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Sample records for target memory holds

  1. Hold-up power supply for flash memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A hold-up power supply for flash memory systems is provided. The hold-up power supply provides the flash memory with the power needed to temporarily operate when a power loss exists. This allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows it to shut down gracefully. The hold-up power supply detects when a power loss on a power supply bus is occurring and supplies the power needed for the flash memory system to temporally operate. The hold-up power supply stores power in at least one capacitor. During normal operation, power from a high voltage supply bus is used to charge the storage capacitors. When a power supply loss is detected, the power supply bus is disconnected from the flash memory system. A hold-up controller controls the power flow from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. The hold-up controller uses feedback to assure that the proper voltage is provided from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. This power supplied by the storage capacitors allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows the flash memory system to shut down gracefully.

  2. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  3. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  4. Memory as a new therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver; Lanius, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to demonstrate how an understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in memory provides a basis for; (i) reconceptualizing some mental disorders; (ii) refining existing therapeutic tools; and (iii) designing new ones for targeting processes that maintain these disorders. First, some of the stages which a memory undergoes are defined, and the clinical relevance of an understanding of memory processing by the brain is discussed. This is followed by a brief review of some of the clinical studies that have targeted memory processes. Finally, some new insights provided by the field of neuroscience with implications for conceptualizing mental disorders are presented. PMID:24459414

  5. Emotion Causes Targeted Forgetting of Established Memories

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Bryan A.; Kroes, Marijn C. W.; Fan, Judith E.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least 6 days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval. PMID:21191439

  6. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS. HDice-II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lowry, Michael M.; Bass, Christopher D.; D'Angelo, Annalisa; Deur, Alexandre P.; Dezern, Gary L.; Hanretty, Charles; Ho, D.; Kageya, Tsuneo; Kashy, David H.; Khandaker, Mahbub A.; et al

    2016-01-07

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a helium-3/4 dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). Moreover, the device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 Tesla for extended periods.

  7. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS: HDice-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, M. M.; Bass, C. D.; D`Angelo, A.; Deur, A.; Dezern, G.; Hanretty, C.; Ho, D.; Kageya, T.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Laine, V.; O`Connell, T.; Pastor, O.; Peng, P.; Sandorfi, A. M.; Sokhan, D.; Wei, X.; Zarecky, M.

    2016-04-01

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a 3/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). The device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 T for extended periods. These characteristics enabled multi-month polarization lifetimes for frozen spin HD targets having proton polarization of up to 50% and deuteron up to 27%.

  8. TORC2: a novel target for treating age-associated memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer L.; Huang, Wei; Roman, Gregg; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Memory decline is one of the greatest health threats of the twenty-first century. Because of the widespread increase in life expectancy, 20 percent of the global population will be over 60 in 2050 and the problems caused by age-related memory loss will be dramatically aggravated. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this inevitable process are not well understood. Here we show that the activity of the recently discovered mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) declines with age in the brain of both fruit flies and rodents and that the loss of mTORC2-mediated actin polymerization contributes to age-associated memory loss. Intriguingly, treatment with a small molecule that activates mTORC2 (A-443654) reverses long-term memory (LTM) deficits in both aged mice and flies. In addition, we found that pharmacologically boosting either mTORC2 or actin polymerization enhances LTM. In contrast to the current approaches to enhance memory that have primarily targeted the regulation of gene expression (epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational), our data points to a novel, evolutionarily conserved mechanism for restoring memory that is dependent on structural plasticity. These insights into the molecular basis of age-related memory loss may hold promise for new treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26489398

  9. Autobiographical Memory Disturbances in Depression: A Novel Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Cristiano A.; Carvalho, André F.; Alves, Gilberto S.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Hyphantis, Thomas N.; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a dysfunctional processing of autobiographical memories. We review the following core domains of deficit: systematic biases favoring materials of negative emotional valence; diminished access and response to positive memories; a recollection of overgeneral memories in detriment of specific autobiographical memories; and the role of ruminative processes and avoidance when dealing with autobiographical memories. Furthermore, we review evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of neural circuits activated by the recollection of autobiographical memories in both healthy and depressive individuals. Disruptions in autobiographical memories predispose and portend onset and maintenance of depression. Thus, we discuss emerging therapeutics that target memory difficulties in those with depression. We review strategies for this clinical domain, including memory specificity training, method-of-loci, memory rescripting, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in depression. We propose that the manipulation of the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories in depression might represent a novel yet largely unexplored, domain-specific, therapeutic opportunity for depression treatment. PMID:26380121

  10. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    PubMed Central

    Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

  11. Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    Multiple-target visual searches--when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display--are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience. PMID:23163788

  12. A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

  13. Targeting Memory Improvement in Assisted Living: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study tested an intervention designed to improve memory for Assisted Living (AL) residents. Seven residents in one midwestern AL facility participated in a 6-session memory program based on qualitative research that identified typical memory challenges of residents (remembering names, schedules, and appointments). Scores on memory self-efficacy (the Memory Complaint in Age-Associated Impairment [MAC-Q]) and performance (Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) measures were compared before and after the intervention. Self-efficacy improved significantly after the program (z = 2.37, p = .018) for remembering names, phone numbers, lists of items, and facts. Increases in actual memory performance were not statistically significant. However, three out of seven participants (43%) improved in recalling first and/or last names. Ongoing testing on larger samples with a control group design is needed to verify effects and to determine any effects on daily functioning. This study suggests that cognitive interventions targeting frail elder populations are feasible to provide to older adults in AL. PMID:22073501

  14. Risk-targeted selection of agricultural holdings for post-epidemic surveillance: estimation of efficiency gains.

    PubMed

    Handel, Ian G; de C Bronsvoort, Barend M; Forbes, John F; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2011-01-01

    Current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. A better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. In this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in Devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily infection risk and a simple model of probability of discovery of infection during the outbreak. This allows comparison of the system sensitivity (ability to detect infection in the area) of arbitrary, random sampling compared to risk-targeted selection across a full range of sampling budgets. We show that it is possible to achieve 95% system sensitivity by sampling, on average, 945 farms with random sampling and 184 farms with risk-targeted sampling. We also examine the effect of ordering samples by risk to expedite return to a disease-free status. Risk ordering the sampling process results in detection of positive farms, if present, 15.6 days sooner than with randomly ordered sampling, assuming 50 farms are tested per day. PMID:21674022

  15. Does phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) hold promise as a future therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michy P

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is the most recently discovered 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. By breaking down both cAMP and cGMP, PDE11A is a critical regulator of intracellular signaling. To date, PDE11A has been implicated to play a role in tumorigenesis, brain function, and inflammation. Here, we consolidate and, where necessary, reconcile the PDE11A literature to evaluate this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target. We compare the results and methodologies of numerous studies that report conflicting tissue expression profiles for PDE11A. We conclude that PDE11A expression is relatively restricted in the body, with reliable expression reported in tissues such as the brain (particularly the hippocampus), the prostate, and the adrenal gland. Each of the four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) appears to exhibit a distinct tissue expression profile and has a unique N-terminal regulatory region, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. Progress has been made in identifying a tool PDE11A inhibitor as well as an activator; however, the functional effects of these pharmacological tools remain to be determined. Importantly, PDE11A knockout mice do exist and appear healthy into late age, suggesting a potential safety window for targeting this enzyme. Considering the implication of PDE11A in disease-relevant biology, the potential to selectively target specific PDE11A variants, and the possibility of either activating or inhibiting the enzyme, we believe PDE11A holds promise as a potential future therapeutic target. PMID:25159071

  16. Modeling Criterion Shifts and Target Checking in Prospective Memory Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2015-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the…

  17. Do Child Molesters Hold Distorted Beliefs? What Does Their Memory Recall Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Theresa A.; Wright, Daniel B.; Beech, Anthony R.; Williams, Sian

    2006-01-01

    Do child molesters hold distorted beliefs (or cognitive distortions) that support their sexual offending? To test this hypothesis, we asked 28 child molesters and 20 inmate controls to read a description of child molestation. Within this vignette, we planted 10 ambiguous descriptions. If child molesters' information processing were driven by…

  18. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  19. The survival effect in memory: does it hold into old age and non-ancestral scenarios?

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P L; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18-29) and older adults (ages 65-87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  20. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Depends on Prior Learning

    PubMed Central

    Creery, Jessica D.; Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: When sounds associated with learning are presented again during slow-wave sleep, targeted memory reactivation (TMR) can produce improvements in subsequent location recall. Here we used TMR to investigate memory consolidation during an afternoon nap as a function of prior learning. Participants: Twenty healthy individuals (8 male, 19–23 y old). Measurements and Results: Participants learned to associate each of 50 common objects with a unique screen location. When each object appeared, its characteristic sound was played. After electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes were applied, location recall was assessed for each object, followed by a 90-min interval for sleep. During EEG-verified slow-wave sleep, half of the sounds were quietly presented over white noise. Recall was assessed 3 h after initial learning. A beneficial effect of TMR was found in the form of higher recall accuracy for cued objects compared to uncued objects when pre-sleep accuracy was used as an explanatory variable. An analysis of individual differences revealed that this benefit was greater for participants with higher pre-sleep recall accuracy. In an analysis for individual objects, cueing benefits were apparent as long as initial recall was not highly accurate. Sleep physiology analyses revealed that the cueing benefit correlated with delta power and fast spindle density. Conclusions: These findings substantiate the use of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) methods for manipulating consolidation during sleep. TMR can selectively strengthen memory storage for object-location associations learned prior to sleep, except for those near-perfectly memorized. Neural measures found in conjunction with TMR-induced strengthening provide additional evidence about mechanisms of sleep consolidation. Citation: Creery JD, Oudiette D, Antony JW, Paller KA. Targeted memory reactivation during sleep depends on prior learning. SLEEP 2015;38(5):755–763. PMID:25515103

  1. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Christopher K.; Maynard, George D.; Kehne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Areas covered Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Expert opinion Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment. PMID:22834476

  2. Hold the future, let the past go: attention prefers the features of future targets.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan; Abrams, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that attention can be captured by task-irrelevant distractors under the guidance of attentional control settings. However, it is unknown whether people can establish an attentional control setting (ACS) for a sequence of distinct events. The present study tested that question by asking observers to expect a sequence of two colored targets in a specific order. The results show that irrelevant distractors that matched either the color of the first expected target or that of the second target captured attention. Thus observers are unable to temporarily suppress the color of the future target in their ACS. However, the temporal order of targets is still useful for guiding attention: Observers were able to abandon the color of the first target and maintain an ACS for the second one as long as there was a sufficient time interval between the two targets. PMID:24549143

  3. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  4. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24762789

  5. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24762789

  6. Targeting memory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Mario R; Rigby, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Compared to healthy controls, a characteristic feature of patients with T1D is the presence of self-reactive T cells with a memory phenotype. These autoreactive memory T cells in both the CD4(+) and CD8(+) compartments are likely to be long-lived, strongly responsive to antigenic stimulation with less dependence on costimulation for activation and clonal expansion, and comparatively resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs) or downregulation by immune-modulating agents. Persistence of autoreactive memory T cells likely contributes to the difficulty in preventing disease progression in new-onset T1D and maintaining allogeneic islet transplants by regular immunosuppressive regimens. The majority of immune interventions that have demonstrated some success in preserving beta cell function in the new-onset period have been shown to deplete or modulate memory T cells. Based on these and other considerations, preservation of residual beta cells early after diagnosis or restoration of beta cell mass by use of stem cell or transplantation technology will require a successful strategy to control the autoreactive memory T cell compartment, which could include depletion, inhibition of homeostatic cytokines, induction of hyporesponsiveness, or a combination of these approaches. PMID:26370695

  7. Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

    2006-01-01

    The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

  8. Exploration of an Adaptive Training Regimen that can Target the Secondary Memory Component of Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Bradley S.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Kronenberger, William G.; Johnson, Ann C.; Steeger, Christine M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    The dual-component model contends that WM capacity consists of two components. The first is a flexible attention component that involves the active maintenance of a limited amount of information in primary memory (PM), and the second is a controlled retrieval component that involves a cue-dependent search of secondary memory (SM) for information that has been lost from PM. Recent evidence has suggested that the adaptive working memory (WM) training regimen known as “Cogmed-RM” is not optimally designed because it only targets PM abilities, but not SM abilities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Cogmed-RM could be modified to target SM abilities by decreasing the recall accuracy threshold that defines individual ability during training. The main findings suggested that the SM component of WM capacity could be targeted by lowering the recall accuracy threshold. The present findings are important because they suggest that adaptive training regimens can be designed that selectively target specific components of WM capacity and raise the possibility that the potency of existing training regimens can be increased. PMID:23371772

  9. Dnmts and Tet target memory-associated genes after appetitive olfactory training in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Biergans, Stephanie D; Giovanni Galizia, C; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation are epigenetic mechanisms involved in memory formation. In honey bees DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) function is necessary for long-term memory to be stimulus specific (i.e. to reduce generalization). So far, however, it remains elusive which genes are targeted and what the time-course of DNA methylation is during memory formation. Here, we analyse how DNA methylation affects memory retention, gene expression, and differential methylation in stimulus-specific olfactory long-term memory formation. Out of 30 memory-associated genes investigated here, 9 were upregulated following Dnmt inhibition in trained bees. These included Dnmt3 suggesting a negative feedback loop for DNA methylation. Within these genes also the DNA methylation pattern changed during the first 24 hours after training. Interestingly, this was accompanied by sequential activation of the DNA methylation machinery (i.e. Dnmts and Tet). In sum, memory formation involves a temporally complex epigenetic regulation of memory-associated genes that facilitates stimulus specific long-term memory in the honey bee. PMID:26531238

  10. Dnmts and Tet target memory-associated genes after appetitive olfactory training in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Biergans, Stephanie D.; Giovanni Galizia, C.; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation are epigenetic mechanisms involved in memory formation. In honey bees DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) function is necessary for long-term memory to be stimulus specific (i.e. to reduce generalization). So far, however, it remains elusive which genes are targeted and what the time-course of DNA methylation is during memory formation. Here, we analyse how DNA methylation affects memory retention, gene expression, and differential methylation in stimulus-specific olfactory long-term memory formation. Out of 30 memory-associated genes investigated here, 9 were upregulated following Dnmt inhibition in trained bees. These included Dnmt3 suggesting a negative feedback loop for DNA methylation. Within these genes also the DNA methylation pattern changed during the first 24 hours after training. Interestingly, this was accompanied by sequential activation of the DNA methylation machinery (i.e. Dnmts and Tet). In sum, memory formation involves a temporally complex epigenetic regulation of memory-associated genes that facilitates stimulus specific long-term memory in the honey bee. PMID:26531238

  11. Nanovesicle-targeted Kv1.3 knockdown in memory T cells suppresses CD40L expression and memory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chimote, Ameet A; Hajdu, Peter; Kottyan, Leah C; Harley, John B; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) signaling controls activation and effector functions of T lymphocytes. Ca(2+) levels also regulate NFAT activation and CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in T cells. CD40L in activated memory T cells binds to its cognate receptor, CD40, on other cell types resulting in the production of antibodies and pro-inflammatory mediators. The CD40L/CD40 interaction is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and CD40L is widely recognized as a therapeutic target. Ca(2+) signaling in T cells is regulated by Kv1.3 channels. We have developed lipid nanoparticles that deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs (Kv1.3-NPs) selectively to CD45RO(+) memory T cells and reduce the activation-induced Ca(2+) influx. Herein we report that Kv1.3-NPs reduced NFAT activation and CD40L expression exclusively in CD45RO(+) T cells. Furthermore, Kv1.3-NPs suppressed cytokine release and induced a phenotype switch of T cells from predominantly memory to naïve. These findings indicate that Kv1.3-NPs operate as targeted immune suppressive agents with promising therapeutic potentials. PMID:26994905

  12. Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

    1997-03-26

    New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 {micro}m) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling.

  13. Targeting Antigen to Clec9A Primes Follicular Th Cell Memory Responses Capable of Robust Recall.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yu; Zaid, Ali; Davey, Gayle M; Mueller, Scott N; Nutt, Stephen L; Zotos, Dimitra; Tarlinton, David M; Shortman, Ken; Lahoud, Mireille H; Heath, William R; Caminschi, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Targeting Ags to dendritic cell (DC) surface receptors can induce a variety of responses depending on the DC type targeted, the receptor targeted, and the adjuvant used. Clec9A (DNGR-1), which is expressed by CD8(+) DCs, has been shown to bind F-actin exposed on damaged cells. Targeting Ag to this receptor in mice and nonhuman primates induces strong humoral immunity even in the absence of adjuvant, a process seen for a few select DC receptors. In contrast with other receptors, however, targeting Clec9A induces long-lived, affinity-matured Ab responses that are associated with efficient CD4(+) T cell responses shown to possess properties of follicular Th cells (TFH). In this article, we provide definitive evidence that Clec9A targeting promotes the development of TFH by showing that responding CD4 T cells express CXCR5, PD1, the TFH transcription factor Bcl6, and the cytokine IL-21, and that these cells localize to germinal centers. Furthermore, we extend studies from the model Ag OVA to the viral Ag glycoprotein D of HSV-1 and examine the capacity of primed TFH to form functional memory. We show that targeting glycoprotein D to Clec9A even in the absence of adjuvant induced long-lived memory CXCR5(+) PD1(hi) CD4(+) T cells that proliferated extensively upon secondary challenge and rapidly developed into effector TFH. This was associated with enhanced germinal center B cell responses and accelerated Ab production. Our study indicates that targeting Ags to Clec9A in the absence of adjuvant routinely generates TFH responses that form long-lived memory capable of robust secondary TFH responses. PMID:26101322

  14. Targeting Atmospheric Simulation Algorithms for Large Distributed Memory GPU Accelerated Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Computing platforms are increasingly moving to accelerated architectures, and here we deal particularly with GPUs. In [15], a method was developed for atmospheric simulation to improve efficiency on large distributed memory machines by reducing communication demand and increasing the time step. Here, we improve upon this method to further target GPU accelerated platforms by reducing GPU memory accesses, removing a synchronization point, and better clustering computations. The modification ran over two times faster in some cases even though more computations were required, demonstrating the merit of improving memory handling on the GPU. Furthermore, we discover that the modification also has a near 100% hit rate in fast on-chip L1 cache and discuss the reasons for this. In concluding, we remark on further potential improvements to GPU efficiency.

  15. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  16. Breath-Hold Target Localization With Simultaneous Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Fast Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Blessing, Manuel; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Arns, Anna; Lohr, Frank; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy for small lung tumors has typically been based on stereotaxy. Cone-beam computed tomography and breath-hold techniques have provided a noninvasive basis for precise cranial and extracranial patient positioning. The cone-beam computed tomography acquisition time of 60 s, however, is beyond the breath-hold capacity of patients, resulting in respiratory motion artifacts. By combining megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photon sources (mounted perpendicularly on the linear accelerator) and accelerating the gantry rotation to the allowed limit, the data acquisition time could be reduced to 15 s. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Synergy 6-MV linear accelerator, with iViewGT as the MV- and XVI as the kV-imaging device, was used with a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Both image sources performed continuous image acquisition, passing an angle interval of 90{sup o} within 15 s. For reconstruction, filtered back projection on a graphics processor unit was used. It reconstructed 100 projections acquired to a 512 x 512 x 512 volume within 6 s. Results: The resolution in the Catphan phantom (CTP528 high-resolution module) was 3 lines/cm. The spatial accuracy was within 2-3 mm. The diameters of different tumor shapes in the thorax phantom were determined within an accuracy of 1.6 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio was 68% less than that with a 180{sup o}-kV scan. The dose generated to acquire the MV frames accumulated to 82.5 mGy, and the kV contribution was <6 mGy. Conclusion: The present results have shown that fast breath-hold, on-line volume imaging with a linear accelerator using simultaneous kV-MV cone-beam computed tomography is promising and can potentially be used for image-guided radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in the near future.

  17. Memory T cell subsets in tuberculosis: what should we be targeting?

    PubMed

    Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Ordway, Diane J; Orme, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of vaccination is to establish a stable population of long lived memory T cells. In the context of tuberculosis, the BCG vaccine has been widely used for well over 60 years, but during that time its weaknesses, particularly its ineffectiveness in adults, has been increasingly recognized. In this commentary we review what is known about memory T cells, both in general and in the context of their role in expressing specific acquired resistance to tuberculosis. Current knowledge indicates that both effector memory and central memory can be generated, depending on the experimental conditions, but both in animal models and in clinical studies it is clear that effector memory T cells are the predominant subset. These issues are of importance, given the concerted effort to make new TB vaccines, not all of which may work in precisely the same manner. At the present time whether a TB vaccine would work better if it targeted one specific T cell subset rather than another is as yet completely unknown, and this is now further complicated by new evidence that suggests other subsets such as IL-17 secreting CD4 T cells and cells with stem cell-like qualities may also play important roles. PMID:24993316

  18. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hernandz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptors cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  19. Dissociable Frontal Controls during Visible and Memory-guided Eye-Tracking of Moving Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhong; Powell, David; Jiang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    When tracking visible or occluded moving targets, several frontal regions including the frontal eye fields (FEF), dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) are involved in smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). To investigate how these areas play different roles in predicting future locations of moving targets, twelve healthy college students participated in a smooth pursuit task of visual and occluded targets. Their eye movements and brain responses measured by event-related functional MRI were simultaneously recorded. Our results show that different visual cues resulted in time discrepancies between physical and estimated pursuit time only when the moving dot was occluded. Visible phase velocity gain was higher than that of occlusion phase. We found bilateral FEF association with eye-movement whether moving targets are visible or occluded. However, the DLPFC and ACC showed increased activity when tracking and predicting locations of occluded moving targets, and were suppressed during smooth pursuit of visible targets. When visual cues were increasingly available, less activation in the DLPFC and the ACC was observed. Additionally, there was a significant hemisphere effect in DLPFC, where right DLPFC showed significantly increased responses over left when pursuing occluded moving targets. Correlation results revealed that DLPFC, the right DLPFC in particular, communicates more with FEF during tracking of occluded moving targets (from memory). The ACC modulates FEF more during tracking of visible targets (likely related to visual attention). Our results suggest that DLPFC and ACC modulate FEF and cortical networks differentially during visible and memory-guided eye tracking of moving targets. PMID:19434603

  20. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Calabresi, Peter A.; Allie, Rameeza; Yun, Sung; Pennington, Michael; Beeton, Christine; Chandy, K. George

    2003-01-01

    Through a combination of fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp analysis we have identified a striking alteration in K+ channel expression in terminally differentiated human CCR7–CD45RA– effector memory T lymphocytes (TEM). Following activation, TEM cells expressed significantly higher levels of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 and lower levels of the calcium-activated K+ channel IKCa1 than naive and central memory T cells (TCM). Upon repeated in vitro antigenic stimulation, naive cells differentiated into Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM cells, and the potent Kv1.3-blocking sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus peptide (ShK) suppressed proliferation of TEM cells without affecting naive or TCM lymphocytes. Thus, the Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype is a functional marker of activated TEM lymphocytes. Activated myelin-reactive T cells from patients with MS exhibited the Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM phenotype, suggesting that they have undergone repeated stimulation during the course of disease; these cells may contribute to disease pathogenesis due to their ability to home to inflamed tissues and exhibit immediate effector function. The Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype was not seen in glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin-peptide or ovalbumin-specific and mitogen-activated T cells from MS patients, or in myelin-specific T cells from healthy controls. Selective targeting of Kv1.3 in TEM cells may therefore hold therapeutic promise for MS and other T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:12782673

  1. Pre-Experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and…

  2. Minimalism in fabrication of self-organized nanogels holding both anti-cancer drug and targeting moiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwon; Park, Kyong Mi; Ko, Jin Young; Kwon, Ick Chan; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Kang, Dongmin; Yu, In Tag; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Na, Kun

    2008-05-01

    Recent researches to develop nano-carrier systems in anti-cancer drug delivery have focused on more complicated design to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce side effects. Although such efforts have great impact to biomedical science and engineering, the complexity has been a huddle because of clinical and economic problems. In order to overcome the problems, a simplest strategy to fabricate nano-carriers to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) was proposed in the present study. Two significant subjects (i) formation of nanoparticles loading and releasing DOX and (ii) binding specificity of them to cells, were examined. Folic acid (FA) was directly coupled with pullulan (Pul) backbone by ester linkage (FA/Pul conjugate) and the degree of substitution (DS) was varied, which were confirmed by 1H NMR and UV spectrophotometry. Light scattering results revealed that the nanogels possessed two major size distributions around 70 and 270 nm in an aqueous solution. Their critical aggregation concentrations (CACs) were less than 10 microg/mL, which are lower than general critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of low-molecular-weight surfactants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed well-dispersed nanogel morphology in a dried state. Depending on the DS, the nanogels showed different DOX-loading and releasing profiles. The DOX release rate from FA8/Pul (with the highest DS) for 24h was slower than that from FA4/or FA6/Pul, indicating that the FA worked as a hydrophobic moiety for drug holding. Cellular uptake of the nanogels (KB cells) was also monitored by confocal microscopy. All nanogels were internalized regardless of the DS of FA. Based on the results, the objectives of this study, to suggest a new method overcoming the complications in the drug carrier design, were successfully verified. PMID:18164602

  3. Identifying Molecular Targets for New Drug Development for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: What Does the Future Hold?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    There is an urgent need to develop more effective therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that target the underlying inflammatory disease process. Current therapies with long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids fail to prevent either disease progression or mortality, as they do not suppress the underlying inflammation. With better understanding of the inflammatory and destructive process in the pathophysiology of COPD, several new therapeutic targets have been identified. Several mediator antagonists or inhibitors tested in COPD have so far been disappointing. Broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs may be more effective, and include inhibitors of the proinflammatory enzymes phosphodiesterase-4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus-activated kinases, NF-κB kinase, and PI3kinase-γ and -δ, but side effects after oral administration are a major limitation; therefore, in future inhaled delivery may be necessary. A new promising approach is reversal of corticosteroid resistance through increasing histone deacetylase-2 activity. This might be achieved by existing treatments such as theophylline, nortriptyline, and macrolides, or more selectively by PI3kinase-δ inhibitors. Other treatments in development target oxidative stress, the failure to resolve inflammation, aberrant repair mechanisms, and accelerated lung aging. PMID:26238638

  4. Polarization memory effect and visibility improvement of targets in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiaohui; Kartazayeva, S. A.; Wang, Wubao; Cai, Wei; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    2007-02-01

    The backscattering of circularly polarized (CP) light has been investigated using experiments and an analytical cumulant solution of the vector radiative transfer equation. The expression of the exact spatial cumulants of light distribution function has been derived. Both experimental and theoretical studies show that the helicity of the incident circular polarization is maintained in the light backscattered from large particle suspensions. Reflection from an embedded target inside the turbid medium reverses the helicity of the incident circular polarization. Polarization memory imaging makes use of this difference in helicity between light reflected from the target and that from the scattering medium and significantly enhances the image contrast by selecting out the circularly cross-polarized light. We experimentally demonstrate the superior image quality for target inside large polystyrene particle suspensions in water.

  5. Holding on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaxton, Terry Ann

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a multidimensional and personal look at creative writing work in an assisted living facility. The people she works with at the facility have memory loss. She shares her experience working with these people and describes a storytelling workshop that was modeled after Timeslips, a program started by Anne Basting at…

  6. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot like a computer. Your brain puts information it judges to be important into "files." When you remember something, you pull up a file. Memory doesn't always work perfectly. As people grow ...

  7. The role of mnemonic processes in pure-target and pure-foil recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Koop, Gregory J; Criss, Amy H; Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    Surprisingly, response patterns in a recognition memory test are very similar regardless of whether the test list contains both targets and foils or just one class of items. To better understand these effects, we evaluate performance over the course of testing. Output interference (OI) is the decrease in performance across test trials due to an increase in noise caused by encoded test items. Critically, OI is predicted on pure lists if the mnemonic evidence for each test item is evaluated. In two experiments, participants received accurate feedback, no feedback, or random feedback that was unrelated to the response on each test trial and pure or standard test lists. When no feedback was provided, performance was nearly identical for standard and pure test lists, replicating previous findings. Only in the presence of accurate feedback were participants able to successfully adapt to pure list environments and improve their accuracy. Critically, OI was observed, demonstrating that participants continued to evaluate mnemonic evidence even in pure list conditions. We discuss the implication of these data for models of memory. PMID:25117090

  8. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  9. The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L.E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. Cognition, 93, 75-97.]. This conflicts with earlier results showing that location estimation is biased relative to the spatial distribution of targets [Spencer, J.P. & Hund, A.M. (2002). Prototypes and particulars: Geometric and experience-dependent spatial categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 16-37.]. Here, we resolve this controversy by using a task based on Huttenlocher et al. (Experiment 4) with minor modifications to enhance our ability to detect experience-dependent effects. Results after the first block of trials replicate the pattern reported in Huttenlocher et al. After additional experience, however, participants showed biases that significantly shifted according to the target distributions. These results are consistent with the Dynamic Field Theory, an alternative theory of spatial cognition that integrates long-term memory traces across trials relative to the perceived structure of the task space. PMID:20116784

  10. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify target of a memory-enhancing compound

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M.; Harding, Heather P.; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates mRNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the N-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wildtype cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity towards its substrate, eIF2, in vitro. Thus ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  11. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  12. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  13. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  15. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had

  16. Requirement of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Downstream Effectors in Cued Fear Memory Reconsolidation and Its Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Thu N.; Santini, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)–eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E–eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E–eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E–eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

  17. Requirement of Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream effectors in cued fear memory reconsolidation and its persistence.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thu N; Santini, Emanuela; Klann, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E-eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E-eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E-eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

  18. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  19. Better working memory for non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for location of social vs. non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n=25) and typically developing children (sibs-TD, n=30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target-type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had better WM for non-social targets as compared to controls. There was no group by stimulus interaction on two non-memory measures. The results suggest that the increased competency of sibs-ASD in WM (creating, updating, and using transient representations) for non-social stimuli distinguishes them from sibs-TD by 9 months of age. This early emerging strength is discussed as a developmental pathway that may have implications for social attention and learning in children at risk for ASD. PMID:20121880

  20. Transition from Target to Gaze Coding in Primate Frontal Eye Field during Memory Delay and Memory–Motor Transformation123

    PubMed Central

    Sajad, Amirsaman; Sadeh, Morteza; Yan, Xiaogang; Wang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The frontal eye fields (FEFs) participate in both working memory and sensorimotor transformations for saccades, but their role in integrating these functions through time remains unclear. Here, we tracked FEF spatial codes through time using a novel analytic method applied to the classic memory-delay saccade task. Three-dimensional recordings of head-unrestrained gaze shifts were made in two monkeys trained to make gaze shifts toward briefly flashed targets after a variable delay (450-1500 ms). A preliminary analysis of visual and motor response fields in 74 FEF neurons eliminated most potential models for spatial coding at the neuron population level, as in our previous study (Sajad et al., 2015). We then focused on the spatiotemporal transition from an eye-centered target code (T; preferred in the visual response) to an eye-centered intended gaze position code (G; preferred in the movement response) during the memory delay interval. We treated neural population codes as a continuous spatiotemporal variable by dividing the space spanning T and G into intermediate T–G models and dividing the task into discrete steps through time. We found that FEF delay activity, especially in visuomovement cells, progressively transitions from T through intermediate T–G codes that approach, but do not reach, G. This was followed by a final discrete transition from these intermediate T–G delay codes to a “pure” G code in movement cells without delay activity. These results demonstrate that FEF activity undergoes a series of sensory–memory–motor transformations, including a dynamically evolving spatial memory signal and an imperfect memory-to-motor transformation. PMID:27092335

  1. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    PubMed

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. PMID:24847299

  2. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. PMID:24847299

  3. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  4. Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Bessonov, Nikolai; Levin, Michael; Morozova, Nadya; Reinberg, Natalia; Tosenberger, Alen; Volpert, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of work on molecular components required for regenerative repair, we still lack a deep understanding of the ability of some animal species to regenerate their appropriate complex anatomical structure following damage. A key question is how regenerating systems know when to stop growth and remodeling – what mechanisms implement recognition of correct morphology that signals a stop condition? In this work, we review two conceptual models of pattern regeneration that implement a kind of pattern memory. In the first one, all cells communicate with each other and keep the value of the total signal received from the other cells. If a part of the pattern is amputated, the signal distribution changes. The difference fromthe original signal distribution stimulates cell proliferation and leads to pattern regeneration, in effect implementing an error minimization process that uses signaling memory to achieve pattern correction. In the second model, we consider a more complex pattern organization with different cell types. Each tissue contains a central (coordinator) cell that controls the tissue and communicates with the other central cells. Each of them keeps memory about the signals received from other central cells. The values of these signals depend on the mutual cell location, and the memory allows regeneration of the structure when it is modified. The purpose of these models is to suggest possible mechanisms of pattern regeneration operating on the basis of cell memory which are compatible with diverse molecular implementation mechanisms within specific organisms. PMID:26889161

  5. Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Bessonov, Nikolai; Levin, Michael; Morozova, Nadya; Reinberg, Natalia; Tosenberger, Alen; Volpert, Vitaly

    2015-12-01

    Despite the growing body of work on molecular components required for regenerative repair, we still lack a deep understanding of the ability of some animal species to regenerate their appropriate complex anatomical structure following damage. A key question is how regenerating systems know when to stop growth and remodeling - what mechanisms implement recognition of correct morphology that signals a stop condition? In this work, we review two conceptual models of pattern regeneration that implement a kind of pattern memory. In the first one, all cells communicate with each other and keep the value of the total signal received from the other cells. If a part of the pattern is amputated, the signal distribution changes. The difference fromthe original signal distribution stimulates cell proliferation and leads to pattern regeneration, in effect implementing an error minimization process that uses signaling memory to achieve pattern correction. In the second model, we consider a more complex pattern organization with different cell types. Each tissue contains a central (coordinator) cell that controls the tissue and communicates with the other central cells. Each of them keeps memory about the signals received from other central cells. The values of these signals depend on the mutual cell location, and the memory allows regeneration of the structure when it is modified. The purpose of these models is to suggest possible mechanisms of pattern regeneration operating on the basis of cell memory which are compatible with diverse molecular implementation mechanisms within specific organisms. PMID:26889161

  6. Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hll, Michael; Schrder, Johannes; Frlich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P; Mller, Christian P; Schble, Sandra

    2013-09-10

    Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R-coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism. PMID:23983264

  7. Precision medicine at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: clinical next-generation sequencing enabling next-generation targeted therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David M; Solit, David B; Arcila, Maria E; Cheng, Donavan T; Sabbatini, Paul; Baselga, Jose; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Implementing a center-wide precision medicine strategy at a major cancer center is a true multidisciplinary effort and requires comprehensive alignment of a broad screening strategy with a clinical research enterprise that can use these data to accelerate development of new treatments. Here, we describe the genomic screening approach at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing clinical assay for solid tumor molecular oncology designated MSK-IMPACT, and how it enables and supports a large clinical trial portfolio enriched for multi-histology, biomarker-selected, 'basket' studies of targeted therapies. PMID:26320725

  8. Binary and ternary NiTi-based shape memory films deposited by simultaneous sputter deposition from elemental targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjabi, S.; Cao, Y.Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.; Barber, Z.H.

    2005-09-15

    The most challenging requirement for depositing NiTi-based shape memory thin films is the control of film composition because a small deviation can strongly shift the transformation temperatures. This article presents a technique to control film composition via adjustment of the power supplied to the targets during simultaneous sputter deposition from separate Ni, Ti, and X (e.g., Hf) targets. After optimization of sputter parameters such as working gas pressure, target-substrate distance, and target power ratio, binary Ni{sub 100-x}Ti{sub x} thin films were fabricated and characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (to measure the film composition and uniformity), in situ x-ray diffraction (to identify the phase structures), and differential scanning calorimetry (to indicate the transformation and crystallization temperatures). To explore the possibility of depositing ternary shape memory NiTi-based thin films with a high temperature transformation >100 deg. C, a Hf target was added to the NiTi deposition system. Annealing was carried out in a high vacuum furnace slightly above the films' crystallization temperatures (500 and 550 deg. C for NiTi and NiTiHf films, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of free-standing films illustrated the dependence of transformation temperatures on film composition: Ap and Mp (referring to the austenitic and martensitic peaks in the DSC curve) were above room temperature in near equiatomic NiTi and Ti-rich films, but below it in Ni-rich films. In NiTiHf films, the transformation temperatures were a function of Hf content, reaching as high as 414 deg. C (Ap) at a Hf content of 24.4 at. %. Atomic force microscopy revealed nanostructure surface morphology of both NiTi and NiTiHf films. Detailed characterization showed that the film properties were comparable with those of NiTi and NiTiHf bulk alloys.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the DA D1-type receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n=97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits), and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT×DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMTValVal individuals, but impaired target detection in COMTMet carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMTValVal) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMTMet carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory. PMID:24144248

  10. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress. PMID:26025756

  11. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  12. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  13. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  14. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be

  15. More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process. PMID:24599946

  16. Targeting cocaine versus heroin memories: divergent roles within ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jamie; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2013-12-01

    In the search for novel treatments for addiction, most research has been propelled by the hope for a 'magic bullet' that would cure all forms of addiction. More recently, the field has started to appreciate the differences between psychostimulants versus opiates. Recent data suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may fundamentally serve different roles in cocaine versus heroin addiction: acting as a neural OFF switch for cocaine seeking, but an ON switch for heroin seeking. We discuss the relevance of this distinction in relationship to three main functions of the vmPFC: (i) extinction memory, (ii) the suppression of impulsive behaviors, and (iii) the transition from goal-directed behaviors to habits. We highlight the importance of dopamine in modulating corticostriatal circuits for each of these functions. Finally, we conclude by discussing the implications for treatment strategies. PMID:24182624

  17. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the “adult time-window” related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children. PMID:26594157

  18. Stress responses. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify the target of a memory-enhancing compound.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2015-05-29

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates messenger RNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity, and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action, we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the amino-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wild-type cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity toward its substrate, the translation initiation factor eIF2, in vitro. Thus, ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  19. TH-C-12A-11: Target Correlation of a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Y; Walston, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a new surrogate for respiratory motion gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique for left breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients with left-sided breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH CTs to determine whether DIBH was beneficial in reducing heart doses. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CTs were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results: Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for left-sided breast patients using DIBH. Results showed that RPM has poor correlation with target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. This indicates that RPM may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level when used alone. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a better correlation with the actual CW excursion during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommend threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: 3D optical surface imaging serves as a superior target surrogate for the left breast treatment when compared to RPM. Working together with the realtime MV Cine imaging, they ensure accurate patient setup and dose delivery, while minimizing the imaging dose to patients.

  20. Nanoscale nickel-titanium shape memory alloys thin films fabricated by using biased target ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huilong

    Shape memory alloys offer the highest work output per unit volume among smart materials and have both high actuation stress and large recoverable strain. Miniaturization of materials and devices requires shape memory actuation which is uncompromised at a small scale. However, size effects need to be understood in order to scale shape memory actuation with the minimum size critical to device design. Controlling material quality and properties is essential in fabrication of shape memory alloys into nanometer regime. This work demonstrates a novel fabrication technique, biased target ion beam deposition (BTIBD), which uses additional adatom energy in order to fabricate high-quality nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys thin films with nanometer thickness. These fabricated ultrathin NiTi films provide insight into the size scale dependence of shape memory functionality at nanoscale regime. BTIBD provides additional adatom energy to the growing film in order to fundamentally tailor the film growth mode for quality and properties. An independent ion beam source is customized in BTIBD to provide low-energy ions (tens of eV) during growth of films on substrates. Pure Ti and pure Ni targets are co-sputtering in BTIBD to fabricate NiTi thin films. The prepared NiTi films are continuous, and the thickness ranges from several tens to a few hundreds nanometers. The composition is controllable over the range of Ni-rich (>50.5 at% Ni), near-equiatomic, and Ti-rich (<49.5 at% Ni). The film surfaces are consistently ultra-smooth --- twice as smooth as conventional NiTi thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering --- over all the composition ranges and over wide surface areas. The substrate/film interface is smooth and the interfacial diffusion is a minimal portion of the film thickness. Crystallographic phases and grain size in BTIBD NiTi films with thickness on the order of 100 nm are tunable via heat treatment. The as-deposited BTIBD films are amorphous. A pure B2 phase (without other microstructural phases) is achieved via low-energy ion beam preheating of the film. Coexistence of B2 and B19' phases are formed by post-deposition annealing, and the grain size increases in diameter as the annealing temperature increases. NiTi thin films prepared by BTIBD are absent of columnar-void morphology at the surface and produce a large grain size, in contrast to the columnar-void prevalence and small grain size in magnetron sputtered films. It is postulated that columnar-void morphology is imposing constraints on crystallization for formation of limited grain size. Thermally-induced phase transformations occur to the ultrathin BTIBD films and are observed using temperature-dependent thin film stress measurements. The thermal hysteresis in these films is considerably smaller (up to 50 %) than that in magnetron sputtered films. Free-standing NiTi alloy 1D nanowires are machined from the NiTi alloy thin films by using nanoskiving. Results are also shown for focused ion beam 1D micropillars, 2D thin sheet with nanometer thickness, and 2D micro-double shear specimen as additional objects to investigate geometric/microstructural size effect. Nanoskiving combines deposition of thin films with thin sectioning to generate nanowires. NiTi nanowires herein are generated under extreme conditions of alloy composition and sectioning orientation. The mechanism of nanoskiving on NiTi alloy is postulated, and supported by microstructure characterization. The preliminary findings demonstrate --- for the first time --- the feasibility of nanoskiving of metallic alloys.

  1. The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L. E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. "Cognition, 93", 75-97]. This conflicts with earlier results showing…

  2. Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, John P

    2014-07-01

    Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

  3. Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aggleton, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

  4. Selective Targeting of Human Alloresponsive CD8+ Effector Memory T Cells Based on CD2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lo, D.J.; Weaver, T. A.; Stempora, L.; Mehta, A. K.; Ford, M. L.; Larsen, C. P.; Kirk, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Costimulation blockade, specifically CD28/B7 inhibition with belatacept, is an emerging clinical replacement for calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in allotransplantation. However, there is accumulating evidence that belatacept incompletely controls alloreactive T cells that lose CD28 expression during terminal differentiation. We recently have shown that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept controls costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection in non-human primates. Here, we have investigated the relationship between human alloreactive T cells, costimulation blockade sensitivity and CD2 expression to determine whether these findings warrant potential clinical translation. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we found that CD8+ effector memory T cells are distinctly high CD2 and low CD28 expressors. Alloresponsive CD8+CD2hiCD28− T cells contained the highest proportion of cells with polyfunctional cytokine (IFNγ, TNF and IL-2) and cytotoxic effector molecule (CD107a and granzyme B) expression capability. Treatment with belatacept in vitro incompletely attenuated allospecific proliferation, but alefacept inhibited belatacept-resistant proliferation. These results suggest that highly alloreactive effector T cells exert their late stage functions without reliance on ongoing CD28/B7 costimulation. Their high CD2 expression increases their susceptibility to alefacept. These studies combined with in vivo non-human primate data provide a rationale for translation of an immunosuppression regimen pairing alefacept and belatacept to human renal transplantation. PMID:21070604

  5. Keeping a target in memory does not increase the effect of the Müller-Lyer illusion on saccades.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Anouk J; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-04-01

    The effects of visual contextual illusions on motor behaviour vary largely between experimental conditions. Whereas it has often been reported that the effects of illusions on pointing and grasping are largest when the movement is performed some time after the stimulus has disappeared, the effect of a delay has hardly been studied for saccadic eye movements. In this experiment, participants viewed a briefly presented Müller-Lyer illusion with a target at its endpoint and made a saccade to the remembered position of this target after a delay of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 s. We found that horizontal saccade amplitudes were shorter for the perceptually shorter than for the perceptually longer configuration of the illusion. Most importantly, although the delay clearly affected saccade amplitude, resulting in shorter saccades for longer delays, the illusion effect did not depend on the duration of the delay. We argue that visually guided and memory-guided saccades are likely based on a common visual representation. PMID:26686530

  6. Memory of tolerance and induction of regulatory T cells by erythrocyte-targeted antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Alizée J.; Kontos, Stephan; Diaceri, Giacomo; Quaglia-Thermes, Xavier; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    New approaches based on induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance are being explored for treatment of autoimmunity and prevention of immunity to protein drugs. Antigens associated with apoptotic debris are known to be processed tolerogenically in vivo. Our group is exploring an approach toward antigen-specific tolerization using erythrocyte-binding antigens, based on the premise that as the erythrocytes circulate, age and are cleared, the erythrocyte surface-bound antigen payload will be cleared tolerogenically along with the eryptotic debris. Here, we characterized the phenotypic signatures of CD8+ T cells undergoing tolerance in response to soluble and erythrocyte-targeted antigen. Signaling through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1), but not through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), was shown to be required for antigen-specific T cell deletion, anergy and expression of regulatory markers. Generation of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in response to erythrocyte-targeted antigens but not soluble antigen at an equimolar dose was observed, and these cells were required for long-term maintenance of immune tolerance in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. Evidence of infectious tolerance was observed, in that tolerance to a one antigenic epitope was able to regulate responses to other epitopes in the same protein antigen. PMID:26511151

  7. Improving Intra-Fractional Target Position Accuracy Using a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yi; Walston, Steve; Welliver, Meng Xu; Chakravarti, Arnab; Quick, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a surrogate for respiratory gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) for left breast irradiation. Material and Methods Patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH treatment for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography (CT) simulation scans to determine dosimetric benefits from DIBH. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CT scans were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired during treatment for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results Reduction in heart dose can be achieved using DIBH for left breast/chest wall radiation. RPM was shown to have inferior correlation with the actual target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. Therefore, RPM alone may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a superior correlation with the actual target positioning during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommended threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion The RPM system alone may not be sufficient for the required level of accuracy in left-sided breast/CW DIBH treatments. The 3D surface imaging can be used to ensure patient setup and monitor inter- and intra- fractional motions. Furthermore, the target position accuracy during DIBH treatment can be improved by AlignRT as a superior surrogate, in addition to the RPM system. PMID:24853144

  8. The activation of semantic memory: effects of prime exposure, prime-target relationship, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Steve; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2008-06-01

    Priming facilitation was examined under conditions of brief incremental prime exposures (28, 43, 71, and 199 msec) under masked conditions for two types of lexical relationships (associative-semantic pairs, such as "wolf-fox," and semantic-feature pairs, such as "whale-dolphin") and in two tasks (primed lexical decision and semantic categorization). The results of eight experiments revealed, first, that priming elicits faster response times for semantic-feature pairs. The associative-semantic pairs produced priming only at the longer prime exposures. Second, priming was observed earlier for semantic categorization than for the lexical decision task, in which priming was observed only at the longer stimulus onset asynchronies. Finally, our results allowed us to discredit the congruency hypothesis, according to which priming is due to a common categorical response for the prime and target words. The implications of these results for current theories of semantic priming are discussed. PMID:18604969

  9. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  10. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  11. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  12. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  13. DOUGLAS LEA MEMORIAL LECTURE: From targets to genes: a brief history of radiosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, G. Gordon

    1996-02-01

    The biological work of Douglas Lea spanned the period from 1934 to his early death in 1947, and during this short period he made important contributions to the theory of radiation action. He interpreted experimental data relating to the effects of radiation on viruses, bacteria, bean roots, etc in terms of the inactivation of discrete targets, which he identified with cellular genes. He thus laid the foundation of much subsequent research. It is now well recognized that mammalian cells differ substantially in radiosensitivity, especially in the low-dose region of the survival curve. The dependence of radiosensitivity on dose rate has been widely studied; this has practical significance for clinical radiotherapy as well as mechanistic implications. Since Lea's time there have been a number of efforts to describe models that can relate cell killing to radiation dose, dose rate, and track structure. So far these have not led to a comprehensive and widely accepted picture. Microdosimetric considerations lead to the concept of differing severity of lesions induced in DNA. Much is known about the sequence of processes that subsequently lead to cell inactivation: this can be divided into phases of induction, processing, and manifestation. Chromosomal events are currently attracting much attention, as they did in Lea's time. Considerable progress has also been made in identifying genes that control the repair of radiation damage. It has been found that mutation is frequently associated with the loss of a large segment of the genome around the damage site and this will have important implications for interactive processes between particle tracks.

  14. Different in vitro proliferation and cytokine-production inhibition of memory T-cell subsets after calcineurin and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors treatment.

    PubMed

    Merino, David; San Segundo, David; Medina, Juan M; Rodrigo, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Irure, Juan; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Arias, Manuel A; López-Hoyos, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) are the main immunosuppressants used for long-term maintenance therapy in transplant recipients to avoid acute rejection episodes. Both groups of immunosuppressants have wide effects and are focused against the T cells, although different impacts on specific T-cell subsets, such as regulatory T cells, have been demonstrated. A greater knowledge of the impact of immunosuppression on the cellular components involved in allograft rejection could facilitate decisions for individualized immunosuppression when an acute rejection event is suspected. Memory T cells have recently gained focus because they might induce a more potent response compared with naive cells. The impact of immunosuppressants on different memory T-cell subsets remains unclear. In the present study, we have studied the specific impact of CNI (tacrolimus) and mTORi (rapamycin and everolimus) over memory and naive CD4(+) T cells. To do so, we have analysed the proliferation, phenotypic changes and cytokine synthesis in vitro in the presence of these immunosuppressants. The present work shows a more potent effect of CNI on proliferation and cytokine production in naive and memory T cells. However, the mTORi permit the differentiation of naive T cells to the memory phenotype and allow the production of interleukin-2. Taken together, our data show evidence to support the combined use of CNI and mTORi in transplant immunosuppression. PMID:26931075

  15. Cash holdings of not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rivenson, Howard L; Reiter, Kristin L; Wheeler, John R C; Smith, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Many not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals hold substantial cash reserves. Using a national sample of 608 NFP hospitals over the period 1996-1999, we related theories of cash holdings to NFP hospitals to develop a conceptual framework for understanding cash holdings. We tested whether these hospitals differentially managed operating and strategic cash with respect to establishing target balances and investigated motivations for holding cash. NFP hospitals actively targeted levels of operating cash, but did not target strategic cash balances. Strategic cash balances were positively related to profitability and growth in assets, but negatively associated with the use of debt. PMID:22372030

  16. NCHEMS Data Holdings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christal, Melodie E.

    Data holdings of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems as of November 30, 1984, are described. For each set of data, the following items are included: name, originating organization, contact person for originating organization, frequency of issue, time span covered by the data, subject matter and scope of the data,…

  17. Multi-voxel pattern analysis reveals increased memory targeting and reduced use of retrieved details during single-agenda source monitoring

    PubMed Central

    McDuff, Susan G. R.; Frankel, Hillary C.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    We used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to gain insight into how subjects’ retrieval agendas influence source memory judgments (was item X studied using source Y?). In Experiment 1, we used a single-agenda test where subjects judged whether items were studied with the targeted source or not. In Experiment 2, we used a multi-agenda test where subjects judged whether items were studied using the targeted source, studied using a different source, or nonstudied. To evaluate the differences between single- and multi-agenda source monitoring, we trained a classifier to detect source-specific fMRI activity at study, and then we applied the classifier to data from the test phase. We focused on trials where the targeted source and the actual source differed, so we could use MVPA to track neural activity associated with both the targeted source and the actual source. Our results indicate that single-agenda monitoring was associated with increased focus on the targeted source (as evidenced by increased targeted-source activity, relative to baseline) and reduced use of information relating to the actual, non-target source. In the multi-agenda experiment, high-levels of actual-source activity were associated with increased correct rejections, suggesting that subjects were using recollection of actual-source information to avoid source memory errors. In the single-agenda experiment, there were comparable levels of actual-source activity (suggesting that recollection was taking place), but the relationship between actual-source activity and behavior was absent (suggesting that subjects were failing to make proper use of this information). PMID:19144851

  18. Opposing effects of CTLA4 insufficiency on regulatory versus conventional T cells in autoimmunity converge on effector memory in target tissue.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Miska, Jason; Lui, Jen Bon; Swieboda, Dominika; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative variations in CTLA4 expression, because of genetic polymorphisms, are associated with various human autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Extensive studies have demonstrated that CTLA4 is not only essential for the suppressive role of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) but also required for intrinsic control of conventional T (T(conv)) cells. We report that a modest insufficiency of CTLA4 in mice, which mimics the effect of some human CTLA4 genetic polymorphisms, accompanied by a T1D-permissive MHC locus, was sufficient to induce juvenile-onset diabetes on an otherwise T1D-resistant genetic background. Reduction in CTLA4 levels had an unanticipated effect in promoting Treg function both in vivo and in vitro. It led to an increase in T(reg) memory in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid target tissue. Conversely, modulating CTLA4 by either RNA interference or Ab blockade promoted conventional effector memory T cell formation in the T(conv) compartment. The CD4(+) conventional effector memory T cells, including those within target tissue, produced IL-17 or IFN-γ. Blocking IL-7 signaling reduced the Th17 autoimmune compartment but did not suppress the T1D induced by CTLA4 insufficiency. Enhanced effector memory formation in both T(conv) and T(reg) lineages may underpin the apparently dichotomized impact of CTLA4 insufficiency on autoimmune pathogenesis. Therefore, although the presence of CTLA4 plays a critical role in controlling homeostasis of T cells, its quantitative variation may impose diverse or even opposing effects on distinct lineages of T cells, an optimal sum of which is necessary for preservation of T cell immunity while suppressing tissue damage. PMID:25246499

  19. Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper-g centrifugation significantly decreased gaze holding ability in the vertical plane. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) vertical gaze-holding is less stable than horizontal, (2) gaze-holding to upward targets is less stable than to downward targets, (3) tilt affects gaze holding, and (4) hyper-g affects gaze holding. This difference between horizontal and vertical gaze-holding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity-to-position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. The differences between upward and downward gaze-holding may be ascribed to an inherent vertical imbalance in the vestibular system. Because whole body tilt and hyper-g affects gaze-holding, it is implied that the otolith organs have direct connections to the neural integrator and further studies of astronaut gaze-holding are warranted. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied to normals who maybe exposed to environments which may modify the central integrator and require monitoring, and to evaluate patients with gaze-evoked nystagmus by comparing to the above established normative criteria.

  20. The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research. PMID:25339978

  1. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  2. Holding a grudge

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Eran; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system of bacteria and archaea constitutes a mechanism of acquired adaptive immunity against phages, which is based on genome-encoded markers of previously infecting phage sequences (“spacers”). As a repository of phage sequences, these spacers make the system particularly suitable for elucidating phage-bacteria interactions in metagenomic studies. Recent metagenomic analyses of CRISPRs associated with the human microbiome intriguingly revealed conserved “memory spacers” shared by bacteria in multiple unrelated, geographically separated individuals. Here, we discuss possible avenues for explaining this phenomenon by integrating insights from CRISPR biology and phage-bacteria ecology, with a special focus on the human gut. We further explore the growing body of evidence for the role of CRISPR/Cas in regulating the interplay between bacteria and lysogenic phages, which may be intimately related to the presence of memory spacers and sheds new light on the multifaceted biological and ecological modes of action of CRISPR/Cas. PMID:23439321

  3. Memory CCR6+CD4+ T cells are preferential targets for productive HIV type 1 infection regardless of their expression of integrin ?7.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Patricia; Gosselin, Annie; Wacleche, Vanessa Sue; El-Far, Mohamed; Said, Elias A; Kared, Hassen; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2011-04-15

    HIV type 1 infection is associated with a rapid depletion of Th17 cells from the GALT. The chemokine receptor CCR6 is a marker for Th17 lineage polarization and HIV permissiveness in memory CD4(+) T cells. CCR6(+) T cells have the potential to migrate into the GALT via the gut-homing integrin ?(4)?(7), a newly identified HIV-gp120 binding receptor. In this study, we investigated whether memory T cells coexpressing CCR6 and integrin ?(7) are selective HIV targets and whether retinoic acid (RA)-induced imprinting for gut-homing selectively increases CCR6(+) T cell permissiveness to infection. We demonstrated that ?(7)(-)R6(+) and ?(7)(+)R6(+) compared with ?(7)(-)R6(-) and ?(7)(+)R6(-) T cells were highly permissive to HIV, produced Th17 cytokines, and their frequency was decreased in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected subjects. RA upregulated integrin ?(4) and ?(7) coexpression in both CCR6(+) and CCR6(-) T cells, but increased HIV permissiveness selectively in CCR6(+) T cells via entry (CCR5 upregulation) and postentry mechanisms. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that CCR6, but not the integrin ?(7), is a discriminative marker for memory T cells imprinted with a transcriptional program favorable to HIV replication. Nevertheless, given the ability of integrin ?(7) to regulate cell migration into the GALT and bind HIV-gp120, CCR6(+) T cells coexpressing integrin ?(7) and CCR5 might have an extraordinary ability to disseminate HIV from the portal sites of entry. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of memory CCR6(+) T cell differentiation is critical for the design of new therapeutic strategies that should interfere with viral permissiveness but not Th17 lineage commitment and gut-homing potential in CCR6(+) T cells. PMID:21398606

  4. Holding the Tension.

    PubMed

    Feudtner, Chris

    2016-05-01

    My colleagues and I had been asked by a member of a clinical team to help sort through the ethics of stopping a life-sustaining intervention for a very ill child. We had already talked with the parents, the physicians, and the folks from nursing, social work, and chaplaincy. Terms like "suffering," "cruel," "compassion," and "moral distress" had been uttered, as had terms like "inappropriate," "unethical," "neglectful," and "risk-management." The group had now stuffed all of these polarizing thoughts and feelings into this cramped room with only one door. And everyone was looking at me. What skill, competency, or inner capacity must one possess to hold and manage such tension? PMID:27150423

  5. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day. PMID:27091299

  6. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  7. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-01

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. PMID:26776732

  8. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both β-amyloid production and clearance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and Aβ production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit Aβ production by suppressing β-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased Aβ formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

  9. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  10. Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

    2008-01-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

  11. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  12. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many

  13. Selective inhibition of CCR7(-) effector memory T cell activation by a novel peptide targeting Kv1.3 channel in a rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Wan-Hong; Han, Song; Peng, Bi-Wen; Yin, Jun; Wu, Ying-Liang; He, Xiao-Hua; Li, Wen-Xin

    2012-08-24

    The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K(+) channel in effector memory T cells serves as a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. In our previous studies, the novel peptide ADWX-1 was designed and synthesized as a specific Kv1.3 blocker. However, it is unclear if and how ADWX-1 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, the administration of ADWX-1 significantly ameliorated the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model by selectively inhibiting CD4(+)CCR7(-) phenotype effector memory T cell activation. In contrast, the Kv1.3-specific peptide had little effect on CD4(+)CCR7(+) cells, thereby limiting side effects. Furthermore, we determined that ADWX-1 is involved in the regulation of NF-κB signaling through upstream protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) in the IL-2 pathway of CD4(+)CCR7(-) cells. The elevated expression of Kv1.3 mRNA and protein in activated CD4(+)CCR7(-) cells was reduced by ADWX-1 engagement; however, an apparent alteration in CD4(+)CCR7(+) cells was not observed. Moreover, the selective regulation of the Kv1.3 channel gene expression pattern by ADWX-1 provided a further and sustained inhibition of the CD4(+)CCR7(-) phenotype, which depends on the activity of Kv1.3 to modulate its activation signal. In addition, ADWX-1 mediated the activation of differentiated Th17 cells through the CCR7(-) phenotype. The efficacy of ADWX-1 is supported by multiple functions, which are based on a Kv1.3(high) CD4(+)CCR7(-) T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway. PMID:22761436

  14. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  15. Changing concepts of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei Ji; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is widely considered to be limited in capacity, holding a fixed, small number of items, such as Miller's ‘magical number’ seven or Cowan's four. It has recently been proposed that working memory might better be conceptualized as a limited resource that is distributed flexibly among all items to be maintained in memory. According to this view, the quality rather than the quantity of working memory representations determines performance. Here we consider behavioral and emerging neural evidence for this proposal. PMID:24569831

  16. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  17. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  18. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and holding mean legal or...

  19. Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

  20. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Deniger, Drew C.; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Widhopf, George F.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E.; Wierda, William G.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  1. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Deniger, Drew C; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M Helen; Figliola, Matthew J; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N; Widhopf, George F; Hurton, Lenka V; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E; Wierda, William G; Kipps, Thomas J; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  2. Neuromodulation for restoring memory.

    PubMed

    Bick, Sarah K B; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-05-01

    Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury. They then review the literature supporting various targets for neuromodulation to improve memory in animals and humans. Multiple targets including entorhinal cortex, fornix, nucleus basalis of Meynert, basal ganglia, and pedunculopontine nucleus have shown a promising potential for improving dysfunctional memory by mechanisms such as altering firing patterns in neuronal networks underlying memory and increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Significant work remains to be done to translate these findings into durable clinical therapies. PMID:27132526

  3. About sleep's role in memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  4. Memory in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Centeno, M; Thompson, P J; Koepp, M J; Helmstaedter, C; Duncan, J S

    2010-10-01

    In contrast to the well studied long-term memory dysfunction of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) syndromes, data on memory performance of frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) patients are limited and controversial. Behavioural and functional neuroimaging findings suggest that different regions within the frontal lobes contribute to long-term memory functioning, offering an explanation for the variability on memory function observed on patients with frontal lobe damage. Available evidence suggests memory dysfunction is a common finding on neuropsychological evaluation of FLE patients but prevalence and underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Variability on memory performance reported in FLE studies suggest this deficit may be dependant on the areas involved in seizure generation and spread. Recent research findings and the application of cognitive fMRI paradigms to FLE patients holds the promise of increasing understanding further. PMID:20800996

  5. Pallid Sturgeon in Holding Tank

    Nine-year-old pallid sturgeon wait in holding tanks for their turn to be evaluated by biologists at CERC.  More than 100 pallid sturgeon made the trip from Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery to Columbia on a snowy December day....

  6. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... adopts FHFA's interim final rule on portfolio holdings, without change. See 74 FR 5609, January 30, 2009...: Effective December 28, 2010, the interim final rule published on January 30, 2009 (74 FR 5609), which was... final regulation which added new subchapter C of part 1252 to 12 CFR Chapter XII. See 74 FR 5609....

  7. Short-term reverberant memory model of hippocampal field CA3.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, S P; Stäubli, U V; Ambros-Ingerson, J

    1997-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity mechanisms for associative learning require near-simultaneous pairs of inputs to target cells. Sensory cues encountered behaviorally, however, are typically staggered in time, implying the need for active short-term memory traces of antecedent cues. The dense recurrent connectivity within regions of hippocampal field CA3 is suggestive of the kind of re-entrant network that could subserve this kind of "holding" memory. Consequently, we have investigated whether an abstract model of this region incorporating its major anatomical and physiological features could function as a reverberatory memory network. The continuous-time model describes the behavior of highly connected groups of CA3 pyramidal cells, or "patches," in response to brief, rhythmic, sensory stimulation. Time constants for excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and axonal transmission delays for local and distal connections were estimated from empirical data. When the inhibitory units in these patches were connected to an oscillator intended to model the theta wave activity of the medial septum, the network entered reverberatory states and maintained second-long memory traces of the cortical input, after which it lost its coherent behavior. Noise analysis indicated that the network's operation was moderately resistant to random fluctuations proportional to patch activity. These results suggest that field CA3 could function as a holding memory that assists the integration of disjoint stimuli found in innumerable associative tasks, and that the duration of its coherent operation might determine the temporal limits in their performance. PMID:9443061

  8. A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

  9. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  10. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and holding mean legal or beneficial ownership, whether direct or indirect, whether through fiduciaries, agents, or other means....

  11. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102... WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If any... exhibitor. (3) Approval will not be given for a dealer or exhibitor holding a license as set forth in §...

  12. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101... WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  13. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102... WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If any... exhibitor. (3) Approval will not be given for a dealer or exhibitor holding a license as set forth in §...

  14. On the Clash of Martyrological Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    What happens when students holding rival though indirect memories of past conflicts confront each other in the same classroom? What are the kinds of political and pedagogical approaches necessary for mediating such "clashes of martyrological memories" in the same educational space? And why is critical theory inept at offering resolutions for the…

  15. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  16. An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive. PMID:19277115

  17. Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

  18. A Holding Function for Conflict Probe Appiications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, Dave; Walton, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Conflict Alerts for aircraft in holding patterns are often missed or in error due to fact that holding trajectories are not modeled in Conflict Alert or Conflict Probe logic. In addition, a controller in one sector may not know when aircraft are holding in a neighboring sector. These factors can lead to an increased potential for loss of separation while aircraft are flying in holding patterns. A holding function for conflict probe applications has been developed and tested with air traffic data from Fort Worth Center. The holding function automatically determines when an aircraft enters a holding pattern, builds a holding region around the pattern and then probes the region for conflict with other traffic. The operational concept of use assumes that air traffic controllers are very busy during periods when aircraft are in holding and therefore don't have time to manually enter information which defines a holding pattern and activates conflict probing. For this reason, it is important the holding function automatically detect aircraft in holding and compute a holding region for conflict analysis. The controller is then alerted if other aircraft are predicted to fly through the holding region at the holding altitude.

  19. The role of visual working memory in attentive tracking of unique objects

    PubMed Central

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2009-01-01

    When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects’ spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit was greater when the distance between distractors and targets was smaller, but was eliminated when the objects changed colors 1 to 4 times per second, even though at any instant they were always uniquely colored. Additionally, tracking uniquely colored objects impaired a secondary color-memory task more than tracking identical objects, and holding several colors in working memory eliminated the advantage of tracking uniquely colored objects. Contrary to previous studies showing that feature information is poorly retained during tracking, these findings indicate that surface properties are stored in visual working memory to facilitate tracking performance. PMID:19968429

  20. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  1. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  2. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  3. Why Girls Say "Holded" More than Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Women are better than men at verbal memory tasks, such as remembering word lists. These tasks depend on declarative memory. The declarative/procedural model of language, which posits that the lexicon of stored words is part of declarative memory, while grammatical composition of complex forms depends on procedural memory, predicts a female…

  4. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model.

    PubMed

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-15

    Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought. PMID:25747767

  5. Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

  6. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  7. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  8. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Brice A; Bainbridge, Wilma A; Chun, Marvin M

    2012-03-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to "see" competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was the following: (1) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories; (2) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance; and (3) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex--even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  9. Acute Infection with Epstein-Barr Virus Targets and Overwhelms the Peripheral Memory B-Cell Compartment with Resting, Latently Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Donna; Souza, Tatyana; Catalina, Michelle; Sullivan, John L.; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Thorley-Lawson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that during acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the peripheral blood fills up with latently infected, resting memory B cells to the point where up to 50% of all the memory cells may carry EBV. Despite this massive invasion of the memory compartment, the virus remains tightly restricted to memory cells, such that, in one donor, fewer than 1 in 104 infected cells were found in the naive compartment. We conclude that, even during acute infection, EBV persistence is tightly regulated. This result confirms the prediction that during the early phase of infection, before cellular immunity is effective, there is nothing to prevent amplification of the viral cycle of infection, differentiation, and reactivation, causing the peripheral memory compartment to fill up with latently infected cells. Subsequently, there is a rapid decline in infected cells for the first few weeks that approximates the decay in the cytotoxic-T-cell responses to viral replicative antigens. This phase is followed by a slower decline that, even by 1 year, had not reached a steady state. Therefore, EBV may approach but never reach a stable equilibrium. PMID:15113901

  10. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-09-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques.

  11. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.102 Holding facility. (a) If any dealer or exhibitor obtains the...

  12. 7 CFR 984.33 - Hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold. 984.33 Section 984.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 984.33 Hold. Hold means to maintain possession or keep control of, in proper...

  13. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding period. 34.82 Section 34.82 Banks and... Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the...

  14. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding period. 34.82 Section 34.82 Banks and... Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the...

  15. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding period. 73.7005 Section 73.7005... Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a... holding period. From the grant of the construction permit and continuing until the facility has...

  16. Prospective memory: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D; Wilson, A George

    2015-03-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here, we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall". PMID:25101562

  17. Constructive memory: past and future

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

  18. Characteristics of near-death experiences memories as compared to real and imagined events memories.

    PubMed

    Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ--Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  19. Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  20. Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

  1. Therapeutics targeting Nogo-A hold promise for stroke restoration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prateek; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2013-03-01

    Neurorestorative therapies for stroke aim to reverse disability by reparative mechanisms (rather than to thrombolyse or to neuroprotect). A substantial and persuasive body of pre-clinical evidence has come from the evaluation of antibodies against Nogo-A (a myelin-associated inhibitor of plasticity) in rat models of stroke. Particularly impressive is the benefit of this therapy in models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) when given to elderly animals after a one week delay, in adult rats with co-morbidities, and in adult rats when treatment is delayed by up to 9 weeks after stroke (although antibodies against Nogo-A did not reverse disability in mice after proximal MCAO with reperfusion). We predict that antibodies against Nogo-A will improve outcome further when combined with suitable additional rehabilitation, and also that antibodies against Nogo-A will improve outcome in animal models of haemmorhagic stroke that affect the same brain regions as ischemic stroke caused by MCAO. Antibodies against Nogo-A have been shown to be safe in Phase I clinical trials for acute spinal cord injury, and this may eventually facilitate a trial in stroke. PMID:23394537

  2. Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Kopelman, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the amnesia in these patients. First, we focus on anterograde memory for contextual (spatial and temporal) information. Next, the use of contextual cues in memory retrieval is examined and their role in retrograde amnesia and confabulation. Evidence on the role of contextual cues and associations in working memory is discussed in relation to the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and their dissociation from long-term encoding. Finally, we focus on implicit learning of contextual information in Korsakoff patients. It can be concluded that Korsakoff patients are impaired in the explicit processing of contextual information and in target-context binding, both in long-term (retrograde and anterograde) memory and in working memory. These results extend the context memory deficit hypothesis. In contrast, implicit contextual learning is relatively preserved in these patients. These findings are discussed in relation to evidence of dysfunction of the extended diencephalic-hippocampal memory circuit in Korsakoff's syndrome. PMID:22580849

  3. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Subsidiary Holding Companies §...

  4. 78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... COMMISSION Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor, Inc., New Generation Holdings, Inc., and Nuevo Financial Center, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... concerning the securities of MRU Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  5. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems. PMID:27191218

  6. Immunological memory.

    PubMed

    Gray, D

    1993-01-01

    The past five or six years has seen a resurgence of interest in immunological memory. Areas in which important advances have been made of late or in which problems in understanding persist are covered here: (i) Selection of virgin B cells for entry into the peripheral pool. (ii) Expression of immunoglobulin isotypes and other markers on memory B cells. (iii) Development of memory B cells as a separate lineage from primary response B cells. (iv) Sites of production of memory B cells. (v) Signals that rescue mutating B cells in germinal centers, forming the basis of affinity selection, and programming further differentiation. (vi) The myriad markers of memory T cells, in particular CD45R isoforms. (vii) Selective migration pathways of memory T cells and its possible molecular basis. (viii) The lifespan of memory cells and factors that influence their long-term survival. The data accumulated during this period which have vastly increased our understanding of memory have at the same time highlighted unresolved problems that could block further progress in the field. The thorny question that we cannot at present answer is: How does a memory cell differ from an activated cell and, in the case of T cells, from an effector cell? The problem bears on the interpretation of any study that sets out to correlate memory phenotype with memory function. Immunologists may have donned an intellectual straitjacket in their search for the memory cell. PMID:8476570

  7. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  8. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to equity... or 362.18 of this chapter or section 4(c)(8) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(c)(8))....

  9. 12 CFR 347.110 - Affiliate holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate holdings. 347.110 Section 347.110... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.110 Affiliate holdings. References in §§ 347.107, 347.108, and 347.109 to equity... or 362.18 of this chapter or section 4(c)(8) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(c)(8))....

  10. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  11. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  12. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  13. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  14. Should software hold data hostage?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.; Michaels, George S.

    2004-08-01

    Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them into proprietary file and data formats. Although this might make sense from a business perspective, it violates fundamental principles of data ownership and control. Such tactics should not be tolerated by the scientific community. The future of data-intensive biology depends on ensuring open data standards and freely exchangeable file formats. Compared to the engineering and chemistry fields, computers are a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of biological tools. Thus the pool of potential users of biology-oriented software is comparatively small. Biology itself is a broad field with many sub-disciplines, such as neurobiology, biochemistry, genomics and cell biology. This creates the need for task-oriented software tools that necessarily have a small user base. Simultaneously, the task of developing software has become more complex with the need for multi-platform software and increasing user expectations of sophisticated interfaces and a high degree of usability. Writing successful software in such an environment is very challenging, but progress in biology will increasingly depend on the success of companies and individuals in creating powerful new software tools. The trend to open source software could have an enormous impact on biology by providing the large number of specialized analysis tools that are required. Indeed, in the field of bioinformatics, open source software has become pervasive, largely because of the high degree of computer skill necessary for workers in this field. For these tools to be usable by non-specialists, however, requires the development of facile user interfaces and robust environments. This is where some companies have provided real value to the community, building on the foundation of open source software. Outside of genomics and bioinformatics, there is still a critical need for software tools, particularly in areas such as imaging, biochemistry and cell signaling. The computer skills of investigators in these fields is generally more rudimentary, and thus the open source options are much more limited. Commercial software dominates these areas, but open source has the potential to contribute more in the future.

  15. Multilevel recording in Bi-deficient Pt/BFO/SRO heterostructures based on ferroelectric resistive switching targeting high-density information storage in nonvolatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, David; Miranda, Enrique; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suñé, Jordi; Sawa, Akihito

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of multilevel recording in Pt/Bi1-δFeO3/SrRuO3 capacitors using the ferroelectric resistive switching phenomenon exhibited by the Pt/Bi1-δFeO3 interface. A tunable population of up and down ferroelectric domains able to modulate the Schottky barrier height at the Pt/Bi1-δFeO3 interface can be achieved by means of either a collection of SET/RESET voltages or current compliances. This programming scheme gives rise to well defined resistance states, which form the basis for a multilevel storage nonvolatile memory.

  16. The Evolving Roles of Memory Immune Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Li, Xian C

    2015-10-01

    Memory cells are the products of immune responses but also exert significant impact on subsequent immunity and immune tolerance, thus placing them in a unique position in transplant research. Memory cells are heterogeneous, including not only memory T cells but also memory B cells and innate memory cells. Memory cells are a critical component of protective immunity against invading pathogens, especially in immunosuppressed patients, but they also mediate graft loss and tolerance resistance. Recent studies suggest that some memory cells unexpectedly act as regulatory cells, promoting rather than hindering transplant survival. This functional diversity makes therapeutic targeting of memory cells a challenging task in transplantation. In this article, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of memory cells, focusing on diversity of memory cells and mechanisms involved in their induction and functions. We also provide a broad overview on the challenges and opportunities in targeting memory cells in the induction of transplant tolerance. PMID:26102615

  17. Amygdala-dependent fear memory consolidation via miR-34a and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Brian George; Goodman, Jared Vega; Ahluwalia, Ranbir; Easton, Audrey Elizabeth; Andero, Raül; Ressler, Kerry James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using an array-based approach after auditory fear-conditioning, and microRNA (miRNA) sponge-mediated inhibition, we identified a role for miR-34a within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in fear memory consolidation. Luciferase assays and bioinformatics suggested the Notch pathway as a target of miR-34a. mRNA and protein levels of Notch receptors and ligands are down-regulated in a time- and learning-specific manner after fear conditioning in the amygdala. Systemic and stereotaxic manipulations of the Notch pathway indicated that Notch signaling in the BLA suppresses fear memory consolidation. Impairment of fear memory consolidation after inhibition of miR-34a within the BLA is rescued by inhibiting Notch signaling. Together, these data suggest that within the BLA, a transient decrease in Notch signaling, via miR-34a regulation, is important for the consolidation of fear memory. This work expands the idea that developmental molecules have roles in adult behavior, and that existing interventions targeting them hold promise for treating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25123309

  18. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  19. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  20. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record hold. 1732.7 Section 1732.7 Banks and... AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, the term “record hold” means a requirement, an order, or a directive from...

  1. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of... estate acquired for future bank expansion. (c) Effect of statutory redemption period. For DPC real...

  2. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of... estate acquired for future bank expansion. (c) Effect of statutory redemption period. For DPC real...

  3. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of... estate acquired for future bank expansion. (c) Effect of statutory redemption period. For DPC real...

  4. Error-Compensated Integrate and Hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlin, M.

    1984-01-01

    Differencing circuit cancels error caused by switching transistors capacitance. In integrate and hold circuit using JFET switch, gate-to-source capacitance causes error in output voltage. Differential connection cancels out error. Applications in systems where very low voltages sampled or many integrate-and -hold cycles before circuit is reset.

  5. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  6. RMI-SAMPLE HOLDING TIME REEVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

  7. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  8. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco... Holdings to indirectly control, and for Watco Railroad to directly control, Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc....

  9. Supportive holding or restraint: terminology and practice.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Karen

    2010-07-01

    The meaning of supportive holding versus restraint in children's nursing has been debated for some time. Supportive holding has been defined as a hold that supports the child through a therapeutic intervention, and restraint as a hold that overpowers the child who may be a danger to themselves or others. Both are conducted in the philosophy of best interest. The Royal College of Nursing (2010) guidance suggests adopting the terms therapeutic holding and restrictive physical intervention. This article was accepted before the new guidance was published. However, with authors still using terms interchangeably, it is important to debate whether there is a clear demarcation in terminology and practice, or whether one is a continuation of the other, differentiated by the degree of force used. PMID:20695309

  10. CCD Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliot, Tom; Norris, Dave; Vescelus, Fred

    1987-01-01

    CCD memory device yields over 6.4 x 10 to the eighth power levels of information on single chip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) demonstrated to operate as either read-only-memory (ROM) or photon-programmable memory with capacity of 640,000 bits, with each bit capable of being weighted to more than 1,000 discrete analog levels. Larger memory capacities now possible using proposed approach in conjunction with CCD's now being fabricated, which yield over 4 x 10 to the ninth power discrete levels of information on single chip.

  11. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  12. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Assessment and Appeal Procedure 2. Collection of Assessments D. Revisions to the FR Y-7Q III. Administrative... Sheet of the bank holding company's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y... consolidated assets reported for the assessment period on the savings and loan holding company's FR Y-9C...

  13. Apparatus and method for low-temperature training of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  14. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  15. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  16. You look familiar, but I don’t care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Josephs, Emilie L.; Cunningham, Corbin A.; Drew, Trafton

    2015-01-01

    In “hybrid” search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets amongst distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, RTs in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this “familiarity” – operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared – influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase response times (RTs). In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. PMID:26191615

  17. You look familiar, but I don't care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Boettcher, Sage E P; Josephs, Emilie L; Cunningham, Corbin A; Drew, Trafton

    2015-12-01

    In "hybrid" search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets among distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, reaction times (RTs) in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this "familiarity"- operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared-influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4 more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase RTs. In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26191615

  18. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  19. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  20. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  1. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also

  2. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  3. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  4. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory. PMID:25947579

  5. Active hold-down for heat treating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A vacuum hold-down is described, for holding a thin film workpiece while it undergoes large temperature changes and corresponding dimensional changes, which permits creep of the workpiece to avoid damage thereto while still holding it on a support surface. The support surface has a multiplicity of holes arranged in a plurality of zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at the holes lying at different zones while it continues to be applied at the other zones, to permit creep of the workpiece at a zone when vacuum is not applied thereto.

  6. Ferroelectric memories.

    PubMed

    Scott, J F; Paz de Araujo, C A

    1989-12-15

    In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read/erase/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core memory, magnetic bubble memory systems, and electrically erasable read-only memory for many applications. The switching kinetics of these films, 100 to 300 nanometers thick, are now well understood, with switching times that fit an activation field dependence that scales applied field and temperature. Earlier problems of fatigue and retention failure are also now understood and have been improved to acceptable levels. PMID:17755995

  7. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  8. Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home Advanced Illness: Holding On and Letting Go Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our ... fate, then I accept it with dignity." Letting Go As death nears, many people feel a lessening ...

  9. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  10. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  11. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  12. Place memory in crickets.

    PubMed

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-04-22

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  13. Unconditional room-temperature quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, M.; Campbell, G.; Sparkes, B. M.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2011-10-01

    Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionizing computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80°C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. To unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state-independent verification using conditional variance and signal-transfer coefficients.

  14. Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A.; Thompson, Tyler; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca2+ influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM’s may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM’s) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM’s. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM’s, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca2+ influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

  15. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a

  16. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

  17. Adult recollections of childhood memories: What details can be recalled?

    PubMed

    Wells, Christine; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    In a memory survey, adult respondents recalled, dated, and described two earliest positive and negative memories that they were highly confident were memories. They then answered a series of questions that focused on memory details such as clothing, duration, weather, and so on. Few differences were found between positive and negative memories, which on average had 4/5 details and dated to the age of 6/6.5 years. Memory for details about activity, location, and who was present was good; memory for all other details was poorer or at floor. Taken together, these findings indicate that (full) earliest memories may be considerably later than previously thought and that they rarely contain the sort of specific details targeted by professional investigators. The resulting normative profile of memory details reported here can be used to evaluate overly specific childhood autobiographical memories and to identify memory details with a low probability of recall. PMID:24215680

  18. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  19. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is... valve setting. (b) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed...

  20. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  1. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  2. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as...) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with...

  3. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  4. T-Cell Memory Responses Elicited by Yellow Fever Vaccine are Targeted to Overlapping Epitopes Containing Multiple HLA-I and -II Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Dhalia, Rafael; Silva, Ana Maria; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Montenegro, Silvia M. L.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2013-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines (YF-17D-204 and 17DD) are considered to be among the safest vaccines and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is correlated with protection, although other immune effector mechanisms are known to be involved. T-cell responses are known to play an important role modulating antibody production and the killing of infected cells. However, little is known about the repertoire of T-cell responses elicited by the YF-17DD vaccine in humans. In this report, a library of 653 partially overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the envelope (Env) and nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 to 5 of the vaccine was utilized to perform a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The T-cell responses were screened ex-vivo by IFN-γ ELISPOT assays using blood samples from 220 YF-17DD vaccinees collected two months to four years after immunization. Each peptide was tested in 75 to 208 separate individuals of the cohort. The screening identified sixteen immunodominant antigens that elicited activation of circulating memory T-cells in 10% to 33% of the individuals. Biochemical in-vitro binding assays and immunogenetic and immunogenicity studies indicated that each of the sixteen immunogenic 15-mer peptides contained two or more partially overlapping epitopes that could bind with high affinity to molecules of different HLAs. The prevalence of the immunogenicity of a peptide in the cohort was correlated with the diversity of HLA-II alleles that they could bind. These findings suggest that overlapping of HLA binding motifs within a peptide enhances its T-cell immunogenicity and the prevalence of the response in the population. In summary, the results suggests that in addition to factors of the innate immunity, “promiscuous” T-cell antigens might contribute to the high efficacy of the yellow fever vaccines. PMID:23383350

  5. T-cell memory responses elicited by yellow fever vaccine are targeted to overlapping epitopes containing multiple HLA-I and -II binding motifs.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Dhalia, Rafael; Silva, Ana Maria; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Montenegro, Silvia M L; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2013-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines (YF-17D-204 and 17DD) are considered to be among the safest vaccines and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is correlated with protection, although other immune effector mechanisms are known to be involved. T-cell responses are known to play an important role modulating antibody production and the killing of infected cells. However, little is known about the repertoire of T-cell responses elicited by the YF-17DD vaccine in humans. In this report, a library of 653 partially overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the envelope (Env) and nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 to 5 of the vaccine was utilized to perform a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. The T-cell responses were screened ex-vivo by IFN-γ ELISPOT assays using blood samples from 220 YF-17DD vaccinees collected two months to four years after immunization. Each peptide was tested in 75 to 208 separate individuals of the cohort. The screening identified sixteen immunodominant antigens that elicited activation of circulating memory T-cells in 10% to 33% of the individuals. Biochemical in-vitro binding assays and immunogenetic and immunogenicity studies indicated that each of the sixteen immunogenic 15-mer peptides contained two or more partially overlapping epitopes that could bind with high affinity to molecules of different HLAs. The prevalence of the immunogenicity of a peptide in the cohort was correlated with the diversity of HLA-II alleles that they could bind. These findings suggest that overlapping of HLA binding motifs within a peptide enhances its T-cell immunogenicity and the prevalence of the response in the population. In summary, the results suggests that in addition to factors of the innate immunity, "promiscuous" T-cell antigens might contribute to the high efficacy of the yellow fever vaccines. PMID:23383350

  6. Type 1 Diabetes Prevention in NOD Mice by Targeting DPPIV/CD26 Is Associated with Changes in CD8+T Effector Memory Subset

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Jorge; Colobran, Roger; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Rodriguez-Fernández, Silvia; Teniente, Aina; Fernández, Marco Antonio; Miñarro, Antoni; Ruiz de Villa, María Carmen; Vives-Pi, Marta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2015-01-01

    CD26 is a T cell activation marker consisting in a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in its extracellular domain. It has been described that DPPIV inhibition delays the onset of type 1 diabetes and reverses the disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of MK626, a DPPIV inhibitor, in type 1 diabetes incidence and in T lymphocyte subsets at central and peripheral compartments. Pre-diabetic NOD mice were treated with MK626. Diabetes incidence, insulitis score, and phenotyping of T lymphocytes in the thymus, spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes were determined after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, as well as alterations in the expression of genes encoding β-cell autoantigens in the islets. The effect of MK626 was also assessed in two in vitro assays to determine proliferative and immunosuppressive effects. Results show that MK626 treatment reduces type 1 diabetes incidence and after 6 weeks of treatment reduces insulitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of T lymphocyte subsets from central and peripheral compartments between treated and control mice. MK626 increased the expression of CD26 in CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) from spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes and in CD8+ T cells from islet infiltration. CD8+TEM cells showed an increased proliferation rate and cytokine secretion in the presence of MK626. Moreover, the combination of CD8+ TEM cells and MK626 induces an immunosuppressive response. In conclusion, treatment with the DPPIV inhibitor MK626 prevents experimental type 1 diabetes in association to increase expression of CD26 in the CD8+ TEM lymphocyte subset. In vitro assays suggest an immunoregulatory role of CD8+ TEM cells that may be involved in the protection against autoimmunity to β pancreatic islets associated to DPPIV inhibitor treatment. PMID:26555789

  7. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding... OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding... OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part 239—Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model...

  9. Disruptions in autobiographical memory processing in depression and the emergence of memory therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Werner-Seidler, Aliza

    2014-11-01

    Depression is characterized by distinct profiles of disturbance in ways autobiographical memories are represented, recalled, and maintained. We review four core domains of difficulty: systematic biases in favor of negative material; impoverished access and responses to positive memories; reduced access to the specific details of the personal past; and dysfunctional processes of rumination and avoidance around personal autobiographical material. These difficulties drive the onset and maintenance of depression; consequently, interventions targeted at these maladaptive processes have clinical potential. Memory therapeutics is the development of novel clinical techniques, translated from basic research, that target memory difficulties in those with emotional disorders. We discuss prototypical examples from this clinical domain including MEmory Specificity Training, positive memory elaboration, memory rescripting, and the method-of-loci (MoL). PMID:25060510

  10. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable algorithms for the prevention of those avoidable accidents. PMID:16967769

  11. Holding Fixture For Making Piezoelectric Acoustic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. Thomas, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Vacuum holding device provides quick and easy method of bonding together two strips of thin film with fast-setting epoxy adhesive. Fixture holds films in place by vacuum while adhesive applied, maintaining uniform bond line between films, providing internal connection port between nickel coats on films for center conductor of coaxial cable, and eliminating need to clean up excessive adhesive. Used to fabricate acoustic sensors for use in ambulatory fetal heart monitors. Potential for other heart-monitoring applications and other applications in which acoustic sensors used.

  12. Attribute amnesia reflects a lack of memory consolidation for attended information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wyble, Brad

    2016-02-01

    A recently reported phenomenon, termed attribute amnesia, challenged the commonly held belief that attention plays the determining role in controlling how information is remembered, by showing that participants fail to remember a specific attended attribute (e.g., the target-defining color), even when they had just used that attribute to perform a task (Chen & Wyble, 2015a). The main purpose of the present study sought to better understand the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. The results revealed that attribute amnesia was nearly eliminated once participants were forced to store and hold attended information for a brief time, suggesting that this amnesia effect most likely reflects a lack of memory consolidation for an attended attribute that had been processed to some certain level. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect is not particular to the use of location report or the repetition of targets. One additional finding is that amnesia was markedly absent for location memory, indicating an important difference between memories for locations and attributes such as color or identity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348066

  13. Hippocampal Amnesia Impairs All Manner of Relational Memory

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, Alex; Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel N.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    Relational memory theory holds that the hippocampus supports, and amnesia following hippocampal damage impairs, memory for all manner of relations. Unfortunately, many studies of hippocampal-dependent memory have either examined only a single type of relational memory or conflated multiple kinds of relations. The experiments reported here employed a procedure in which each of several kinds of relational memory (spatial, associative, and sequential) could be tested separately using the same materials. In Experiment 1, performance of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage was assessed on memory for the three types of relations as well as for items. Compared to the performance of matched comparison participants, amnesic patients were impaired on all three relational tasks. But for those patients whose MTL damage was limited to the hippocampus, performance was relatively preserved on item memory as compared to relational memory, although still lower than that of comparison participants. In Experiment 2, study exposure was reduced for comparison participants, matching their item memory to the amnesic patients in Experiment 1. Relational memory performance of comparison subjects was well above amnesic patient levels, showing the disproportionate dependence of all three relational memory performances on the integrity of the hippocampus. Correlational analyses of the various task performances of comparison participants and of college-age participants showed that our measures of item memory were not influenced significantly by memory for associations among the items. PMID:18989388

  14. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  15. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring. PMID:22292532

  16. Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

  17. Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities

  18. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  19. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... animals remain under the total control and responsibility of the research facility or intermediate...

  20. 9 CFR 2.102 - Holding facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Holding facility. 2.102 Section 2.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... animals remain under the total control and responsibility of the research facility or intermediate handler....

  1. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... agencies to comment on proposed and continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork... Treasury will submit the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office...

  2. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection request (ICR... OMB and OTS at these addresses: Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attention: Desk...

  3. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  4. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  5. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  6. Holding fixture for a hot stamping press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A hand held guide for manually positioning a work piece between the anvil rib and tool of a hot die stamping press is described. A groove completed by interchangeable cover plates attached at one end of the guide conforms to a cross sectional dimension common to similar workpieces and, with a force fit, retentively holds each of the workpieces.

  7. Project HOLD: A Secondary Learning Disability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marjorie Sims

    This document discusses Project HOLD, a Title VI-G Child Service Demonstration Center which was established as a cooperative effort between Northeast Louisiana University and the Ouachita Parish School System. The primary purpose of the project is to plan, explore, implement, and refine a program for students in grades 7 through 12 who have been…

  8. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student

  9. Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mevada, Surekha T.; Al-Mahruqi, Najma; El-Beshlawi, Ismail; El-Shinawy, Mohamed; Zachariah, Mathew; Al-Rawas, Abdul H.; Daar, Shahina; Wali, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2*) is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7–17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15–20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breath-hold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans. PMID:26909218

  10. The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

  11. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  12. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  13. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  14. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor shall be held by him or her, under his or her supervision... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  15. Fixtures Hold Nuts During Tightening Of Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1993-01-01

    Two fixtures designed for use on cross-head of tensile testing machine simplify adjustments of crosshead to accommodate specimens of various lengths. Two cagelike fixtures hold pairs of nuts, preventing nuts from turning while bolts are tightened. Enable one person acting alone to tighten bolts.

  16. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  17. Holding Kids Accountable: Shaming with Compassion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, H. Allen; Revering, Andrew C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philosophy and procedures of Police Accountability Conferencing, a restorative justice approach in which police and school authorities, victims, offenders, and families are brought together in a process designed to hold youth accountable for their actions. Details the program's potential for reclaiming youth who have engaged in…

  18. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging. PMID:26752603

  19. Opening the doors of memory: is declarative memory a natural kind?

    PubMed

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2015-01-01

    Klein's target article argues that autonoetic consciousness is a necessary condition for memory; this unusually narrow view of the scope of memory implies that only episodic memory is, strictly speaking, memory. The narrow view is opposed to the standard broad view, on which causal connection with past experience is sufficient for memory; on the broad view, both declarative (i.e., episodic and semantic) and procedural memory count as genuine forms of memory. Klein mounts a convincing attack on the broad view, arguing that it opens the 'doors of memory' too far, but this commentary contends that the narrow view does not open them far enough. It may be preferable to adopt an intermediate view of the scope of memory, on which causal connection is sufficient for memory only when it involves encoding, storage, and retrieval of content. More demanding than the simple causal condition but less demanding than the autonoesis condition, the encoding-storage-retrieval condition implies that both episodic and semantic memory count as genuine forms of memory but that procedural memory does not. PMID:26351997

  20. The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Skyler T; Tolman, Ryan; Mueller, Charles W

    2007-02-01

    Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images held within semantic memory and pattern-matched with an erotic auditory stimulus facilitate higher self-reported arousal, and at a more rapid rate, than unattractive images. Participants in an "Unattractive" condition experienced slower rates and lower mean levels of arousal in response to an auditory stimulus, compared to participants in an "Attractive" or "No Picture" condition. No differences existed between groups in maximum arousal scores or the tendency to visualize the target during the listening task. Implications for the role of imagery in sexual response, possible measurement issues, and suggestions for future research are addressed in the discussion. PMID:17599268

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheel, Minakshi

    1997-01-01

    The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

  2. Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Recent data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in memory consolidation and help to transmit acquired memories even across generations in a Lamarckian manner. Drugs that target the epigenetic machinery were found to enhance memory function in rodents and ameliorate disease phenotypes in models for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Chorea Huntington, Depression or Schizophrenia. In this review, I will give an overview on the current knowledge of epigenetic processes in memory function and brain disease with a focus on Morbus Alzheimer as the most common neurodegenerative disease. I will address the question whether an epigenetic therapy could indeed be a suitable therapeutic avenue to treat brain diseases and discuss the necessary steps that should help to take neuroepigenetic research to the next level. PMID:24719207

  3. Task-irrelevant memories rapidly gain attentional control with learning.

    PubMed

    Gunseli, Eren; Olivers, Christian N L; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-03-01

    Although many of our perceptual biases stem from long-term, repeated exposure, current theories of visual search assume a central role for visual working memory (VWM) in guiding attention to target information. Crucially, whether a VWM representation guides attention depends on the relative priority that the memory has within VWM. Here, in a combined visual search/VWM task, we used attentional guidance by irrelevant memories to measure how long a target representation remains prioritized in VWM when observers repeatedly search for the same target. Irrelevant memories started guiding attention already when the target was repeated once, indicating that the target representation rapidly lost priority within VWM as it moved to long-term memory. By showing that training can lead to interference from irrelevant memories, the findings resolve a long-standing paradox on why VWM appears central to, yet at the same time not sufficient nor necessary for attentional guidance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436527

  4. The attentional boost effect and context memory.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Smith, S Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors-the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is unclear if context memory is likewise affected. Some accounts suggest enhanced perceptual encoding or associative binding, predicting an ABE on context memory, whereas other evidence suggests a more abstract, amodal basis of the effect. In Experiment 1, context memory was assessed in terms of an intramodal perceptual detail, the font and color of the study word. Experiment 2 examined context memory cross-modally, assessing memory for the modality (visual or auditory) of the study word. Experiments 3 and 4 assessed context memory with list discrimination, in which 2 study lists are presented and participants must later remember which list (if either) a test word came from. In all experiments, item (recognition) memory was also assessed and consistently displayed a robust ABE. In contrast, the attentional-boost manipulation did not enhance context memory, whether defined in terms of visual details, study modality, or list membership. There was some evidence that the mode of responding on the detection task (motoric response as opposed to covert counting of targets) may impact context memory but there was no evidence of an effect of target detection, per se. In sum, the ABE did not occur in context memory with verbal materials. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348201

  5. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  6. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  7. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  8. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  9. Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a

  10. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying

  11. Gender Politics: The Focus on Women in the Memory Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Emily

    2000-01-01

    Examines how the politics of gender have influenced and shaped the modern debates over sexual abuse and memory. Explores the level of scrutiny applied to women accusers, the language used to characterize women within the debate, and why the sexual abuse memories of women have become the specific and focused target of "false memory" proponents and…

  12. Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

  13. Visual working memory for line orientations and face identities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shim, Won Mok; Makovski, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the number of objects we can actively hold in visual working memory is smaller for more complex objects. However, complex objects are not just more complex but are often more similar to other complex objects used as test probes. To separate effects of complexity from effects of similarity, we measured visual memory following a 1s delay for complex and simple objects at several levels of memory-to-test similarity. When memory load was 1 object, memory accuracy for a face (a complex attribute) was similar to a line orientation (a simple attribute) when the face changed in steps of 10% along a morphing continuum and the line changed in steps of 5° in orientation. Performance declined with increasing memory load and increasing memory-to-test similarity. Remarkably, when memory load was 3 or 4 objects, face memory was better than orientation memory at similar changed steps. These results held when comparing memory for line orientations with that for inverted faces. We conclude that complex objects do not always exhaust visual memory more quickly than simple objects do. PMID:19064500

  14. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  17. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971,...

  19. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  20. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  1. 26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Personal holding company income. 1.543-1 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.543-1 Personal holding company income. (a) General rule. The term personal holding company income means the portion of the gross income...

  2. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  3. 76 FR 35085 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Savings Loan Holding Company Application. OMB Number... savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power to vote...

  4. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971,...

  5. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  6. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid.... (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable thermometers and agitators....

  7. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  8. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company income. 1.543-1 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.543-1 Personal holding company income. (a) General rule. The term personal holding company income means the portion of the gross income...

  10. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding...

  12. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding...

  13. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding...

  14. Episodically defined organization of visual memory.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Karla; Williams, Carrick

    2015-01-01

    One theory proposed to account for the remarkable capacity and fidelity of visual memory is that visual memories are supported by an underlying structure of conceptual knowledge around which visual information is organized. However, some findings of visual memory learned in visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. This study examines the importance of episodic, task-relevant, visual information in the organizational structure of visual memory. In two experiments, participants learned 36 target objects (750 ms presentation) in serial presentation search tasks, followed by additional searches containing varying numbers of new exemplars of the targets to introduce retroactive interference for the original search targets. Following the search trials, participants completed a 2-AFC memory test. The critical difference between the two experiments was the form of search instructions given. In Experiment 1, search instructions identified targets by color and conceptual category, making a perceptual feature, (i.e., color), relevant to the task, whereas in Experiment 2, the target was defined by the conceptual category alone making the perceptual feature irrelevant. In Experiment 1, memory test results showed that new exemplars that matched learned objects on both color and conceptual category induced more interference (80%) than those matched on conceptual category alone (87%). Experiment 2, in contrast, showed that new exemplar objects that matched only on conceptual category induced the same amount of interference (78%) as those matched on both color and conceptual category (77%). Results indicate that when made task-relevant, perceptual, as well as conceptual, information contributes to the organization of visual long-term memory. However, when made episodically non-relevant, perceptual information does not contribute to memory organization, and memory defaults to conceptual category organization. This finding supports a theory of an episodically defined organizational structure in visual long-term memory that is overlaid upon an underlying conceptual structure. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325768

  15. Biological specimen holding facilities for Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.; Murphy, G. L.; Berry, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of two prototype holding facilities: (1) a unit housing 36 laboratory rats in individual cages, and (2) a unit housing one unrestrained 14-kg rhesus monkey. Both units are environmentally controlled enclosures complete with food, water, and waste-collection equipment. Timer-controlled fluorescent lights in both units permit automatic day-night cycling. Both units are designed to be compatible with Spacelab interfaces and to be operated by NASA payload specialists.

  16. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  17. Attention shifts and memory averaging.

    PubMed

    Kerzel, Dirk

    2002-04-01

    When observers are asked to localize the final position of a moving stimulus, judgements may be influenced by additional elements that are presented in the visual scene. Typically, judgements arc biased toward a salient non-target element. It has been assumed that the non-target element acts as a landmark and attracts the remembered final target position. The present study investigated the effects of briefly flashed non-target elements on localization performance. Similar to landmark attraction, localization was biased toward these elements. However, an influence was only noted if the distractor was presented at the time of target disappearance or briefly thereafter. It is suggested that memory traces of distracting elements are only averaged with the final target position if they are highly activated at the time the target vanishes. PMID:12047052

  18. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding...

  19. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this...

  20. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Nicola; Kuhn, Werner; Rumor, Massimo; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS) are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals) is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a \\"schema\\" that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application \\"schema\\" of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC--INSPIRE). The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application \\"schema\\" that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community. PMID:24893036

  1. Active hold-down for heat treating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The object of the disclosure is to provide a vacuum hold-down for holding thin sheets to a support surface, which permits the thin sheet to change dimensions as it is held down. The hold-down includes numerous holes in the support surface, through which a vacuum is applied from a vacuum source. The holes are arranged in zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at only one or a few zones, while it continues to be applied to other zones, to allow the workpiece to creep along that interrupted zone. The vacuum to different zones is interrupted at different times, as by a slowly turning valve number, to allow each zone of the workpiece to creep. A positive pressure may be applied from a pressured air source to a zone when the vacuum is interrupted there, to help lift the corresponding workpiece zone off the surface to aid in creeping. The workpiece may undergo dimensional changes because of heating, cooling, drying, or other procedure.

  2. On holding and containing, being and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-12-01

    Winnicott's concept of holding and Bion's idea of the container-contained are for each of these analysts among his most important contributions to psychoanalytic thought. In this light, it is ironic that the two sets of ideas are so frequently misunderstood and confused with one another. In this paper the author delineates what he believes to be the critical aspects of each of these concepts and illustrates the way in which he uses these ideas in his clinical work. Winnicott's holding is seen as an ontological concept that is primarily concerned with being and its relationship to time. Initially the mother safeguards the infant's continuity of being, in part by insulating him from the 'not-me' aspect of time. Maturation entails the infant's gradually internalizing the mother's holding of the continuity of his being over time and emotional flux. By contrast, Bion's container-contained is centrally concerned with the processing (dreaming) of thoughts derived from lived emotional experience. The idea of the container-contained addresses the dynamic interaction of predominantly unconscious thoughts (the contained) and the capacity for dreaming and thinking those thoughts (the container). PMID:15801512

  3. Source memory in the real world: a neuropsychological study of flashbulb memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patrick S R; Cook, Shaun P; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Verfaellie, Mieke; Rapcsak, Steven Z

    2005-10-01

    A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events. PMID:16183624

  4. Source Memory in the Real World: A Neuropsychological Study of Flashbulb Memory

    PubMed Central

    DAVIDSON, PATRICK S. R.; COOK, SHAUN P.; GLISKY, ELIZABETH L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE; RAPCSAK, STEVEN Z.

    2008-01-01

    A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events. PMID:16183624

  5. Autobiographical Memory in the Angry Self.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lynette; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The impact of anger on autobiographical recall was examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, 76 participants differing in trait anger completed an autobiographical memory task (AMT). In Experiment 2, 50 participants with elevated trait anger were either provoked or not provoked and subsequently completed an AMT. Across both studies, participants with high dispositional anger reported more anger-related memories, describing themselves as the primary agent of anger. In Experiment 2, provoked participants reported more memories describing themselves as the target of anger. These findings highlight the distinct patterns of memory recall associated with trait versus state anger. Findings are discussed in terms of retrieval biases operating in angry individuals and proposals stemming from self-memory system models of autobiographical memory. PMID:27023327

  6. Autobiographical Memory in the Angry Self

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Lynette; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of anger on autobiographical recall was examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, 76 participants differing in trait anger completed an autobiographical memory task (AMT). In Experiment 2, 50 participants with elevated trait anger were either provoked or not provoked and subsequently completed an AMT. Across both studies, participants with high dispositional anger reported more anger-related memories, describing themselves as the primary agent of anger. In Experiment 2, provoked participants reported more memories describing themselves as the target of anger. These findings highlight the distinct patterns of memory recall associated with trait versus state anger. Findings are discussed in terms of retrieval biases operating in angry individuals and proposals stemming from self-memory system models of autobiographical memory. PMID:27023327

  7. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  8. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  9. Cycle accurate and cycle reproducible memory for an FPGA based hardware accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Asaad, Sameh W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-03-15

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to simulate operations of a device under test (DUT). The DUT includes a device memory having a number of input ports, and the FPGA is associated with a target memory having a second number of input ports, the second number being less than the first number. In one embodiment, a given set of inputs is applied to the device memory at a frequency Fd and in a defined cycle of time, and the given set of inputs is applied to the target memory at a frequency Ft. Ft is greater than Fd and cycle accuracy is maintained between the device memory and the target memory. In an embodiment, a cycle accurate model of the DUT memory is created by separating the DUT memory interface protocol from the target memory storage array.

  10. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  11. Assessing and Changing Self-Concept: Guidelines from the Memory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.

    1994-01-01

    Draws on architecture and operation of human memory to better specify self-concept form and functioning. Translates these major components and processes of memory system into practice implications for targets and methods of change: declarative knowledge versus procedural knowledge, storage memory versus working memory, and role of sensory…

  12. [Spirit, pivot and the way for holding pivot in acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2008-04-01

    To probe into the relation between spirit, pivot and the way for holding pivot. Find out the discussion about spirit, pivot and holding pivot in acupuncture from ancient books, including literature, history and philosophy, and analyze, check and compare with the theory of controlling spirit in acupuncture, and find out the internal relations. Controlling spirit is applied to hold pivot, the way for holding pivot includes finding fine evidence of diseases, holding chance for needling, seizing opportunity, using circumstances and considering the coming-and-going of evil, constitution of patients and reinforcing-reducing methods of acupuncture. The way of holding pivot generalizes the main thought of acupuncture treatment. PMID:18481728

  13. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts. PMID:25351730

  14. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  15. Imagine that: Self-Imagination Improves Prospective Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, Matthew D.; McFarland, Craig P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that “self-imagination” – a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) – enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerized general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e. ongoing task) and press the “1” key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e. prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a “self-imagination effect (SIE)” in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:22150451

  16. Inhibiting the Activity of CA1 Hippocampal Neurons Prevents the Recall of Contextual Fear Memory in Inducible ArchT Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Kim, Karam; Yu, Lily Mae Yee; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Sekine, Yukiko; Okumura, Yuki; Kawano, Masako; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kumar, Deependra; Boyden, Edward S.; McHugh, Thomas J.; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The optogenetic manipulation of light-activated ion-channels/pumps (i.e., opsins) can reversibly activate or suppress neuronal activity with precise temporal control. Therefore, optogenetic techniques hold great potential to establish causal relationships between specific neuronal circuits and their function in freely moving animals. Due to the critical role of the hippocampal CA1 region in memory function, we explored the possibility of targeting an inhibitory opsin, ArchT, to CA1 pyramidal neurons in mice. We established a transgenic mouse line in which tetracycline trans-activator induces ArchT expression. By crossing this line with a CaMKIIα-tTA transgenic line, the delivery of light via an implanted optrode inhibits the activity of excitatory CA1 neurons. We found that light delivery to the hippocampus inhibited the recall of a contextual fear memory. Our results demonstrate that this optogenetic mouse line can be used to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying behavior. PMID:26075894

  17. Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time

    SciTech Connect

    Soule, R.G.; Jones, D.B.A.; Symonik, D.M.; Gerbec, B.A.; Turgeon, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it`s important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure. This study investigated the current allowable sample holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. In addition to lab spiked samples, groundwater was collected from a well known to contain vinyl chloride. A statistically significant (a = 0.05) decrease in vinyl chloride concentrations was observed over the 14-day holding time. The most significant loss was seen for those samples held the maximum length of time (14 days). No differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during the sampling and handling process. Analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require that multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are required. These findings have implications for the accurate generation of public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

  18. The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

  19. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  20. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  1. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  2. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... title of the MHC subsidiary holding company is XXX. Section 2. Domicile. The domicile of the...

  3. Vise to hold bones or other irregular objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Vise with stationary vee-shaped jaw and segmented notched jaw for holding irregular shaped objects is described. Operation of the device and specific application to holding bones are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  4. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  5. Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Priami, Corrado; Caberlotto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition of the brain in which there is a progressive and permanent loss of cognitive and mental performance. Despite the fact that the number of people with dementia worldwide is steadily increasing and regardless of the advances in the molecular characterization of the disease, current medical treatments for dementia are purely symptomatic and hardly effective. We present a novel multi-relational association mining method that integrates the huge amount of scientific data accumulated in recent years to predict potential novel targets for innovative therapeutic treatment of dementia. Owing to the ability of processing large volumes of heterogeneous data, our method achieves a high performance and predicts numerous drug targets including several serine threonine kinase and a G-protein coupled receptor. The predicted drug targets are mainly functionally related to metabolism, cell surface receptor signaling pathways, immune response, apoptosis, and long-term memory. Among the highly represented kinase family and among the G-protein coupled receptors, DLG4 (PSD-95), and the bradikynin receptor 2 are highlighted also for their proposed role in memory and cognition, as described in previous studies. These novel putative targets hold promises for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dementia. PMID:26154857

  6. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  7. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section: Example 1. A, an individual, holds 25 percent by value of each class of stock of Y Corporation. Persons unrelated to A hold the remaining stock. Y holds 50 percent of the stock of Corporation X. Under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, Y's interests in X are attributed proportionately to the shareholders of...

  8. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section: Example 1. A, an individual, holds 25 percent by value of each class of stock of Y Corporation. Persons unrelated to A hold the remaining stock. Y holds 50 percent of the stock of Corporation X. Under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, Y's interests in X are attributed proportionately to the shareholders of...

  9. 49 CFR 845.10 - Determination to hold hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination to hold hearing. 845.10 Section 845... Procedure § 845.10 Determination to hold hearing. The Board may order a public hearing as part of an... determination to hold a public hearing may be made by the Chairman of the Board....

  10. 34 CFR 200.73 - Applicable hold-harmless provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable hold-harmless provisions. 200.73 Section 200... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Allocations to Leas § 200.73 Applicable hold....100(d)(2), an SEA may not reduce the allocation of an eligible LEA below the hold-harmless...

  11. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176.145 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... single hold vessels. (a) On board a vessel having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive) materials...

  12. 75 FR 5069 - BCR Holdings, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission BCR Holdings, Inc.; Notice of Application January 25, 2010. Take notice that on January 8, 2010, BCR Holdings, Inc (BCR), 820 Gessner, Suite 1680, Houston, TX 77024, filed with... Holdings, LP (Bridgeline) in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana; (2) a blanket certificate in authorizing BCR...

  13. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is published annually as of July 1 in Department Circular No. 570, Companies Holding Certificates of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  15. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  16. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies is published annually as of July 1 in Department Circular No. 570, Companies Holding Certificates of...

  17. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  18. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custodial holdings of... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS § 450.4 Custodial holdings of government securities....

  19. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  20. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio...

  1. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business holdings; certain periods. 53.4943-9...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-9 Business holdings; certain periods. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general. For purposes...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1250-4 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Holding period. 1.1250-4 Section 1.1250-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1250-4 Holding period... section 1250 (1)(C) and (2)(B)) of section 1250 property, the holding period of the property shall...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect holding of interests. 25.2701-6... Indirect holding of interests. (a) In general—(1) Attribution to individuals. For purposes of section 2701, an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Indirect holding of interests. 25.2701-6 Section... Indirect holding of interests. (a) In general—(1) Attribution to individuals. For purposes of section 2701, an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held...

  6. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custodial holdings of... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS § 450.4 Custodial holdings of government securities....

  7. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in...) of this part, each member's required minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1250-4 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Holding period. 1.1250-4 Section 1.1250-4...) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1250-4 Holding period. (a... 1250 (1)(C) and (2)(B)) of section 1250 property, the holding period of the property shall...

  9. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent...

  10. 26 CFR 53.4943-9 - Business holdings; certain periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; certain periods. 53.4943-9...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-9 Business holdings; certain periods. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general. For purposes...

  11. 46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical circuits in cargo holds. 148.435 Section 148... circuits in cargo holds. During transport of a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo hold containing the material...

  12. 12 CFR 239.11 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 239.11 Section 239.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies § 239.11...

  13. 12 CFR 239.11 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 239.11 Section 239.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies § 239.11...

  14. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  15. 12 CFR 239.11 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 239.11 Section 239.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies § 239.11...

  16. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  17. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  18. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... minimum holdings of stock in the Bank in which it is a member using calendar year-end financial data... holdings is to be used to determine the number of votes that the member may cast in that year's election...

  19. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  20. 78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... collect the assessment from the assessed companies. \\1\\ 78 FR 23162 (April 18, 2013). The proposal... Board received 16 comments on the NPR from industry associations, companies, individuals, and members of... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C); \\2\\ 12 U.S.C. 1841(a). A company that,...

  1. Attracting and Holding the Continuing Education Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Patricia; Nixon, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Suggests ways business communication teachers can reach continuing education students, including analyzing the community needs, finding a target market, tailoring a course to the market, selling the course, setting up the class, and using effective teaching techniques. (RL)

  2. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, R. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  3. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  4. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory. PMID:25112394

  5. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Uncapher, Melina R; K Thieu, Monica; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs' wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past-be it very recent or more remote-to inform present behavior. PMID:26223469

  6. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws D Appendix D to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. D Appendix D to Part...

  7. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN...

  8. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM)...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM)...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter B Appendix B to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM)...

  12. 14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  13. Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

    2008-01-01

    In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

  14. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  15. Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

    2008-01-01

    In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of

  16. Notch in memories: Points to remember.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Swananda; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Memory is a temporally evolving molecular and structural process, which involves changes from local synapses to complex neural networks. There is increasing evidence for an involvement of developmental pathways in regulating synaptic communication in the adult nervous system. Notch signaling has been implicated in memory formation in a variety of species. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Notch underlying memory consolidation remains poorly understood. In this commentary, besides offering an overview of the advances in the field of Notch in memory, we highlight some of the weaknesses of the studies and attempt to cast light on the apparent discrepancies on the role of Notch in memory. We believe that future studies, employing high-throughput technologies and targeted Notch loss and gain of function animal models, will reveal the mechanisms of Notch dependent plasticity and resolve whether this signaling pathway is implicated in the cognitive deficit associated with dementia. PMID:25565152

  17. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  18. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  19. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. PMID:26649914

  20. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. PMID:26649914

  1. Distributed representations in memory: Insights from functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly leveraged powerful analytical tools (e.g., multi-voxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed fMRI activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content, and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses. PMID:21943171

  2. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Qiu, C.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Poem, E.; Ledingham, P. M.; Walmsley, I. A.; Nunn, J.

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15 ±2 )×10-3 photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5 ±0.5 )%.

  3. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D J; Munns, J H D; Champion, T F M; Qiu, C; Kaczmarek, K T; Poem, E; Ledingham, P M; Walmsley, I A; Nunn, J

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15±2)×10^{-3} photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5±0.5)%. PMID:26991164

  4. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 minutes after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 minutes after infusion and returned to baseline 30 minutes after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:22265866

  5. Targeting intracellular targets.

    PubMed

    Panyam, Jayanth; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2004-07-01

    Many therapeutic agents have intracellular compartments as their site of action. Targeted delivery of these agents to their specific intracellular targets could result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity. Various carriers have been shown useful in targeted delivery of different classes of therapeutic agents. Among these carriers, biodegradable nanoparticles formulated from biocompatible polymers poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polylactide (PLA) have shown the potential for sustained intracellular delivery of different therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss different intracellular targets, barriers to intracellular delivery, mechanism and pathways of intracellular delivery, and various carriers and approaches that have been investigated for intracellular drug delivery. PMID:16305387

  6. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

  7. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  8. Towards Terabit Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm², a very small read energy of 0.1 μW/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

  9. Deep brain stimulation effects on memory.

    PubMed

    Laxton, A W; Sankar, T; Lozano, A M; Hamani, C

    2012-12-01

    As the population of many countries ages, disorders of cognition and memory-such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and dementia associated with Parkinson's Disease-will become a major societal burden. At present, few effective medical therapies against these conditions are available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a potential therapeutic option, because it can directly target and modulate the activity of structures implicated in circuits subserving memory function. In this article, we review the scientific literature to address some of the mechanisms by which DBS may impact memory and cognition. We then summarize the results of recent clinical experience with DBS in AD and Parkinsonian dementia. PMID:23111294

  10. Modulation of alpha power at encoding and retrieval tracks the precision of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Poliakov, E; Stokes, M G; Woolrich, M W; Mantini, D; Astle, D E

    2014-12-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is strictly limited. We sought to understand the relationship between oscillatory brain activity and the allocation of resources within visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants attempted to remember target arrows embedded among distracters and used a continuous method of responding to report their memory for a cued target item. Trial-to-trial variability in the absolute circular accuracy with which participants could report the target was predicted by event-related alpha synchronization during initial processing of the memoranda and by alpha desynchronization during the retrieval of those items from VSTM. Using a model-based approach, we were also able to explore further which parameters of VSTM-guided behavior were most influenced by alpha band changes. Alpha synchronization during item processing enhanced the precision with which an item could be retained without affecting the likelihood of an item being represented per se (as indexed by the guessing rate). Importantly, our data outline a neural mechanism that mirrors the precision with which items are retained; the greater the alpha power enhancement during encoding, the greater the precision with which that item can be retained. PMID:25210151

  11. Modulation of alpha power at encoding and retrieval tracks the precision of visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Poliakov, E.; Stokes, M. G.; Woolrich, M. W.; Mantini, D.

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is strictly limited. We sought to understand the relationship between oscillatory brain activity and the allocation of resources within visual short-term memory (VSTM). Participants attempted to remember target arrows embedded among distracters and used a continuous method of responding to report their memory for a cued target item. Trial-to-trial variability in the absolute circular accuracy with which participants could report the target was predicted by event-related alpha synchronization during initial processing of the memoranda and by alpha desynchronization during the retrieval of those items from VSTM. Using a model-based approach, we were also able to explore further which parameters of VSTM-guided behavior were most influenced by alpha band changes. Alpha synchronization during item processing enhanced the precision with which an item could be retained without affecting the likelihood of an item being represented per se (as indexed by the guessing rate). Importantly, our data outline a neural mechanism that mirrors the precision with which items are retained; the greater the alpha power enhancement during encoding, the greater the precision with which that item can be retained. PMID:25210151

  12. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. PMID:8763628

  13. Neural circuits in auditory and audiovisual memory.

    PubMed

    Plakke, B; Romanski, L M

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is the ability to employ recently seen or heard stimuli and apply them to changing cognitive context. Although much is known about language processing and visual working memory, the neurobiological basis of auditory working memory is less clear. Historically, part of the problem has been the difficulty in obtaining a robust animal model to study auditory short-term memory. In recent years there has been neurophysiological and lesion studies indicating a cortical network involving both temporal and frontal cortices. Studies specifically targeting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in auditory working memory have suggested that dorsal and ventral prefrontal regions perform different roles during the processing of auditory mnemonic information, with the dorsolateral PFC performing similar functions for both auditory and visual working memory. In contrast, the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), which contains cells that respond robustly to auditory stimuli and that process both face and vocal stimuli may be an essential locus for both auditory and audiovisual working memory. These findings suggest a critical role for the VLPFC in the processing, integrating, and retaining of communication information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26656069

  14. Neural Correlates of Direct and Indirect Suppression of Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Noreen, Saima; O’Connor, Akira R.; MacLeod, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that there are two possible mechanisms by which particular target memories can be intentionally forgotten. Direct suppression, which involves the suppression of the unwanted memory directly, and is dependent on a fronto-hippocampal modulatory process, and, memory substitution, which includes directing one’s attention to an alternative memory in order to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind, and involves engaging the caudal prefrontal cortex (cPFC) and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) regions. Research to date, however, has investigated the neural basis of memory suppression of relatively simple information. The aim of the current study was to use fMRI to identify the neural mechanisms associated with the suppression of autobiographical memories. In the present study, 22 participants generated memories in response to a series of cue words. In a second session, participants learnt these cue-memory pairings, and were subsequently presented with a cue word and asked either to recall (think) or to suppress (no-think) the associated memory, or to think of an alternative memory in order to suppress the original memory (memory-substitution). Our findings demonstrated successful forgetting effects in the no-think and memory substitution conditions. Although we found no activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, there was reduced hippocampal activation during direct suppression. In the memory substitution condition, however, we failed to find increased activation in the cPFC and VLPFC regions. Our findings suggest that the suppression of autobiographical memories may rely on different neural mechanisms to those established for other types of material in memory. PMID:27047412

  15. MicroRNAs Contribute to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Somatic Donor Memory*

    PubMed Central

    Vitaloni, Marianna; Pulecio, Julian; Bilic, Josipa; Kuebler, Bernd; Laricchia-Robbio, Leopoldo; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) maintain during the first few culture passages a set of epigenetic marks and metabolites characteristic of their somatic cell of origin, a concept defined as epigenetic donor memory. These residual somatic features are lost over time after extensive culture passaging. Therefore, epigenetic donor memory may be responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency toward the tissue of origin observed in low passage iPSCs versus high passage iPSC or iPSCs derived from a different tissue source. Remarkably, there are no studies on the relevance of microRNA (miRNA) memory following reprogramming, despite the established role of these molecules in the context of pluripotency and differentiation. Using hematopoietic progenitors cells as a model, we demonstrated that miRNAs play a central role in somatic memory retention in iPSCs. Moreover, the comparison of the miRNA expression profiles among iPSCs from different sources allowed for the detection of a set of candidate miRNAs responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency rates toward blood progenitors observed in low passage iPSCs. Combining bioinformatic predictive algorithms with biological target validation, we identified miR-155 as a key player for the in vitro differentiation of iPSC toward hematopoietic progenitors. In summary, this study reveals that during the initial passages following reprogramming, iPSCs maintained the expression of a miRNA set exclusive to the original somatic population. Hence the use of these miRNAs might hold a direct application toward our understanding of the differentiation process of iPSCs toward hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:24311783

  16. MicroRNAs contribute to induced pluripotent stem cell somatic donor memory.

    PubMed

    Vitaloni, Marianna; Pulecio, Julian; Bilic, Josipa; Kuebler, Bernd; Laricchia-Robbio, Leopoldo; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-24

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) maintain during the first few culture passages a set of epigenetic marks and metabolites characteristic of their somatic cell of origin, a concept defined as epigenetic donor memory. These residual somatic features are lost over time after extensive culture passaging. Therefore, epigenetic donor memory may be responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency toward the tissue of origin observed in low passage iPSCs versus high passage iPSC or iPSCs derived from a different tissue source. Remarkably, there are no studies on the relevance of microRNA (miRNA) memory following reprogramming, despite the established role of these molecules in the context of pluripotency and differentiation. Using hematopoietic progenitors cells as a model, we demonstrated that miRNAs play a central role in somatic memory retention in iPSCs. Moreover, the comparison of the miRNA expression profiles among iPSCs from different sources allowed for the detection of a set of candidate miRNAs responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency rates toward blood progenitors observed in low passage iPSCs. Combining bioinformatic predictive algorithms with biological target validation, we identified miR-155 as a key player for the in vitro differentiation of iPSC toward hematopoietic progenitors. In summary, this study reveals that during the initial passages following reprogramming, iPSCs maintained the expression of a miRNA set exclusive to the original somatic population. Hence the use of these miRNAs might hold a direct application toward our understanding of the differentiation process of iPSCs toward hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:24311783

  17. When does generation enhance memory for location?

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2006-09-01

    Generation is thought to enhance both item-specific and relational processing of generated targets as compared with read words (M. A. McDaniel & P. J. Waddill, 1990). Generation facilitates encoding of the cue-target relation and sometimes boosts encoding of relations across list items. Of interest is whether generation can also increase the encoding of target-location associations. Because the literature on this point is mixed, 3 procedural differences between 2 studies (E. J. Marsh, G. Edelman, & G. H. Bower, 2001; N. W. Mulligan, 2004) were identified and manipulated. A positive generation effect was found for location memory, but this effect was reduced when subjects wrote down the study words and when the filler task involved generation. Generation can enhance location memory in addition to item memory but only if the experimental parameters do not interfere with the processing benefits of generation. PMID:16938059

  18. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  19. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  20. Expert memory: a comparison of four theories.

    PubMed

    Gobet, F

    1998-05-01

    This paper compares four current theories of expertise with respect to chess players' memory: Chase and Simon's chunking theory, Holding's SEEK theory, Ericsson and Kintsch's long-term working memory theory, and Gobet and Simon's template theory (Chase, W.G., Simon, H.A., 1973a. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4, 55-81; Holding, D.H., 1985. The Psychology of Chess Skill. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review 102, 211-245; Gobet, F., Simon, H.A., 1996b. Templates in chess memory: a mechanism for recalling several boards. Cognitive Psychology 31, 1-40). The empirical areas showing the largest discriminative power include recall of random and distorted positions, recall with very short presentation times, and interference studies. Contrary to recurrent criticisms in the literature, it is shown that the chunking theory is consistent with most of the data. However, the best performance in accounting for the empirical evidence is obtained by the template theory. The theory, which unifies low-level aspects of cognition, such as chunks, with high-level aspects, such as schematic knowledge and planning, proposes that chunks are accessed through a discrimination net, where simple perceptual features are tested, and that they can evolve into more complex data structures (templates) specific to classes of positions. Implications for the study of expertise in general include the need for detailed process models of expert behavior and the need to use empirical data spanning the traditional boundaries of perception, memory, and problem solving. PMID:9677761

  1. Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

    2008-01-01

    Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

  2. Decision theory, motor planning, and visual memory: deciding where to reach when memory errors are costly.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Rachel A; Sims, Chris R

    2016-06-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively studied in psychophysical tasks, but not well understood in terms of how these memory limits translate to performance in more natural domains. For example, in reaching to grasp an object based on a spatial memory representation, overshooting the intended target may be more costly than undershooting, such as when reaching for a cup of hot coffee. The current body of literature lacks a detailed account of how the costs or consequences of memory error influence what we encode in visual memory and how we act on the basis of remembered information. Here, we study how externally imposed monetary costs influence behavior in a motor decision task that involves reach planning based on recalled information from VWM. We approach this from a decision theoretic perspective, viewing decisions of where to aim in relation to the utility of their outcomes given the uncertainty of memory representations. Our results indicate that subjects accounted for the uncertainty in their visual memory, showing a significant difference in their reach planning when monetary costs were imposed for memory errors. However, our findings indicate that subjects memory representations per se were not biased by the imposed costs, but rather subjects adopted a near-optimal post-mnemonic decision strategy in their motor planning. PMID:26821320

  3. Effects of oxytocin on the fear memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Zhao, Liyan; Zhang, Genai; Ding, Lixiang

    2015-05-01

    Oxytoxin (OT) promotes social behavior and reduces anxiety. A great number of studies suggest that OT plays a role in learning and memory processes in animals and humans. Fear memories are rendered labile and prone to modification after reactivation and a restabilization and reconsolidation process is necessary for future memory conservation. This process is crucial for modulation of an existing memory and forms a promising therapeutic target for pathological memory disorders. In this study, we investigated whether a single systemic injection of OT has effects on reconsolidation of fear memories. We found post-reactivation administration of OT impairs reconsolidation of these memories and the impairment effect is reactivation-dependent. Postreactivation short-term fear memories and the learning of new fear memory were unaffected by OT. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of OT in persistently impairing fear memory retention by blocking reconsolidation in rats. OT administration after retrieval of fear memories may open a new avenue to treat pathological memory-related disorders. PMID:25796180

  4. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  5. Dividing attention lowers children's but increases adults' false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a divided attention task. The results showed that divided attention affected children's and adults' false memory levels differently but did not alter true memory differently. Our results revealed a developmental shift in that divided attention lowered children's false memory rates but increased adults' false memory rates, regardless of the nature of the material (i.e., neutral or negative). Our study indicates that manipulations that target conscious processing (e.g., divided attention) result in marked qualitative and quantitative differences between children's and adults' false memories but not true memories. PMID:21859233

  6. Task-based working memory guidance of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Tsou, Brian H

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has established that holding a stimulus in working memory (WM) facilitates the deployment of visual attention to that stimulus relative to other stimuli. The present study examined whether maintaining a specific task in WM would also bias the allocation of attention to the stimuli associated with that task. Participants performed a speeded letter search task while simultaneously keeping in WM one of two task cues shown at the beginning of each trial. The results showed that task-based WM guidance of attention was modulated by response latencies. Whereas the participants with fast reaction times showed little influence of WM contents, the participants with slow reaction times took longer to respond when the letter target appeared in a distractor stimulus consistent with the task cue held in mind. A subsequent Stroop experiment found a larger Stroop interference effect from the participants in the slow group compared with those in the fast group, suggesting that the differential WM effect between the two groups may be associated with an individual's ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information. Taken together, these results expanded the realm of previous research and provided further evidence for a close link between attention and WM. PMID:21264740

  7. Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

  8. Subsequent Memory Effects in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Azurii K.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. We found evidence for subsequent memory (SM, subsequently remembered > subsequently forgotten) effects on regional brain activation in both groups but with distinct patterns. Region of interest analyses in controls demonstrated SM activation in both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and fusiform cortex (FF), whereas patients showed SM effects only in the FF. There were no significant between group differences in MTL activation; however, patients demonstrated greater FF activation than controls. Notably, greater FF activation during successful encoding was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Exploratory whole brain analyses in patients demonstrated SM activation in the occipital pole, lateral occipital cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and fusiform cortex; whereas in controls there was no significant activation that survived correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that patients, particularly those with prominent negative symptoms, may activate FF as a compensatory strategy to promote successful encoding, with relatively less reliance on MTL recruitment. PMID:25453165

  9. Benzodiazepines and memory

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T.; Roehrs, T.; Wittig, R.; Zorick, F.

    1984-01-01

    1 Benzodiazepines possess anterograde amnesic properties, disrupting both short-term and long-term memory function. 2 The amount of amnesia is systematically related to dose effects and half-life differences among the benzodiazepines. 3 Memory deficits are found for episodic, semantic, and iconic memory function. 4 The deficits in long-term memory are probably the result of a disruption of consolidation of information in memory and not retrieval from memory. The disruption is produced by rapid sleep onset. 5 Thus the long-term amnesia is really a retrograde effect of sleep and not the anterograde effect of the drug. PMID:6151849

  10. To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

  11. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F.Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure. PMID:26239505

  12. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial

  13. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  14. Identifying and characterizing the effects of nutrition on hippocampal memory.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jim M; Baym, Carol L; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-05-01

    In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally, we discuss selected findings from animal and human research on nutrition and the hippocampus and advocate for the role of relational memory tasks in future research. PMID:24829486

  15. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.

  16. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  17. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  18. Does Conceptual Implicit Memory Develop? The Role of Processing Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the importance of processing considerations within implicit memory in a developmental design. Second-graders (n = 87) and college students (n = 81) completed perceptual (word stem completion) and conceptual (category generation) implicit memory tests after studying target items either nonsemantically (read) or semantically…

  19. Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Castiello, Umberto; Köster, Egon Peter; Mojet, Jos

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes. PMID:24560690

  20. A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

  1. Scene and Position Specificity in Visual Memory for Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how visual representations of individual objects are bound in memory to scene context. Participants viewed a series of naturalistic scenes, and memory for the visual form of a target object in each scene was examined in a 2-alternative forced-choice test, with the distractor object either a different object…

  2. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  3. Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that memory retrieval in…

  4. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. PMID:24767488

  5. Storing Memories of Recent Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters June 30, 2014 Storing Memories of Recent Events Memories of recent events may be held by a ... new study suggests. Understanding how the brain stores memories will yield insights into memory problems that come ...

  6. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Indirect holding of interests. 25.2701-6 Section 25.2701-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6 Indirect holding of interests. (a) In...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File Structure This is...

  8. 46 CFR 13.106 - Requirement to hold an MMC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to hold an MMC. 13.106 Section 13.106 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN General § 13.106 Requirement to hold an MMC. An applicant for any endorsement in this part...

  9. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section 412.344 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the...

  10. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 35. REDUCTION PLANT HOLDING TANKS View just to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. REDUCTION PLANT - HOLDING TANKS View just to the right of Photo No. 34. Note holding tanks for fish awaiting reduction, and cement bases (in front of tanks) for dryers and power units (right). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. 17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken from atop the redwood holding tanks at the north end of the building, looking across at the north end of the building. Below can be seen the sluice doors through which the fish flowed to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.52 Holding requirement...

  18. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval required for holding event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only...

  19. 31 CFR 316.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 316.5 Section 316.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....5 Limitation on holdings. (a) General limitation. The amount of Series E bonds, originally...

  20. 41 CFR 109-43.502 - Holding agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding agency responsibilities. 109-43.502 Section 109-43.502 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 109-43.502 Holding agency responsibilities. (a) (b) Property which remains excess after...

  1. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.52 Holding requirement...

  2. 29 CFR 452.45 - Multiple office holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple office holding. 452.45 Section 452.45 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.45 Multiple office holding....

  3. 76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Savings and Loan Holding Company Application. OMB Number: 1550-0015. Form... implementing regulations provide that no company, or any director or officer of a savings and loan...

  4. 31 CFR 341.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 341.5 Section 341.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.5 Limitation on holdings. The limit on the amount of any Retirement Plan Bonds issued...

  5. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.57 Holding requirement...

  6. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.57 Holding requirement...

  7. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval required for holding event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only...

  8. 31 CFR 341.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 341.5 Section 341.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.5 Limitation on holdings. The limit on the amount of any Retirement Plan Bonds issued...

  9. 31 CFR 316.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 316.5 Section 316.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....5 Limitation on holdings. (a) General limitation. The amount of Series E bonds, originally...

  10. 31 CFR 346.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 346.5 Section 346.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.5 Limitation on holdings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  11. 50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Subpart F of 15 CFR part 904 contains additional procedures that govern seized property that is subject to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7... Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal product, or other cargo...

  12. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 575.14 Section 575.14 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL...

  13. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior office holding. 452.40 Section 452.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding....

  14. 41 CFR 109-43.502 - Holding agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding agency responsibilities. 109-43.502 Section 109-43.502 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 109-43.502 Holding agency responsibilities. (a) (b) Property which remains excess after...

  15. 31 CFR 346.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 346.5 Section 346.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.5 Limitation on holdings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  16. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing the maximum acreage an entity may...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Present holdings. 53.4943-4 Section 53.4943-4... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings §...

  18. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prior office holding. 452.40 Section 452.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding....

  19. 50 CFR 216.7 - Holding and bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Subpart F of 15 CFR part 904 contains additional procedures that govern seized property that is subject to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding and bonding. 216.7 Section 216.7... Introduction § 216.7 Holding and bonding. (a) Any marine mammal, marine mammal product, or other cargo...

  20. 77 FR 63309 - ITC Holdings Corp.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ITC Holdings Corp.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 28, 2012, ITC Holdings Corp. and ITC Midwest LLC (collectively ITC) filed its Refund Report in the...

  1. 29 CFR 452.45 - Multiple office holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple office holding. 452.45 Section 452.45 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.45 Multiple office holding....

  2. 77 FR 28373 - RC Cape May Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission RC Cape May Holdings, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of... 309 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e), 825(e), and 825(h), RC Cape May Holdings,...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... holdings of such a foundation to a percentage equal to the difference between: (A) The percentage of... holdings of all disqualified persons in such business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock)....

  4. 26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the enterprise, made an election in the manner described in 26 CFR 143.6 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974). (5... holdings of such a foundation to a percentage equal to the difference between: (A) The percentage of... holdings of all disqualified persons in such business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock)....

  5. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  6. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  7. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Purpose and Rationale is to:

    To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations.

    While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provi...

  8. RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose and Rationale:

    1) To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes that may be necessary to the current regulations.

    2) While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provid...

  9. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... for a Foreign Organization to Acquire a U.S. Bank or Bank Holding Company (FR Y-3F; OMB No. 7100-0119... company, the biographical information requested in the Interagency Biographical and Financial Report FR... Existing Information Collections: The Annual Report of Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-6), The Report...

  10. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... company, the biographical information requested in the Interagency Biographical and Financial Report FR... Existing Information Collections: The Annual Report of Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding...

  11. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates

  12. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates…

  13. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope

  14. Understanding Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory problems—causes and treatments Help for serious memory problems What you need to know Where can I get more information? Words to know ... of Health U.S. Department of Health & Human Services USA.gov

  15. [Memory and cognitivism].

    PubMed

    Spinetto, M

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this article is to explore the notion of cognitive memory. For that reason we would study the implicit and explicit memory. We would also study the notion of childhood amnesia and trauma. PMID:11780154

  16. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  17. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  18. Optical memory: Phase-change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2015-11-01

    Integrated nano-optical memories may help overcome the limitations of communication speeds and energy costs in electronic chips. Now, using nanoscale phase-change materials researchers have realized the first multi-bit all-optical non-volatile memories with a very small footprint.

  19. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition

  20. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  1. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  2. Localized Memory Effect of Elastomers Filled with Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoubo; Wang, Xiaorong

    When a filler-reinforced elastomer compound is oscillatory sheared or pressed at a small fixed strain (e.g., 2%) for a period of time, it can produce a localized memory perturbation in its dynamic spectrum. Typically, a localized memory appears near the applied strain amplitude in the loss modulus spectrum. Sequential holding the system at two strains can produce one or two holes depending on the deformation histories. While this discovery of localized memory effect seems to be significant and compelling, its generality in vulcanized elastomers containing various fillers has not yet been tested extensively. In this work, we intend to expand on our previous work of a colloidal silica-filled model system to carbon black-filled real rubbers. We also examine the effect of filler volume fraction in rubber compounds on the spectral memory phenomenon.

  3. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. PMID:25100854

  4. Make-Believe Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited.

  5. Memories (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Carol; Peters, Donna; Semer, Susie; White, W. Quinn; Scharer, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 46 children's books that explore memories of childhood, memories of love, keepsakes that capture those memories, memorable tales from long ago, memorable journeys, times that are painful to remember, and heroes and heroines who have provided hope and change in a troubled world. (SR)

  6. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  7. Making a Memory Book

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... purpose of the memory book is to enable family members to maintain conversation with a family member who may be having memory difficulties or ... aging and is losing touch with very important family memories. Geri: This is going in your book, ...

  8. Examples of Holdings Reports and Decisions Using the American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Gary; And Others

    This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the resolutions reached in converting Indiana University Libraries serials holdings information to the format specified in the 1980 American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statements at the Summary Level (ANSI). It is noted that this project was part of the development--by OCLC--of

  9. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard...., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice Tentatively Approving and Authorizing Transaction. SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI...

  10. 77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of...

  11. Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

  12. Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.

  13. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  14. Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare. PMID:24782810

  15. Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare. PMID:24782810

  16. Search, Memory, and Choice Error: An Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attribute search is a central feature of economic life: we consider much more than price when purchasing a home, and more than wage when choosing a job. An experiment is conducted in order to explore the effects of cognitive limitations on choice in these rich settings, in accordance with the predictions of a new model of search memory load. In each task, subjects are made to search the same information in one of two orders, which differ in predicted memory load. Despite standard models of choice treating such variations in order of acquisition as irrelevant, lower predicted memory load search orders are found to lead to substantially fewer choice errors. An implication of the result for search behavior, more generally, is that in order to reduce memory load (thus choice error) a limited memory searcher ought to deviate from the search path of an unlimited memory searcher in predictable ways-a mechanism that can explain the systematic deviations from optimal sequential search that have recently been discovered in peoples' behavior. Further, as cognitive load is induced endogenously (within the task), and found to affect choice behavior, this result contributes to the cognitive load literature (in which load is induced exogenously), as well as the cognitive ability literature (in which cognitive ability is measured in a separate task). In addition, while the information overload literature has focused on the detrimental effects of the quantity of information on choice, this result suggests that, holding quantity constant, the order that information is observed in is an essential determinant of choice failure. PMID:26121356

  17. Memory: sins and virtues

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of doing so. PMID:23909686

  18. ECT and memory loss.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller. PMID:331969

  19. Appearance-based inferences bias source memory.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-11-01

    Previous research varying the trustworthiness of appearance has demonstrated that facial characteristics contribute to source memory. Two studies extended this work by investigating the contribution to source memory of babyfaceness, a facial quality known to elicit strong spontaneous trait inferences. Young adult participants viewed younger and older babyfaced and mature-faced individuals paired with sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the target's facial characteristics. Identifying a source as dominant or submissive was least accurate when participants chose between a target whose behavior was incongruent with facial characteristics and a lure whose face mismatched the target in appearance but matched the source memory question. In Experiment 1, this effect held true when older sources were identified, but not own-age, younger sources. When task difficulty was increased in Experiment 2, the relationship between face-behavior congruence and lure facial characteristics persisted, but it was not moderated by target age even though participants continued to correctly identify fewer older than younger sources. Taken together, these results indicate that trait expectations associated with variations in facial maturity can bias source memory for both own- and other-age faces, although own-age faces are less vulnerable to this bias, as is shown in the moderation by task difficulty. PMID:22806429

  20. A Memory Advantage for Untrustworthy Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Nicholas O.; Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief…