Sample records for target memory holds

  1. Iconic memory: A reply to Professor Holding.

    PubMed

    Coltheart, M

    1975-01-01

    Professor Holding has argued that the partial report superiority normally taken as evidence for the existence of iconic memory might instead be due to cue anticipation or output interference. I have suggested that both of these alternative explanations are inconsistent with the finding that the partial report superiority diminishes rapidly with increasing cue delay. In addition, Sperling's original partial report experiment was designed in such a way that cue anticipation could not have occurred; and both his results with selection by letter vs number and Averbach and Coriell's bar-marker results indicate that output interference effects are absent or negligible in tachistoscopic experiments. Consequently, I have concluded that the partial report superiority, and especially its decline with increasing delay, remains as strong evidence in favor of the conventional view of iconic memory. Furthermore, if this view were wrong, there would remain no way of giving a satisfactory account of (a) Averbach and Coriell's results, (b) "direct" investigations of visual persistence, or (c) integration and interruption effects in backward visual masking. PMID:24203825

  2. Targeting ischemic memory.

    PubMed

    Aras, Omer; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2007-02-01

    Long-chain free fatty acids and glucose account for the vast majority of ATP production in the heart. An alteration of fatty acid oxidation is considered to be a sensitive marker of ischemia and myocardial damage. Recently, several radiolabeled fatty acid analogs have been introduced to assess myocardial cellular function. The use of such analogs has enabled the analysis of cardiac metabolism and led to the identification of prior ischemic events, termed 'ischemic memory'. Such advances will find use in the clinical setting for the diagnosis and treatment of subclinical or progressive cardiovascular disorders, as in acute coronary syndrome, that often remain elusive with traditional imaging approaches. PMID:17134889

  3. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  4. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  5. Memory as a new therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver; Lanius, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to demonstrate how an understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in memory provides a basis for; (i) reconceptualizing some mental disorders; (ii) refining existing therapeutic tools; and (iii) designing new ones for targeting processes that maintain these disorders. First, some of the stages which a memory undergoes are defined, and the clinical relevance of an understanding of memory processing by the brain is discussed. This is followed by a brief review of some of the clinical studies that have targeted memory processes. Finally, some new insights provided by the field of neuroscience with implications for conceptualizing mental disorders are presented. PMID:24459414

  6. Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

  7. Influence of strain-holding conditions on shape recovery and secondary-shape forming in polyurethane-shape memory polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tobushi; S. Hayashi; K. Hoshio; N. Miwa

    2006-01-01

    It was found in previous work on the thermomechanical properties of the polyurethane-shape memory polymer foam that the shape fixity and shape recovery become imperfect and that secondary-shape forming appears, depending on the strain-holding conditions. The main factors of the strain-holding conditions which affect the secondary-shape forming are the holding temperature, holding time and holding strain. In the present study,

  8. NEUROIMAGING, BEHAVIORAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MEMORY TARGETING

    E-print Network

    Polyn, Sean

    of three cognitive systems in the brain: se- mantic memory, episodic memory, and a context maintenance on memory organization can be carried out by any brain area that has both a relatively stable patternNEUROIMAGING, BEHAVIORAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MEMORY TARGETING Sean Matthew Polyn

  9. Deformation rate-, hold time-, and cycle-dependent shape-memory performance of Veriflex-E resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, Amber J. W.; Tandon, Gyaneshwar P.; Baur, Jeffery W.

    2013-02-01

    Shape-memory polymers have attracted great interest in recent years for application in reconfigurable structures (for instance morphing aircraft, micro air vehicles, and deployable space structures). However, before such applications can be attempted, the mechanical behavior of the shape-memory polymers must be thoroughly understood. The present study represents an assessment of viscous effects during multiple shape-memory cycles of Veriflex-E, an epoxy-based, thermally triggered shape-memory polymer resin. The experimental program is designed to explore the influence of multiple thermomechanical cycles on the shape-memory performance of Veriflex-E. The effects of the deformation rate and hold times at elevated temperature on the shape-memory behavior are also investigated.

  10. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    E-print Network

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation visual working memory and saccade target selection. Journal of Vision, 14(11):9, 1­23, http

  11. Target Context Specification Can Reduce Costs in Nonfocal Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Joana S.; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task…

  12. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    PubMed Central

    Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

  13. A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

  14. The influence of shape-holding conditions on shape recovery of polyurethane-shape memory polymer foams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tobushi; R. Matsui; S. Hayashi; D. Shimada

    2004-01-01

    The thermomechanical properties of polyurethane-shape memory polymer (SMP) foams and the influence of shape-holding conditions on shape recovery were investigated experimentally. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (1) By cooling the foam down to below the glass transition temperature Tg after compressive deformation above Tg, stress decreases and the deformed shape is fixed. By heating the shape-fixed foam

  15. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Edmund T. Rolls1

    E-print Network

    Deco, Gustavo

    .pone.0061078 Editor: Sidney Arthur Simon, Duke University Medical Center, United States of America Received-Marco1,2 , Gustavo Deco3,2 1 Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2 in schizophrenia and in aging that can occur when the operation of cortical systems for short term memory

  16. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  17. Searching for targets in visual working memory: investigating a dimensional feature bundle (DFB) model.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J

    2015-03-01

    The human visual working memory (WM) system enables us to store a limited amount of task-relevant visual information temporally in mind. One actively debated issue in cognitive neuroscience centers around the question of how this WM information is maintained. The currently dominant views advocated by prominent WM models hold that the units of memory are configured either as independent feature representations, integrated bound objects, or a combination of both. Here, we approached this issue by measuring lateralized brain electrical activity during a retro-cue paradigm, in order to track people's ability to access WM representations as a function of the dimensional relation between WM items and task settings. Both factors were revealed to selectively influence WM access: whereas cross relative to intradimensional WM targets gave rise to enhanced contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitudes, localization relative to identification task demands yielded speeded CDA and manual response times. As these dimension-based findings are not reconcilable with contemporary feature- and/or object-based accounts, an alternative view that is based on the hierarchical feature-bundle model is proposed. We argue that WM units may consist of three hierarchically structured levels of representations, with an intermediate dimensionally organized level that mediates between top-level object and lower-level feature representations. PMID:25716303

  18. The GLU that holds cancer together: targeting GLUtamine transporters in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moses, Michael A; Neckers, Len

    2015-03-01

    Many cancer cells require exogenous glutamine for proliferation, supply of TCA cycle intermediates, lipid synthesis, mTOR activity, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Jeon and colleagues identify chemotherapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel strategy to target glutamine dependence. PMID:25759015

  19. Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gagnepain, Pierre; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Suppressing retrieval of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show that excluding memories from awareness not only modulates medial temporal lobe regions involved in explicit retention, but also neocortical areas underlying unconscious expressions of memory. Using repetition priming in visual perception as a model task, we found that excluding memories of visual objects from consciousness reduced their later indirect influence on perception, literally making the content of suppressed memories harder for participants to see. Critically, effective connectivity and pattern similarity analysis revealed that suppression mechanisms mediated by the right middle frontal gyrus reduced activity in neocortical areas involved in perceiving objects and targeted the neural populations most activated by reminders. The degree of inhibitory modulation of the visual cortex while people were suppressing visual memories predicted, in a later perception test, the disruption in the neural markers of sensory memory. These findings suggest a neurobiological model of how motivated forgetting affects the unconscious expression of memory that may be generalized to other types of memory content. More generally, they suggest that the century-old assumption that suppression leaves unconscious memories intact should be reconsidered. PMID:24639546

  20. A Framework for Cognitive Interventions Targeting Everyday Memory Performance and Memory Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.

    2009-01-01

    The human brain has the potential for self-renewal through adult neurogenesis, which is the birth of new neurons. Neural plasticity implies that the nervous system can change and grow. This understanding has created new possibilities for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, as individuals age, they have decreased confidence, or memory self-efficacy, which is directly related to their everyday memory performance. In this article, a developmental account of studies about memory self-efficacy and nonpharmacologic cognitive intervention models is presented and a cognitive intervention model, called the cognitive behavioral model of everyday memory, is proposed. PMID:19065089

  1. Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink

    E-print Network

    Memory search for the first target modulates the magnitude of the attentional blink Trafton Drew no influence on AB magnitude. In subsequent experiments, we found that AB magnitude interacts with T1 or had to be completed online, we found a reliable interaction between AB magnitude and the target set

  2. Targeted therapies hold out the promise of a new era in cancer treatment, but will we fear cancer any the less? The making of a modern disease.

    E-print Network

    Shapin, Steven

    Targeted therapies hold out the promise of a new era in cancer treatment, but will we fear cancer-of-age as an oncologist," and its The modern history of cancer : The New Yorker http-marrow sample taken, but she knows about leukemia. It's cancer of the blood. She's terrified, and she may

  3. Breath-Hold Target Localization with Simultaneous Kilovoltage\\/Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT and Fast Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blessing; D. Stsepankou; H. Wertz; A. Arns; F. Lohr; J. Hesser; F. Wenz

    \\u000a Hypofractionated high dose radiotherapy of small lung tumors is very effective and was based on stereotaxy until now. It has\\u000a recently become possible to achieve a high patient positioning precision based on on-line imaging with cone-beam CT (CBCT)\\u000a and breath-hold techniques. The CBCT acquisition time of roughly 60 seconds, however, is too long for one breath-hold, resulting\\u000a in image degradation

  4. Cache Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Jay Smith

    1982-01-01

    Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

  5. Targeting Antigen to Clec9A Primes Follicular Th Cell Memory Responses Capable of Robust Recall.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yu; Zaid, Ali; Davey, Gayle M; Mueller, Scott N; Nutt, Stephen L; Zotos, Dimitra; Tarlinton, David M; Shortman, Ken; Lahoud, Mireille H; Heath, William R; Caminschi, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Targeting Ags to dendritic cell (DC) surface receptors can induce a variety of responses depending on the DC type targeted, the receptor targeted, and the adjuvant used. Clec9A (DNGR-1), which is expressed by CD8(+) DCs, has been shown to bind F-actin exposed on damaged cells. Targeting Ag to this receptor in mice and nonhuman primates induces strong humoral immunity even in the absence of adjuvant, a process seen for a few select DC receptors. In contrast with other receptors, however, targeting Clec9A induces long-lived, affinity-matured Ab responses that are associated with efficient CD4(+) T cell responses shown to possess properties of follicular Th cells (TFH). In this article, we provide definitive evidence that Clec9A targeting promotes the development of TFH by showing that responding CD4 T cells express CXCR5, PD1, the TFH transcription factor Bcl6, and the cytokine IL-21, and that these cells localize to germinal centers. Furthermore, we extend studies from the model Ag OVA to the viral Ag glycoprotein D of HSV-1 and examine the capacity of primed TFH to form functional memory. We show that targeting glycoprotein D to Clec9A even in the absence of adjuvant induced long-lived memory CXCR5(+) PD1(hi) CD4(+) T cells that proliferated extensively upon secondary challenge and rapidly developed into effector TFH. This was associated with enhanced germinal center B cell responses and accelerated Ab production. Our study indicates that targeting Ags to Clec9A in the absence of adjuvant routinely generates TFH responses that form long-lived memory capable of robust secondary TFH responses. PMID:26101322

  6. Targeting latent function: Encouraging effective encoding for successful memory training and transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Cindy; Flegal, Kristin E.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive training programs for older adults often result in improvements at the group level. However, there are typically large age and individual differences in the size of training benefits. These differences may be related to the degree to which participants implement the processes targeted by the training program. To test this possibility, we tested older adults in a memory-training procedure either under specific strategy instructions designed to encourage semantic, integrative encoding, or in a condition that encouraged time and attention to encoding but allowed participants to choose their own strategy. Both conditions improved the performance of old-old adults relative to an earlier study (Bissig & Lustig, 2007) and reduced self-reports of everyday memory errors. Performance in the strategy-instruction group was related to pre-existing ability, performance in the strategy-choice group was not. The strategy-choice group performed better on a laboratory transfer test of recognition memory, and training performance was correlated with reduced everyday memory errors. Training programs that target latent but inefficiently-used abilities while allowing flexibility in bringing those abilities to bear may best promote effective training and transfer. PMID:19140647

  7. Eye movements and visual memory: Detecting changes to saccade targets in scenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Henderson; Andrew Hollingworth

    2003-01-01

    Saccade-contingent change detection provides a powerful tool for investigating scene representation and scene memory. In the\\u000a present study, critical objects presented within color images of naturalistic scenes were changed during a saccade toward\\u000a or away from the target. During the saccade, the critical object was changed to another object type, to a visually different\\u000a token of the same object type,

  8. Pre-Experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and…

  9. Breath-Hold Target Localization With Simultaneous Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Fast Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Blessing, Manuel, E-mail: Manuel.blessing@urz.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Arns, Anna; Lohr, Frank; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy for small lung tumors has typically been based on stereotaxy. Cone-beam computed tomography and breath-hold techniques have provided a noninvasive basis for precise cranial and extracranial patient positioning. The cone-beam computed tomography acquisition time of 60 s, however, is beyond the breath-hold capacity of patients, resulting in respiratory motion artifacts. By combining megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photon sources (mounted perpendicularly on the linear accelerator) and accelerating the gantry rotation to the allowed limit, the data acquisition time could be reduced to 15 s. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Synergy 6-MV linear accelerator, with iViewGT as the MV- and XVI as the kV-imaging device, was used with a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Both image sources performed continuous image acquisition, passing an angle interval of 90{sup o} within 15 s. For reconstruction, filtered back projection on a graphics processor unit was used. It reconstructed 100 projections acquired to a 512 x 512 x 512 volume within 6 s. Results: The resolution in the Catphan phantom (CTP528 high-resolution module) was 3 lines/cm. The spatial accuracy was within 2-3 mm. The diameters of different tumor shapes in the thorax phantom were determined within an accuracy of 1.6 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio was 68% less than that with a 180{sup o}-kV scan. The dose generated to acquire the MV frames accumulated to 82.5 mGy, and the kV contribution was <6 mGy. Conclusion: The present results have shown that fast breath-hold, on-line volume imaging with a linear accelerator using simultaneous kV-MV cone-beam computed tomography is promising and can potentially be used for image-guided radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in the near future.

  10. Hold It

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate the special shapes, holding structures and holding behaviors that real organisms use in streams, rivers, creeks or coast intertidal zones to avoid being swept away by moving water. Learners then create their own "animal" with holding adaptations. The activity includes drawings that detail helpful equipment such as bug boxes and dip nets, as well as instructions for making a milk-carton observation tray and flow-through trough.

  11. Prefrontal pathways target excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related medial temporal cortices

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, Jamie G.; Barbas, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), situated in the caudal part of the medial prefrontal cortex, is involved in monitoring on-going behavior pertaining to memory of previously learned outcomes. How ACC information interacts with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is not well understood. The present study used a multitiered approach to address two questions on the interactions between the ACC and the parahippocampal cortices in the rhesus monkey: 1) What are the presynaptic characteristics of ACC projections to the parahippocampal cortices? 2) What are the postsynaptic targets of the pathway and are there laminar differences in innervation of local excitatory and inhibitory systems? Labeled ACC terminations were quantified in parahippocampal areas TH and TF and a cluster analysis showed that boutons varied in size, with a population of small (? 0.97 ?m) and large (>0.97 ?m) terminations that were nearly evenly distributed in the upper and deep layers. Exhaustive sampling as well as unbiased stereological techniques independently showed that small and large boutons were about evenly distributed within cortical layers in the parahippocampal cortex. Synaptic analysis of the pathway, performed at the electron microscope (EM) showed that while most of the ACC projections formed synapses with excitatory neurons, a significant proportion (23%) targeted presumed inhibitory classes with a preference for parvalbumin (PV+) inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest synaptic mechanisms that may help integrate signals associated with attention and memory. PMID:21281716

  12. Effects of Target Probability and Memory Demands on the Vigilance of Adults with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Tinsley, Veronica

    1994-01-01

    The vigilance of young adults with and without mild mental retardation (MR) was compared, with subjects performing two memory demanding, cognitively based tests. The vigilance decrement of MR adults declined more rapidly than did the vigilance of non-MR adults, due to an interaction between target detectability and response bias, and poor target

  13. Failure to benefit from target novelty during encoding contributes to working memory deficits in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Kim, Jejoong; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although working memory (WM) impairments are well documented in schizophrenic patients (PSZ), the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of target salience during encoding to determine whether impaired visual attention in PSZ leads to poor WM. Methods 31 PSZ and 28 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) performed a spatial delayed-response task. Attentional demands were manipulated during WM encoding by presenting high salient (novel) or low salient (familiar) targets. Participants also rated their level of response confidence at the end of each trial, allowing us to analyse different response types. Results WM was impaired in PSZ. Increasing target salience by increasing novelty improved WM performance in HC but not in PSZ. Poor WM performance in PSZ was largely due to an increase in the proportion of incorrect but high confident responses most likely reflecting a failure to encode the correct target. Conclusions Our findings suggest that dysfunctions of non-mnemonic attentional processes during encoding contribute to WM impairments in schizophrenia and may represent an important target for cognitive remediation strategies. PMID:24215367

  14. Developmental Regulation of Lck Targeting to the CD8 Coreceptor Controls Signaling in Naive and Memory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Martin F.; Gallimore, Awen; Linkert, Susanne; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Kopf, Manfred; Viola, Antonella

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether enhanced memory T cell responses are simply due to an increased frequency of specific cells or also to an improved response at the single cell level is widely debated. In this study, we analyzed T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic memory T cells and bona fide memory T cells isolated from virally infected normal mice using the tetramer technology. We found that memory T cells are qualitatively different from naive T cells due to a developmentally regulated rearrangement of the topology of the signaling machinery. In naive cytotoxic T cells, only a few CD8 molecules are associated with Lck and the kinase is homogeneously distributed inside the cell. However, in vivo priming of naive T cells induces the targeting of Lck to the CD8 coreceptor in the cell membrane and the consequent organization of a more efficient TCR signaling machinery in effector and memory cells. PMID:10330431

  15. Neural representation of a target auditory memory in a cortico-basal ganglia pathway.

    PubMed

    Achiro, Jennifer M; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2013-09-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

  16. Neural Representation of a Target Auditory Memory in a Cortico-Basal Ganglia Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bottjer, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

  17. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  18. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  19. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  20. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2?g/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2?g/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2?g/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress. PMID:26025756

  1. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  2. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  3. Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Silva, Maria A.; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Frölich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P.; Müller, Christian P.; Schäble, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R–coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism. PMID:23983264

  4. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  5. More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process. PMID:24599946

  6. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC? memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- ?, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of Propofol and Midazolam on Memory During Two Levels of Sedation by Using Target-Controlled Infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemiek de Roode; Joop M. A. van Gerven; Rik C. Schoemaker; Frank H. M. Engbers; Wim Olieman; J. Ria Kroon; Adam F. Cohen; James G. Bovill

    2000-01-01

    We examined memory during sedation with target- controlled infusions of propofol and midazolam in a double-blinded five-way, cross-over study in 10 volun- teers. Each active drug infusion was targeted to seda- tion level 1 (asleep) and level 4 (lethargic) as deter- mined with the Observer Assessment of Alertness\\/ Sedation scale. At the target level of sedation, drug concentration was clamped

  8. Target duration effects on iconic memory: the confounding role of changing stimulus dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald M. Long; Barbara Sakitt

    1980-01-01

    Observers' accuracy in detecting a narrow spatial gap between two brief, luminous rectangles presented successively was determined within a two-alternative, forced-choice procedure. This successive-field task requires iconic memory, because the information (rectangle position) in the two presentations must be combined for successful gap detection. On this task, the effect of varying the duration of the first rectangle was systematically investigated

  9. Working Memory for Visual and Haptic Targets: A Study Using the Interference Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Sebastián; Julia Mayas; Antonio J. Manso; Soledad Ballesteros

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different types of interference in visual and haptic working memory using a dual-task paradigm.\\u000a At encoding, 16 young adults performed both, a haptic and a visual primary task followed by the performance of a secondary\\u000a interference task during a retention interval. The interference task could be a haptic (spatial), visual (spatial), auditory,\\u000a or control (visual-static)

  10. Both memory and attention systems contribute to visual search for targets cued by implicitly learned context

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Barry; Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental context learned without awareness can facilitate visual processing of goal-relevant information. According to one view, the benefit of implicitly learned context relies on the neural systems involved in spatial attention and hippocampus-mediated memory. While this view has received empirical support, it contradicts traditional models of hippocampal function. The purpose of the present work was to clarify the influence of spatial context on visual search performance and on brain structures involved memory and attention. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that activity in the hippocampus as well as in visual and parietal cortex was modulated by learned visual context even though participants’ subjective reports and performance on a post-experiment recognition task indicated no explicit knowledge of the learned context. Moreover, the magnitude of the initial selective hippocampus response predicted the magnitude of the behavioral benefit due to context observed at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that implicit contextual learning is mediated by attention and memory and that these systems interact to support search of our environment. PMID:23099047

  11. Ultrasound Detection of Myocardial Ischemic Memory Using an E-Selectin Targeting Peptide Amenable to Human Application

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus “ischemic memory” biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24742373

  12. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both ?-amyloid production and clearance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and A? production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit A? production by suppressing ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote A? clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased A? formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

  13. Selective targeting of human alloresponsive CD8+ effector memory T cells based on CD2 expression.

    PubMed

    Lo, D J; Weaver, T A; Stempora, L; Mehta, A K; Ford, M L; Larsen, C P; Kirk, A D

    2011-01-01

    Costimulation blockade (CoB), specifically CD28/B7 inhibition with belatacept, is an emerging clinical replacement for calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in allotransplantation. However, there is accumulating evidence that belatacept incompletely controls alloreactive T cells that lose CD28 expression during terminal differentiation. We have recently shown that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept controls costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection in nonhuman primates. Here, we have investigated the relationship between human alloreactive T cells, costimulation blockade sensitivity and CD2 expression to determine whether these findings warrant potential clinical translation. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we found that CD8(+) effector memory T cells are distinctly high CD2 and low CD28 expressors. Alloresponsive CD8(+) CD2(hi) CD28(-) T cells contained the highest proportion of cells with polyfunctional cytokine (IFN?, TNF and IL-2) and cytotoxic effector molecule (CD107a and granzyme B) expression capability. Treatment with belatacept in vitro incompletely attenuated allospecific proliferation, but alefacept inhibited belatacept-resistant proliferation. These results suggest that highly alloreactive effector T cells exert their late stage functions without reliance on ongoing CD28/B7 costimulation. Their high CD2 expression increases their susceptibility to alefacept. These studies combined with in vivo nonhuman primate data provide a rationale for translation of an immunosuppression regimen pairing alefacept and belatacept to human renal transplantation. PMID:21070604

  14. Improving Intra-Fractional Target Position Accuracy Using a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yi; Walston, Steve; Welliver, Meng Xu; Chakravarti, Arnab; Quick, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a surrogate for respiratory gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) for left breast irradiation. Material and Methods Patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH treatment for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography (CT) simulation scans to determine dosimetric benefits from DIBH. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CT scans were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired during treatment for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results Reduction in heart dose can be achieved using DIBH for left breast/chest wall radiation. RPM was shown to have inferior correlation with the actual target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. Therefore, RPM alone may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a superior correlation with the actual target positioning during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommended threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion The RPM system alone may not be sufficient for the required level of accuracy in left-sided breast/CW DIBH treatments. The 3D surface imaging can be used to ensure patient setup and monitor inter- and intra- fractional motions. Furthermore, the target position accuracy during DIBH treatment can be improved by AlignRT as a superior surrogate, in addition to the RPM system. PMID:24853144

  15. Developmental Regulation of Lck Targeting to the CD8 Coreceptor Controls Signaling in Naive and Memory T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin F. Bachmann; Awen Gallimore; Susanne Linkert; Vincenzo Cerundolo; Antonio Lanzavecchia; Manfred Kopf; Antonella Viola

    Summary The question of whether enhanced memory T cell responses are simply due to an increased frequency of specific cells or also to an improved response at the single cell level is widely de- bated. In this study, we analyzed T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic memory T cells and bona fide memory T cells isolated from virally infected normal mice

  16. UU Innovation UUAB Holding

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    UU Innovation UUAB Holding ANNUAL REVIEW 2013 #12;UU Innovation is the central innovation support new research-based companies. IN BRIEF UU INNOVATION UUAB HOLDING TO FACILITATE MUTUAL knowledge exchange between academic researchers, businesses and other sectors of society UU Innovation creates high

  17. Removable hand hold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Robert D.; Hauer, Robert L.

    1992-06-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining means which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. An alignment/capture bracket is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing bracket is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The alignment/capture bracket has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side.

  18. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  19. UU Innovation UUAB Holding

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    UU Innovation UUAB Holding ANNUAL REVIEW 2013 #12;3 In brief 4 Introduction by the DeputyVice-Chancellor 6 Director's comments, UU Innovation 8 Highlights of 2013, UU Innovation 10 About UU Innovation 16 Our initiatives 18 ­ AIMday 20 ­ KOM FRAM 22 ­ SciLife Innovation 24 ­ Ångström Academy 26

  20. Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper

  1. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  2. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Evoked Brain Activity During Memory Encoding and Target Comparison in Visual Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena V. Mnatsakanian; Ina M. Tarkka

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the temporal pattern of activity and approximate locations of brain areas related to selective attention and\\u000a visual working memory processes were studied with event related potential (ERP) recordings in healthy humans. Three experimental\\u000a series included pairs of the following conditions: Face comparison (familiar faces), Pattern comparison (abstract dot patterns),\\u000a and Passive viewing. Participants compared pairs of consecutive

  3. Accuracy and confidence of visual short-term memory do not go hand-in-hand: behavioral and neural dissociations.

    PubMed

    Bona, Silvia; Silvanto, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Currently influential models of working memory posit that memory content is highly accessible to conscious inspection. These models predict that metacognition of memory performance should go hand-in-hand with the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. To test this view, we investigated how visual information presented during the maintenance period affects VSTM accuracy and confidence. We used a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task in which participants were asked to hold in memory a grating, and during the maintenance period a second memory cue could be presented. VSTM accuracy of the first memory cue was impaired when the orientation of the second memory cue was sufficiently different. However, participants' response confidence was reduced whenever the second memory cue was presented; thus VSTM accuracy and confidence were dissociated. In a second experiment, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to investigate the causal role of this region in VSTM metacognition. Relative to the sham condition, anodal tDCS induced a general reduction in confidence ratings but did not affect VSTM accuracy. Overall, these results indicate that our metacognition of memory performance is influenced by factors other than the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. PMID:24663094

  4. 77 FR 60119 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney, Assistant Vice President) 1 Memorial Drive, Kansas City, Missouri 64198-0001: 1. Luxury Development Partners, Inc., Wichita, Kansas; to become a bank holding company by acquiring, together with its...

  5. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  6. Linking dopaminergic physiology to working memory related neural circuitry

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Andrew D. (Andrew Donald)

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the ability to hold information "online" over a delay in order to perform a task. This kind of memory is thought to be encoded in the brain by persistent neural activity that outlasts the presentation of ...

  7. Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Roy; Scott T. Mitten; Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld

    2008-01-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through supplying feedback for actual task duration. For Experiments 1

  8. Pitch Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

  9. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Deniger, Drew C; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M Helen; Figliola, Matthew J; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N; Widhopf, George F; Hurton, Lenka V; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E; Wierda, William G; Kipps, Thomas J; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3? and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with ?-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-? and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  10. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Deniger, Drew C.; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Widhopf, George F.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E.; Wierda, William G.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3? and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with ?-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-? and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  11. Vise holds specimens for microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greule, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Convenient, miniature, spring-loaded clamp holds specimens for scanning electron microscope. Clamp is made out of nesting sections of studded angle-aluminum. Specimens are easier to mount and dismount with vise than with conductive adhesive or paint.

  12. Deletion of the N-terminus of murine map2 by gene targeting disrupts hippocampal ca1 neuron architecture and alters contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Khuchua, Z; Wozniak, D F; Bardgett, M E; Yue, Z; McDonald, M; Boero, J; Hartman, R E; Sims, H; Strauss, A W

    2003-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) is a brain specific A-kinase anchoring protein that targets the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme (PKA) to microtubules. Phosphorylation of MAP2 by different protein kinases is crucial for neuronal growth. The N-terminus of MAP2 contains the binding site for regulatory subunit II of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-RIIbeta). Using homologous recombination, we created a mutant line of mice (delta1-158) that express truncated MAP2 lacking the N-terminal peptide and the PKA binding site. Deletion of the PKA binding site from the MAP2 gene resulted in decreased efficiency of MAP2 phosphorylation. Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate major changes in the morphology of hippocampal neurons in delta1-158 mice. Behavioral tests indicate that delta1-158 mice were impaired (exhibited less conditioned freezing) relative to Wild-Type (WT) controls during a test of contextual, but not during auditory cue, fear conditioning when tested at 8 weeks or 8 months of age. The delta1-158 mice displayed a heightened sensitivity to shock at 8 weeks, but not at 8 months of age. We conclude that PKA binding to MAP2 and MAP2 phosphorylation is essential for the selective development of contextual memory. PMID:12763072

  13. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  14. Diagnosis of Hold Time Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyuan Wang; Malgorzata Marek-sadowska; Kun-han Tsai; Janusz Rajski

    2004-01-01

    In modern technologies, process variations can be quite substantial, often causing design timing failures. It is essential that those errors be correctly and quickly diag-nosed. In this work, we analyze failures caused by the hold-time-violations. We investigate the feasibility of using cir-cuit-timing information to guide the hold-time-fault diag-nosis. We propose a novel and efficient diagnostic approach based on timing window

  15. Fronto-temporo-occipital activity changes with age during a visual working memory developmental study in children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina Isabel; Rojas Benjumea, M Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena Isabel; Gómez González, Carlos M

    2015-07-10

    The present report analyzes differences in cerebral sources among several age groups with respect to the encoding, maintenance and recognition of stimuli during a visual working memory task. Differential intensity of involvement of anterior and posterior areas during working memory processing is expected at different ages. For that, 168 subjects between 6 and 26 years old performed a visual delayed match-to-sample task. The sample was subdivided into 5 age groups, and the cerebral sources were analyzed with sLORETA, comparing the groups two-by-two. The results showed that at younger ages more posterior regions are involved in working memory processing, while in adulthood more anterior regions are involved. Maintaining the visual item in memory showed some common activated areas with stimulus matching, indicating similar neural mechanisms involved in holding and selecting the target stimulus. PMID:25982325

  16. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the holding...

  17. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the holding...

  18. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the holding...

  19. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the holding...

  20. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the holding...

  1. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

  2. A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

  3. Marketing Strategies for Agricultural Holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camelia BURJA; Vasile BURJA

    Improvement of the marketing activities constitutes an important way to increase the holdings' efficiency. They are an assembly of activities, techniques, methods and procedures which have the role of adjusting the agro foods supply to the specific demand. So, becomes possible satisfying the consumers through giving them the goods which they want in the demanded quality and extend, within the

  4. Pallid Sturgeon in Holding Tank

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Nine-year-old pallid sturgeon wait in holding tanks for their turn to be evaluated by biologists at CERC.  More than 100 pallid sturgeon made the trip from Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery to Columbia on a snowy December day....

  5. No Holds Barred Issue 10 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    /artist. NO HOLDS BARRED No. 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS ON GUARD by Gloria Lancaster 1 RUNAGATE by Jane Mailander 16 YOU DANCING? YOU ASKING? by Gloria Lancaster 33 SEARCHING FOR A BODIE PLOTby Natasha Barry 33 HARLEQUIN, HARLEQUIN by Kitty Fisher 37 SOMEWHERE...

  6. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  7. Memory Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  8. Madness in America: holding a rational conversation.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2013-01-01

    The random, unexpected killing of 20 innocent children in Newtown, CT, touched us all. Targeting people with mental illness who use firearms as the problem in such tragedies is a poor simplification. Delivery of quality care for complex chronic health problems like severe mental illness and substance abuse requires a systematic coordinated effort with resources and expert capacity. We need a health care system that can assess and provide care for the severely mentally ill who may be at risk for becoming violent. Let's challenge the status quo and not simply blame mental illness for these tragedies. As the largest health profession in this country, nurses can make a difference by using the evidence regarding mental illness and violence to hold crucial and rational conversations. PMID:23505751

  9. Saved by a log: how do humans perform hybrid visual and memory search?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2012-07-01

    Could you find 1 of your 1,000 Facebook friends in a crowd of 100? Even at a rate of 25 ms per comparison, determining that no friends were in the crowd would take more than 40 min if memory and visual search interacted linearly. In the experiment reported here, observers memorized pictures of 1 to 100 targets and then searched for any of these targets in visual displays of 1 to 16 objects. Response times varied linearly with visual set size but logarithmically with memory set size. Data from memory set sizes of 1 through 16 accurately predicted response times for different observers holding 100 objects in memory. The results would be consistent with a binary coding of visual objects in memory and are relevant to applied searches in which experts look for any of many items of interest (e.g., a radiologist running through a mental checklist of what might be wrong in a car-crash victim or an airport screener looking for any of a list of prohibited items in a carry-on bag). PMID:22623508

  10. Breathing and Holding Your Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

  11. Phase-Dependent Neuronal Coding of Objects in Short-Term Memory

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Markus

    The ability to hold multiple objects in memory is fundamental to intelligent behavior, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that multiple items may be held in memory by oscillatory activity ...

  12. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Brice A; Bainbridge, Wilma A; Chun, Marvin M

    2012-03-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to "see" competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was the following: (1) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories; (2) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance; and (3) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex--even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  13. Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  14. Memory T Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Su, Charles A; Fairchild, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  15. No Holds Barred Issue 26 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    , credit report, vehicle license?all the expected information kept on every citizen of the Federation. He noted that Toth was 31 years old; had graduated in, though not at, the top of his class; had a solid work record and no current credit violations... at himself, trying to make it feel less real by showing his mind that there was no one there, that he was completely clothed, that there was nothing... A hand he couldn't see slid round his body and took hold of the base of his cock, which, in some...

  16. No Holds Barred Issue 9 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    by Jeanne Marie ("The Wild Wild West") 46 BLACK AND WHITE by Kitty Fisher ("UFO") 53 STORM WARNING by Flamingo ("Miami Vice") 62 EDITORIAL (toy*"*! I'm bringing three issues of "No HoldsBarred" out almost simultaneously - what a record! # 7, which..., all those stories went there. The only other SFsubmission for that | issue was Kitty Fisher's "Black and White"; I saved that for this issue. # 8 is all Holmes/Watson, with two novellas and several short stories. _ Future issues: # 10, an all...

  17. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  18. Sericin for resistance switching device with multilevel nonvolatile memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Meng, Fanben; Cai, Yurong; Zheng, Liyan; Li, Yuangang; Liu, Yuanjun; Jiang, Yueyue; Wang, Xiaotian; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-10-11

    Resistance switching characteristics of natural sericin protein film is demonstrated for nonvolatile memory application for the first time. Excellent memory characteristics with a resistance OFF/ON ratio larger than 10(6) have been obtained and a multilevel memory based on sericin has been achieved. The environmentally friendly high performance biomaterial based memory devices may hold a place in the future of electronic device development. PMID:23893500

  19. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  20. Metamemory and memory test performance in stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Aben; M. A. van Kessel; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. J. van Busschbach; P. A. T. M. Eling; M. A. Bogert; G. M. Ribbers

    2009-01-01

    Memory Self-Efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be related to memory performance and social participation in a healthy elderly population. This relation is unclear in stroke. As about 30% of all stroke survivors report memory complaints, there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. Before implementing MSE as a potential target in memory training, it should be examined whether

  1. Memory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire; Donald Chai

    1998-01-01

    Two recent findings are summarized here that bear on the organization of memory and brain systems. First, the capacity for simple recognition of familiarity (a form of declarative memory) depends on the hippocampal region in both humans and nonhuman primates. Second, probabilistic classification learning (a form of nondeclarative memory akin to habit learning) depends on the caudate nucleus and putamen.

  2. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

  3. Recovered memories.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F; Davis, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The issues surrounding repressed, recovered, or false memories have sparked one of the greatest controversies in the mental health profession in the twentieth century. We review evidence concerning the existence of the repression and recovery of autobiographical memories of traumatic events and research on the development of false autobiographical memories, how specific therapeutic procedures can lead to false memories, and individual vulnerability to resisting false memories. These findings have implications for therapeutic practice, for forensic practice, for research and training in psychology, and for public policy. PMID:17716079

  4. Making sense of memory.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M

    2005-09-01

    The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

  5. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  6. Identifying the Target Cell in Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infection: Highly Activated Memory CD4+ T Cells Are Rapidly Eliminated in Early SIV Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Tham, Irene C.; Mansfield, Keith G.; DeMaria, MaryAnn; Forand, Amy E.; Shvetz, Daniel E.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2000-01-01

    It has recently been shown that rapid and profound CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs almost exclusively within the intestinal tract of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques within days of infection. Here we demonstrate (by three- and four-color flow cytometry) that this depletion is specific to a definable subset of CD4+ T cells, namely, those having both a highly and/or acutely activated (CD69+ CD38+ HLA-DR+) and memory (CD45RA? Leu8?) phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that this subset of helper T cells is found primarily within the intestinal lamina propria. Viral tropism for this particular cell type (which has been previously suggested by various studies in vitro) could explain why profound CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the intestine and not in peripheral lymphoid tissues in early SIV infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an acute loss of this specific subset of activated memory CD4+ T cells may also be detected in peripheral blood and lymph nodes in early SIV infection. However, since this particular cell type is present in such small numbers in circulation, its loss does not significantly affect total CD4+ T cell counts. This finding suggests that SIV and, presumably, human immunodeficiency virus specifically infect, replicate in, and eliminate definable subsets of CD4+ T cells in vivo. PMID:10590091

  7. Should software hold data hostage?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.; Michaels, George S.

    2004-08-01

    Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them into proprietary file and data formats. Although this might make sense from a business perspective, it violates fundamental principles of data ownership and control. Such tactics should not be tolerated by the scientific community. The future of data-intensive biology depends on ensuring open data standards and freely exchangeable file formats. Compared to the engineering and chemistry fields, computers are a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of biological tools. Thus the pool of potential users of biology-oriented software is comparatively small. Biology itself is a broad field with many sub-disciplines, such as neurobiology, biochemistry, genomics and cell biology. This creates the need for task-oriented software tools that necessarily have a small user base. Simultaneously, the task of developing software has become more complex with the need for multi-platform software and increasing user expectations of sophisticated interfaces and a high degree of usability. Writing successful software in such an environment is very challenging, but progress in biology will increasingly depend on the success of companies and individuals in creating powerful new software tools. The trend to open source software could have an enormous impact on biology by providing the large number of specialized analysis tools that are required. Indeed, in the field of bioinformatics, open source software has become pervasive, largely because of the high degree of computer skill necessary for workers in this field. For these tools to be usable by non-specialists, however, requires the development of facile user interfaces and robust environments. This is where some companies have provided real value to the community, building on the foundation of open source software. Outside of genomics and bioinformatics, there is still a critical need for software tools, particularly in areas such as imaging, biochemistry and cell signaling. The computer skills of investigators in these fields is generally more rudimentary, and thus the open source options are much more limited. Commercial software dominates these areas, but open source has the potential to contribute more in the future.

  8. International Corporate Governance and Corporate Cash Holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Dittmar; Jan Mahrt-Smith; Henri Servaes

    2003-01-01

    Agency problems are an important determinant of corporate cash holdings. For a sample of more than 11,000 firms from 45 countries, we find that corporations in countries where shareholders rights are not well protected hold up to twice as much cash as corporations in countries with good shareholder protection. In addition, when shareholder protection is poor, factors that generally drive

  9. Governance environment, cash holding and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Ling; Zhou Ting; Du Zan

    2011-01-01

    Based on China's A-share listed manufacturing companies' data for 2002-2007, used marketization indexes of various regions of China compiled by Fan Gang etc. to construct corporate governance environment, we study the relationship between governance environment, cash holdings and performance empirically. We find that cash holdings have a positive influence on performance?» which seems more apparent in the poor governance environment

  10. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  11. Training to Enhance Adult Memory (TEAM): An investigation of the effectiveness of a memory training program with older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kaci Fairchild; F. R. Scogin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research examining the effectiveness of memory enhancement programs targeting both objective and subjective memory has yielded results with varying degrees of success. The current investigation aimed to contribute to the present body of memory training literature through the evaluation of an in-home memory enhancement program for older adults.Method: Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were assigned to either a memory

  12. Skin tone of targets, lineup type, and confidence levels in cross-racial identification 

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Jessica Lynne

    2013-02-22

    of Black targets, lineup type (target present vs. target absent), and confidence levels for identifications upon a White witnesses' memory. Ten white males therefore viewed a video staged event containing three male targets. The three targets consisted...

  13. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  14. Signal Strength Determines the Nature of the Relationship Between Perception and Working Memory

    E-print Network

    Signal Strength Determines the Nature of the Relationship Between Perception and Working Memory the percept and the working memory of the position of a target stimulus embedded within a surround of moving dots. Motion in a particular direction after the target's offset biased the memory of target location

  15. How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working-memory account.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Raymond W; Bodner, Glen E

    2008-08-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing can reduce ratings of the vividness and emotionality of unpleasant memories-hence it is commonly used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. The present experiments compared three accounts of how eye movements produce these benefits. Participants rated unpleasant autobiographical memories before and after eye movements or an eyes stationary control condition. In Experiment 1, eye movements produced benefits only when memories were held in mind during the movements, and eye movements increased arousal, contrary to an investigatory-reflex account. In Experiment 2, horizontal and vertical eye movements produced equivalent benefits, contrary to an interhemispheric-communication account. In Experiment 3, two other distractor tasks (auditory shadowing, drawing) produced benefits that were negatively correlated with working-memory capacity. These findings support a working-memory account of the eye movement benefits in which the central executive is taxed when a person performs a distractor task while attempting to hold a memory in mind. PMID:18565493

  16. Are recovered memories accurate? 

    E-print Network

    Gerkens, David

    2005-08-29

    Research in our laboratory has demonstrated blocked and recovered memories within the context of a controlled experiment. The comparative memory paradigm allows for comparisons of recovered memories, continuous memories, and false memories...

  17. Interference within the focus of attention: working memory tasks reflect more than temporary maintenance.

    PubMed

    Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W

    2013-01-01

    One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average person can maintain approximately 4 items in WM. The present study challenges this interpretation by demonstrating that performance on the visual arrays task is subject to time-related factors that are associated with retrieval from long-term memory. Experiment 1 demonstrates that memory for an array does not decay as a product of absolute time, which is consistent with both maintenance- and retrieval-based explanations of visual arrays performance. Experiment 2 introduced a manipulation of temporal discriminability by varying the relative spacing of trials in time. We found that memory for a target array was significantly influenced by its temporal compression with, or isolation from, a preceding trial. Subsequent experiments extend these effects to sub-capacity set sizes and demonstrate that changes in the size of k are meaningful to prediction of performance on other measures of WM capacity as well as general fluid intelligence. We conclude that performance on the visual arrays task does not reflect a multi-item storage system but instead measures a person's ability to accurately retrieve information in the face of proactive interference. PMID:22612165

  18. Consolidating memories.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, James L

    2015-01-01

    Our own experiences, as well as the findings of many studies, suggest that emotionally arousing experiences can create lasting memories. This autobiographical article provides a brief summary of the author's research investigating neurobiological systems responsible for the influence of emotional arousal on the consolidation of lasting memories. The research began with the finding that stimulant drugs enhanced memory in rats when administered shortly after training. Those findings suggested the possibility that endogenous systems activated by arousal might influence neural processes underlying memory consolidation. Subsequent findings that adrenal stress hormones activated by learning experiences enhance memory consolidation provided strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. Other findings suggest that the enhancement is induced by stress hormone activation of the amygdala. The findings also suggest that the basolateral amygdala modulates memory consolidation via its projections to brain regions involved in processing different aspects and forms of memory. This emotional-arousal-activated neurobiological system thus seems to play an important adaptive role in insuring that the strength of our memories will reflect their emotional significance. PMID:25559113

  19. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  20. Practical memory checking with Dr. Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Bruening; Qin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs to identify and fix due to the delay and non-determinism linking the error to an observable symptom. Dedicated memory checking tools are invaluable for finding these errors. However, such tools are difficult to build, and because they must monitor all memory

  1. Disruptions in autobiographical memory processing in depression and the emergence of memory therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Werner-Seidler, Aliza

    2014-11-01

    Depression is characterized by distinct profiles of disturbance in ways autobiographical memories are represented, recalled, and maintained. We review four core domains of difficulty: systematic biases in favor of negative material; impoverished access and responses to positive memories; reduced access to the specific details of the personal past; and dysfunctional processes of rumination and avoidance around personal autobiographical material. These difficulties drive the onset and maintenance of depression; consequently, interventions targeted at these maladaptive processes have clinical potential. Memory therapeutics is the development of novel clinical techniques, translated from basic research, that target memory difficulties in those with emotional disorders. We discuss prototypical examples from this clinical domain including MEmory Specificity Training, positive memory elaboration, memory rescripting, and the method-of-loci (MoL). PMID:25060510

  2. Breath-holding spells in infants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? Answer A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. PMID:25676645

  3. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for Reserved Noncommercial Educational Channels, and for Certain Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a) Assignments/Transfers. NCE stations awarded by use...

  4. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for Reserved Noncommercial Educational Channels, and for Certain Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a) Assignments/Transfers. NCE stations awarded by use...

  5. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for Reserved Noncommercial Educational Channels, and for Certain Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a) Assignments/Transfers. NCE stations awarded by use...

  6. Club Sports Waiver, Release, & Hold Harmless Agreement

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    ) _________________________________________________ at Purdue University as a: Club Sport (write legibly) Club Member Guest Participant Volunteer ("Released Parties"). The Division of Recreational Sports strongly recommends that each club member haveClub Sports Waiver, Release, & Hold Harmless Agreement I

  7. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

  8. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

  9. 12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

  10. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

  11. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

  12. Short-term memory binding is impaired in AD but not in non-AD dementias.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Abrahams, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Binding is a cognitive function responsible for integrating features within complex stimuli (e.g., shape-colour conjunctions) or events within complex memories (e.g., face-name associations). This function operates both in short-term memory (STM) and in long-term memory (LTM) and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, forming conjunctions in STM is the only binding function which is not affected by healthy ageing or chronic depression. Whether this specificity holds true across other non-AD dementias is as yet unknown. The present study investigated STM conjunctive binding in a sample of AD patients and patients with other non-AD dementias using a task which has proved sensitive to the effects of AD. The STM task assesses the free recall of objects, colours, and the bindings of objects and colours. Patients with AD, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease showed memory, visuo-spatial, executive and attentional deficits on standard neuropsychological assessment. However, only AD patients showed STM binding deficits. This deficit was observed even when memory for single features was at a similar level across patient groups. Regression and discriminant analyses confirmed that the STM binding task accounted for the largest proportion of variance between AD and non-AD groups and held the greatest classification power to identify patients with AD. STM conjunctive binding places little demands on executive functions and appears to be subserved by components of the memory network which are targeted by AD, but not by non-AD dementias. PMID:22289292

  13. Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies · MRAM · PCRAM · FeRAM · ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

  14. Memory loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be for a short time and then resolve (transient). Or it may not go away, and, depending ... Major surgery or severe illness, including brain surgery Transient global amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of ...

  15. POW Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-07-12

    Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

  16. A Scalable Memory Model for Low-Level Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvonimir Rakamaric; Alan J. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Because of its critical importance underlying all other sof tware, low- level system software is among the most important targets for formal verification. Low-level systems software must sometimes make type-unsafe memory accesses, but because of the vast size of available heap memory in today's computer sys- tems, faithfully representing each memory allocation and access does not scale when analyzing large

  17. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring. PMID:22292532

  18. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252...FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises...

  19. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252...FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises...

  20. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

  1. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

  2. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

  3. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

  4. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _________,...

  5. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176...Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in single hold vessels. (a) On board a vessel having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive)...

  6. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176...Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in single hold vessels. (a) On board a vessel having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive)...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...90 days. In any case in which a private foundation has excess business holdings solely because...classified as an excess business holdings under section...c)(1). In any case where the private foundation has excess business holdings...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...90 days. In any case in which a private foundation has excess business holdings solely because...classified as an excess business holdings under section...c)(1). In any case where the private foundation has excess business holdings...

  9. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...90 days. In any case in which a private foundation has excess business holdings solely because...classified as an excess business holdings under section...c)(1). In any case where the private foundation has excess business holdings...

  10. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...90 days. In any case in which a private foundation has excess business holdings solely because...classified as an excess business holdings under section...c)(1). In any case where the private foundation has excess business holdings...

  11. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...90 days. In any case in which a private foundation has excess business holdings solely because...classified as an excess business holdings under section...c)(1). In any case where the private foundation has excess business holdings...

  12. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252...FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises...

  13. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252...FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises...

  14. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252...FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises...

  15. Memory Solitaire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-30

    In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

  16. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable algorithms for the prevention of those avoidable accidents. PMID:16967769

  17. Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy F. Brady; Talia Konkle; George A. Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities introduce redundancies that make the input more compressible. The current

  18. Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A

    2011-05-01

    Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions. PMID:21515739

  19. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI...days after the application was received. All dates and deadlines in this notice...

  20. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc....

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate title of the mutual holding company (“MHC”) subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the MHC subsidiary holding company shall be in the city of _, in the State...

  4. Memory Training Interventions: What has been forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory training for older adults often produces gains that are limited to the particular memory tasks encountered during training. We suggest that memory training programs may be misguided by an implicit “generalist” assumption—memory training on a couple of memory tasks will have a positive benefit on memory ability in general. One approach to increase memory-training benefits is to target training for the everyday memory tasks for which older adults struggle. Examples include training retrieval strategies, prospective memory strategies, and strategies for learning and remembering names. Another approach is to design training to foster transfer. Possible elements to improve transfer are increasing the variation that is experienced during the course of training at the level of stimuli and tasks, incorporating “homework” that guides the older adult to become attuned to situations in which the strategies can be applied, and providing older adults with a better understanding of how memory works. Finally, incorporating aerobic exercise into memory training programs may potentiate the acquisition and maintenance of the trained cognitive strategies. PMID:22448346

  5. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  6. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  7. [ME]morial

    E-print Network

    Lee, Beomki

    2015-01-01

    Challenging an archetypal relationship between collective memory and a multitude of traditional memorials, "[ME]morial" presents a new concept in memorial architecture based on the reinterpretation of Freud's and Bergson's ...

  8. Electrochemical cell with electrode hold-down

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Boudrot; J. S. Shambaugh; H. Zeltzer

    1981-01-01

    A primary electrochemical cell including a hold-down unit for securing and preventing movement of a physically large battery stack of the cell is disclosed. The battery stack is disposed within a rectangular metal housing of the cell, together with an electrolytic solution, and comprises a large number of rectangular anodes and cathode structures arranged in the battery stack in alternation.

  9. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  10. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  11. Fixtures Hold Nuts During Tightening Of Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1993-01-01

    Two fixtures designed for use on cross-head of tensile testing machine simplify adjustments of crosshead to accommodate specimens of various lengths. Two cagelike fixtures hold pairs of nuts, preventing nuts from turning while bolts are tightened. Enable one person acting alone to tighten bolts.

  12. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  13. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  14. GENETIC PROGRAMMING, INDEXED MEMORY, THE HALTING PROBLEM, AND OTHER CURIOSITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astro Teller

    The genetic programming (GP) paradigm was designed to evolve functions that are progressively better approximations to some target function. The introduction of memory into GP has opened the Pandora's box which is algorithms. It has been shown that the combination of GP and Indexed Memory can be used to evolve any target algorithm. What has not been shown is the

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheel, Minakshi

    1997-01-01

    The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

  16. Worthington Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

  17. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  18. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  19. Cue-Focused and Reflexive-Associative Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Breneiser, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Several theories of event-based prospective memory were evaluated in 3 experiments. The results depended on the association between the target event and the intended action. For associated target-action pairs (a) preexposure of nontargets did not reduce prospective memory, (b) divided attention did not reduce prospective memory, (c) prospective…

  20. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  1. Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

  2. Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

    2010-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

  3. Inhibiting the Activity of CA1 Hippocampal Neurons Prevents the Recall of Contextual Fear Memory in Inducible ArchT Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Kim, Karam; Yu, Lily Mae Yee; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Sekine, Yukiko; Okumura, Yuki; Kawano, Masako; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kumar, Deependra; Boyden, Edward S.; McHugh, Thomas J.; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The optogenetic manipulation of light-activated ion-channels/pumps (i.e., opsins) can reversibly activate or suppress neuronal activity with precise temporal control. Therefore, optogenetic techniques hold great potential to establish causal relationships between specific neuronal circuits and their function in freely moving animals. Due to the critical role of the hippocampal CA1 region in memory function, we explored the possibility of targeting an inhibitory opsin, ArchT, to CA1 pyramidal neurons in mice. We established a transgenic mouse line in which tetracycline trans-activator induces ArchT expression. By crossing this line with a CaMKII?-tTA transgenic line, the delivery of light via an implanted optrode inhibits the activity of excitatory CA1 neurons. We found that light delivery to the hippocampus inhibited the recall of a contextual fear memory. Our results demonstrate that this optogenetic mouse line can be used to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying behavior. PMID:26075894

  4. Super Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

  5. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  6. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  7. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann...Watco Railroad), and Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc. (Merger Sub...railroad, and for Merger Sub to merge with AA, with Merger...

  8. A ground holding model for aircraft deconfliction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Durand; Cyril Allignol; N. Barnier

    2010-01-01

    In the SESAR traffic growth predictions, traffic complexity will become an issue that the current Air Traffic Management organization is not able to handle. The 4D trajectory concept offers new perspectives for deconflicting the traffic by ground-holding aircraft before they take-off. This paper studies the possible complexity reduction achievable by optimizing the aircraft take-off times. Therefore a simple model is

  9. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  10. Biological specimen holding facilities for Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.; Murphy, G. L.; Berry, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of two prototype holding facilities: (1) a unit housing 36 laboratory rats in individual cages, and (2) a unit housing one unrestrained 14-kg rhesus monkey. Both units are environmentally controlled enclosures complete with food, water, and waste-collection equipment. Timer-controlled fluorescent lights in both units permit automatic day-night cycling. Both units are designed to be compatible with Spacelab interfaces and to be operated by NASA payload specialists.

  11. Active hold-down for heat treating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The object of the disclosure is to provide a vacuum hold-down for holding thin sheets to a support surface, which permits the thin sheet to change dimensions as it is held down. The hold-down includes numerous holes in the support surface, through which a vacuum is applied from a vacuum source. The holes are arranged in zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at only one or a few zones, while it continues to be applied to other zones, to allow the workpiece to creep along that interrupted zone. The vacuum to different zones is interrupted at different times, as by a slowly turning valve number, to allow each zone of the workpiece to creep. A positive pressure may be applied from a pressured air source to a zone when the vacuum is interrupted there, to help lift the corresponding workpiece zone off the surface to aid in creeping. The workpiece may undergo dimensional changes because of heating, cooling, drying, or other procedure.

  12. Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

    2000-01-01

    Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

  13. Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

  14. Durable fear memories require PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  15. Memory-Based Particle Filter for Tracking Objects with Large Variation in Pose and Appearance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Mikami; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Junji Yamato

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a A novel memory-based particle filter is proposed to achieve robust visual tracking of a target’s pose even with large variations\\u000a in target’s position and rotation, i.e. large appearance changes. The memory-based particle filter (M-PF) is a recent extension\\u000a of the particle filter, and incorporates a memory-based mechanism to predict prior distribution using past memory of target\\u000a state sequence; it offers

  16. A practical flow-sensitive and context-sensitive C and C++ memory leak detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Heine; Monica S. Lam

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis tool that can automatically find memory leaks and deletions of dangling pointers in large C and C++ applications.We have developed a type system to formalize a practical ownership model of memory management. In this model, every object is pointed to by one and only one pointer, which holds the exclusive right and obligation to

  17. Memorial Session

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Allan Bromley; Robert K. Adair; Sam M. Austin; Jay C. Davis; Ruth H. Howes; Harry Lustig; Robert G. Sachs

    1997-01-01

    Memorial session to honor Heinz H. Barschall's contributions to physics, to the physics community, and to The American Physical Society. 11:00 D. Allan Bromley, Yale University and president-elect, The American Physical Society 11:15 Robert K. Adair, Yale University 11:30 Sam M. Austin, Michigan State University 11:45 Jay C. Davis, Associate Director, LLNL 12:00 Ruth H. Howes, Ball State University 12:15

  18. Memory Systems Doug Burger

    E-print Network

    Burger, Doug

    Memory Systems Doug Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison A computer's memory system and produces. A perfect memory system is one that can supply immediately any datum that the CPU requests. This ideal memory is not practically implementable, however, as the three factors of memory capacity, speed

  19. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  20. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Rommel-Esham

    2007-10-01

    How much popcorn will our classroom hold? This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting data, prediction, inference, communication, and using number relationships) and applied mathematical process (determining an estimate, using benchmarks, measuring, mapping, etc.) in a meaningful way--getting an authentic glimpse of how these two subjects are inextricably linked.

  1. A Moving Target Environment for Computer Configurations Using Genetic Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Fulp, Errin W.

    remapping, etc... · Want to create a moving target defense for computers ­ Intermittently change aspects target defenses for computers ­ Memory address randomization, network address shuffling, routing through diversity ­ Should make reconnaissance phase ineffective · Several successful examples of moving

  2. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

  3. Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

  4. Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_151590.html Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows Less than one-third ... fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides can hold vitamin E in the blood and prevent it from ...

  5. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  6. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  7. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  8. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  9. 31 CFR 332.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 332.5 Section 332.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.5 Limitation on holdings. The amount of...

  10. 31 CFR 332.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 332.5 Section 332.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.5 Limitation on holdings. The amount of...

  11. 31 CFR 332.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 332.5 Section 332.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.5 Limitation on holdings. The amount of...

  12. 50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7 Wildlife and Fisheries...OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal...

  13. 50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7 Wildlife and Fisheries...OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal...

  14. 50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7 Wildlife and Fisheries...OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal...

  15. Notch in memories: Points to remember.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Swananda; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Memory is a temporally evolving molecular and structural process, which involves changes from local synapses to complex neural networks. There is increasing evidence for an involvement of developmental pathways in regulating synaptic communication in the adult nervous system. Notch signaling has been implicated in memory formation in a variety of species. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Notch underlying memory consolidation remains poorly understood. In this commentary, besides offering an overview of the advances in the field of Notch in memory, we highlight some of the weaknesses of the studies and attempt to cast light on the apparent discrepancies on the role of Notch in memory. We believe that future studies, employing high-throughput technologies and targeted Notch loss and gain of function animal models, will reveal the mechanisms of Notch dependent plasticity and resolve whether this signaling pathway is implicated in the cognitive deficit associated with dementia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25565152

  16. Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

    2012-01-01

    New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

  17. Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

    2011-01-01

    New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

  18. 26 CFR 1.1250-4 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Holding period. 1.1250-4 Section 1.1250-4...and Losses § 1.1250-4 Holding period. (a) General. In general...of section 1250 property, the holding period of the property shall be...

  19. Smart Memories Polymorphic Chip Multiprocessor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofer Shacham; Zain Asgar; Han Chen; Amin Firoozshahian; Rehan Hameed; Christos Kozyrakis; Wajahat Qadeer; Stephen Richardson; Alex Solomatnikov; Don Stark; Megan Wachs; Mark Horowitz

    The Stanford Smart Memories polymorphic chip-multipro- cessor architecture was conceived as a unified multipurpose hardware architecture base, capable of supporting a vari- ety of programming models and per-application optimiza- tions (17). Backing the architectural claims, our team of PhD students set out to implement this challenging design in silicon, targeting 90nm technology. Now, with 55M tran- sistors covering 61mm2, this

  20. No Evidence for Temporal Decay in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    What drives forgetting in working memory? Recent evidence suggests that in a complex-span task in which an irrelevant processing task alternates with presentation of the memoranda, recall declines when the time taken to complete the processing task is extended while holding the time for rehearsal in between processing steps constant (Portrat,…

  1. Strong Memories Are Hard to Scale Laura Mickes, Vivian Hwe, Peter E. Wais, and John T. Wixted

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    to this account, items vary in memory strength, with the mean and variance of the target distribution ( target the strength of their memories over a wide range. Specifically, low-confidence recognition decisions are often to scale memory strength had its limitations in that a high proportion of list items received the highest

  2. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  3. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, R. W. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  4. Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin F. Bachmann; Benjamin J. Marsland; Manfred Kopf

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such strategies. Moreover, balancing the need for ablating pathological inflammatory responses

  5. L19 Virtual Memory 1Comp 411 Virtual Memory

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Gary

    table #12;L19 ­ Virtual Memory 16Comp 411 Which block is replaced on miss? Direct mapped cache haveL19 ­ Virtual Memory 1Comp 411 Virtual Memory Carolina Course Evaluation Open Today: Virtual Memory #12;L19 ­ Virtual Memory 2Comp 411 Virtual Memory ·Main memory is a CACHE for disk ·Advantages

  6. Emerging memory devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmas Galatsis; Kang Wang; Youssry Botros; Yang Yang; Ya-Hong Xie; J. F. Stoddart; R. B. Kaner; Cengiz Ozhan; Jianlin Liu; Mihri Ozkan; Chongwu Zhou; Ki Wook Kim

    2006-01-01

    Each memory device presented has its unique range of advantages and challenges. DRAM and FLASH have radically different characteristics; hence, they are used for different applications. Accordingly, the search for memory devices beyond CMOS comes with an important caveat: different memory for different applications. FENA's research path will continue to focus on improving our presented memory devices, and integrating with

  7. Errors in autobiographical memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    1998-01-01

    Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

  8. Memory Hard Drive Peripherals

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

  9. Emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Nader, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Research on the reconsolidation effect was greatly revitalized by the highly analytic demonstration of memory reconsolidation (Nader et al. Nature 406:722-726, 2000) in a well-defined behavioral protocol (auditory fear conditioning in the rat). Since this study, reconsolidation has been demonstrated in hundreds of studies over a range of species, tasks, and amnesic agents. Evidence for reconsolidation does not come solely from the behavioral level of analysis. Cellular and molecular correlates of reconsolidation have also been found. In this chapter, I will first define the evidence on which reconsolidation is concluded to exist. I will then discuss some of the conceptual issues facing the field in determining when reconsolidation does and does not occur. Lastly I will explain the clinical implications of this effect. PMID:25977086

  10. Targeting glutamate uptake to treat alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious public health concern that is characterized by the development of tolerance to alcohol's effects, increased consumption, loss of control over drinking and the development of physical dependence. This cycle is often times punctuated by periods of abstinence, craving and relapse. The development of tolerance and the expression of withdrawal effects, which manifest as dependence, have been to a great extent attributed to neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic and extended amygdala systems. Alcohol affects various neurotransmitter systems in the brain including the adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic systems. Due to the myriad of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems affected by alcohol, the efficacies of current pharmacotherapies targeting alcohol dependence are limited. Importantly, research findings of changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission induced by alcohol self- or experimenter-administration have resulted in a focus on therapies targeting glutamatergic receptors and normalization of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Glutamatergic receptors implicated in the effects of ethanol include the ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA) and some metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regarding glutamatergic homeostasis, ceftriaxone, MS-153, and GPI-1046, which upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions, reduce alcohol intake in genetic animal models of alcoholism. Given the hyperglutamatergic/hyperexcitable state of the central nervous system induced by chronic alcohol abuse and withdrawal, the evidence thus far indicates that a restoration of glutamatergic concentrations and activity within the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala as well as multiple memory systems holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25954150

  11. Targeting glutamate uptake to treat alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious public health concern that is characterized by the development of tolerance to alcohol's effects, increased consumption, loss of control over drinking and the development of physical dependence. This cycle is often times punctuated by periods of abstinence, craving and relapse. The development of tolerance and the expression of withdrawal effects, which manifest as dependence, have been to a great extent attributed to neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic and extended amygdala systems. Alcohol affects various neurotransmitter systems in the brain including the adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic systems. Due to the myriad of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems affected by alcohol, the efficacies of current pharmacotherapies targeting alcohol dependence are limited. Importantly, research findings of changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission induced by alcohol self- or experimenter-administration have resulted in a focus on therapies targeting glutamatergic receptors and normalization of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Glutamatergic receptors implicated in the effects of ethanol include the ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainate, and NMDA) and some metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regarding glutamatergic homeostasis, ceftriaxone, MS-153, and GPI-1046, which upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions, reduce alcohol intake in genetic animal models of alcoholism. Given the hyperglutamatergic/hyperexcitable state of the central nervous system induced by chronic alcohol abuse and withdrawal, the evidence thus far indicates that a restoration of glutamatergic concentrations and activity within the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala as well as multiple memory systems holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25954150

  12. Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

  13. Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Castiello, Umberto; Köster, Egon Peter; Mojet, Jos

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes. PMID:24560690

  14. Scene and Position Specificity in Visual Memory for Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how visual representations of individual objects are bound in memory to scene context. Participants viewed a series of naturalistic scenes, and memory for the visual form of a target object in each scene was examined in a 2-alternative forced-choice test, with the distractor object either a different object…

  15. Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

  16. A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

  17. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  18. Phased array breath-hold versus non-breath-hold MR imaging of focal liver lesions: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Yamamoto, H; Namimoto, T; Abe, Y; Takahashi, M

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether phased array breath-hold T1- and T2-weighted sequences can replace non-breath-hold spin echo (SE) sequences in the imaging of focal liver lesions by comparing overall image quality, liver-lesion contrast, and artifact. Both breath-hold and non-breath-hold T1-weighted and T2-weighted imagings of focal liver lesions were prospectively compared in 120 patients with suspected focal liver lesions imaged at 1.5 T with use of a body phased array multicoil. Breath-hold images were acquired with T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences, and non-breath-hold images were made with conventional T1- and T2-weighted SE sequences. Qualitative image analysis was done by three blinded readers, and quantitative analysis was done. The highest signal-to-noise ratios were obtained with breath-hold T1-weighted FLASH sequence. The signal-to-noise ratios of breath-hold T2-weighted TSE sequence were slightly inferior to those of non-breath-hold SE sequence. Both T1-weighted and T2-weighted breath-hold sequences had less image artifact. Overall image quality of breath-hold sequences was better than that of non-breath-hold sequences for both T1- and T2-weighted sequences (P < .01). The tissue contrast of T1-weighted FLASH sequence was superior to that of SE sequence (P < .01). On T2-weighted imaging, tissue contrast of solid lesions was better on conventional SE sequence than that on breath-hold TSE sequence (P < .01). Respiratory ghost artifact was less prominent on T1-weighted FLASH sequence, although this artifact was occasionally seen on breath-hold T2-weighted TSE sequence. In a state-of-art MR unit with use of a phased array multicoil, conventional T1-weighted can be replaced by breath-hold sequences. On T2-weighted imaging, because solid tumor-liver contrast on breath-hold TSE imaging is inferior to that on non-breath-hold SE image, breath-hold imaging may not replace conventional non-breath-hold T2-weighted SE sequence. PMID:9090580

  19. PPM Reduction on Embedded Memories in System on Chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Hamdioui; Zaid Al-ars; Javier Jiménez; Jose Calero

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes advanced test patterns designed to target dynamic and time-related faults caused by new de- fect mechanisms in deep-submicron memory technologies. Such tests are industrially evaluated together with the tra - ditional tests at \\

  20. Gray-scale morphological associative memories.

    PubMed

    Sussner, Peter; Valle, Marcos Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Neural models of associative memories are usually concerned with the storage and the retrieval of binary or bipolar patterns. Thus far, the emphasis in research on morphological associative memory systems has been on binary models, although a number of notable features of autoassociative morphological memories (AMMs) such as optimal absolute storage capacity and one-step convergence have been shown to hold in the general, gray-scale setting. In this paper, we make extensive use of minimax algebra to analyze gray-scale autoassociative morphological memories. Specifically, we provide a complete characterization of the fixed points and basins of attractions which allows us to describe the storage and recall mechanisms of gray-scale AMMs. Computer simulations using gray-scale images illustrate our rigorous mathematical results on the storage capacity and the noise tolerance of gray-scale morphological associative memories (MAMs). Finally, we introduce a modified gray-scale AMM model that yields a fixed point which is closest to the input pattern with respect to the Chebyshev distance and show how gray-scale AMMs can be used as classifiers. PMID:16722162

  1. Comparison of Kalman and finite memory filtering for gun fire control applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. William Nesline; Paul Zarchan

    1978-01-01

    A finite memory filter is developed for gun fire control and compared to a Kalman filter. As opposed to the Kalman filter, the finite memory filter does not require a priori information concerning measurement or target noise statistics. In addition, the finite memory filter was implemented using a new recursive algorithm which dramatically reduces its computational burden. It is shown

  2. Using Instructional and Motivational Techniques in the Art Classroom To Increase Memory Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calverley, Ann; Grafer, Bonnie; Hauser, Michelle

    This report describes a program for improving memory retention through instructional and motivational techniques in elementary art. Targeted population consisted of third grade students at three sites in a middle class suburb of a large midwestern city. The problems of memory retention were documented through teacher pre-surveys and art memory

  3. Ocular tear film bubble formation after breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P W

    2008-01-01

    Bubbles in the ocular tear film have been observed following both dry-chamber, simulated compressed air dives and in-water, recreational compressed air dives. The current paper reports on the formation of tear film bubbles in a breath-hold diver following repeated, extended breath-hold excursions to a maximum depth of -28.5 m. It is believed that this is the first time that ocular tear film bubbles have been reported in breath-hold divers. PMID:18500071

  4. To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

  5. Searching for targets: The effects of specific practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Graboi

    1971-01-01

    This study contrasts the effects of specific practice vs nonspecific practice in scanning for sets of five-letter targets.\\u000a Ss were required to search for new targets after extended practice with one specific target set. Simultaneous memory search\\u000a was not supported, since searching for one item remained faster than for several items. Serial exhaustive memory search was\\u000a not supported since the

  6. Virginia Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

  7. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

    2013-01-01

    In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body ?/?neurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment. PMID:23638087

  8. Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory

    E-print Network

    Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a cost­effective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

  9. Appearance-Based Inferences Bias Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research varying the trustworthiness of appearance has demonstrated that facial characteristics contribute to source memory. Two studies extended this work by investigating the contribution to source memory of babyfaceness, a facial quality known to elicit strong spontaneous trait inferences. Young adult participants viewed younger and older babyfaced and mature-faced individuals paired with sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the target's facial characteristics. Identifying a source as dominant or submissive was least accurate when participants chose between a target whose behavior was incongruent with facial characteristics and a lure whose face mismatched the target in appearance, but matched the source memory question. In Study 1, this effect held true when identifying older sources, but not own-age, younger sources. When task difficulty was increased in Study 2, the relationship between face-behavior congruence and lure facial characteristics persisted, but it was not moderated by target age even though participants continued to correctly identify fewer older than younger sources. Taken together, these results indicate that trait expectations associated with variations in facial maturity can bias source memory for both own- and other-age faces, although own-age faces are less vulnerable to this bias, as shown in the moderation by task difficulty. PMID:22806429

  10. Active versus passive maintenance of visual nonverbal memory.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Denis; Holt, Jessica; Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Smith, Amy; Griffiths, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    Forgetting over the short term has challenged researchers for more than a century, largely because of the difficulty of controlling what goes on within the memory retention interval. But the "recent-negative-probe" procedure offers a valuable paradigm, by examining the influences of (presumably) unattended memoranda from prior trials. Here we used a recent-probe task to investigate forgetting for visual nonverbal short-term memory. The target stimuli (two visually presented abstract shapes) on a trial were followed after a retention interval by a probe, and participants indicated whether the probe matched one of the target items. Proactive interference, and hence memory for old trial probes, was observed, whereby participants were slowed in rejecting a nonmatching probe on the current trial that nevertheless matched a target item on the previous trial (a recent-negative probe). The attraction of the paradigm is that, by uncovering proactive influences of past-trial probe stimuli, it can be argued that active maintenance in memory of those probes is unlikely. In two experiments, we recorded such proactive interference of prior-trial items over a range of interstimulus (ISI) and intertrial (ITI) intervals (between 1 and 6 s, respectively). Consistent with a proposed two-process memory conception (the active-passive memory model, or APM), actively maintained memories on current trials decayed, but passively "maintained," or unattended, visual memories of stimuli on past trials did not. PMID:24390797

  11. Shape Memory Mechanics of an Elastic Memory Composite Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik R. Abrahamson; Mark S. Lake; Naseem A. Munshi; Ken Gall

    2003-01-01

    Substantially more attention has been given in the past to shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics than to shape memory polymers because unreinforced shape memory polymers have much lower stiffness and recovery force potential than shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics. However, when incorporated into a fiber-reinforced composite, both the stiffness and the recovery force of a shape

  12. Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

  13. STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL JOHN HAYES CARL SHAPIRO THERESA SULLIVAN* I. STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP: A TROUBLESOME MIX Standard setting raises a variety of antitrust-setting organizations (SSOs) include patented technology in standards. We focus on the mechanism of, and techniques

  14. Probability distribution of channel holding time in cellular telephony systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Jedrzycki; V. C. M. Leung

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the channel holding time and call inter-arrival distributions in cellular telephony systems. Up until now, it has been generally assumed that both these distributions can be approximated by the negative exponential model. A study is presented which, using real cellular data, determines the actual distributions. It is shown that the negative exponential assumption for channel holding time

  15. HOLDING PONDS FOR ADULT SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    for artificial propagation. The characteristic reactions of the confined salmon are described. Design drawings Retention of adult salmon 2 Holding pond design 2 Prevention of self-inflicted injury 2 Factors influencing self-inflicted injuries during the holding period. An average current velocity of 0.2 fps is maintained

  16. 47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. 20.22 Section 20.22... § 20.22 Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. (a) Applicants for...9003 of this chapter and long-term spectrum manager leasing arrangements as...

  17. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  3. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...cargo tank must be subjected to the full holding time test at the time of manufacture. However, each subsequent cargo...design must be performance tested during its first trip. The holding time determined in this test may not be less than...

  4. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...cargo tank must be subjected to the full holding time test at the time of manufacture. However, each subsequent cargo...design must be performance tested during its first trip. The holding time determined in this test may not be less than...

  5. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Purpose and Rationale is to: To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations. While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provi...

  6. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose and Rationale: 1) To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes that may be necessary to the current regulations. 2) While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provid...

  7. Audience-Tuning Effects on Memory: The Role of Shared Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Echterhoff; E. Tory Higgins; Stephan Groll

    2005-01-01

    After tuning to an audience, communicators' own memories for the topic often reflect the biased view expressed in their messages. Three studies examined explanations for this bias. Memories for a target person were biased when feedback signaled the audience's successful identification of the target but not after failed identification (Experiment 1). Whereas communicators tuning to an in-group audience exhibited the

  8. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  9. Memory-mapped transactions

    E-print Network

    Sukha, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Memory-mapped transactions combine the advantages of both memory mapping and transactions to provide a programming interface for concurrently accessing data on disk without explicit I/O or locking operations. This interface ...

  10. Nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan De Blauwe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of nanocrystal memories - a nascent nonvolatile memory technology that promises to extend the scaling of more conventional charge storage devices to nanometer-scale dimensions

  11. The malleability of memory 

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Caroline

    2011-06-29

    in acquisition and individual differences. Using a repeated measures design, it was found that memory for faces was better than memory for events. In accordance with the hypothesis, face recognition was worse when actors changed clothes between the crime scene...

  12. Recoverable distributed shared memory 

    E-print Network

    Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

    1996-01-01

    Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

  13. Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

  14. Exercise and Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

  15. The Competitive Influences of Perceptual Load and Working Memory Guidance on Selective Attention

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yuanfang; Wang, Lijun; Tian, Xia; Cui, Yan; Yang, Qian; Pan, Weigang; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Chen, Antao

    2015-01-01

    The perceptual load theory in selective attention literature proposes that the interference from task-irrelevant distractor is eliminated when perceptual capacity is fully consumed by task-relevant information. However, the biased competition model suggests that the contents of working memory (WM) can guide attentional selection automatically, even when this guidance is detrimental to visual search. An intriguing but unsolved question is what will happen when selective attention is influenced by both perceptual load and WM guidance. To study this issue, behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when participants were presented with a cue to either identify or hold in memory and had to perform a visual search task subsequently, under conditions of low or high perceptual load. Behavioural data showed that high perceptual load eliminated the attentional capture by WM. The ERP results revealed an obvious WM guidance effect in P1 component with invalid trials eliciting larger P1 than neutral trials, regardless of the level of perceptual load. The interaction between perceptual load and WM guidance was significant for the posterior N1 component. The memory guidance effect on N1 was eliminated by high perceptual load. Standardized Low Resolution Electrical Tomography Analysis (sLORETA) showed that the WM guidance effect and the perceptual load effect on attention can be localized into the occipital area and parietal lobe, respectively. Merely identifying the cue produced no effect on the P1 or N1 component. These results suggest that in selective attention, the information held in WM could capture attention at the early stage of visual processing in the occipital cortex. Interestingly, this initial capture of attention by WM could be modulated by the level of perceptual load and the parietal lobe mediates target selection at the discrimination stage. PMID:26098079

  16. Memory and Data Memory is precious

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    earmarked by the system ­ The programmer might have a say in this. For example, on PS3 SPUs, we can tweak. · Imagine a (gaming?) device with a display like this: · Imagine it can only display integers. · Imagine · The executable is loaded into main memory by the loader ­ On game consoles, which have limited memory compared

  17. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  18. Numerical Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

  19. Numerical Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

  20. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  1. Considering an organization's memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Ackerman; Christine Halverson

    1998-01-01

    The term organizational memory is due for an overhaul. Memory appears to be everywhere in organizations; yet, the term has been limited to a few uses. In this paper we examine what memory in an organization really is. Based on an ethnographic study of a telephone hotline group, this paper presents a micro-level analysis of a hotline call, the work

  2. Emotional memory in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Hall; Jonathan M. Harris; James W. McKirdy; Eve C. Johnstone; Stephen M. Lawrie

    2007-01-01

    Emotionally arousing scenes are better remembered than neutral ones. The biological basis of this emotional memory effect has been studied in lesion and neuro-imaging studies and depends upon an interaction between the amygdala and medial temporal lobe memory systems including the hippocampus. This study sought to investigate whether patients with schizophrenia had performance deficits on emotional memory tasks consistent with

  3. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  4. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  5. Electrical Evaluation of RCA MWS5501D Random Access Memory, Volume 2, Appendix a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klute, A.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical characterization and qualification test results are presented for the RCA MWS5001D random access memory. The tests included functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, AC parametric worst-case pattern selection test, determination of worst-case transition for setup and hold times, and a series of schmoo plots. The address access time, address readout time, the data hold time, and the data setup time are some of the results surveyed.

  6. Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories

    PubMed Central

    Vuvan, Dominique T.; Podolak, Olivia M.; Schmuckler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

  7. The sensory strength of voluntary visual imagery predicts visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    How much we can actively hold in mind is severely limited and differs greatly from one person to the next. Why some individuals have greater capacities than others is largely unknown. Here, we investigated why such large variations in visual working memory (VWM) capacity might occur, by examining the relationship between visual working memory and visual mental imagery. To assess visual working memory capacity participants were required to remember the orientation of a number of Gabor patches and make subsequent judgments about relative changes in orientation. The sensory strength of voluntary imagery was measured using a previously documented binocular rivalry paradigm. Participants with greater imagery strength also had greater visual working memory capacity. However, they were no better on a verbal number working memory task. Introducing a uniform luminous background during the retention interval of the visual working memory task reduced memory capacity, but only for those with strong imagery. Likewise, for the good imagers increasing background luminance during imagery generation reduced its effect on subsequent binocular rivalry. Luminance increases did not affect any of the subgroups on the verbal number working memory task. Together, these results suggest that luminance was disrupting sensory mechanisms common to both visual working memory and imagery, and not a general working memory system. The disruptive selectivity of background luminance suggests that good imagers, unlike moderate or poor imagers, may use imagery as a mnemonic strategy to perform the visual working memory task. PMID:25301015

  8. A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

  9. Automatic Data Layout for DistributedMemory KEN KENNEDY

    E-print Network

    Kremer, Ulrich

    Automatic Data Layout for Distributed­Memory Machines KEN KENNEDY Rice University and ULRICH KREMER, the data layout choice is the key intellectual challenge in writing an e#cient program in such languages. The performance of a data layout depends on the target compilation system, the target machine, the problem size

  10. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  11. Memory and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Mcnally, R J

    1997-01-01

    Experimental psychopathologists have identified varying patterns in memory bias in people with depressive and anxiety disorders. Individuals suffering from depression tend to exhibit explicit memory deficits for positively-valanced material, and sometimes exhibit biases for retrieving negative self-relevant information as well. Most studies, however, provide scant evidence for implicit memory biases in depression. In contrast to depression, anxiety disorders are rarely associated with enhanced explicit memory for threat-related information (with the exception of panic disorder). Evidence for implicit memory biases for threat in these syndromes is mixed. After providing an overview of findings on memory abnormalities in depressive and anxiety disorders, data from several new studies bearing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam combat veterans and in women with histories of childhood sexual abuse are presented. Involving directed forgetting, implicit memory and autobiographical cueing paradigms, these experiments point to a pattern of abnormalities linked to PTSD rather than to trauma per se. PMID:9415928

  12. Flexible Kernel Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

  13. TIMBAL v2: update of a database holding small molecules modulating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Higueruelo, Alicia P; Jubb, Harry; Blundell, Tom L

    2013-01-01

    TIMBAL is a database holding molecules of molecular weight <1200 Daltons that modulate protein-protein interactions. Since its first release, the database has been extended to cover 50 known protein-protein interactions drug targets, including protein complexes that can be stabilized by small molecules with therapeutic effect. The resource contains 14 890 data points for 6896 distinct small molecules. UniProt codes and Protein Data Bank entries are also included. Database URL: http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/timbal PMID:23766369

  14. Working memory capacity and redundant information processing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Michael J.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Donkin, Chris; Finn, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity (WMC) is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task-irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP) task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets) and to-be-ignored (distractor) information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170) completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant-target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85) and low (n = 85) WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory.

  15. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  16. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  17. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2009-05-01

    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery. PMID:19429502

  18. 76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company...Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION...3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

  19. IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly and HTRE rig. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1010 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  2. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  4. Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    Addis, Donna Rose

    Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

  5. March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

  6. Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection

    E-print Network

    Witchel, Emmett

    Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection Emmett Witchel Department with Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP). MMP is a combination of hardware and software that pro- vides efficient. Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP) [43] is a recently pro- posed fine-grained memory protection scheme

  7. Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose–volume histograms were calculated, and the volumes of heart/lung irradiated to given doses were assessed. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) mean and maximum doses were calculated, together with tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for lung and heart. Results For all patients a reduction of at least 16% in lung mean dose and at least 20% in irradiated pulmonary volumes was observed when DIBH was applied. Heart and LAD maximum doses were decreased by more than 78% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pneumonitis and long term cardiac mortality were also reduced by about 11% with DIBH. The NTCP values for pericarditis were zero for both DIBH and FB. Conclusion Delivering radiation in DIBH conditions the dose to the surrounding normal structures could be reduced, in particular heart, LAD and lung, due to increased distance between target and heart, and to reduced lung density. PMID:24423396

  8. The Effect of Perceptual Distinctiveness on the Prospective and Retrospective Components of Prospective Memory in Young and Old Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Lisa Cohen; Roger A. Dixon; D. Stephen Lindsay; Michael E. J. Masson

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments, the effect of perceptual distinctiveness of cues on prospective memory performance was examined. Young and older adults completed a visual search task with embedded prospective memory instructions. On each trial, participants were asked to indicate the position of a target letter in a letter string, unless either of two letters previously identified as prospective memory cues was

  9. Against memory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Gaffan, David

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe is indispensable for normal memory processing in both human and non-human primates, as is shown by the fact that large lesions in it produce a severe impairment in the acquisition of new memories. The widely accepted inference from this observation is that the medial temporal cortex, including the hippocampal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, contains a memory system or multiple memory systems, which are specialized for the acquisition and storage of memories. Nevertheless, there are some strong arguments against this idea: medial temporal lesions produce amnesia by disconnecting the entire temporal cortex from neuromodulatory afferents arising in the brainstem and basal forebrain, not by removing cortex; the temporal cortex is essential for perception as well as for memory; and response properties of temporal cortical neurons make it impossible that some kinds of memory trace could be stored in the temporal lobe. All cortex is plastic, and it is possible that the same rules of plasticity apply to all cortical areas; therefore, memory traces are stored in widespread cortical areas rather than in a specialized memory system restricted to the temporal lobe. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex has an important role in learning and memory, but is best understood as an area with no specialization of function. PMID:12217178

  10. Reconsolidation of drug memories

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse. PMID:22342780

  11. 26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

  12. 26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

  13. 26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

  14. 26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

  15. 26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

  16. Temperature memory effect in amorphous shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Qi, H Jerry

    2014-12-21

    Temperature memory effect (TME) refers to the ability of shape memory polymers (SMPs) to memorize the temperature at which pre-deformation was conducted. In the past few years, this TME was experimentally demonstrated by comparing the applied programming temperature (Td) with a characteristic recovery temperature (Tc), which corresponds to either the maximum recovery stress or free recovery speed. In these well-designed experiments, Tc was observed to be close to Td, which is consistent with the intuitive understanding of 'memorization'. However, since the polymer recovery behavior has been proved to be strongly dependent on various programming and recovery conditions, a new question that whether Tc is always equal to Td in any thermo-temporal conditions remains to be addressed. In this paper, we answered this question by examining the free recovery profile of an acrylate based amorphous SMP. The recovery Tc, which is the temperature with the maximum recovery speed, versus the recovery temperature is shown to be strongly dependent on both programming and recovery conditions. Their detailed influence could be explained by using the reduced time. During a thermomechanical working cycle of SMPs, in addition to the Td, any other thermo-temporal conditions, such as the holding time (th), cooling rate, recovery heating rate (q), etc., can affect the observed Tc by changing the reduced programming or recovery time. In this manner, the relationship between Tc and Td is not uniquely determined. Besides, the TME in SMPs can only be achieved within a given temperature range. Both onset and offset of this temperature range are shown to be influenced by the programming history, but are independent of the recovery conditions. PMID:25354272

  17. CAT 53: A protein phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit encoded in the MHC Class I region strongly expressed in regions of the brain involved in memory, learning, and Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruma Raha-Chowdhury; Simon R. Andrews; Jeffrey R. Gruen

    2005-01-01

    We identified CAT 53 by cDNA hybridization selection as an expressed sequence tag (EST), located in the vicinity of HLA-C and designated as CAT (for HLA-C associated transcript) 53. CAT 53 encodes a protein described by others and commonly known as phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS). PNUTS is a potent inhibitor of nuclear serine\\/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). We

  18. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  19. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  20. Shape-Memory Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

    2002-01-01

    Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

  1. Shape memory microactuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Büttgenbach; S. Bütefisch; M. Leester-Schädel; A. Wogersien

    2001-01-01

    Since shape memory alloys have been recognized to be a smart material, actuator elements based on the shape memory effect\\u000a have been increasingly used in various fields of application. This paper reports on the design and fabrication of several\\u000a silicon microactuators driven by shape memory elements, namely mechanical microgrippers, microvalves and artificial muscle\\u000a actuators. The actuators were designed as compliant

  2. Oligatomic Film Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Benrud; G. L. Forslund; M. M. Hanson; R. L. Horst; A. D. Kaske; J. A. Kolling; D. S. Lo; M. J. Nordstrom; H. N. Oredson; W. J. Simon; C. H. Tolman; E. J. Torok

    1971-01-01

    For years the desideratum of flat-film fabricators has been a simply constructed high-density random-access NDRO bit organized memory with word and digit current levels low enough for high-density integrated electronics. This paper describes a new direction in flat-film memories that achieves that goal and a projected cost?bit an order-of-magnitude less than that of integrated circuit wire or core memories. Permalloy

  3. Josephson memory technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wada

    1989-01-01

    Memory circuit architecture (decoder, cell, cell array, and sense circuit), is surveyed, focusing on implementing a fast-access and low-power-consumption memory. Recent progress in fabrication and circuit technology has improved memory performance. An ac powering scheme, instead of the earlier dc system, has been developed. The ac powering scheme eliminates complicated timing control, which restricts shortening access time, but it introduces

  4. The Memory Management Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

  5. Memory on time.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-02-01

    Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

  6. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  7. Does PKM? maintain memory?

    PubMed Central

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKM?) in maintaining established memory. PKM?, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKM? were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKM? activity with ?-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKM? in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKM? activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKM? is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKM? in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. PMID:24076105

  8. [Connectionist models of memory].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, F

    2000-01-01

    Even if computer science, at its birth, had strong links with the neurosciences, it is today mainly oriented toward efficiency and robustness. For example, memory in a computer has few relationships with memory in a living being. Nevertheless, some domains in computer science are interested in this kind of modelling. In particular, connectionism, whose goal is to elaborate artificial neural networks, uses a formalism for its calculus inspired from calculus in the brain. Different kinds of memory that can be emulated by artificial neural networks, inspired by statistics or biology, are presented here. Their relationships with human memory are discussed together with their tentative interest for the biologist or the therapist. PMID:11098731

  9. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  10. Memory profiles in children with mild intellectual disabilities: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Van der Molen, Mariët J; Van Luit, Johannes E H; Jongmans, Marian J; Van der Molen, Maurits W

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children). Children with MID performed less well on all measures compared to the CA children. Relative to the MA children, especially verbal WM was weak. Subsequent analyses yielded distinct MID subgroups each with specific memory strengths and weaknesses. These findings hold implications for the demands imposed on children with MID in education and daily life. PMID:19477617

  11. INSPECTION-RESISTANT MEMORY ARCHITECTURES

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Tim

    's storage. With tools available for rent at any major university or fabrication fa- cility, a memory array-RESISTANT MEMORY ARCHITECTURES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... THE AUTHORS EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECURITY, AREA, AND EFFICIENCY IN SEVERAL NOVEL MEMORY

  12. Acoustic Masking in Primary Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Herbert A.; Welsh, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments are reported to investigate the theory that since auditory sensory memory is used to store memory information, concurrent auditory stimulation should destroy memory information and thus reduce recall performance. (Author/RM)

  13. [MRO] Oligocrystalline Shape Memory Alloys

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture ...

  14. Working memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale M. J. Engel de Abreu

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language.

  15. Language Comprehension: Archival Memory or Preparation for Situated Action?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Barsalou

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Current paradigms study language comprehension,as if archival memory,were its primary function. Subjects only receive linguistic material and are later tested on memory for its contents. In contrast, the two target articles in this issue, Glenberg and Robertson (in press) and Roth (in press), examine comprehension,as if preparing for situated action were its primary function. Besides receiving linguistic materials as

  16. Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

    2014-12-01

    To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

  17. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  18. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  19. Serotonergic Mechanisms in Addiction-Related Memories

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Á; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Drug-associated memories are a hallmark of addiction and a contributing factor in the continued use and relapse to drugs of abuse. Repeated association of drugs of abuse with conditioned stimuli leads to long-lasting behavioral responses that reflect reward-controlled learning and participate in the establishment of addiction. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation and retrieval of drug-associated memories may shed light on potential therapeutic approaches to effectively intervene with drug use-associated memory. There is evidence to support the involvement of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in learning and memory formation through the families of the 5-HT1 receptor (5-HT1R) and 5-HT2R which have also been shown to play a modulatory role in the behavioral effects induced by many psychostimulants. While there is a paucity of studies examining the effects of selective 5-HT1AR ligands, the available dataset suggests that 5-HT1BR agonists may inhibit retrieval of cocaine-associated memories. The 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR appear to be integral in the strong conditioned associations made between cocaine and environmental cues with 5-HT2AR antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists possessing potency in blocking retrieval of cocaine-associated memories following cocaine self-administration procedures. The complex anatomical connectivity between 5-HT neurons and other neuronal phenotypes in limbic-corticostriatal brain structures, the heterogeneity of 5-HT receptors (5-HTXR) and the conflicting results of behavioral experiments which employ non-specific 5-HTXR ligands contribute to the complexity of interpreting the involvement of 5-HT systems in addictive-related memory processes. This review briefly traces the history of 5-HT involvement in retrieval of drug-cue associations and future targets of serotonergic manipulation that may reduce the impact that drug cues have on addictive behavior and relapse. PMID:18639587

  20. Neuropeptides in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Eva; Scheich, Bálint; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-12-01

    Dementia conditions and memory deficits of different origins (vascular, metabolic and primary neurodegenerative such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) are getting more common and greater clinical problems recently in the aging population. Since the presently available cognitive enhancers have very limited therapeutical applications, there is an emerging need to elucidate the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, identify key mediators and novel targets for future drug development. Neuropeptides are widely distributed in brain regions responsible for learning and memory processes with special emphasis on the hippocampus, amygdala and the basal forebrain. They form networks with each other, and also have complex interactions with the cholinergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways. This review summarizes the extensive experimental data in the well-established rat and mouse models, as well as the few clinical results regarding the expression and the roles of the tachykinin system, somatostatin and the closely related cortistatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and galanin. Furthermore, the main receptorial targets, mechanisms and interactions are described in order to highlight the possible therapeutical potentials. Agents not only symptomatically improving the functional impairments, but also inhibiting the progression of the neurodegenerative processes would be breakthroughs in this area. The most promising mechanisms determined at the level of exploratory investigations in animal models of cognitive disfunctions are somatostatin sst4, NPY Y2, PACAP-VIP VPAC1, tachykinin NK3 and galanin GALR2 receptor agonisms, as well as delta opioid receptor antagonism. Potent and selective non-peptide ligands with good CNS penetration are needed for further characterization of these molecular pathways to complete the preclinical studies and decide if any of the above described targets could be appropriate for clinical investigations. PMID:24210137

  1. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved: increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information. Instead, and based on explicit as well as saliency cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications. PMID:22557988

  2. 75 FR 41521 - Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant, Currently Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...TA-W-61,226] Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant...applicable to workers of Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant...working on-site at Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster...

  3. 75 FR 41521 - Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6, Currently Known as General Motors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...TA-W-62,069A] Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6, Currently...Flint, MI; Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 2, Currently...applicable to workers of Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6,...

  4. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank holding company's subsidiary banks...

  5. 26 CFR 1.553-1 - Foreign personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foreign personal holding company income. 1.553-1... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.553-1 Foreign personal holding company income. Foreign...

  6. 26 CFR 1.553-1 - Foreign personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Foreign personal holding company income. 1.553-1... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.553-1 Foreign personal holding company income. Foreign...

  7. 78 FR 42863 - Rescission of Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...a Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company; (ii...a Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company; (iii) Rule 17i-4 Internal Risk Management Control Systems Requirements for Supervised Investment Bank Holding Companies;...

  8. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to shares owned indirectly by a bank holding company through a banking...as to shares held directly by the bank holding company. A contrary interpretation would impair the right that member banks controlled by bank holding...

  9. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels...a secondary barrier, hold spaces must be segregated from...

  10. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300 Section 154.300 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces...

  11. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels...a secondary barrier, hold spaces must be segregated from...

  12. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300 Section 154.300 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces...

  13. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300 Section 154.300 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces...

  14. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels...a secondary barrier, hold spaces must be segregated from...

  15. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels...a secondary barrier, hold spaces must be segregated from...

  16. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300 Section 154.300 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces...

  17. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels...a secondary barrier, hold spaces must be segregated from...

  18. 46 CFR 154.300 - Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. 154.300 Section 154.300 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.300 Segregation of hold spaces from other spaces. Hold spaces...

  19. Targeted delivery of oligodeoxynucleotides to parenchymal liver cells in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik A. L. BIESSEN; Helene VIETSCH; Erik T. RUMP; Kees FLUITER; Johan KUIPER; Martin K. BIJSTERBOSCH; Theo J. C. VAN BERKEL

    1999-01-01

    Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) hold great promise for correcting the biosynthesis of clinically relevant proteins. The potential of ODNs for modulating liver-specific genes might be increased by preventing untimely elimination and by improving the local bioavailability of ODNs in the target tissue. In the present study we have assessed whether the local ODN con- centration can be enhanced by the targeted

  20. Functional equivalence and spatial path memory.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn M

    2011-11-01

    Loomis, Klatzky, Avraamides, Lippa and Golledge ( 2007 ) suggest that, when it comes to spatial information, verbal description and perceptual experience are nearly functionally equivalent with respect to the cognitive representations they produce. We tested this idea for the case of spatial memory for complex paths. Paths consisted entirely of unit-length segments followed by 90-degree turns, thus assuring that a path could be described with equal precision using either an egocentric verbal description or a virtual self-motion experience. The verbal description was analogous to driving directions (e.g., turn left and go one block, then turn right, etc.) except in three dimensions (allowing rotation followed by up or down movement). Virtual self-motion was depicted as first-person travel through a 3D grid of featureless corridors. Comparison of these two conditions produced a result that may be surprising to some, but nevertheless appears to support the notion of functional equivalence: Virtual self-motion does not produce better path memory than verbal description, when care is taken to present equally precise path information. This result holds for even very complex paths and despite evidence from proximity-based interference that the memory representation of the path is spatial. PMID:22044400

  1. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving

    E-print Network

    Trassinelli, Martino

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for calculating the locomotion cost of breath-hold divers. Starting from basic principles of mechanics, we calculate the work that the diver has to provide with propulsion for counterbalance the action of the drag, the buoyant force and the weight during the immersion. The basal metabolic rate and the efficiency to transform chemical energy in propulsion are also considered for the calculation of the total energy cost of a dive. The dependency on the diver and dive characteristics and possible optimisations are analysed and discussed. Our results are compared to observation on different breath-hold diving animals. The model confirms the good adaptation of dolphin for deep dives, and it gives some insights for a possible explanation of the exhalation of air before diving observed in seals. A comparison between predicted and observed swim velocities of different breath-hold mammals confirms the importance of the role of the diving reflex.

  2. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: Working and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25734757

  3. Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

  4. Interference within the Focus of Attention: Working Memory Tasks Reflect More than Temporary Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average…

  5. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  6. Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

  7. Broca's area, sentence comprehension, and working memory: an fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corianne Rogalsky; William Matchin; Gregory Hickok

    2008-01-01

    The role of Broca's area in sentence processing remains controversial. According to one view, Broca's area is involved in processing a subcomponent of syntactic processing. Another view holds that it contributes to sentence processing via verbal working memory. Sub-regions of Broca's area have been identifi ed that are more active during the processing of complex (object-relative clause) sentences compared to

  8. An MCM-D memory module in an overmolded plastic package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bet-Shliemoun; Nien-Tsu Shen; D. Malladi; D. Towne; A. Tam

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a PQFP package design which holds a thin film MCM with four memory dice is described. The substrate design is briefly mentioned. We describe the strategy to integrate the MCM-D Al substrate into an existing standard package (i.e. 160 lead PQFP) with minimum cost to meet manufacturability and reliability requirements. This was achieved through minimal modifications to

  9. Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

  10. Neural ECM molecules in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory.

    PubMed

    Senkov, Oleg; Andjus, Pavle; Radenovic, Lidija; Soriano, Eduardo; Dityatev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Neural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules derived from neurons and glial cells accumulate in the extracellular space and regulate synaptic plasticity through modulation of perisomal GABAergic inhibition, intrinsic neuronal excitability, integrin signaling, and activities of L-type Ca(2+) channels, NMDA receptors, and Rho-associated kinase. Genetic or enzymatic targeting of ECM molecules proved to bidirectionally modulate acquisition of memories, depending on experimental conditions, and to promote cognitive flexibility and extinction of fear and drug memories. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that dysregulation of ECM is linked to major psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and that targeting ECM molecules may rescue cognitive deficits in animal models of these diseases. Thus, the ECM emerged as a key component of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and as an attractive target for developing new generation of synapse plasticizing drugs. PMID:25410353

  11. 76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0097] Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...Commission'') has accepted from Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc. (``Healthcare Technology''), subject to final...

  12. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license....

  13. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license....

  14. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license....

  15. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license....

  16. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13...Holding more than one commercial radio operator license....

  17. Shape Memory Polymer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

  18. Shape memory polymer nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

  19. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  20. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  1. Shape Memory Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

    2007-01-01

    This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

  2. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  3. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  4. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  5. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  6. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  7. When autobiographical memory begins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Howe; Mary L. Courage; Shannon C. Edisonb

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in what processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes play in the emergence of autobiographical memory and the temporal

  8. Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

  9. Instruction Manual MEMORY TELEPHONE

    E-print Network

    Owner's Instruction Manual PATRIOT II MEMORY TELEPHONE 2194**V0E27S #12;PATRIOT II MEMORY TELEPHONE TELEPHONE telephone.telephone.telephone.telephone.telephone. All products in the PAll products in the PAll of telephones combine the latestfamily of telephones combine the latestfamily of telephones combine

  10. Distributed memory. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.N.

    1985-03-13

    A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

  11. Memory's Role in Catechesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Bryan

    The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected…

  12. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  13. 13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  14. Change in properties of niobium alloys after holding in lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovich, G.G.; Ignatiev, M.I.

    1985-09-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of redistribution of interstitial impurities (nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen) and penetration of liquid metal on the change in mechanical properties of niobium alloys after holding in lithium. It was established that after the 10-h hold, the lithium has penetrated through the grain boundaries of NV-7 alloy specimens to a depth of 0.02 mm, and an increase in exposure to 1000 h leads to through corrosion damage. The remainder of the studied materials are corrosion resistant in lithium and the change in their mechanical properties is apparently related to redistribution of the nonmetallic impurities.

  15. Domain-specific development of face memory but not face perception.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Dilks, Daniel D; Balas, Benjamin; McKone, Elinor; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does the remarkable human ability for face recognition arise over development? Competing theories have proposed either late maturity (beyond 10 years) or early maturity (before 5 years), but have not distinguished between perceptual and memory aspects of face recognition. Here, we demonstrate a perception-memory dissociation. We compare rate of development for (adult, human) faces versus other social stimuli (bodies), other discrete objects (cars), and other categories processed in discrete brain regions (scenes, bodies), from 5 years to adulthood. For perceptual discrimination, performance improved with age at the same rate for faces and all other categories, indicating no domain-specific development. In contrast, face memory increased more strongly than non-face memory, indicating domain-specific development. The results imply that each theory is partly true: the late maturity theory holds for face memory, and the early maturity theory for face perception. PMID:24118764

  16. Northwestern Memorial Hospital v. Ashcroft.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Court Decision: 362 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 923; 2004 Mar 26 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit affirmed a lower court decision that quashed a Department of Justice subpoena seeking late-term abortion patients' medical records because the subpoena unduly burdened the hospital and provided limited probative value compared to the consequent harm to patients and the hospital. The Department of Justice issued Northwestern Memorial Hospital a subpoena seeking records for use in a case challenging the constitutionality of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Although the administrative hardship of compliance would be modest, the Seventh Circuit found that, as a result of compliance, the hospital could lose the confidence of its patients, people could be inclined to seek care at other hospitals, and there would be an invasion of patient privacy even if there is no possibility of learning the patient's identity. The burden of compliance would exceed the benefit of producing the requested medical records. The court declined to base its holding on Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations or federal common law and found that neither privileged the information sought by the subpoena. PMID:16477725

  17. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  18. Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and

    E-print Network

    Shors, Tracey J.

    Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and awareness Tracey J. Shors neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and awareness in the formation of trace memories. `Every memory we have is finally with synaptogenesis in the hippocampus will be discussed, as will the potential role of awareness in this form

  19. The microcircuit associative memory: a biologically motivated memory architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coe F. Miles; C. David Rogers

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a fundamental construct, called the microcircuit, that constitutes the basic building block of an associative memory model, the ?AM. The microcircuit's structure is based on cerebellar interneuron connectivity patterns. Overlapping microcircuit activity is used to describe ?AM memory operations, and quantitative expressions for the memory's storage and recall behavior are given. Measures of the memory's fidelity are derived and

  20. Re-establishing memory: memory's functions and the reference librarian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Butler

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to re-establish memory's role within reference librarianship, and to argue that continued research on how memory affects the reference librarian can encourage growth within the profession. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Neuroscience and psychological explanations of memory are introduced and then utilized to show how reference librarians access and impress memory. Perspectives on reference librarianship in relation to

  1. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  2. Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection

    E-print Network

    Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection Emmett Witchel Department and an evaluation of Mondrix, a version of the Linux kernel with Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP). MMP, is therefore a crucial component of a robust system. Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP) [43] is a recently pro

  3. Memorial Day UCSB Closed

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    , and leadership training. #12;The Resource Center for Sexual and Gender Diversity (RCSGD) provides a visible, books, and videos; hold committee meetings; or get together with others informally In addition, four

  4. Financial constraints, real options and corporate cash holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrus A. Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – A large body of empirical literature has identified the key drivers of corporate cash holdings. The extant literature posits that the existence of real options significantly influences a firm's demand for liquidity. The literature, however, has relied on indirect proxies to assess this influence. The purpose of this paper is to provide a direct method for assessing this

  5. White-collar crime: Holding a mirror to the core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis T. Cullen; Michael L. Benson

    1993-01-01

    Despite advances in scholarship and raised consciousness about upperworld lawlessness, the specialty of white-collar crime remains entrenched on the discipline's periphery. One consequence is that many students receive a criminal justice education which distorts the social reality of crime. We argue that knowledge about white-collar crime can be used to “hold a mirror” to the traditional core of criminology, which

  6. Agriculture's Hold on the Commonwealth Food Marketing and Lumber

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Agriculture's Hold on the Commonwealth 43 Food Marketing and Lumber Processing in Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Food Marketing and Lumber Processing in Massachusetts, 1958 to1997 44 marketing chain) because processing is directly linked to primary production, the topic of our first white

  7. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, PLAN & ELEVATIONS. Sheet 4 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. HINGED PANEL EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE. Sheet 28 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  10. Duration of Voluntary Breath Holding and Blood Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Irzhak; P. V. Polyakov

    2002-01-01

    Stange's and Genci's functional tests performed at rest and during exercise and blood tests have shown that the duration of voluntary breath holding depends on appearance in the blood of hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis signs only after the influence of fatigue of respiratory muscles and respiratory center has become insufficient.

  11. Instrumented climbing holds and performance analysis in sport climbing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Konstantin Fuss; Günther Niegl

    2008-01-01

    In three different events (national climbing Championship, sport climbing world cup, and training session), one hold was instrumented with two 3?D force transducers. Subsequently, the mechanical parameters of climbing were defined and analyzed, and the force vector diagrams visualized for quantification of performance.The more experienced a climber is, the smaller the contact force, the shorter the contact time, the smaller

  12. SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER JIM DURFEE IS POURING BRASS ALLOY INTO MOLDS. ALSO SHOWN IS THE FLAME-RETARDANT ROPE THAT HAS REPLACED ASBESTOS FOR PACKING AROUND THE MOLDS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  14. Updated: September, 2012 Intent to Hold FPM Course/Test

    E-print Network

    Updated: September, 2012 FORM A Intent to Hold FPM Course/Test Which course are you conducting? (check only one) 2-day course 1-day course Test only Re-Test only Test & Re-Test Food Handlers What date(s) are you conducting the training/testing? ______________________________ (mm

  15. Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

    1989-01-01

    This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

  16. Multiple job-holding and artistic careers: some empirical evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Throsby; Anita Zednik

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses attention on a somewhat overlooked component of the career portfolios of practising professional artists, namely their non-arts work. Although it is widely known that artists hold multiple jobs for a variety of reasons, there is little information on which jobs artists take on, whether they can make use of their creative skills in these jobs and how

  17. Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells Clyde F. Wilson, Garth J exceptional stability in capturing, transporting, and releasing single cells and liposomes 1-12 µm in diameter subsequently probed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). In the second study, a single liposome containing car

  18. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

  20. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

  3. MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED OUT OF THE CUPOLA UNTIL IT NEEDED BY POURERS ON THE CONVEYOR LINES WHO FILL MOBILE LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAIL SYSTEMS AS THE BULL LADLE TIPS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Holding children and young people: defining skills for good practice.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew

    Physical holds are used to help children and young people receive clinical care in situations where their behaviour may limit the ability of nurses and allied professionals to deliver treatment effectively. This article provides an overview of a qualitative study of 11 nurses and allied professionals who were interviewed with semi-structured questions. The major findings suggest there is a lack of clear and agreed terminology and nurses and allied professionals are guessing at how to describe the practice. As a result, there was no discussion or documentation of the practices of holding (whether successful or unsuccessful) within the clinical area. For the last decade, professional opinion was that this is an 'uncontested practice'. It can therefore be questioned whether this practice has moved from being 'uncontested' to 'indifferent'. Nurses and allied professionals need to revive a common definition of 'good' around the actions of holding, which can hopefully lead to holding skills being more clearly defined and evidence-based. PMID:24225549

  5. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  6. Pulse and Hold Switching Current Readout of Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 #12;Front cover illustration: Central part of a 3 × 3 matrix of chips and be faster than the relaxation time of the qubit. We discuss and experiment with a readout method based close to its bifurcation point and the subsequent hold level is used to give the circuit enough time

  7. Brain Damage in Commercial Breath-Hold Divers

    PubMed Central

    Kohshi, Kiyotaka; Tamaki, Hideki; Lemaître, Frédéric; Okudera, Toshio; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Denoble, Petar J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute decompression illness (DCI) involving the brain (Cerebral DCI) is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects and Methods Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama) with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions. Results Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years), four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases), white matters (4 cases), the basal ganglia (4 cases), and the thalamus (1 case). Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers. PMID:25115903

  8. A Prototype Processing-In-Memory (PIM) Chip for the Data-Intensive Architecture (DIVA) System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaffrey Draper; Tim Barrett; Jeff Sondeen; Sumit D. Mediratta; Chang Woo Kang; Ihn Kim; Gokhan Daglikoca

    2005-01-01

    The Data-Intensive Architecture (DIVA) system employs Processing-In-Memory (PIM) chips as smart- memory coprocessors. This architecture exploits inherent memory bandwidth both on chip and across the system to target several classes of bandwidth-limited applications, including multimedia applications and pointer-based and sparse-matrix computations. The DIVA project has built a prototype development system using PIM chips in place of standard DRAMs to demonstrate

  9. Mixed-sputter deposition of Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krulevitch; P. B. Ramsey; D. M. Makowiecki; A. P. Lee; M. A. Northrup; G. C. Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films were mixed-sputter deposited from separate nickel, titanium, and copper targets, providing increased compositional flexibility. Shape memory characteristics, examined for films with 7 at.% Cu and 41–51 at.% Ti, were determined with temperature-controlled substrate-curvature measurements, and the microstructure was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-Ti-Cu films were found to have shape memory properties comparable with bulk

  10. NOTE: Dosimetric evaluation of inspiration and expiration breath-hold for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning of non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hatton, Matthew Q. F.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare target coverage and lung tissue sparing between inspiration and expiration breath-hold intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective study, seven NSCLC patients gave written consent to undergo both moderate deep inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold computed tomography (CT), which were used to generate five-field IMRT plans. Dose was calculated with a scatter and an inhomogeneity correction algorithm. The percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90), the volume of total lung receiving >= 10 Gy (V10) and >= 20 Gy (V20) and the mean lung dose (MLD) were compared by the Student's paired t-test. Compared with the expiration plans, the mean ± SD reductions for V10, V20 and MLD on the inspiration plans were 4.0 ± 3.7% (p = 0.031), 2.5 ± 2.3% (p = 0.028) and 1.1 ± 0.7 Gy (p = 0.007), respectively. Conversely, a mean difference of 1.1 ± 1.1% (p = 0.044) in PTV90 was demonstrated in favour of expiration. When using IMRT, inspiration breath-hold can reduce the dose to normal lung tissue while expiration breath-hold can improve the target coverage. The improved lung sparing at inspiration may outweigh the modest improvements in target coverage at expiration.

  11. Targeted ?-Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a viable strategy for the delivery of therapeutic, particle emitting radionuclides specifically to tumor cells to either augment anti-tumor action of the native antibodies or to solely take advantage of their action as targeting vectors. Proper and rational selection of radionuclide and antibody combinations is critical to making radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a standard therapeutic modality due to the fundamental and significant differences in the emission of either ?- and ?-particles. The ?-particle has a short path length (50-80 ?m) that is characterized by high linear energy transfer (?100 keV/?m). Actively targeted ?-therapy potentially offers a more specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to the surrounding normal tissues than ß-emitters. These properties make targeted ?-therapy appropriate therapies to eliminate of minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. RIT using ?-emitters such as 213Bi, 211At, 225Ac, and others has demonstrated significant activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Limited numbers of clinical trials have progressed to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and therapeutic activity of targeted ?-therapy, despite having to traverse complex obstacles. Further advances may require more potent isotopes, additional sources and more efficient means of isotope production. Refinements in chelation and/or radiolabeling chemistry combined with rational improvements of isotope delivery, targeting vectors, molecular targets, and identification of appropriate clinical applications remains as active areas of research. Ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted ?-therapy combined with integration into existing standard of care treatment regimens will determine the clinical utility of this modality. PMID:17992276

  12. Can We Improve the Clinical Assessment of Working Memory? An Evaluation of the WAIS-III Using a Working Memory Criterion Construct

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Benjamin; Elliott, Emily; Shelton, Jill; Pella, Russell; O’Jile, Judith; Gouvier, William

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the WAIS-III working memory index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percent of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle’s (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

  13. Epigenetics and persistent memory: implications for reconsolidation and silent extinction beyond the zero

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, K Matthew; Wood, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    Targeting epigenetic mechanisms during initial learning or memory retrieval can lead to persistent memory. Retrieval induces plasticity that may result in reconsolidation of the original memory, in which critical molecular events are needed to stabilize the memory, or extinction, in which new learning during the retrieval trial creates an additional memory that reflects the changed environmental contingencies. A canonical feature of extinction is that the original response is temporarily suppressed, but returns under various conditions. These characteristics have defined whether a given manipulation alters extinction (when persistence does not occur) or reconsolidation (when persistence does occur). A problem arises with these behavioral definitions when considering the potential for persistent memory of extinction. Recent studies have found that epigenetic modulation of memory processes leads to surprisingly robust and persistent extinction. We discuss evidence from behavioral epigenetic approaches that forces a re-evaluation of widely used behavioral definitions of extinction and reconsolidation. PMID:23354385

  14. Improvement of voltage holding and high current beam acceleration by MeV accelerator for ITER NB

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Tobari, H.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, 311-0193 (Japan)

    2011-09-26

    Voltage holding of -1 MV is an essential issue in development of a multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) negative ion accelerator, of which target is to accelerate 200 A/m{sup 2} H{sup -} ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV for several tens seconds. Review of voltage holding results ever obtained with various geometries of the accelerators showed that the voltage holding capability was about a half of designed value based on the experiment obtained from ideal small electrode. This is considered due to local electric field concentration in the accelerators, such as edge and steps between multi-aperture grids and its support structures. Based on the detailed investigation with electric field analysis, accelerator was modified to reduce the electric field concentration by reshaping the support structures and expanding the gap length between the grid supports. After the modifications, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV for more than one hour in vacuum. Improvement of the voltage holding characteristics progressed the energy and current accelerated by the MeV accelerator. Up to 2010, beam parameters achieved by the MAMuG accelerator were increased to 879 keV, 0.36 A (157 A/m{sup 2}) at perveance matched condition and 937 keV, 0.33 A (144 A/m{sup 2}) slightly under perveance.

  15. Memory at VLSI Circuits Symposium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoo Itoh; Hideaki Kurata; Kenichi Osada; Tomonori Sekiguchi

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Symposium has been the premier forum for memory, putting more emphasis on seminal memory circuits rather than on record-setting performances with actually fabricated full chips, which has been the emphasis at the ISSCC. Indeed, it has been the breeding ground for DRAMs, SRAMs, flash memories, and other memories.

  16. The memory value of size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Karwoski

    1931-01-01

    The problem was to determine the memory value of absolute and relative size of letters under conditions in which size alone is the variable. Absolute size has no memory value. A memory value for relative size was obtained as between the largest and either of the two smaller sizes. Repetition of the series diminishes the memory value of relative size.

  17. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ­ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

  18. Programming with functional memory

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, R. Jr.; Lew, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Functional memory (FM) uses memory mapped reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for fine-grained parallel processing. Multi-operand expressions are computed in combinational logic eliminating processor computation steps. FPGAs capture operands as memory is written, eliminating separate processor load-stores to pass operands. This paper describes how program expressions can be implemented in FM, including branch address computations. It concludes with a load store analysis comparing a conventional von Neumann processor with and without FM for a shortest path program. The load store count stays about the same but eliminating the computation steps result in a one-third step reduction overall with FM.

  19. Memory clinics in context

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

    2009-01-01

    The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

  20. Differentiation and Response Bias in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2010-01-01

    In differentiation models, the processes of encoding and retrieval produce an increase in the distribution of memory strength for targets and a decrease in the distribution of memory strength for foils as the amount of encoding increases. This produces an increase in the hit rate and decrease in the false-alarm rate for a strongly encoded compared…

  1. LeakChaser: Helping Programmers Narrow Down Causes of Memory Leaks

    E-print Network

    Xu, Guoqing "Harry"

    LeakChaser: Helping Programmers Narrow Down Causes of Memory Leaks Guoqing Xu Michael D. Bond Feng often results in memory leaks and bloat, degrading significantly their run-time performance and scalability. Despite the existence of many leak detectors for such languages, these detectors often target low

  2. Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

  3. The Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory within and between Hemifields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvenne, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are both thought to have a capacity limit of four items [e.g. Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 309, 279-281; Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Storm, R. W. (1988). Tracking multiple independent targets: evidence for a parallel tracking…

  4. Influence of Variable Blank Holding Force on the Drawing Behavior of Steel Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nemisha Mishra; Dilip Sutariya; K. Narasimhan

    2011-01-01

    Blank holding force is one of the important factors affecting sheet metal forming that needs to be controlled for maximizing the formability of sheet metal. Too high a blank holding force leads to early splitting and too low a blank holding force gives rise to wrinkling. Formability can be improved to a limited extent by application of constant blank holding

  5. 26 CFR 53.4943-5 - Present holdings acquired by trust or a will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...Business Holdings § 53.4943-5 Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...of such will from being treated as a present holding under section 4943(c)...

  6. 26 CFR 53.4943-5 - Present holdings acquired by trust or a will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...Business Holdings § 53.4943-5 Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...of such will from being treated as a present holding under section 4943(c)...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4943-5 - Present holdings acquired by trust or a will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...Business Holdings § 53.4943-5 Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...of such will from being treated as a present holding under section 4943(c)...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4943-5 - Present holdings acquired by trust or a will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...Business Holdings § 53.4943-5 Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...of such will from being treated as a present holding under section 4943(c)...

  9. 26 CFR 53.4943-5 - Present holdings acquired by trust or a will.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...Business Holdings § 53.4943-5 Present holdings acquired by trust or a will...of such will from being treated as a present holding under section 4943(c)...

  10. Identifying and Characterizing the Effects of Nutrition on Hippocampal Memory123

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Jim M.; Baym, Carol L.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally, we discuss selected findings from animal and human research on nutrition and the hippocampus and advocate for the role of relational memory tasks in future research. PMID:24829486

  11. Metamemories of memory researchers.

    PubMed

    Park, D C; Smith, A D; Cavanaugh, J C

    1990-05-01

    In the present study, a metamemory questionnaire was completed by three groups of individuals: memory research psychologists who attended a small international convention on everyday memory processes in the aged, academic psychologists with a limited knowledge of the memory literature, and nonpsychologist college professors. There was little evidence that memory psychologists reported using strategies to remember things that were different from the strategies of other academics. The most used and most recommended technique for remembering was to write things down, followed by general internal mnemonic systems such as organization and rehearsal. The least used and least recommended strategies for all three groups were formal mnemonic systems, such as the peg-word system or the method of loci. PMID:2355861

  12. Modelling Immunological Memory

    E-print Network

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  13. Warship : memorial in antithesis

    E-print Network

    Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

  14. Object Location Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

  15. Concussion and Memory

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... according to a new study. Researchers recruited 15 men and 15 women with concussion to help them ... activation in the brain’s memory circuits in the men with concussion and decreased activation in the women ...

  16. Iconic memory requires attention.

    PubMed

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features. PMID:22586389

  17. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  18. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  19. High Trait Anxiety: A Challenge for Disrupting Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation - n?=?107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice. PMID:24260096

  20. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n?=?107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice. PMID:24260096

  1. Ramsay Memorial Fund

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Bell; Glenconner; J. N. Collie

    1917-01-01

    WE are asking the hospitality of your columns to enable us to report the progress of the Ramsay Memorial Fund, which was instituted just a year ago with the object of raising a sum of 100,000l. as a suitable memorial to the late Prof. Sir William Ramsay. The fund has now reached a sum of just above 30,000l. The latest

  2. Static Memory Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nestoras Tzartzanis

    In this chapter, we explore the design of static memory structures. We start with the description of the operation of the\\u000a single-port six-transistor SRAM cell. Subsequently, we discuss issues related to the design of memory peripherals such as\\u000a voltage-mode and current-mode differential reads, single-ended reads, and control logic. We present design techniques to reduce\\u000a SRAM dynamic and static power. We

  3. Memory. Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tomás J; Roy, Dheeraj S; Pignatelli, Michele; Arons, Autumn; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2015-05-29

    Memory consolidation is the process by which a newly formed and unstable memory transforms into a stable long-term memory. It is unknown whether the process of memory consolidation occurs exclusively through the stabilization of memory engrams. By using learning-dependent cell labeling, we identified an increase of synaptic strength and dendritic spine density specifically in consolidated memory engram cells. Although these properties are lacking in engram cells under protein synthesis inhibitor-induced amnesia, direct optogenetic activation of these cells results in memory retrieval, and this correlates with retained engram cell-specific connectivity. We propose that a specific pattern of connectivity of engram cells may be crucial for memory information storage and that strengthened synapses in these cells critically contribute to the memory retrieval process. PMID:26023136

  4. Capture of breeding and wintering shorebirds with leg-hold noose-mats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, K.R.; Drake, K.L.; Page, G.W.; Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.; Thompson, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Development of effective trapping techniques is important for conservation efforts, as marking and subsequent monitoring of individuals is necessary to obtain accurate estimates of demography, movements, and habitat use. We describe a leg-hold noose-mat trap for capturing breeding and nonbreeding shorebirds. Using this method, we trapped 50 Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus), 2258 Snowy Plovers (C. alexandrinus), 38 Killdeers (C. vociferus), and 64 Dunlins (Calidris alpina) in the western and southern United States. The trap was lightweight, making it easy to transport and set up. It was effective on unvegetated substrates at both coastal and inland sites and could be modified for a variety of habitats. Furthermore, this trap allowed researchers to target specific groups of birds including territorial individuals. Easy removal of birds from traps minimized handling time, stress, and injury

  5. First on-line results for As and F beams from HRIBF target/ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stracener, D.W. [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carter, H.K.; Kormicki, J.; Breitenbach, J.B. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Blackmon, J.C. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Smith, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bardayan, D.W. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.

    1996-12-31

    The first on-line tests of the ion sources to provide radioactive ion beams of {sup 69,70}As and {sup 17,18}F for the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) have been performed using the UNISOR facility at HRIBF. The target/ion source is an electron beam plasma (EBP) source similar to the ISOLDE design. The measured efficiencies for {sup 69}As and {sup 70}AS were 0.5 {+-} 0.2% and 0.8 {+-} 0.3%, respectively. The arsenic hold-up time in the tested target ion source was 3.6 {+-} 0.3 hours as measured with {sup 72}As at a target temperature of 1300 {degrees}C. The measured efficiencies for {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F were 0.0052 {+-} 0.0008% and 0.06 {+-} 0.02%, respectively. The source hold-up time for fluorine was measured with Al{sup 18}F since 88% of the observed radioactive fluorine was found in this molecule. The Al{sup 18}F hold-up time was 16.4 {+-} 0.8 minutes at a target temperature of 1470 {degrees}C.

  6. Do Credit Cards Really Reduce Aggregate Money Holdings?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Z. Yang; Amanda S. King

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses whether the use of credit cards reduces aggregate money holdings in an economy. Applying and modifying\\u000a the Baumol-Tobin model (Baumol Quarterly Journal of Economics 66:545–556, 1952 and Tobin Review of Economics and Statistics 38(3):241–247, 1956), it studies how much money a credit card bank would normally maintain to support retail trade, and shows that whether or\\u000a not

  7. Computer simulation of human breath-hold diving: cardiovascular adjustments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Fitz-Clarke

    2007-01-01

    The world record for a sled-assisted human breath-hold dive has surpassed 200 m. Lung compression during descent draws blood\\u000a from the peripheral circulation into the thorax causing engorgement of pulmonary vessels that might impose a physiological\\u000a limitation due to capillary stress failure. A computer model was developed to investigate cardiopulmonary interactions during\\u000a immersion, apnea, and compression to elucidate hemodynamic responses and

  8. Tracking decrement as a result of grip holding endurance

    E-print Network

    Bloswick, Donald Stephen

    1971-01-01

    Data from the study support the following con clusions: (1) muscle loading in terms of grip holding d. oes cause a significant decrement in tracking ability as n easured on a pursuit rotor; (2) the recovery time for' the decrement is thirty seconds... Analysis of Variance Between Endurance Levels for the First Ten-second. Intervaled 43 TABLE 7 ~ Analysis of Variance Between End. ursnce Levels for the Seoond. Ten second. Inter- val ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ' ~ ' ~ ! ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ 'e ~ ' ~ ' ~ &o...

  9. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 1,2,&3. Sheet 6 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 4,5,&6. Sheet 7 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 7,8,&9. Sheet 8 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Corporate governance and the value of cash holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Dittmar; Jan Mahrt-Smith

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how corporate governance impacts firm value by comparing the value and use of cash holdings in poorly and well-governed firms. We show that governance has a substantial impact on value through its impact on cash: $1.00 of cash in a poorly governed firm is valued at only $0.42 to $0.88. Good governance approximately doubles this value. Furthermore, we

  13. Fiber-optic gyroscope with polarization-holding fiber.

    PubMed

    Burns, W K; Moeller, R P; Villarruel, C A; Abebe, M

    1983-10-01

    A fiber gyroscope is reported that uses polarization-holding fiber in the coil, the phase modulator, and the coupler. The random-drift coefficient, calculated from rms noise levels, was 8.10(-4) deg/ radicalh, within a factor of 2 of an experimentally determined quantum and thermal limit. White-noise behavior was observed for integration time constants from 1 to 40 sec. Device characteristics and performance are presented. PMID:19718176

  14. Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W

    2013-09-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

  15. A High Through-Put Reverse Genetic Screen Identifies Two Genes Involved in Remote Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matynia, Anna; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Wiltgen, Brian J.; Lacuesta, Maress; Fanselow, Michael S.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the initial stages of memory formation require several genes involved in synaptic, transcriptional and translational mechanisms. In contrast, very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying later stages of memory, including remote memory (i.e. 7-day memory). To identify genes required for remote memory, we screened randomly selected mouse strains harboring known mutations. In our primary reverse genetic screen, we identified 4 putative remote memory mutant strains out of a total of 54 lines analyzed. Additionally, we found 11 other mutant strains with other abnormal profiles. Secondary screens confirmed that mutations of integrin ?2 (Itg?2) and steryl-O-acyl transferase 1 (Soat1) specifically disrupted remote memory. This study identifies some of the first genes required for remote memory, and suggests that screens of targeted mutants may be an efficient strategy to identify molecular requirements for this process. PMID:18464936

  16. Eye movements and prospective memory: What the eyes can tell us about prospective memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert West; Laura Carlson; Anna-Lisa Cohen

    2007-01-01

    In this study we used eye tracking methodology in combination with multi-element displays to examine the processes underlying event-based prospective memory in a visual search paradigm. In the task individuals searched for a different target stimulus (i.e., a letter) on each trial that could be present or absent, and made prospective responses to the letters D or M. The response

  17. Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

  18. Does conceptual implicit memory develop? The role of processing demands.

    PubMed

    Barry, Elaine S

    2007-03-01

    The author investigated the importance of processing considerations within implicit memory in a developmental design. Second-graders (n = 87) and college students (n = 81) completed perceptual (word stem completion) and conceptual (category generation) implicit memory tests after studying target items either nonsemantically (read) or semantically (generated). In support of previous research, the author found no age differences in priming in the nonsemantic study/perceptual test condition. Age differences in priming were found in the semantic study/conceptual test condition, however, where college students had significantly higher priming scores than did children. These developmental dissociations support the theory that the processing requirements of conceptual implicit memory are similar to those in explicit memory. The author also discusses the contribution of the Transfer Appropriate Processing (TAP; H. L. Roediger, D. A. Gallo, & L. Geraci, 2002) framework to understanding these findings. PMID:17879509

  19. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    PubMed

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. PMID:25684693

  20. NR4A nuclear receptors support memory enhancement by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Bookout, Angie L.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Bridi, Morgan; Rao, Allison J.; Sulewski, Michael E.; Kroener, Brian T.; Manglesdorf, David J.; Abel, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The formation of a long-lasting memory requires a transcription-dependent consolidation period that converts a short-term memory into a long-term memory. Nuclear receptors compose a class of transcription factors that regulate diverse biological processes, and several nuclear receptors have been implicated in memory formation. Here, we examined the potential contribution of nuclear receptors to memory consolidation by measuring the expression of all 49 murine nuclear receptors after learning. We identified 13 nuclear receptors with increased expression after learning, including all 3 members of the Nr4a subfamily. These CREB-regulated Nr4a genes encode ligand-independent “orphan” nuclear receptors. We found that blocking NR4A activity in memory-supporting brain regions impaired long-term memory but did not impact short-term memory in mice. Further, expression of Nr4a genes increased following the memory-enhancing effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Blocking NR4A signaling interfered with the ability of HDAC inhibitors to enhance memory. These results demonstrate that the Nr4a gene family contributes to memory formation and is a promising target for improving cognitive function. PMID:22996661

  1. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

  2. On Target

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners modify a cup so it can carry a marble down a zip line and also drop it onto a target. Learners are encouraged to brainstorm answers to design questions, build a prototype using simple materials, and test, evaluate, and redesign their structure. The activity guide includes troubleshooting tips. The related Leader's Notes guide contains information on how to connect this to NASA and aerospace engineering.

  3. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  4. Analytical models for leakage power estimation of memory array structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Mamidipaka; K. Khouri; N. Dutt; M. Abadir

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing need for accurate power models at the system level. Memory structures such as caches, branch target buffers (BTBs), and register files occupy significant area in contemporary SoC designs and are the main contributors to system leakage power dissipation. Existing models for leakage power estimation in array structures typically use coefficients derived from elaborate SPICE simulations. However,

  5. Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance Karen L. Thierry and Melanie J. Spence University of Texas at Dallas Preschool children are more susceptible to misleading decrease preschoolers' suggestibility. Thirty-six 3­4-year-olds observed target live and video events

  6. FFT coefficient memory reduction technique for OFDM applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hasan; T. Arslan

    2002-01-01

    There is a strong need to implement long FFT's in applications like orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), radars and sonars etc. It is highly desirable to reduce the size and power requirements of the FFT so as to realize single chip long FFT based systems targeting portable applications. This paper presents a novel technique to reduce the coefficient memory almost

  7. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    ) studies, participants predict subsequent recognition memory performance on items that were initially be influenced by the total amount, or quantity, of contextual information retrieved related to the unrecalled adults could be reduced by encouraging retrieval of contextual information relevant to the target. Three

  8. Microdose Induced Data Loss on Floating Gate Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, Steven M.; Nguyen, Duc M.; Patterson, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation of flash memories shows loss of stored data. The fluence dependence is indicative of microdose effects. Other qualitative factors identifying the effect as microdose are discussed. The data is presented, and compared to statistical results of a microdose target-based model.

  9. An Integrated Memory Array Processor for Embedded Image Recognition Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shorin Kyo; Shin'ichiro Okazaki; Tamio Arai

    2007-01-01

    Embedded processors for video image recognition in most cases not only need to address the conventional cost (die size and power) versus real-time performance issue, but must also maintain high flexibility due to the immense diversity of recognition targets, situations, and applications. This paper describes IMAP, a highly parallel SIMD linear processor and memory array architecture that addresses these trade-off

  10. Analytical models for leakage power estimation of memory array structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Mamidipaka; Kamal S. Khouri; Nikil D. Dutt; Magdy S. Abadir

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing need for accurate power models at the system level. Memory structures such as caches, Branch Target Buffers (BTBs), and register files occupy significant area in contemporary SoC designs and are the main contributors to system leakage power dissipation. Existing models for leakage power estimation in array structures typically use coefficients derived from elaborate SPICE simulations. However,

  11. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a phenomenon observed from invertebrates to human. Memory extinction is proposed to be an active inhibitory modification of memory, however, whether extinction is affected in aging animals remains to be elucidated. Employing a modified paradigm for studying memory extinction in fruit flies, we found that only the stable, but not the labile memory component was suppressed by extinction, thus effectively resulting in higher memory loss in aging flies. Strikingly, young flies were able to fully restore the stable memory component 3 h post extinction, while aging flies failed to do so. In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. PMID:25842205

  12. Cultural differences on the children's memory scale 

    E-print Network

    Cash, Deborah Dyer

    2009-05-15

    Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

  13. CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory #12;Memory · Abstrac9on goal: make every process think it has the same memory layout. ­ MUCH simpler so much memory to go around, and no two processes should use the same

  14. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (? 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (? 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (? 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (? 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  15. Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Victoria N; Powell, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs. PMID:25263266

  16. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  17. The memory gap and the future of high performance memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice V. Wilkes

    2001-01-01

    The first main memories to be used on digital computers were constructed using a technology much slower than that used for the logic circuits, and it was taken for granted that there would be a memory gap. Mercury delay line memories spent a lot of their time waiting for the required word to come round and were very slow indeed.

  18. Memory with Memory: Soft Assignment in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    by destructively writing to registers or memory locations. This is in contrast to most biological systems, whereMemory with Memory: Soft Assignment in Genetic Programming Nicholas Freitag McPhee Division@essex.ac.uk ABSTRACT Based in part on observations about the incremental nature of most state changes in biological

  19. Memory, amnesia, and the issue of recovered memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart M. Zola

    1998-01-01

    The main thesis of this article is that the debate about the credibility of “recovered memories”—reports by adults of recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and trauma that were allegedly repressed for many years—can be usefully informed by considering the biological and behavioral facts and ideas about how memory works. Accordingly, the first section of this review describes current facts

  20. Memory with memory: Soft assignment in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Poli, Riccardo

    by destructively writing to registers or memory locations. This is in contrast to most biological systems, whereMemory with memory: Soft assignment in Genetic Programming Nicholas Freitag McPhee Division@essex.ac.uk ABSTRACT Based in part on observations about the incremental nature of most state changes in biological