathing in breath-hold divers.  

PubMed

One technique employed by competitive breath-hold divers to increase diving depth is to hyperinflate the lungs with glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB). Our aim was to assess the relationship between measured volume and pressure changes due to GPB. Seven healthy male breath-hold divers, age 33 (8) [mean (SD)] years were recruited. Subjects performed baseline body plethysmography (TLC(PRE)). Plethysmography and mouth relaxation pressure were recorded immediately following a maximal GPB maneuver at total lung capacity (TLC) (TLC(GPB)) and within 5 min after the final GPB maneuver (TLC(POST)). Mean TLC increased from TLC(PRE) to TLC(GPB) by 1.95 (0.66) liters and vital capacity (VC) by 1.92 (0.56) liters (P < 0.0001), with no change in residual volume. There was an increase in TLC(POST) compared with TLC(PRE) of 0.16 liters (0.14) (P < 0.02). Mean mouth relaxation pressure at TLC(GPB) was 65 (19) cmH(2)O and was highly correlated with the percent increase in TLC (R = 0.96). Breath-hold divers achieve substantial increases in measured lung volumes using GPB primarily from increasing VC. Approximately one-third of the additional air was accommodated by air compression. PMID:16690794

Seccombe, Leigh M; Rogers, Peter G; Mai, Nghi; Wong, Chris K; Kritharides, Leonard; Jenkins, Christine R

2006-09-01

491

Gaze holding after anterior-inferior temporal lobectomy.  

PubMed

Eye position-sensitive neurons are found in parietooccipital and anterior-inferior temporal cortex. Putative role of these neurons is to facilitate transformation of reference frame from the retina-fixed to world-fixed coordinates and assure precise action. We assessed the nature of ocular motor disorder in a subject who had selective resection of the right anterior-inferior temporal cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy from cortical dysplasia. The gaze was stable when the subject was viewing straight-ahead, but centrally directed drifts in the eye position were seen during eccentric horizontal gaze holding. Eye-in-orbit position determined drift velocity and its direction. Conjugate and sinusoidal vertical oscillations were also present. Horizontal drifts and vertical oscillations became prominent and disconjugate in the absence of visual cue. The gaze-holding deficit was consistent with impairment in neural integration, but in the absence of cerebellar and visual deficits. We speculate that brainstem neural integrator might receive cortical feedback regarding world-fixed coordinates. Visual system might calibrate this process. Hence the lesion of the anterior-inferior temporal lobe leads to impairment in the function of neural integrator. Vision might be used to calibrate such feedback, hence the lack of visual cue further impairs the function of the neural integrator leading to worsening of gaze-holding deficits. PMID:24847963

Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F

2014-11-01

492

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), whereas other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory

Jill Talley Shelton; Emily M. Elliott; Russell A. Matthews; B. D. Hill; Wm. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

493

Correcting memory improves accuracy of predicted task duration.  

PubMed

People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through supplying feedback for actual task duration. For Experiments 1 (paper-counting task) and 2 (essay-writing task), college students were supplied with duration information about their previous performance on a similar task before predicting task duration. For Experiment 3, participants were recruited at various locations, such as fast food restaurants and video arcades, and supplied with average task duration for others before predicting how long the task would take. In all 3 experiments, supplying feedback increased predictive accuracy. Overall, results indicate that, when predicting duration, people do well when they rely not on memory of past task duration but instead on measures of actual duration, whether their own or that of others. PMID:18808280

Roy, Michael M; Mitten, Scott T; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2008-09-01

494

Modelling Immunological Memory  

E-print Network

Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

495

Gender and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... effects of age, gender and genetics on memory, brain structure and brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers included ... were cognitively normal at the start. Participants underwent brain scans and took a series of verbal learning ...

496

Making a Memory Book  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Narrator: Another project you and your loved one can do together is make a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years ... grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, Michelle Bourgeois. Bourgeois: ...

497

Are recovered memories accurate?  

E-print Network

. Additional research in our laboratory has shown two distinct types of memory errors; semantic based errors which occur due to pre-existing category knowledge, and episodic based errors in which the source of details (list members) are misattributed...

Gerkens, David

2005-08-29

498

Warship : memorial in antithesis  

E-print Network

This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

1992-01-01

499

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-print Network

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01

500

Memory Circuit Fault Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

2013-01-01