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1

Does fascia hold memories?  

PubMed

The idea that tissues may possess some sort of memory is a controversial topic in manual medicine, calling for research and clinical exploration. Many bodyworkers, at some point in their practice, have experienced phenomena that may be interpreted as representing a release of memory traces when working on dysfunctional tissues. This feeling may have been accompanied by some type of sensory experience, for the therapist and/or the patient. In some cases, early traumatic experiences may be recalled. When this happens, the potency of the memory may be erased or eased, along with restoration of tissue function. Hence the questions: can memories be held in the fascia? And: are these memories accessible during manual fascial work? Modern research has proposed a variety of different interpretations as to how memory might be stored in soft tissues, possibly involving other forms of information storage not exclusively processed neurologically (Box 1). PMID:24725795

Tozzi, Paolo

2014-04-01

2

Hold-up power supply for flash memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hold-up power supply for flash memory systems is provided. The hold-up power supply provides the flash memory with the power needed to temporarily operate when a power loss exists. This allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows it to shut down gracefully. The hold-up power supply detects when a power loss on a power supply bus is occurring and supplies the power needed for the flash memory system to temporally operate. The hold-up power supply stores power in at least one capacitor. During normal operation, power from a high voltage supply bus is used to charge the storage capacitors. When a power supply loss is detected, the power supply bus is disconnected from the flash memory system. A hold-up controller controls the power flow from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. The hold-up controller uses feedback to assure that the proper voltage is provided from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. This power supplied by the storage capacitors allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows the flash memory system to shut down gracefully.

Ott, William E. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

3

Influence of Holding Time on Shape Recovery in a Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape-memory polymers have attracted a lot of interest in recent years. A shape-memory polymer can be deformed and fixed into a temporary shape and subsequently made to recover its original shape when a suitable stimulus is applied. This is accomplished by means of a thermomechanical cycle called programming. Programming can be performed in a stress- or strain-controlled mode. The thermomechanical conditions of the programming affect shape-memory properties differently in each programming mode. One of the parameters which significantly affects shape-memory properties in a stress-controlled procedure is stress-holding time (t H) at high temperature. This paper studies how stress-holding time affects the most significant shape-memory properties under successive thermomechanical cycles. The experiments were conducted using two different programming temperatures in the vicinity of the T g. The shape-recovery ratio decreased dramatically with cycling even when the holding time was just a few seconds, however, the impact of the stress-holding time depends on the temperature at which it has been applied. Shape-fixity ratio and switching temperature were also studied, but stress-holding time and successive cycles do not seem to affect either of these factors.

Santiago, David; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

2014-04-01

4

A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

5

Risk-Targeted Selection of Agricultural Holdings for Post-Epidemic Surveillance: Estimation of Efficiency Gains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. A better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. In this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in Devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily

Ian G. Handel; Barend M. De C. Bronsvoort; John F. Forbes; Mark E. J. Woolhouse; Michael George Roberts

2011-01-01

6

Targeting the CREB pathway for memory enhancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the clinical notion of 'memory disorder' is largely synonymous with 'Alzheimer's disease.' Only 50% of all dementias are of the Alzheimer's type though, and dementias represent only the more severe of all learning\\/memory disorders that derive from heredity, disease, injury or age. Perhaps as many as 30 million Americans suffer some type of clinically recognized memory disorder. To date,

Rusiko Bourtchouladze; Rod Scott; John Tallman; Tim Tully

2003-01-01

7

To have and to hold: episodic memory in 3- and 4-year-old children.  

PubMed

Episodic memory endows us with the ability to reflect on our past and plan for our future. Most theorists argue that episodic memory emerges during the preschool period and that its emergence might herald the end of childhood amnesia. Here, we show that both 3- and 4-year-old children form episodic memories, but that 3-year-old children fail to retain those memories following a delay (Experiments 1 and 2). In contrast, 4-year-old children retained episodic memories over delays of 24 hr (Experiment 1) and 1 week (Experiment 3). This marked change in the retention of episodic memories between 3 and 4 years of age suggests that it is our ability to retain, rather than to form, an episodic memory that limits our ability to recall episodes from early childhood. PMID:22213009

Scarf, Damian; Gross, Julien; Colombo, Michael; Hayne, Harlene

2013-03-01

8

A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

Capel, P. D.; Larson, S. J.

1995-01-01

9

The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?  

PubMed Central

The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios.

Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

2014-01-01

10

Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search.  

PubMed

Multiple-target visual searches--when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display--are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience. PMID:23163788

Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

2013-10-01

11

Targeting Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) for Pain Management: What Does the Future Hold for NGF Antagonists?  

PubMed

It is unanimously accepted that there is an unmet need for pain medications that are both effective and safe. Unfortunately, no really novel analgesics have been approved over the past three decades. In view of both experimental and clinical evidence of a major role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in the generation and maintenance of a wide range of pain states, drug discovery efforts focusing on the development of anti-NGF agents have aroused particular interest. Several humanized anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have entered clinical trials as potential analgesics. In this respect, tanezumab is at an advanced stage of clinical development while fulranumab, fasinumab and ABT-110, previously known as PG110, are in early phases of clinical development. This Current Opinion article aims at describing the rationale for targeting NGF for pain, reviewing the analgesic efficacy and safety of anti-NGF agents based on data from fully published studies, conference abstracts, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, and discussing the possible future of these agents in managing chronic pain. Anti-NGF mAbs produced significant pain relief and functional improvement in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip. Conversely, studies in non-specific lower back pain generated mixed results; overall, this condition appeared to be less responsive to anti-NGF agents than osteoarthritis. Finally, there was no conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of anti-NGF mAbs in some types of chronic visceral or neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these studies raised safety concerns about anti-NGF mAbs. As a class, these drugs may cause or worsen peripheral neuropathies. But the most problematic issue-which prompted the FDA to place studies of these compounds on clinical hold in 2010-was rapid joint destruction leading to joint replacement surgery. The aetiologies of these side effects have been much debated and their pathophysiology is poorly understood. After an Arthritis Advisory Committee meeting held in March 2012, pharmaceutical companies negotiated with the FDA on the conditions for restarting clinical studies. Although the FDA lifted its clinical hold, there remain many unresolved issues about the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-NGF mAbs. While acknowledging that the future of these drugs is unforeseeable, it appears that they may not be the safe and effective painkillers that have been awaited for decades. PMID:24691709

Bannwarth, Bernard; Kostine, Marie

2014-04-01

12

5-HT systems: emergent targets for memory formation and memory alterations.  

PubMed

Drugs acting through 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5-HT) systems modulate memory and its alterations, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. 5-HT drugs may present promnesic and/or antiamnesic (or even being amnesic) effects. Key questions regarding 5-HT markers include whether receptors directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis; hence, the major aim of this article was to examine recent advances in emergent targets of the 5-HT systems for memory formation and memory alterations. Recent reviews and findings are summarized, mainly in the context of the growing notion of memory deficits in brain disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, mild cognitive impairment, consumption of drugs, poststroke cognitive dysfunctions, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, and infection-induced memory impairments). Mainly, mammalian and (some) human data were the focus. At least agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors seem to have a promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in different conditions and 5-HT markers seem to be associated to neural changes. Available evidence offers clues about the possibilities, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, 5-HT transporter expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms and its alterations. PMID:24259245

Meneses, Alfredo

2013-01-01

13

Target context specification can reduce costs in nonfocal prospective memory.  

PubMed

Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task interference according to stimulus relevance for the nonfocal PM task. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which a PM task (press F6 when a target syllable appeared) was embedded. The target syllable always occurred in word trials, but we manipulated participants' expectations regarding the target context by instructing them that targets would occur in words only (specific condition) or in both words and nonwords (nonspecific condition). A control condition with no PM demands was also included. Although having a PM task led to noticeable slowing on the ongoing task, specifying the PM target context reduced cost to items irrelevant to the intention (nonwords) while leaving PM performance intact. Moreover, higher cost for nonwords in the nonspecific than specific condition was persistent across the ongoing task even though the target syllable was repeatedly presented in words. These results suggest that stimulus processing can be modulated according to participants' expectations about the lexical properties of the target, with trial-by-trial changes in task interference as a function of stimulus relevance to a nonfocal intention observed as a consequence. PMID:23834056

Lourenço, Joana S; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A

2013-11-01

14

Multiple-target tracking: A role for working memory?  

PubMed

In order to identify the cognitive processes associated with target tracking, a dual-task experiment was carried out in which participants undertook a dynamic multiple-object tracking task first alone and then again, concurrently with one of several secondary tasks, in order to investigate the cognitive processes involved. The research suggests that after designated targets within the visual field have attracted preattentive indexes that point to their locations in space, conscious processes, vulnerable to secondary visual and spatial task interference, form deliberate strategies beneficial to the tracking task, before tracking commences. Target tracking itself is realized by central executive processes, which are sensitive to any other cognitive demands. The findings are discussed in the context of integrating dynamic spatial cognition within a working memory framework. PMID:16885145

Allen, Roy; McGeorge, Peter; Pearson, David G; Milne, Alan

2006-06-01

15

The 1027th target candidate in stroke: Will NADPH oxidase hold up?  

PubMed Central

As recently reviewed, 1026 neuroprotective drug candidates in stroke research have all failed on their road towards validation and clinical translation, reasons being quality issues in preclinical research and publication bias. Quality control guidelines for preclinical stroke studies have now been established. However, sufficient understanding of the underlying mechanisms of neuronal death after stroke that could be possibly translated into new therapies is lacking. One exception is the hypothesis that cellular death is mediated by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from different possible enzymatic sources. Among these, NADPH oxidases (NOX1-5) stand out as they represent the only known enzyme family that has no other function than to produce ROS. Based on data from different NOX knockout mouse models in ischemic stroke, the most relevant isoform appears to be NOX4. Here we discuss the state-of-the-art of this target with respect to stroke and open questions that need to be addressed on the path towards clinical translation.

2012-01-01

16

Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

2006-01-01

17

Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

Haddad, Omar

2013-01-01

18

Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

2014-01-01

19

Modified input estimation with interacting fading memory for maneuvering target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement on the modified input estimation (MIE) is proposed for maneuvering target tracking. With the advantage of reduced sensitivity to modeling errors, a set of fading memory is selected to indicate different maneuver level. The proposed method jumps between these different fading memories according to a Markov chain. Experimental results show that the presented method has more efficiency in

Liping Song; Hongbing Ji

2010-01-01

20

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition.  

PubMed

Suppressing retrieval of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show that excluding memories from awareness not only modulates medial temporal lobe regions involved in explicit retention, but also neocortical areas underlying unconscious expressions of memory. Using repetition priming in visual perception as a model task, we found that excluding memories of visual objects from consciousness reduced their later indirect influence on perception, literally making the content of suppressed memories harder for participants to see. Critically, effective connectivity and pattern similarity analysis revealed that suppression mechanisms mediated by the right middle frontal gyrus reduced activity in neocortical areas involved in perceiving objects and targeted the neural populations most activated by reminders. The degree of inhibitory modulation of the visual cortex while people were suppressing visual memories predicted, in a later perception test, the disruption in the neural markers of sensory memory. These findings suggest a neurobiological model of how motivated forgetting affects the unconscious expression of memory that may be generalized to other types of memory content. More generally, they suggest that the century-old assumption that suppression leaves unconscious memories intact should be reconsidered. PMID:24639546

Gagnepain, Pierre; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

2014-04-01

21

Causal evidence for frontal involvement in memory target maintenance by posterior brain areas during distracter interference of visual working memory.  

PubMed

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited during visual working memory (WM) when relevant information must be maintained in the presence of distracting information. The mechanism by which DLPFC might ensure successful maintenance of the contents of WM is, however, unclear; it might enhance neural maintenance of memory targets or suppress processing of distracters. To adjudicate between these possibilities, we applied time-locked transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during functional MRI, an approach that permits causal assessment of a stimulated brain region's influence on connected brain regions, and evaluated how this influence may change under different task conditions. Participants performed a visual WM task requiring retention of visual stimuli (faces or houses) across a delay during which visual distracters could be present or absent. When distracters were present, they were always from the opposite stimulus category, so that targets and distracters were represented in distinct posterior cortical areas. We then measured whether DLPFC-TMS, administered in the delay at the time point when distracters could appear, would modulate posterior regions representing memory targets or distracters. We found that DLPFC-TMS influenced posterior areas only when distracters were present and, critically, that this influence consisted of increased activity in regions representing the current memory targets. DLPFC-TMS did not affect regions representing current distracters. These results provide a new line of causal evidence for a top-down DLPFC-based control mechanism that promotes successful maintenance of relevant information in WM in the presence of distraction. PMID:21987824

Feredoes, Eva; Heinen, Klaartje; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ruff, Christian; Driver, Jon

2011-10-18

22

Hold It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate the special shapes, holding structures and holding behaviors that real organisms use in streams, rivers, creeks or coast intertidal zones to avoid being swept away by moving water. Learners then create their own "animal" with holding adaptations. The activity includes drawings that detail helpful equipment such as bug boxes and dip nets, as well as instructions for making a milk-carton observation tray and flow-through trough.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

23

Exploration of an Adaptive Training Regimen that can Target the Secondary Memory Component of Working Memory Capacity  

PubMed Central

The dual-component model contends that WM capacity consists of two components. The first is a flexible attention component that involves the active maintenance of a limited amount of information in primary memory (PM), and the second is a controlled retrieval component that involves a cue-dependent search of secondary memory (SM) for information that has been lost from PM. Recent evidence has suggested that the adaptive working memory (WM) training regimen known as “Cogmed-RM” is not optimally designed because it only targets PM abilities, but not SM abilities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Cogmed-RM could be modified to target SM abilities by decreasing the recall accuracy threshold that defines individual ability during training. The main findings suggested that the SM component of WM capacity could be targeted by lowering the recall accuracy threshold. The present findings are important because they suggest that adaptive training regimens can be designed that selectively target specific components of WM capacity and raise the possibility that the potency of existing training regimens can be increased.

Gibson, Bradley S.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Kronenberger, William G.; Johnson, Ann C.; Steeger, Christine M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

24

Exploration of an adaptive training regimen that can target the secondary memory component of working memory capacity.  

PubMed

The dual-component model contends that working memory (WM) capacity consists of two components. The first is a flexible attention component that involves the active maintenance of a limited amount of information in primary memory (PM), and the second is a controlled retrieval component that involves a cue-dependent search of secondary memory (SM) for information that has been lost from PM. Recent evidence has suggested that the adaptive WM training regimen known as "Cogmed-RM" is not optimally designed, because it only targets PM abilities, not SM abilities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Cogmed-RM could be modified to target SM abilities by decreasing the recall accuracy threshold that defines individual ability during training. The main findings suggested that the SM component of WM capacity could be targeted by lowering the recall accuracy threshold. The present findings are important because they suggest that adaptive training regimens can be designed that selectively target specific components of WM capacity, and they raise the possibility that the potency of existing training regimens can be increased. PMID:23371772

Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Kronenberger, William G; Johnson, Ann C; Steeger, Christine M; Morrissey, Rebecca A

2013-07-01

25

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

26

The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions…

Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; McVay, Jennifer C.; McConnell, Melissa D.

2007-01-01

27

The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions according to the multiprocess view of PM.

Rebekah E. Smith; R. Reed Hunt; Jennifer C. McVay; Melissa D. McConnell

2007-01-01

28

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our memory must b exercised in order for it to function properly. Click on Memory Exhibition, then click on droodles and common cents. Memory Exhibition Now play the memory game Memory game Take this test Short Term Memory Test Play Simon Says Play Simon Says 2 ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-10-25

29

Multiple-target tracking: A role for working memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the cognitive processes associated with target tracking, a dual-task experiment was carried out in which participants undertook a dynamic multiple-object tracking task first alone and then again, concurrently with one of several secondary tasks, in order to investigate the cognitive processes involved. The research suggests that after designated targets within the visual field have attracted preattentive

Roy Allen; Peter Mcgeorge; David G. Pearson; Alan Milne

2006-01-01

30

The Promoter Targeting Sequence mediates epigenetically heritable transcription memory  

PubMed Central

Large gene complexes frequently use “specialized” DNA elements to ensure proper regulation of gene activities. The Promoter Targeting Sequence (PTS) from the Abdominal-B locus of the Drosophila Bithorax complex overcomes an insulator, and facilitates, yet restricts, distant enhancers to a single promoter. We found that this promoter-targeting activity is independent of an enhancer's tissue or temporal specificity, and can be remembered in all somatic cells in the absence of promoter activation. It requires an insulator for its establishment, but can be maintained by the PTS in the absence of an insulator. More importantly, the promoter-targeting activity can be remembered after the transgene is translocated to new chromosomal locations. These results suggest that promoter targeting is established independent of enhancer activity, and is maintained epigenetically throughout development and subsequent generations.

Lin, Qing; Chen, Qi; Lin, Lan; Zhou, Jumin

2004-01-01

31

Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets  

SciTech Connect

New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 {micro}m) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling.

Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

1997-03-26

32

Holding on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes a multidimensional and personal look at creative writing work in an assisted living facility. The people she works with at the facility have memory loss. She shares her experience working with these people and describes a storytelling workshop that was modeled after Timeslips, a program started by Anne Basting at…

Thaxton, Terry Ann

2011-01-01

33

Short-Term Memory for Reaching to Visual Targets: Psychophysical Evidence for Body-Centered Reference Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pointing to a remembered visual target involves the transfor- mation of visual information into an appropriate motor output, with a passage through short-term memory storage. In an attempt to identify the reference frames used to represent the target position during the memory period, we measured errors in pointing to remembered three-dimensional (3D) targets. Subjects pointed after a fixed delay to

J. McIntyre; F. Stratta; F. Lacquaniti

1998-01-01

34

Dissociable Frontal Controls during Visible and Memory-guided Eye-Tracking of Moving Targets  

PubMed Central

When tracking visible or occluded moving targets, several frontal regions including the frontal eye fields (FEF), dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) are involved in smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). To investigate how these areas play different roles in predicting future locations of moving targets, twelve healthy college students participated in a smooth pursuit task of visual and occluded targets. Their eye movements and brain responses measured by event-related functional MRI were simultaneously recorded. Our results show that different visual cues resulted in time discrepancies between physical and estimated pursuit time only when the moving dot was occluded. Visible phase velocity gain was higher than that of occlusion phase. We found bilateral FEF association with eye-movement whether moving targets are visible or occluded. However, the DLPFC and ACC showed increased activity when tracking and predicting locations of occluded moving targets, and were suppressed during smooth pursuit of visible targets. When visual cues were increasingly available, less activation in the DLPFC and the ACC was observed. Additionally, there was a significant hemisphere effect in DLPFC, where right DLPFC showed significantly increased responses over left when pursuing occluded moving targets. Correlation results revealed that DLPFC, the right DLPFC in particular, communicates more with FEF during tracking of occluded moving targets (from memory). The ACC modulates FEF more during tracking of visible targets (likely related to visual attention). Our results suggest that DLPFC and ACC modulate FEF and cortical networks differentially during visible and memory-guided eye tracking of moving targets.

Ding, Jinhong; Powell, David; Jiang, Yang

2009-01-01

35

Epidermal growth factor receptor is a preferred target for treating Amyloid-?-induced memory loss  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of amyloid-? (A?) metabolism and toxicity provides an extensive list of potential targets for developing drugs for treating Alzheimer’s disease. We took two independent approaches, including synaptic-plasticity–based analysis and behavioral screening of synthetic compounds, for identifying single compounds that are capable of rescuing the A?-induced memory loss in both transgenic fruit fly and transgenic mouse models. Two clinically available drugs and three synthetic compounds not only showed positive effects in behavioral tests but also antagonized the A? oligomers-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Such surprising converging outcomes from two parallel approaches lead us to conclude that EGFR is a preferred target for treating A?-induced memory loss.

Wang, Lei; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Wu, Wenjuan; Liang, Bin; Xie, Zuolei; Yao, Xinsheng; Ma, Weiwei; Du, Shuwen; Zhong, Yi

2012-01-01

36

Cooperative gaze holding in binocular vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision systems that hold their gaze on a visual target using binocular, maneuverable computer vision hardware are discussed. The benefits of gaze holding are identified, and the role of binocular cues and vergence in implementing a gaze-holding system is addressed. A combination of Smith prediction and optimal signal estimation that allows a system of several simulated interacting gaze-holding controls to

D. J. Coombs; C. M. Brown

1991-01-01

37

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.

2012-12-07

38

Serine racemase as a prime target for age-related memory deficits.  

PubMed

The learning and memory deficits associated with non-pathological ageing mainly result from alterations to the plasticity of neuronal network dynamics within the hippocampus. In addition to the broad spectrum of changes that affect the morphology and function of hippocampal excitatory circuits in the ageing brain, the impaired activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDA-R) is a typical feature, altering the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, a major form of synaptic plasticity. In addition to glutamate, the binding of a co-agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is required for NMDA-R activation. This review presents recent evidence that: (i) the amino acid D-serine is an endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDA-R and necessary for long-term potentiation expression, (ii) reduced d-serine levels in the hippocampus contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in normal ageing, and (iii) age-related oxidative stress selectively targets hippocampal serine racemase to impact D-serine availability in neuronal networks. These results emphasize the critical role of the hippocampal d-serine-dependent pathway in changes affecting neuronal network dynamics in physiological ageing that underlie memory deficits. In addition, the central role of serine racemase in these changes opens new perspectives in the search for relevant therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing age-related memory defects. PMID:23773062

Billard, J-M

2013-06-01

39

Prefrontal pathways target excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related medial temporal cortices  

PubMed Central

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), situated in the caudal part of the medial prefrontal cortex, is involved in monitoring on-going behavior pertaining to memory of previously learned outcomes. How ACC information interacts with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is not well understood. The present study used a multitiered approach to address two questions on the interactions between the ACC and the parahippocampal cortices in the rhesus monkey: 1) What are the presynaptic characteristics of ACC projections to the parahippocampal cortices? 2) What are the postsynaptic targets of the pathway and are there laminar differences in innervation of local excitatory and inhibitory systems? Labeled ACC terminations were quantified in parahippocampal areas TH and TF and a cluster analysis showed that boutons varied in size, with a population of small (? 0.97 ?m) and large (>0.97 ?m) terminations that were nearly evenly distributed in the upper and deep layers. Exhaustive sampling as well as unbiased stereological techniques independently showed that small and large boutons were about evenly distributed within cortical layers in the parahippocampal cortex. Synaptic analysis of the pathway, performed at the electron microscope (EM) showed that while most of the ACC projections formed synapses with excitatory neurons, a significant proportion (23%) targeted presumed inhibitory classes with a preference for parvalbumin (PV+) inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest synaptic mechanisms that may help integrate signals associated with attention and memory.

Bunce, Jamie G.; Barbas, Helen

2011-01-01

40

Histone post-translational modifications to target memory-related diseases.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms, i.e. the control gene of expression without changing DNA sequence, include DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Aberrant epigenetic modifications are associated with several pathological conditions, including brain diseases, resulting from environmental causes, ageing or genetic factors. The role of histone PTMs, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, has been demonstrated in learning and memory, both in physiological conditions and in neuropathologies. Abnormalities in these modifications or in the machinery that control them are associated with several neurodegenerative, neuro-developmental and psychiatric diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic marks are promising targets to address memory-related diseases and strong efforts are presently focused on pharmacological and genetic approaches to this field. PMID:23448462

Monti, Barbara

2013-01-01

41

Searching for targets within the spatial layout of visual short-term memory.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed that the internal representations that we construct from the environment and maintain in visual short-term memory (VSTM) to guide behavior are highly flexible and can be selectively modulated according to our task goals and expectations. In the current study, we conducted two experiments to compare and contrast neural mechanisms of selective attention related to searching for target items within perceptual versus VSTM representations. We used event-related potentials to investigate whether searching for relevant target items from within VSTM representations involves spatially specific biasing of neural activity in a manner analogous to that which occurs during visual search for target items in perceptual arrays. The results, replicated across the two experiments, revealed that selection of a target object within a search array maintained in VSTM proceeds through a similar mechanism as that in the perceptual domain. In line with previous results, N2pc potentials were obtained when targets were identified within a perceptual visual-search array. Interestingly, equivalent N2pcs, with similar time courses and scalp distributions, were also elicited when target items were identified within a VSTM representation. The findings reinforce the notion of highly flexible VSTM representations that can be modulated according to task goals and suggest a large degree of overlap in the spatially specific neural mechanisms of target selection across the perceptual and VSTM domains. PMID:19553443

Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Rao, Anling; Lepsien, Jöran; Nobre, Anna Christina

2009-06-24

42

Polarization memory effect and visibility improvement of targets in turbid media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The backscattering of circularly polarized (CP) light has been investigated using experiments and an analytical cumulant solution of the vector radiative transfer equation. The expression of the exact spatial cumulants of light distribution function has been derived. Both experimental and theoretical studies show that the helicity of the incident circular polarization is maintained in the light backscattered from large particle suspensions. Reflection from an embedded target inside the turbid medium reverses the helicity of the incident circular polarization. Polarization memory imaging makes use of this difference in helicity between light reflected from the target and that from the scattering medium and significantly enhances the image contrast by selecting out the circularly cross-polarized light. We experimentally demonstrate the superior image quality for target inside large polystyrene particle suspensions in water.

Ni, Xiaohui; Kartazayeva, S. A.; Wang, Wubao; Cai, Wei; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

2007-03-01

43

Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Progress towards amelioration and eventual cure of human cognitive disorders requires understanding the molecular signaling\\u000a mechanisms that normally govern learning and memory. The fly Drosophila melanogaster has been instrumental in the identification of molecules and signaling pathways essential for learning and memory, because\\u000a genetic screens have produced mutants in these processes and the system facilitates integrated genetic, molecular, histological\\u000a and

E. M. C. Skoulakis; S. Grammenoudi

2006-01-01

44

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

1997-10-07

45

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1997-01-01

46

Roles for NF-?B and gene targets of NF-?B in synaptic plasticity, memory, and navigation.  

PubMed

Although traditionally associated with immune function, the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) has garnered much attention in recent years as an important regulator of memory. Specifically, research has found that NF-?B, localized in both neurons and glia, is activated during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory. Further, experimental manipulation of NF-?B activation or its blockade results in altered memory and spatial navigation abilities. Genetic knockout of specific NF-?B subunits in mice results in memory alterations. Collectively, such data suggest that NF-?B may be a requirement for memory, although the direction of the response (i.e., memory enhancement or deficit) is inconsistent. A limited number of gene targets of NF-?B have been recently identified in neurons, including neurotrophic factors, calcium-regulating proteins, other transcription factors, and molecules associated with neuronal outgrowth and remodeling. In turn, several key molecules are activators of NF-?B, including protein kinase C and [Ca(++)]i. Thus, NF-?B signaling is complex and under the regulation of numerous proteins involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the literature detailing a role for NF-?B in synaptic plasticity, memory, and spatial navigation. Secondly, this review will synthesize the research evaluating gene targets of NF-?B in synaptic plasticity and memory. Although there is ample evidence to suggest a critical role for NF-?B in memory, our understanding of its gene targets in neurons is limited and only beginning to be appreciated. PMID:24122352

Snow, Wanda M; Stoesz, Brenda M; Kelly, Debbie M; Albensi, Benedict C

2014-04-01

47

Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm.  

PubMed

In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience. PMID:24190909

Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

2013-01-01

48

Requirement of Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream effectors in cued fear memory reconsolidation and its persistence.  

PubMed

Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E-eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E-eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E-eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

Huynh, Thu N; Santini, Emanuela; Klann, Eric

2014-07-01

49

The slow afterhyperpolarization: a target of ?1-adrenergic signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval.  

PubMed

In rodents, adrenergic signaling by norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus is required for the retrieval of intermediate-term memory. NE promotes retrieval via the stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors, the production of cAMP, and the activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. However, a final effector for this signaling pathway has not been identified. Among the many targets of adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus, the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is an appealing candidate because its reduction by ?1 signaling enhances excitatory neurotransmission. Here we report that reducing the sAHP is critical for the facilitation of retrieval by NE. Direct blockers of the sAHP, as well as blockers of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium influx that activates the sAHP, rescue retrieval in mutant mice lacking either NE or the ?1 receptor. Complementary to this, a facilitator of L-type calcium influx impairs retrieval in wild-type mice. In addition, we examined the role of NE in the learning-related reduction of the sAHP observed ex vivo in hippocampal slices. We find that this reduction in the sAHP depends on the induction of persistent PKA activity specifically in conditioned slices. Interestingly, this persistent PKA activity is induced by NE/?1 signaling during slice preparation rather than during learning. These observations suggest that the reduction in the sAHP may not be present autonomously in vivo, but is likely induced by neuromodulatory input, which is consistent with the idea that NE is required in vivo for reduction of the sAHP during memory retrieval. PMID:23486971

Zhang, Lei; Ouyang, Ming; Ganellin, C Robin; Thomas, Steven A

2013-03-13

50

Hippocampus-dependent strengthening of targeted memories via reactivation during sleep in humans.  

PubMed

Recent accumulating evidence in animals and humans has shown that memory strengthening occurs, at least partially, during sleep and relies on the covert reactivation of individual memory episodes. However, it remains to be determined whether the hippocampus critically promotes memory consolidation via the reactivation of individual memories during sleep. To investigate the hippocampal-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans, we selected two groups of chronic temporal lobe epileptic (TLE) patients with selective unilateral (TLE+UHS) or bilateral (TLE+BHS) hippocampal sclerosis and a group of matched healthy controls, and we requested them to learn the association of sounds cueing the appearance of words. On the basis of other similar behavioral paradigms in healthy populations, sounds that cued only half of the learned memories were presented again during the slow-wave sleep stage (SWS) at night, thus promoting memory reactivation of a select set of encoded episodes. A memory test administered on the subsequent day showed that the strengthening of reactivated memories was observed only in the control subjects and TLE+UHS patients. Importantly, the amount of memory strengthening was predicted by the volume of spared hippocampus. Thus, the greater the structural integrity of the hippocampus, the higher the degree of memory benefit driven by memory reactivation. Finally, sleep-specific neurophysiological responses, such as spindles and slow waves, differed between the sample groups, and the spindle density during SWS predicted the degree of memory benefit observed on day 2. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the consolidation of memories via covert reactivation during sleep. PMID:24012316

Fuentemilla, Lluís; Miró, Júlia; Ripollés, Pablo; Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Juncadella, Montserrat; Castañer, Sara; Salord, Neus; Monasterio, Carmen; Falip, Mercè; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

2013-09-23

51

MHC class-I associated phosphopeptides are the targets of memory-like immunity in leukemia  

PubMed Central

Deregulation of signaling pathways involving phosphorylation is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Degradation of phosphoproteins generates cancer-specific phosphopeptides that are associated with MHC-I and II molecules and recognized by T-cells. We identified 95 phosphopeptides presented on the surface of primary hematological tumors and normal tissues, including 61 that were tumor-specific. Phosphopeptides were more prevalent on more aggressive and malignant samples. CD8 T-cell lines specific for these phosphopeptides recognized and killed both leukemia cell lines and HLA-matched primary leukemia cells ex vivo. Healthy individuals showed surprisingly high levels of CD8 T-cell responses against many of these phosphopeptides within the circulating memory compartment. This immunity was significantly reduced or absent in some leukemia patients, which correlated with clinical outcome, and was restored following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These results suggest that phosphopeptides may be targets of cancer immune surveillance in humans, and point to their importance for development of vaccine-based and T-cell adoptive transfer immunotherapies..

Cobbold, Mark; De La Pena, Hugo; Norris, Andrew; Polefrone, Joy; Qian, Jie; English, A. Michelle; Cummings, Kara; Penny, Sarah; Turner, James E.; Cottine, Jennifer; Abelin, Jennifer G; Malaker, Stacy A; Zarling, Angela L; Huang, Hsing-Wen; Goodyear, Oliver; Freeman, Sylvie; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Pratt, Guy; Craddock, Charles; Williams, Michael E; Hunt, Donald F; Engelhard, Victor H

2014-01-01

52

MHC class I-associated phosphopeptides are the targets of memory-like immunity in leukemia.  

PubMed

Deregulation of signaling pathways is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Signaling-associated phosphoproteins can be degraded to generate cancer-specific phosphopeptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules and recognized by T cells; however, the contribution of these phosphoprotein-specific T cells to immune surveillance is unclear. We identified 95 phosphopeptides presented on the surface of primary hematological tumors and normal tissues, including 61 that were tumor-specific. Phosphopeptides were more prevalent on more aggressive and malignant samples. CD8(+) T cell lines specific for these phosphopeptides recognized and killed both leukemia cell lines and human leukocyte antigen-matched primary leukemia cells ex vivo. Notably, healthy individuals showed robust CD8(+) T cell responses against many of these phosphopeptides within the circulating memory compartment. This immunity was significantly reduced or absent in some leukemia patients. This reduction correlated with clinical outcome; however, immunity was restored after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These results suggest that phosphopeptides may be targets of cancer immune surveillance in humans, and point to their importance for development of vaccine-based and T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapies. PMID:24048523

Cobbold, Mark; De La Peña, Hugo; Norris, Andrew; Polefrone, Joy M; Qian, Jie; English, Ann Michelle; Cummings, Kara L; Penny, Sarah; Turner, James E; Cottine, Jennifer; Abelin, Jennifer G; Malaker, Stacy A; Zarling, Angela L; Huang, Hsing-Wen; Goodyear, Oliver; Freeman, Sylvie D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Pratt, Guy; Craddock, Charles; Williams, Michael E; Hunt, Donald F; Engelhard, Victor H

2013-09-18

53

Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2010-01-01

54

Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.  

PubMed

Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. PMID:24847299

Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

55

Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces  

PubMed Central

Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.

Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

56

Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism  

PubMed Central

Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R–coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism.

de Souza Silva, Maria A.; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hull, Michael; Schroder, Johannes; Frolich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P.; Muller, Christian P.; Schable, Sandra

2013-01-01

57

Mapping dynamic memories of gradually changing objects.  

PubMed

Our brain is able to maintain a continuously updated memory representation of objects despite changes in their appearance over time (aging faces or objects, growing trees, etc.). Although this ability is crucial for cognition and behavior, it was barely explored. Here, we investigate this memory characteristic using a protocol emulating face transformation. Observers were presented with a sequence of faces that gradually transformed over many days, from a known face (source) to a new face (target), in presentations separated by other stimuli. This practice resulted in a drastic change in the memory and recognition of the faces. Although identification of the source and older face instances was reduced, recent face instances were increasingly identified as the source and rated as highly similar to the memory of the source. Using an object perturbation method, we estimated the corresponding memory shift, showing that memory patterns shifted from the source neighborhood toward the target. Our findings suggest that memory is updated to account for object changes over time while still keeping associations with past appearances. These experimental results are broadly compatible with a recently developed model of associative memory that assumes attractor dynamics with a learning rule facilitated by novelty, shown to hold when objects change gradually over short timescales. PMID:19282481

Preminger, Son; Blumenfeld, Barak; Sagi, Dov; Tsodyks, Misha

2009-03-31

58

Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the DA D1-type receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n=97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits), and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT×DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMTValVal individuals, but impaired target detection in COMTMet carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMTValVal) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMTMet carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory.

Smith, Christopher T.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

59

Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC? memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- ?, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis.

Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

2007-01-01

60

Removable hand hold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

61

More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity  

PubMed Central

The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process.

Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

62

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

63

A transcription factor-binding domain of the coactivator CBP is essential for long-term memory and the expression of specific target genes.  

PubMed

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with numerous transcription factors and contains multiple functional domains. Currently, it is not known which transcription factor-binding domain of CBP is essential for memory storage. Using mice that carry inactivating mutations in the CREB-binding (KIX) domain of the coactivator CBP (CBPKIX/KIX mice), we show that the KIX domain is required for long-term memory storage. These results are the first to identify an in vivo function for the KIX domain of CBP in the brain, and they suggest that KIX-interacting transcription factors recruit CBP histone acetyltransferase activity during long-term memory storage. One such KIX-interacting factor is the transcription factor CREB. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we find that the expression of specific CREB target genes is reduced in the hippocampi of CBPKIX/KIX mice during memory consolidation. The recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator CBP via the KIX domain thus imparts target gene-dependent selectivity to CREB-driven transcriptional regulation, thereby activating genes required for the long-term storage of hippocampus-dependent memory. PMID:16980541

Wood, Marcelo A; Attner, Michelle A; Oliveira, Ana M M; Brindle, Paul K; Abel, Ted

2006-01-01

64

Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis by Inducible and Targeted Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase Specifically in Adult Neurogenic Regions Impairs Contextual Fear Memory Extinction and Remote Fear Memory  

PubMed Central

Although there is evidence suggesting that adult neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory, signaling mechanisms responsible for adult hippocampal neurogenesis are not well characterized. Here we report that ERK5 MAP kinase is specifically expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain. The inducible and conditional knockout (icKO) of erk5 specifically in neural progenitors of the adult mouse brain attenuated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. It also caused deficits in several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory including contextual fear conditioning generated by a weak foot shock. The ERK5 icKO mice were also deficient in extinction of contextual fear memory and reversal of Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, suggesting that adult neurogenesis is important for learning that requires active forgetting of a prior memory. Furthermore, our data suggest a critical role for ERK5-mediated adult neurogenesis in pattern separation, a form of dentate gyrus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Moreover, ERK5 icKO mice have no memory 21 days post-training in the passive avoidance test, suggesting a pivotal role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the expression of remote memory. Together, our results implicate ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult neurogenesis and provide strong evidence that adult neurogenesis is critical for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including memory extinction, and for the expression of remote memory.

Pan, Yung-Wei; Chan, Guy C.K.; Kuo, Chay T.; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

2012-01-01

65

Targeting antigens to CD180 rapidly induces antigen-specific IgG, affinity maturation, and immunological memory  

PubMed Central

Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag–anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report that targeting Ag to a receptor expressed on both B cells and DCs, the TLR orphan receptor CD180, in the absence of adjuvant rapidly induced IgG responses that were stronger than those induced by Ag in alum. Ag conjugated to anti-CD180 (Ag-?CD180) induced affinity maturation and Ab responses that were partially T cell independent, as Ag-specific IgGs were generated in CD40- and T cell–deficient mice. After preimmunization with Ag-?CD180 and boosting with soluble Ag, both WT and CD40 knockout (KO) mice rapidly produced Ag-specific IgG-forming cells, demonstrating that Ag–anti-CD180 induces immunological memory. The potent adjuvant effect of Ag-?CD180 required Ag to be coupled to anti-CD180 and the responsive B cells to express both CD180 and an Ag-specific B cell receptor. Surprisingly, CD180 Ag targeting also induced IgG Abs in BAFF-R KO mice lacking mature B cells and in mice deficient in interferon signaling. Targeting Ag to CD180 may be useful for therapeutic vaccination and for vaccinating the immune compromised.

Chaplin, Jay W.; Chappell, Craig P.

2013-01-01

66

Improving Intra-Fractional Target Position Accuracy Using a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a surrogate for respiratory gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) for left breast irradiation. Material and Methods Patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH treatment for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography (CT) simulation scans to determine dosimetric benefits from DIBH. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CT scans were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired during treatment for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results Reduction in heart dose can be achieved using DIBH for left breast/chest wall radiation. RPM was shown to have inferior correlation with the actual target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. Therefore, RPM alone may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a superior correlation with the actual target positioning during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommended threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion The RPM system alone may not be sufficient for the required level of accuracy in left-sided breast/CW DIBH treatments. The 3D surface imaging can be used to ensure patient setup and monitor inter- and intra- fractional motions. Furthermore, the target position accuracy during DIBH treatment can be improved by AlignRT as a superior surrogate, in addition to the RPM system.

Rong, Yi; Walston, Steve; Welliver, Meng Xu; Chakravarti, Arnab; Quick, Allison M.

2014-01-01

67

Target-specific vulnerability of excitatory synapses leads to deficits in associative memory in a model of intellectual disorder.  

PubMed

Intellectual disorders (IDs) have been regularly associated with morphological and functional deficits at glutamatergic synapses in both humans and rodents. How these synaptic deficits may lead to the variety of learning and memory deficits defining ID is still unknown. Here we studied the functional and behavioral consequences of the ID gene il1rapl1 deficiency in mice and reported that il1rapl1 constitutive deletion alters cued fear memory formation. Combined in vivo and in vitro approaches allowed us to unveil a causal relationship between a marked inhibitory/excitatory (I/E) imbalance in dedicated amygdala neuronal subcircuits and behavioral deficits. Cell-targeted recordings further demonstrated a morpho-functional impact of the mutation at thalamic projections contacting principal cells, whereas the same afferents on interneurons are unaffected by the lack of Il1rapl1. We thus propose that excitatory synapses have a heterogeneous vulnerability to il1rapl1 gene constitutive mutation and that alteration of a subset of excitatory synapses in neuronal circuits is sufficient to generate permanent cognitive deficits. PMID:23966701

Houbaert, Xander; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Gambino, Frédéric; Lepleux, Marilyn; Deshors, Melissa; Normand, Elisabeth; Levet, Florian; Ramos, Mariana; Billuart, Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Herzog, Etienne; Humeau, Yann

2013-08-21

68

Ultrasound detection of myocardial ischemic memory using an e-selectin targeting Peptide amenable to human application.  

PubMed

AbstractVascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus "ischemic memory" biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24824960

Leng, Xiaoping; Wang, Jianjun; Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

2014-06-01

69

Ultrasound detection of myocardial ischemic memory using an e-selectin targeting Peptide amenable to human application.  

PubMed

AbstractVascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus "ischemic memory" biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24742373

Leng, Xiaoping; Wang, Jianjun; Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

2014-04-01

70

Ultrasound Detection of Myocardial Ischemic Memory Using an E-Selectin Targeting Peptide Amenable to Human Application  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, are acutely upregulated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and are thus “ischemic memory” biomarkers for recent cardiac ischemia. We sought to develop an ultrasound molecular imaging agent composed of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to E-selectin to enable the differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients presenting with chest pain of unclear etiology. Biodegradable polymer MBs were prepared bearing a peptide with specific human E-selectin affinity (MBESEL). Control MBs had scrambled peptide (MBCTL) or nonspecific IgG (MBIgG). MBESEL adhesion to activated rat endothelial cells (ECs) was confirmed in vitro in a flow system and in vivo with intravital microscopy of rat cremaster microcirculation. Ultrasound molecular imaging of recent myocardial ischemia was performed in rats 4 hours after transient (15 minutes) coronary occlusion. MBESEL adhesion was higher to inflamed versus normal ECs in vitro; there was no difference in MBCTL or MBIgG adhesion to inflamed versus normal ECs. There was greater adhesion of MBESEL to inflamed versus noninflamed microcirculation and minimal adhesion of MBCTL or MBIgG under any condition. Ultrasound imaging after injection of MBSEL demonstrated persistent contrast enhancement of the previously ischemic region. Videointensity in postischemic myocardium after MBESEL was higher than that in the nonischemic bed (11.6 ± 2.7 dB vs 3.6 ± 0.8 dB, p < .02) and higher than that after MBCTL (4.0 ± 1.0 dB, p < .03) or MBIgG (1.7 ± 0.1 dB, p < .03). MBs targeted to E-selectin via a short synthetic peptide with human E-selectin binding affinity enables echocardiographic detection of recent ischemia, setting the stage for clinical myocardial ischemic memory imaging to identify acute coronary syndromes.

Carson, Andrew; Chen, Xucai; Fu, Huili; Ottoboni, Susanne; Wagner, William R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

2014-01-01

71

Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both ?-amyloid production and clearance.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and A? production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit A? production by suppressing ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote A? clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased A? formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

2013-08-01

72

Selective Targeting of Human Alloresponsive CD8+ Effector Memory T Cells Based on CD2 Expression  

PubMed Central

Costimulation blockade, specifically CD28/B7 inhibition with belatacept, is an emerging clinical replacement for calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in allotransplantation. However, there is accumulating evidence that belatacept incompletely controls alloreactive T cells that lose CD28 expression during terminal differentiation. We recently have shown that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept controls costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection in non-human primates. Here, we have investigated the relationship between human alloreactive T cells, costimulation blockade sensitivity and CD2 expression to determine whether these findings warrant potential clinical translation. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we found that CD8+ effector memory T cells are distinctly high CD2 and low CD28 expressors. Alloresponsive CD8+CD2hiCD28? T cells contained the highest proportion of cells with polyfunctional cytokine (IFN?, TNF and IL-2) and cytotoxic effector molecule (CD107a and granzyme B) expression capability. Treatment with belatacept in vitro incompletely attenuated allospecific proliferation, but alefacept inhibited belatacept-resistant proliferation. These results suggest that highly alloreactive effector T cells exert their late stage functions without reliance on ongoing CD28/B7 costimulation. Their high CD2 expression increases their susceptibility to alefacept. These studies combined with in vivo non-human primate data provide a rationale for translation of an immunosuppression regimen pairing alefacept and belatacept to human renal transplantation.

Lo, D.J.; Weaver, T. A.; Stempora, L.; Mehta, A. K.; Ford, M. L.; Larsen, C. P.; Kirk, A. D.

2010-01-01

73

Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders  

PubMed Central

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information.

Aggleton, John P.

2014-01-01

74

Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders.  

PubMed

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

Aggleton, John P

2014-07-01

75

Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper

Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

2006-01-01

76

Holding a grudge  

PubMed Central

The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system of bacteria and archaea constitutes a mechanism of acquired adaptive immunity against phages, which is based on genome-encoded markers of previously infecting phage sequences (“spacers”). As a repository of phage sequences, these spacers make the system particularly suitable for elucidating phage-bacteria interactions in metagenomic studies. Recent metagenomic analyses of CRISPRs associated with the human microbiome intriguingly revealed conserved “memory spacers” shared by bacteria in multiple unrelated, geographically separated individuals. Here, we discuss possible avenues for explaining this phenomenon by integrating insights from CRISPR biology and phage-bacteria ecology, with a special focus on the human gut. We further explore the growing body of evidence for the role of CRISPR/Cas in regulating the interplay between bacteria and lysogenic phages, which may be intimately related to the presence of memory spacers and sheds new light on the multifaceted biological and ecological modes of action of CRISPR/Cas.

Mick, Eran; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

2013-01-01

77

Visual Targets Aren't Irreversibly Converted to Motor Coordinates: Eye-Centered Updating of Visuospatial Memory in Online Reach Control  

PubMed Central

Counter to current and widely accepted hypotheses that sensorimotor transformations involve converting target locations in spatial memory from an eye-fixed reference frame into a more stable motor-based reference frame, we show that this is not strictly the case. Eye-centered representations continue to dominate reach control even during movement execution; the eye-centered target representation persists after conversion to a motor-based frame and is continuously updated as the eyes move during reach, and is used to modify the reach plan accordingly during online control. While reaches are known to be adjusted online when targets physically shift, our results are the first to show that similar adjustments occur in response to changes in representations of remembered target locations. Specifically, we find that shifts in gaze direction, which produce predictable changes in the internal (specifically eye-centered) representation of remembered target locations also produce mid-transport changes in reach kinematics. This indicates that representations of remembered reach targets (and visuospatial memory in general) continue to be updated relative to gaze even after reach onset. Thus, online motor control is influenced dynamically by both the external and internal updating mechanisms.

Thompson, Aidan A.; Byrne, Patrick A.; Henriques, Denise Y. P.

2014-01-01

78

An action sequence held in memory can interfere with response selection of a target stimulus, but does not interfere with response activation of noise stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withholding an action plan in memory for later execution can delay execution of another action if the actions share a similar\\u000a (compatible) action feature (e.g., response hand). We investigated whether this phenomenon, termed compatibility interference (CI), occurs for responses associated with a target as well as responses associated with distractors in a visual selection\\u000a task. Participants planned and withheld a

Paul S. Mattson; Lisa R. Fournier

2008-01-01

79

Generation and Context Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

2006-01-01

80

An Introduction to Holdings Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While preparing to migrate from Innovative Interfaces' text-based serials module to its new Millennium Serials product, the author, a manager of technical services operations in a small academic library, found herself faced with a number of decisions regarding how to store holdings information. Holdings data is information about individual items…

Lincicum, Shirley

2004-01-01

81

Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act  

PubMed Central

At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays.

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

82

Target  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an isolated target sequence. The target sequence is a splice variant of PDE5 called a PDE5a1, a component of which is presented as SEQ ID No 1. The identified target sequence of the present invention may be used to as a target to identify agents (such as modulators) useful in the prevention and/or treatment of a disease associated with scarring and/or fibrosis or to selectively identify smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells in samples of normal and diseased tissue from individuals.

2004-09-21

83

Vise holds specimens for microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convenient, miniature, spring-loaded clamp holds specimens for scanning electron microscope. Clamp is made out of nesting sections of studded angle-aluminum. Specimens are easier to mount and dismount with vise than with conductive adhesive or paint.

Greule, W. N.

1980-01-01

84

Spatio-temporal Modeling of Evoked Brain Activity During Memory Encoding and Target Comparison in Visual Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the temporal pattern of activity and approximate locations of brain areas related to selective attention and\\u000a visual working memory processes were studied with event related potential (ERP) recordings in healthy humans. Three experimental\\u000a series included pairs of the following conditions: Face comparison (familiar faces), Pattern comparison (abstract dot patterns),\\u000a and Passive viewing. Participants compared pairs of consecutive

Elena V. Mnatsakanian; Ina M. Tarkka

2007-01-01

85

Targeting molecular and cellular inhibitory mechanisms for improvement of antitumor memory responses reactivated by tumor cell vaccine.  

PubMed

Development of effective vaccination approaches to treat established tumors represents a focus of intensive research because such approaches offer the promise of enhancing immune system priming against tumor Ags via restimulation of pre-existing (memory) antitumoral helper and effector immune cells. However, inhibitory mechanisms, which function to limit the recall responses of tumor-specific immunity, remain poorly understood and interfere with therapies anticipated to induce protective immunity. The mouse renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) tumor model was used to investigate variables affecting vaccination outcomes. We demonstrate that although a whole cell irradiated tumor cell vaccine can trigger a functional antitumor memory response in the bone marrows of mice with established tumors, these responses do not culminate in the regression of established tumors. In addition, a CD103+ regulatory T (Treg) cell subset accumulates within the draining lymph nodes of tumor-bearing mice. We also show that B7-H1 (CD274, PD-L1), a negative costimulatory ligand, and CD4+ Treg cells collaborate to impair the recall responses of tumor-specific memory T cells. Specifically, mice bearing large established RENCA tumors were treated with tumor cell vaccination in combination with B7-H1 blockade and CD4+ T cell depletion (triple therapy treatment) and monitored for tumor growth and survival. Triple treatment therapy induced complete regression of large established RENCA tumors and raised long-lasting protective immunity. These results have implications for developing clinical antitumoral vaccination regimens in the setting in which tumors express elevated levels of B7-H1 in the presence of abundant Treg cells. PMID:17709500

Webster, W Scott; Thompson, R Houston; Harris, Kimberley J; Frigola, Xavier; Kuntz, Susan; Inman, Brant A; Dong, Haidong

2007-09-01

86

Should software hold data hostage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them

H Steven Wiley; George S. Michaels

2004-01-01

87

Marketing Strategies for Agricultural Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of the marketing activities constitutes an important way to increase the holdings' efficiency. They are an assembly of activities, techniques, methods and procedures which have the role of adjusting the agro foods supply to the specific demand. So, becomes possible satisfying the consumers through giving them the goods which they want in the demanded quality and extend, within the

Camelia BURJA; Vasile BURJA

88

Profile of Women Holding Office.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary and statistical analysis of nationwide data on women holding elective office in the United States during 1974 and 1975. It is intended to increase knowledge about women's participation in American politics and government. In response to a mailed questionnaire, women incumbents in the U.S. Congress, state legislatures, county…

Johnson, Marilyn; Stanwick, Kathy

89

Timed and targeted differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and anti-NOS genes by reward conditioning leading to long-term memory formation.  

PubMed

In a number of neuronal models of learning, signaling by the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the enzyme neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), is essential for the formation of long-term memory (LTM). Using the molluscan model system Lymnaea, we investigate here whether LTM formation is associated with specific changes in the activity of members of the NOS gene family: Lym-nNOS1, Lym-nNOS2, and the antisense RNA-producing pseudogene (anti-NOS). We show that expression of the Lym-nNOS1 gene is transiently upregulated in cerebral ganglia after conditioning. The activation of the gene is precisely timed and occurs at the end of a critical period during which NO is required for memory consolidation. Moreover, we demonstrate that this induction of the Lym-nNOS1 gene is targeted to an identified modulatory neuron called the cerebral giant cell (CGC). This neuron gates the conditioned feeding response and is an essential part of the neural network involved in LTM formation. We also show that the expression of the anti-NOS gene, which functions as a negative regulator of nNOS expression, is downregulated in the CGC by training at 4 h after conditioning, during the critical period of NO requirement. This appears to be the first report of the timed and targeted differential regulation of the activity of a group of related genes involved in the production of a neurotransmitter that is necessary for learning, measured in an identified neuron of known function. We also provide the first example of the behavioral regulation of a pseudogene. PMID:15689555

Korneev, Sergei A; Straub, Volko; Kemenes, Ildikó; Korneeva, Elena I; Ott, Swidbert R; Benjamin, Paul R; O'Shea, Michael

2005-02-01

90

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

91

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

92

The effects of working memory demands on the neural correlates of prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the reciprocal costs of working and prospective memory loads on the neural correlates of the realization of delayed intentions and the detection of target stimuli. The electrophysiological data revealed several interesting results: (1) distinct modulations of the ERPs were elicited by working memory targets and prospective memory cues, (2) working memory load

Robert West; Ritvij Bowry; Jason Krompinger

2006-01-01

93

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

94

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

95

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

2009-01-01

96

A Holding Function for Conflict Probe Appiications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conflict Alerts for aircraft in holding patterns are often missed or in error due to fact that holding trajectories are not modeled in Conflict Alert or Conflict Probe logic. In addition, a controller in one sector may not know when aircraft are holding in a neighboring sector. These factors can lead to an increased potential for loss of separation while aircraft are flying in holding patterns. A holding function for conflict probe applications has been developed and tested with air traffic data from Fort Worth Center. The holding function automatically determines when an aircraft enters a holding pattern, builds a holding region around the pattern and then probes the region for conflict with other traffic. The operational concept of use assumes that air traffic controllers are very busy during periods when aircraft are in holding and therefore don't have time to manually enter information which defines a holding pattern and activates conflict probing. For this reason, it is important the holding function automatically detect aircraft in holding and compute a holding region for conflict analysis. The controller is then alerted if other aircraft are predicted to fly through the holding region at the holding altitude.

McNally, Dave; Walton, Joe

2004-01-01

97

Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.  

PubMed

The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-01-01

98

Broadly targeted human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells dominate the memory compartments of exposed subjects  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of immunocompetent hosts are characterized by a dynamic, life-long interaction in which host immune responses, particularly of T cells, restrain viral replication and prevent disease but do not eliminate the virus or preclude transmission. Because HCMV is among the largest and most complex of known viruses, the T cell resources committed to maintaining this balance have never been characterized completely. Here, using cytokine flow cytometry and 13,687 overlapping 15mer peptides comprising 213 HCMV open reading frames (ORFs), we found that 151 HCMV ORFs were immunogenic for CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells, and that ORF immunogenicity was influenced only modestly by ORF expression kinetics and function. We further documented that total HCMV-specific T cell responses in seropositive subjects were enormous, comprising on average ?10% of both the CD4+ and CD8+ memory compartments in blood, whereas cross-reactive recognition of HCMV proteins in seronegative individuals was limited to CD8+ T cells and was rare. These data provide the first glimpse of the total human T cell response to a complex infectious agent and will provide insight into the rules governing immunodominance and cross-reactivity in complex viral infections of humans.

Sylwester, Andrew W.; Mitchell, Bridget L.; Edgar, John B.; Taormina, Cara; Pelte, Christian; Ruchti, Franziska; Sleath, Paul R.; Grabstein, Kenneth H.; Hosken, Nancy A.; Kern, Florian; Nelson, Jay A.; Picker, Louis J.

2005-01-01

99

About Sleep's Role in Memory  

PubMed Central

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

2013-01-01

100

About sleep's role in memory.  

PubMed

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

2013-04-01

101

Treatment with targeted vesicular stomatitis virus generates therapeutic multifunctional anti-tumor memory CD4 T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generally applicable, easy-to-use method of focusing a patient's immune system to eradicate or prevent cancer has been elusive. We are attempting to develop a targeted virus to accomplish these aims. We previously created a recombinant replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that preferentially infected Her2\\/neu expressing breast cancer cells and showed therapeutic efficacy in an implanted Balb\\/c mouse tumor model.

Y Gao; P Whitaker-Dowling; J A Griffin; I Bergman

2012-01-01

102

Selective Inhibition of CCR7? Effector Memory T Cell Activation by a Novel Peptide Targeting Kv1.3 Channel in a Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model*  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells serves as a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. In our previous studies, the novel peptide ADWX-1 was designed and synthesized as a specific Kv1.3 blocker. However, it is unclear if and how ADWX-1 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, the administration of ADWX-1 significantly ameliorated the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model by selectively inhibiting CD4+CCR7? phenotype effector memory T cell activation. In contrast, the Kv1.3-specific peptide had little effect on CD4+CCR7+ cells, thereby limiting side effects. Furthermore, we determined that ADWX-1 is involved in the regulation of NF-?B signaling through upstream protein kinase C-? (PKC?) in the IL-2 pathway of CD4+CCR7? cells. The elevated expression of Kv1.3 mRNA and protein in activated CD4+CCR7? cells was reduced by ADWX-1 engagement; however, an apparent alteration in CD4+CCR7+ cells was not observed. Moreover, the selective regulation of the Kv1.3 channel gene expression pattern by ADWX-1 provided a further and sustained inhibition of the CD4+CCR7? phenotype, which depends on the activity of Kv1.3 to modulate its activation signal. In addition, ADWX-1 mediated the activation of differentiated Th17 cells through the CCR7? phenotype. The efficacy of ADWX-1 is supported by multiple functions, which are based on a Kv1.3high CD4+CCR7? T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway.

Li, Zhi; Liu, Wan-Hong; Han, Song; Peng, Bi-Wen; Yin, Jun; Wu, Ying-Liang; He, Xiao-Hua; Li, Wen-Xin

2012-01-01

103

Hippocampal place cells, context, and episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the pri- mary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory processes. The well-documented spatial firing

David M. Smith; Sheri J. Y. Mizumori

2006-01-01

104

78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...top-tier foreign banking organizations with financial holding company...top-tier foreign banking organizations, regardless of financial holding company...Assessments, Banks, Banking, Holding companies, Nonbank financial companies,...

2013-04-18

105

Prototypes of Holding Magnet System  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experiments have been proposed with the 4-pi JLab CLAS detector and a Frozen Spin Polarized Target located at the center of the detector. In such experiments, the target will be polarized outside the detector by a high field (5.0 Tesla) magnet at T=0.5 K. Afterwards another \\

Nicolas Recalde; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Christopher Keith; Mikell Seely

2003-01-01

106

Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up  

SciTech Connect

Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques.

Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

1995-09-01

107

Water holding apparatus for ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for the implantation of ions into semiconductor wafers wherein a plurality of storage compartments are connected through valves to a vacuum chamber. A wafer handling device transfers wafers between the storage compartments and a wafer holding device. The wafer holding device positions the wafers in front of an ion beam source. The wafer holding device is

Purser

1985-01-01

108

12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are the same. Character (25). 7. HD_Hold_Amt Hold Amount Decimal (14,2). Dollar amount of the hold 8. HD_Hold_Reason Hold ReasonReason for...include daily operational type holds) 9. HD_Hold_Desc Hold Description...

2009-01-01

109

12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are the same. Character (25). 7. HD_Hold_Amt Hold Amount Decimal (14,2). Dollar amount of the hold 8. HD_Hold_Reason Hold ReasonReason for...include daily operational type holds) 9. HD_Hold_Desc Hold Description...

2010-01-01

110

[Memory systems and memory disorders].  

PubMed

Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

2003-02-15

111

A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

112

Targeting Subgroups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By requiring limited-English-proficient students and students with disabilities to meet the same targets at the same times as all other students, the NCLB imposes a one-size-fits-all approach that ignores the individual child. Challenges school leaders to take care not to blame the students and still hold themselves accountable for continual…

Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

2003-01-01

113

Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated.

Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

2012-01-01

114

An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive.

Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Galis, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

2009-01-01

115

Saved by a log: how do humans perform hybrid visual and memory search?  

PubMed

Could you find 1 of your 1,000 Facebook friends in a crowd of 100? Even at a rate of 25 ms per comparison, determining that no friends were in the crowd would take more than 40 min if memory and visual search interacted linearly. In the experiment reported here, observers memorized pictures of 1 to 100 targets and then searched for any of these targets in visual displays of 1 to 16 objects. Response times varied linearly with visual set size but logarithmically with memory set size. Data from memory set sizes of 1 through 16 accurately predicted response times for different observers holding 100 objects in memory. The results would be consistent with a binary coding of visual objects in memory and are relevant to applied searches in which experts look for any of many items of interest (e.g., a radiologist running through a mental checklist of what might be wrong in a car-crash victim or an airport screener looking for any of a list of prohibited items in a carry-on bag). PMID:22623508

Wolfe, Jeremy M

2012-07-01

116

New Joint Program Announced by FDA and NCI Holds Promise for Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today a new joint research and clinical program that holds great promise for developing better and more targeted treatments for cancer.

117

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

118

Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories  

PubMed Central

Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon.

Bredart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

2013-01-01

119

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

120

School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012

2012-01-01

121

Journal Holdings Lists on Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susan Pulsipher presented information on creating and maintaining a Web site that provides library users with detailed information about the library's serials holdings. Many colleges and universities are currently presenting information about their serials holdings in various formats via the Internet. This presentation outlined how a small library with limited staff and limited control of a server can create such

Elizabeth C. Henry Recorder

2002-01-01

122

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1997-12-30

123

Priming effects in prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine whether an increased activation of knowledge structures facilitates memory for future actions. Priming effects were manipulated by giving subjects a category fluency task for half of the target categories used in the subsequent prospective memory task. In this task, younger and older adults performed an action whenever an instance of a given

Timo Mäntyla

1993-01-01

124

The importance of cue familiarity and cue distinctiveness in prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both retrospective cued-memory tasks and event-based prospective memory tasks require that cue and target information be associated, and that aspects of that association be reinstated for successful remembering. These functional similarities between retrospective memory and prospective memory were the bases for the hypothesis that the familiarity and the distinctiveness of the target event (cue) would influence prospective memory performance. Experiment

Mark A. McDaniel; Gilles O. Einstein

1993-01-01

125

What are the memory sources of dreaming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators since Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil. The mechanisms that translate such memories into dream images remain largely unknown. New research targeting relationships between dreaming, memory and the hippocampus is producing a new theory to explain

Tore A. Nielsen; Philippe Stenstrom

2005-01-01

126

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

127

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

128

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? (a... A bank holding company may elect to become a financial holding company by...

2009-01-01

129

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? (a... A bank holding company may elect to become a financial holding company by...

2010-01-01

130

Beyond a mask and against the bottleneck: Retroactive dual-task interference during working memory consolidation of a masked visual target.  

PubMed

While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result, estimates of the time course of working memory consolidation differ more than an order of magnitude. Here, we contrasted these opposing views by examining if and for how long the processing of a masked display of visual stimuli can be disturbed by a trailing 2-alternative forced choice task (2-AFC; a color discrimination task or a visual or auditory parity judgment task). The results showed that the presence of the 2-AFC task produced a pronounced retroactive interference effect that dissipated across stimulus onset asynchronies of 250-1,000 ms, indicating that the processing elicited by the 2-AFC task interfered with the gradual consolidation of the earlier shown stimuli. Furthermore, this interference effect occurred regardless of whether the to-be-remembered stimuli comprised a string of letters or an unfamiliar complex visual shape, and it occurred regardless of whether these stimuli were masked. Conversely, the interference effect was reduced when the memory load for the 1st task was reduced, or when the 2nd task was a color detection task that did not require decision making. Taken together, these findings show that the formation of a durable and consciously accessible working memory trace for a briefly shown visual stimulus can be disturbed by a trailing 2-AFC task for up to several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus has been masked. By implication, the current findings challenge the common view that working memory consolidation involves an immutable central processing bottleneck, and they also make clear that consolidation does not stop when a stimulus is masked. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364683

Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

2014-06-01

131

Cue-Focused and Reflexive-Associative Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories of event-based prospective memory were evaluated in 3 experiments. The results depended on the association between the target event and the intended action. For associated target-action pairs (a) preexposure of nontargets did not reduce prospective memory, (b) divided attention did not reduce prospective memory, (c) prospective memory was better than when the target event and intended action were

Mark A. McDaniel; Melissa J. Guynn; Gilles O. Einstein; Jennifer Breneiser

2004-01-01

132

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

133

Holding Amount of Refrigerant in Refrigeration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedure for the prediction of charge amount of refrigerant in refrigerating system is presented. The hold up in two-phase region of evaporator and condenser is determined by adopting Hughmark's correlation, which, compared with Lockhart-Martinelli's...

T. Otaki T. Yoshii

1975-01-01

134

12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

2013-01-01

135

Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home Advanced Illness: Holding On and Letting Go Printer-friendly version Introduction Our culture tells us ... fate, then I accept it with dignity." Letting Go As death nears, many people feel a lessening ...

136

The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the cash holdings of REITs are examined with the view that the REIT industry should yield new information\\u000a regarding the drivers of corporate cash policy due to their unique operating conditions. The availability of REIT line of\\u000a credit data also allows us to test the association between cash holdings and line of credit access and use. Data

William G. Hardin; Michael J. Highfield; Matthew D. Hill; G. Wayne Kelly

2009-01-01

137

The uses of short-term memory: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely claimed that the systems employed in tasks of immediate memory have a function in the comprehension of speech; these systems, it has been proposed, are used to hold a representation of the speech until a syntactic analysis and interpretation have been completed. Such a holding function is meant to be especially important where the sentences heard

Brian Butterworth; Ruth Campbell; David Howard

1986-01-01

138

Multiple memory systems: the power of interactions.  

PubMed

Two relatively simple theories of brain function will be used to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple memory systems in your brain interacting cooperatively or competitively to directly or indirectly influence cognition and behaviour. The view put forth in this mini-review is that interactions between memory systems produce normal and abnormal manifestations of behaviour, and by logical extension, an understanding of these complex interactions holds the key to understanding debilitating brain and psychiatric disorders. PMID:15464414

McDonald, Robert J; Devan, Bryan D; Hong, Nancy S

2004-11-01

139

Distributed Memory Approaches for Robotic Neural Controllers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The suitability is explored of two varieties of distributed memory neutral networks as trainable controllers for a simulated robotics task. The task requires that two cameras observe an arbitrary target point in space. Coordinates of the target on the cam...

C. C. Jorgensen

1990-01-01

140

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

141

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

142

Metamemory and memory test performance in stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory Self-Efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be related to memory performance and social participation in a healthy elderly population. This relation is unclear in stroke. As about 30% of all stroke survivors report memory complaints, there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. Before implementing MSE as a potential target in memory training, it should be examined whether

L. Aben; M. A. van Kessel; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. J. van Busschbach; P. A. T. M. Eling; M. A. Bogert; G. M. Ribbers

2009-01-01

143

Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH.

Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

2012-01-01

144

Mask-holding mechanism for an e-beam x-ray mask writer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high absolute pattern placement accuracy and high throughput in x- ray mask writing, it is very important to firmly hold the mask with little holding deformation and large thermal conduction. For these purposes we have developed a new 'triple-chuck' mask holding mechanism. This triple-chuck mechanism is a hybrid of three-point-contact and conventional electrostatic-chuck holding mechanism, and, as the name implies, it uses three small-area electrostatic chucks. To determine the suitable shape, area, and position of the electrostatic chucks, we performed deformation simulation using the finite element method, and also conducted thermal conduction simulations. The results suggested that the triple-chuck mechanism could attain targets set for an x-ray mask with a feature size of 0.2 micrometers . Accordingly, we installed the new holding mechanism in the EB-X1 writer and found that when holding 3-inch mask (2-mm thick, before bulk etching), there is no microslippage between the mask and holding mechanism when the XY-stage is moved with an acceleration of 0.3 G and the maximum holding deformation is 0.22 micrometers in a 25-mm-square patterning area. This corresponds to the absolute pattern placement accuracy degradation of less than 11 nm in the patterning area. About 30 minutes pass before the mask temperature is within 0.1 degree of the holding-mechanism temperature. This was determined by two different methods: a patterning method and marek detection. These experimental results confirmed the triple-chuck holding mechanism attained the targets set for an x-ray mask with a feature size of 0.2 micrometers .

Kunioka, Tatsuya; Shimazu, Nobuo; Shimizu, Akira; Sakai, Tomoaki; Kuriyama, Youichi

1995-07-01

145

Mixed mode VLSI implementation of a neural associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed mode digital\\/analog special purpose VLSI hardware implementation of an associative memory with neural architecture is presented. The memory concept is based on a n×m matrix architecture with binary storage elements holding the connection weights. To enhance the processing speed analog circuit techniques are applied to implement the algorithm for the association. Although analog circuits suffer from device mismatch

Arne Heittmann; U. Ruckert

1999-01-01

146

Implementing high availability memory with a duplication cache  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel technique called a duplication cache to reduce the overhead of memory duplication in CMP- based high availability systems. A duplication cache is a reserved area of main memory that holds copies of pages belonging to the current write working set (set of actively modified pages) of run- ning processes. All other pages are

Nidhi Aggarwal; James E. Smith; Kewal K. Saluja; Norman P. Jouppi; Parthasarathy Ranganathan

2008-01-01

147

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

148

Incidental and intentional visual memory: What memories are and are not affected by encoding tasks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research into the impact of encoding tasks on visual memory (Castelhano & Henderson, 2005) indicated that incidental and intentional encoding tasks led to similar memory performance. The current study investigated whether different encoding tasks impacted visual memories equally for all types of objects in a conjunction search (e.g., targets, colour distractors, object category distractors, or distractors unrelated to the

Carrick C. Williams

2010-01-01

149

Memory Arbiter Synthesis and Verification for a Radar Memory Interface Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target system of this paper is a radar memory interface card described in the IST AMETIST project. We present a way to synthesise and verify a memory arbiter for the interface card by specifying two different problems of logic model checking. In the process, we minimise the amount of memory used for intermediate buffering of data streams by augmenting

Juhan P. Ernits

2005-01-01

150

Incorporating timing constraints in the efficient memory model for symbolic ternary simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the four timing constraints of setup time, hold time, minimum delay, and maximum delay in the efficient memory model (EMM). The EMM is a behavioral model, where the number of symbolic variables used to characterize the initial state of the memory is proportional to the number of distinct symbolic memory locations accessed. The behavioral model provides a

Miroslav N. Velev; Randal E. Bryant

1998-01-01

151

Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.  

PubMed

Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable algorithms for the prevention of those avoidable accidents. PMID:16967769

Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

2006-01-01

152

Memory Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When predicting application performance, allocating re- sources, and scheduling jobs, an accurate estimate of the required resources is essential. Although CPU and disk performance is relatively well understood, memory perfor- mance is often ignored or considered constant. Our re- search shows that memory bandwidth can vary by up to two orders of magnitude depending upon access pattern, read\\/write ratio, and

Tim Kaldewey; Andrea Di Blas; Jeff Hagen; Eric Sedlar; Scott Brandt

1998-01-01

153

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

154

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

155

Memory Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

156

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

157

Action-Oriented Memory Subserving Perception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document holds that the brain may be viewed as a layered computer, with long-term memory serving to ensure the correlation of sensory features in the sensory layers with output feature clusters in the motor layers which can determine action appropriat...

M. A. Arbib P. Dev R. L. Didday

1970-01-01

158

Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

2013-01-01

159

26 CFR 5. - term holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5. Example 5. Sale or exchange of partnership interest where part of the interest has a short Internal Revenue INTERNAL...X . Example 5. Sale or exchange of partnership interest where part of the interest has a short-term holding period....

2010-04-01

160

Distributed holding control of bus transit operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed control approach based on multi-agent negotiation is presented to address the bus-holding problem. The negotiation between a bus agent and a stop agent is conducted based on marginal cost calculations. Optimality conditions are discussed in the paper. Finally, comparison between the negotiation algorithm and commonly used strategies are done through simulations, which verify the robustness of our negotiation

Jiamin Zhao; Maged Dessouky; Satish Bukkapatnam

2001-01-01

161

Executive Equity Swaps and Corporate Insider Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive equity swaps have significant benefits for corporate insiders who wish to enhance their current income and maintain voting rights while reducing exposure to equity holdings in their firms. Since swaps do not require the sale of shares, capital gains taxes are delayed. Swaps, however, can reintroduce agency costs. Furthermore, they are very difficult to detect, though disclosure requirements have

Paul Bolster; Don Chance; Don Rich

1996-01-01

162

Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

1996-01-01

163

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

Rommel-Esham, Katie

2007-01-01

164

Multilevel recording in Bi-deficient Pt/BFO/SRO heterostructures based on ferroelectric resistive switching targeting high-density information storage in nonvolatile memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the feasibility of multilevel recording in Pt/Bi1-?FeO3/SrRuO3 capacitors using the ferroelectric resistive switching phenomenon exhibited by the Pt/Bi1-?FeO3 interface. A tunable population of up and down ferroelectric domains able to modulate the Schottky barrier height at the Pt/Bi1-?FeO3 interface can be achieved by means of either a collection of SET/RESET voltages or current compliances. This programming scheme gives rise to well defined resistance states, which form the basis for a multilevel storage nonvolatile memory.

Jiménez, David; Miranda, Enrique; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suñé, Jordi; Sawa, Akihito

2013-12-01

165

Probabilistic Analysis of Ground-Holding Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ground-Holding Policy Problem (GHPP) has become a matter of great interest in recent years because of the high cost incurred by aircraft suffering from delays. Ground-holding keeps a flight on the ground at the departure airport if it is known it will be unable to land at the arrival airport. The GBPP is determining how many flights should be held on the ground before take-off and for how long, in order to minimize the cost of delays. When the uncertainty associated with airport landing capacity is considered, the GHPP becomes complicated. A decision support system that incorporates this uncertainty, solves the GHPP quickly, and gives good results would be of great help to air traffic management. The purpose of this thesis is to modify and analyze a probabilistic ground-holding algorithm by applying it to two common cases of capacity reduction. A graphical user interface was developed and sensitivity analysis was done on the algorithm, in order to see how it may be implemented in practice. The sensitivity analysis showed the algorithm was very sensitive to the number of probabilistic capacity scenarios used and to the cost ratio of air delay to ground delay. The algorithm was not particularly sensitive to the number of periods that the time horizon was divided into. In terms of cost savings, a ground-holding policy was the most beneficial when demand greatly exceeded airport capacity. When compared to other air traffic flow strategies, the ground-holding algorithm performed the best and was the most consistent under various situations. The algorithm can solve large problems quickly and efficiently on a personal computer.

Sheel, Minakshi

1997-01-01

166

Localization of load sensitivity of working memory storage: Quantitatively and qualitatively discrepant results yielded by single-subject and group-averaged approaches to fMRI group analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impetus for the present report is the evaluation of competing claims of two classes of working memory models: Memory systems models hold working memory to be supported by a network of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-based domain-specific buffers that act as workspaces for the storage and manipulation of information; emergent processes models, in contrast, hold that the contributions of PFC to

Eva Feredoes; Bradley R. Postle

2007-01-01

167

Adult recollections of childhood memories: What details can be recalled?  

PubMed

In a memory survey, adult respondents recalled, dated, and described two earliest positive and negative memories that they were highly confident were memories. They then answered a series of questions that focused on memory details such as clothing, duration, weather, and so on. Few differences were found between positive and negative memories, which on average had 4/5 details and dated to the age of 6/6.5 years. Memory for details about activity, location, and who was present was good; memory for all other details was poorer or at floor. Taken together, these findings indicate that (full) earliest memories may be considerably later than previously thought and that they rarely contain the sort of specific details targeted by professional investigators. The resulting normative profile of memory details reported here can be used to evaluate overly specific childhood autobiographical memories and to identify memory details with a low probability of recall. PMID:24215680

Wells, Christine; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

2014-07-01

168

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

169

False Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity (10th on the page) to help learners explore memory and how sometimes your brain makes up its own memories. Learners will read and try to remember the words in list #1. Five minutes later, learners will try to remember which words on list #2 they remember from list #1. Learners will be surprised to find out that their brains can be easily tricked. This activity guide includes two word challenges. Learners can make up their own lists to see if they can create false memories.

Chudler, Eric H.

2010-01-01

170

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

171

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

... to brain tissue or nerve cells, such as Parkinson disease , Huntington disease , or multiple sclerosis Low levels of ... suspected (such as low vitamin B12 or thyroid disease) Cerebral ... Lumbar puncture Treatment depends on the cause of memory loss.

172

Memory Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

Exploratorium

2000-01-01

173

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

174

Markets and regulatory hold-up problems  

SciTech Connect

Many regulatory programs such as environmental regulation are effective only if firms make irreversible investments that reduce the cost of compliance. A firm potentially subject to regulation may therefore behave strategically by not investing, thereby forcing the regulator to void the proposed regulation. The authors show that such incentives, which resemble a hold-up problem, may not be overcome when government`s only tool is the imposition of an emissions tax. The hold-up problem can be overcome by the issuance of tradeable permits. A time-consistent equilibrium exists with all firms investing and the government imposing regulations, even if no permits are traded and their market price is low. Indeed, an observation of no trade may indicate that pollution abatement is great.

Gersbach, H. [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Alfred-Weber-Inst.] [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Alfred-Weber-Inst.; Glazer, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Economics] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Economics

1999-03-01

175

Biological specimen holding facilities for Spacelab experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of two prototype holding facilities: (1) a unit housing 36 laboratory rats in individual cages, and (2) a unit housing one unrestrained 14-kg rhesus monkey. Both units are environmentally controlled enclosures complete with food, water, and waste-collection equipment. Timer-controlled fluorescent lights in both units permit automatic day-night cycling. Both units are designed to be compatible with Spacelab interfaces and to be operated by NASA payload specialists.

Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.; Murphy, G. L.; Berry, W.

1978-01-01

176

Holding Cargo in Place With Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

Fisher, T. T.

1985-01-01

177

Active hold-down for heat treating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the disclosure is to provide a vacuum hold-down for holding thin sheets to a support surface, which permits the thin sheet to change dimensions as it is held down. The hold-down includes numerous holes in the support surface, through which a vacuum is applied from a vacuum source. The holes are arranged in zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at only one or a few zones, while it continues to be applied to other zones, to allow the workpiece to creep along that interrupted zone. The vacuum to different zones is interrupted at different times, as by a slowly turning valve number, to allow each zone of the workpiece to creep. A positive pressure may be applied from a pressured air source to a zone when the vacuum is interrupted there, to help lift the corresponding workpiece zone off the surface to aid in creeping. The workpiece may undergo dimensional changes because of heating, cooling, drying, or other procedure.

Collins, E. R., Jr. (inventor)

1986-01-01

178

Trainability of underwater breath-holding time.  

PubMed

From diving practice we know that breath-holding time (BHT) can be increased by training. This examination was set up to illuminate whether BHT underwater can be trained decisively in a short period of time. The authors investigated whether physiologic or psychological aspects are the main constituents of the above-mentioned BHT phenomenon. BHT and the "onset point" of involuntary respiratory movements of 64 subjects were registered after deep inspiration and immersion in ca. 1 m. Two different tests were set up: (I) 2 breath-holds per day on 5 consecutive days, (II) 5 repeated breath-holds with pauses of 3 min in between. BHT of the first test was shorter underwater than in similar experiments in air; the increase of BHT underwater was distinctly higher (series II: 160%). Thirty percent of the subjects inequivocally showed respiratory movements (group 1), 31% did not reach the "onset point" (group 3). In group 1 BHT was considerably higher than in group 3. In group 1 the mean time span without respiratory movements rose by 14% in series I and by 233% in series II, whereas the time span with respiratory movements rose by 105% and 119%. These results confirm and quantify the good trainability of BHT underwater. Two processes cause this increase: the increase in time span without respiratory movements probably by unconscious hyperventilation and the increase in time span with respiratory movements through psychological adaptation by suffering the need to breathe. PMID:6511155

Hentsch, U; Ulmer, H V

1984-12-01

179

A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications.  

PubMed

Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS) are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals) is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a \\"schema\\" that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application \\"schema\\" of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE). The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application \\"schema\\" that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community. PMID:24893036

Ferrè, Nicola; Kuhn, Werner; Rumor, Massimo; Marangon, Stefano

2014-05-01

180

Engineering a memory with LTD and LTP.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that memories are encoded by modification of synaptic strengths through cellular mechanisms such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). However, the causal link between these synaptic processes and memory has been difficult to demonstrate. Here we show that fear conditioning, a type of associative memory, can be inactivated and reactivated by LTD and LTP, respectively. We began by conditioning an animal to associate a foot shock with optogenetic stimulation of auditory inputs targeting the amygdala, a brain region known to be essential for fear conditioning. Subsequent optogenetic delivery of LTD conditioning to the auditory input inactivates memory of the shock. Then subsequent optogenetic delivery of LTP conditioning to the auditory input reactivates memory of the shock. Thus, we have engineered inactivation and reactivation of a memory using LTD and LTP, supporting a causal link between these synaptic processes and memory. PMID:24896183

Nabavi, Sadegh; Fox, Rocky; Proulx, Christophe D; Lin, John Y; Tsien, Roger Y; Malinow, Roberto

2014-07-17

181

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

182

Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model  

PubMed Central

How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The early-maturing system (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the late-maturing system (explicit or declarative memory) functions intentionally, with awareness, from late in the first year. Data are presented from research on deferred imitation, sensory preconditioning, potentiation, and context for which this solution cannot account and present an alternative model that eschews the need for multiple memory systems. The ecological model of infant memory development (N. E. Spear, 1984) holds that members of all species are perfectly adapted to their niche at each point in ontogeny and exhibit effective, evolutionarily selected solutions to whatever challenges each new niche poses. Because adults and infants occupy different niches, what they perceive, learn, and remember about the same event differs, but their raw capacity to learn and remember does not.

Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

2009-01-01

183

Prospective Memory, Personality, and Working Memory: A Formal Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform an action in the future. The current study applies a multinomial model to investigate the contribution of individual differences in personality, as well as individual differences in working memory span, to performance in an event-based PM task. The model includes a parameter P that measures the prospective component, or remembering that something is to be done. The model also includes a parameter M that measures the ability to discriminate between target and non-target events, part of the retrospective component of PM tasks. The model has been applied to investigate the effects of working memory variability in just one prior study, but has not been used in previous investigations of personality and PM. Working memory span and the personality dimension of conscientiousness showed differences between the higher and lower groups in PM performance. Modeling results showed that individuals higher in conscientiousness had higher estimated of M relative to individuals lower on the conscientiousness dimension. Conscientiousness did not affect the P parameter. In contrast, individuals with higher working memory span scores had higher estimates of P relative to individuals with lower span scores, but the two working memory groups did not differ in terms of parameter M.

Smith, Rebekah E.; Persyn, Deborah; Butler, Patrick

2011-01-01

184

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

1999-01-01

185

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29

186

The Role of Working Memory Representations in the Control of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that target templates are stored visual working memory and used to guide attention during visual search. However, observers can search efficiently even if working memory is filled to capacity by a concurrent task. The idea that target templates are stored in working memory receives support primarily from studies of nonhuman primates in which the target varies from

Geoffrey F. Woodman; Steven J. Luck; Jeffrey D. Schall

2007-01-01

187

Low complexity, low-cost, altitude\\/heading hold flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many one-way unmanned aerial vehicle payload delivery and remote sensing missions, the heading to the target location and local winds are known. For these missions, only altitude and heading hold features are needed. Further, because the vehicle will not be returning, minimizing cost is a priority. Due to the desire to reduce the physical size of the vehicle, the

A. D. Kahn; J. C. Kellogg

2003-01-01

188

A low-cost, minimum complexity altitude\\/heading hold flight control system [unmanned vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many one-way unmanned aerial vehicle payload delivery and remote sensing missions, the heading to the target location and local winds are known. For these missions, only altitude and heading hold features are needed. Further, because the vehicle will not be returning, minimizing cost is a priority. Due to the desire to reduce the physical size of the vehicle itself,

Aaron D. Kahn; James C. Kellogg

2002-01-01

189

Normal development and function but impaired memory phenotype of CD8? T cells in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 Nef in its natural target cells.  

PubMed

We studied the impact of HIV Nef on CD8(+) T cells in a mouse model of AIDS, the CD4C/HIV(Nef) transgenic (Tg) mice. We found that negative and positive thymic selections of CD8(+) T cells proceeded normally in Nef Tg mice bred respectively with HY or OT-1 TCR Tg mice. Tg peripheral CD8(+) T cells showed an activated phenotype and enhanced cell division in vivo and proliferated efficiently when stimulated in vitro with antigenic peptide. When challenged with LCMV(Armstrong), Nef Tg mice developed a strong acute CD8(+) T cell response and cleared the virus as efficiently as wild-type mice. However, maintenance of LCMV-specific CD8(+) memory T cells was impaired in Nef Tg mice, a defect partially rescued by adoptive transfer of non-Tg naïve CD4(+) T cells. Thus, despite severe abnormalities of their precursors, the double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, Tg CD8(+) T cells have conserved important functions. PMID:23433958

Ahmed Rahim, Mir Munir; Chrobak, Pavel; Priceputu, Elena; Hanna, Zaher; Jolicoeur, Paul

2013-04-10

190

Memory usage improvement using runtime alias detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tofte and Talpin proposed a novel method for memory management called region inference in typed, higher-order languages(7). In their method, memory is composed of blocks called regions, and when to allocate and deallocate regions are determined automatically by the compiler using a type system, and source programs are trans- lated into target programs with region annotations. Their method realizes fairly

Ryo Hanai; Tomoharu Ugawa; Masashi Yoneda; Masahiro Yasugi; Taiichi Yuasa

2006-01-01

191

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

192

Deletion of the n-terminus of murine map2 by gene targeting disrupts hippocampal ca1 neuron architecture and alters contextual memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) is a brain specific A-kinase anchoring protein that targets the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme (PKA) to microtubules. Phosphorylation of MAP2 by different protein kinases is crucial for neuronal growth. The N-terminus of MAP2 contains the binding site for regulatory subunit II of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-RII?). Using homologous recombination, we created a mutant line of mice

Z. Khuchua; D. F. Wozniak; M. E. Bardgett; Z. Yue; M. McDonald; J. Boero; R. E. Hartman; H. SIMSe; A. W. STRAUSSa

2003-01-01

193

Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain.  

PubMed

Recent data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in memory consolidation and help to transmit acquired memories even across generations in a Lamarckian manner. Drugs that target the epigenetic machinery were found to enhance memory function in rodents and ameliorate disease phenotypes in models for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Chorea Huntington, Depression or Schizophrenia. In this review, I will give an overview on the current knowledge of epigenetic processes in memory function and brain disease with a focus on Morbus Alzheimer as the most common neurodegenerative disease. I will address the question whether an epigenetic therapy could indeed be a suitable therapeutic avenue to treat brain diseases and discuss the necessary steps that should help to take neuroepigenetic research to the next level. PMID:24719207

Fischer, Andre

2014-05-01

194

Increased functional connectivity within memory networks following memory rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Identifying effective behavioral treatments to improve memory in persons with learning and memory impairment is a primary goal for neurorehabilitation researchers. Memory deficits are the most common cognitive symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), and hold negative professional and personal consequences for people who are often in the prime of their lives when diagnosed. A 10-session behavioral treatment, the modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT), was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Behavioral improvements and increased fMRI activation were shown after treatment. Here, connectivity within the neural networks underlying memory function was examined with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in a subset of participants from the clinical trial. We hypothesized that the treatment would result in increased integrity of connections within two primary memory networks of the brain, the hippocampal memory network, and the default network (DN). Seeds were placed in left and right hippocampus, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Increased connectivity was found between left hippocampus and cortical regions specifically involved in memory for visual imagery, as well as among critical hubs of the DN. These results represent the first evidence for efficacy of a behavioral intervention to impact the integrity of neural networks subserving memory functions in persons with MS. PMID:22706694

Leavitt, Victoria M; Wylie, Glenn R; Girgis, Peter A; Deluca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

2012-06-16

195

Worthington Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

2002-01-01

196

Memory Training Interventions: What has been forgotten?  

PubMed

Memory training for older adults often produces gains that are limited to the particular memory tasks encountered during training. We suggest that memory training programs may be misguided by an implicit "generalist" assumption-memory training on a couple of memory tasks will have a positive benefit on memory ability in general. One approach to increase memory-training benefits is to target training for the everyday memory tasks for which older adults struggle. Examples include training retrieval strategies, prospective memory strategies, and strategies for learning and remembering names. Another approach is to design training to foster transfer. Possible elements to improve transfer are increasing the variation that is experienced during the course of training at the level of stimuli and tasks, incorporating "homework" that guides the older adult to become attuned to situations in which the strategies can be applied, and providing older adults with a better understanding of how memory works. Finally, incorporating aerobic exercise into memory training programs may potentiate the acquisition and maintenance of the trained cognitive strategies. PMID:22448346

McDaniel, Mark A; Bugg, Julie M

2012-03-01

197

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

2009-01-01

198

Spatial memory in insect navigation.  

PubMed

A wide variety of insects use spatial memories in behaviours like holding a position in air or flowing water, in returning to a place of safety, and in foraging. The Hymenoptera, in particular, have evolved life-histories requiring reliable spatial memories to support the task of provisioning their young. Behavioural experiments, primarily on social bees and ants, reveal the mechanisms by which these memories are employed for guidance to spatial goals and suggest how the memories, and the processing streams that use them, may be organized. We discuss three types of memory-based guidance which, together, can explain a large part of observed insect spatial behaviour. Two of these, alignment image-matching and positional image-matching, are based on an insect's remembered views of its surroundings: The first uses views to keep to a familiar heading and the second to head towards a familiar place. The third type of guidance is based on a process of path integration by which an insect monitors its distance and direction from its nest through odometric and compass information. To a large degree, these guidance mechanisms appear to involve modular computational systems. We discuss the lack of evidence for cognitive maps in insects, and in particular the evidence against a map based on path integration, in which view-based and path integration memories might be combined. We suggest instead that insects have a collective of separate guidance systems, which cooperate and train each other, and together provide reliable guidance over a range of conditions. PMID:24028962

Collett, Matthew; Chittka, Lars; Collett, Thomas S

2013-09-01

199

Memory Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

Cassebaum, Anne

2011-01-01

200

Ferroelectric Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read/erase/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high dens...

J. F. Scott C. A. Paz De Arujo

1989-01-01

201

Memory slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional dynamic program slicing techniques are code-centric, meaning dependences are introduced between executed statement instances, which gives rise to various problems such as space requirement is decided by execution length; dependence graphs are highly redundant so that inspecting them is labor intensive. In this paper, we propose a data-centric dynamic slicing technique, in which dependences are introduced between memory locations.

Bin Xin; Xiangyu Zhang

2009-01-01

202

Hollow memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

2014-04-01

203

Super Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

Text, Word

2001-01-01

204

Retracing Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

Harrison, David L.

2005-01-01

205

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible.†† In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory.†† It argues that developments in painting during the period – especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

206

Memory Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... a blockage in the pathway or because a blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. Continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury ... by a severe hit to the head. Traumatic brain injuries can happen in a lot of ways and can be ... accidents, bike accidents, and falls can cause TBIs. If ...

207

Semantic Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a model for the general structure of human long term memory. In this model, information about such things as the meanings of words is stored in a complex network, which then displays some of the desirable properties of a human's seman...

M. R. Quinlan

1966-01-01

208

NCI-Frederick Animal Holding and Technical Support Home  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support - Frederick Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support Program Provides the highest quality of animal care and animal support services for all animal research at the NCI-Frederick Ensures that an investigator's

209

26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that holds 50 percent of the preferred stock of a corporation, 25 percent of the preferred stock is considered held by the individual...common stock and 100 shares of preferred stock. A holds 60 shares of...

2013-04-01

210

The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli.  

PubMed

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images held within semantic memory and pattern-matched with an erotic auditory stimulus facilitate higher self-reported arousal, and at a more rapid rate, than unattractive images. Participants in an "Unattractive" condition experienced slower rates and lower mean levels of arousal in response to an auditory stimulus, compared to participants in an "Attractive" or "No Picture" condition. No differences existed between groups in maximum arousal scores or the tendency to visualize the target during the listening task. Implications for the role of imagery in sexual response, possible measurement issues, and suggestions for future research are addressed in the discussion. PMID:17599268

Hawk, Skyler T; Tolman, Ryan; Mueller, Charles W

2007-02-01

211

The Cost of Remembering to Remember in Event-Based Prospective Memory: Investigating the Capacity Demands of Delayed Intention Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective memory tasks are often accomplished during the performance of other activities. Despite the dual-task nature of prospective memory, little attention has been paid to how successful prospective memory performance affects ongoing activities. In the first 2 experiments, participants performing an embedded prospective memory task had longer response times on nonprospective memory target trials of a lexical decision task than

Rebekah E. Smith

2003-01-01

212

The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ prevents loss of spatial memory retention and early neuropathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienl-yl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). MitoQ attenuated ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons and also prevented increased production of reactive species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)) in them. To determine whether the mitochondrial protection conferred by MitoQ was sufficient to prevent the emergence of AD-like neuropathology in vivo, we treated young female 3xTg-AD mice with MitoQ for 5 months and analyzed the effect on the progression of AD-like pathologies. Our results show that MitoQ prevented cognitive decline in these mice as well as oxidative stress, A? accumulation, astrogliosis, synaptic loss, and caspase activation in their brains. The work presented herein suggests a central role for mitochondria in neurodegeneration and provides evidence supporting the use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in diseases involving oxidative stress and metabolic failure, namely AD. PMID:22049413

McManus, Meagan J; Murphy, Michael P; Franklin, James L

2011-11-01

213

The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant MitoQ Prevents Loss of Spatial Memory Retention and Early Neuropathology in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienlyl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). MitoQ attenuated ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons and also prevented increased production of reactive species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in them. To determine whether the mitochondrial protection conferred by MitoQ was sufficient to prevent the emergence of AD-like neuropathology in vivo, we treated young female 3xTg-AD mice with MitoQ for 5 months and analyzed the effect on the progression of AD-like pathologies. Our results show that MitoQ prevented cognitive decline in these mice as well as oxidative stress, A? accumulation, astrogliosis, synaptic loss, and caspase activation in their brains. The work presented herein suggests a central role for mitochondria in neurodegeneration and provides evidence supporting the use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in diseases involving oxidative stress and metabolic failure, namely AD.

McManus, Meagan J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Franklin, James L.

2012-01-01

214

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

215

"Hold Harmless" Option for Staff Babysitting and Employee References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Help for educators and administrators may be on the way in the form of "hold harmless" documents that allow for flexibility in enforcing program policies. Having a "No Babysitting policy," and "Hold Harmless" documentation will not stop one's program from being sued. However, with the "No Babysitting policy" and "Hold Harmless" documentation…

Bruno, Holly Elissa

2010-01-01

216

VLSI multichannel track-and-hold potentiostat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous mapping of multiple electrical or chemical properties of neural activity facilitates understanding neurological phenomena and their underlying mechanisms. We present a track-and-hold potentiostat performing simultaneous acquisition of 16 independent channels of current ranging five orders of magnitude in dynamic range over four scales down to hundreds of picoamperes. Sampling rate ranges from DC to 200KHz. The system features programmable current gain control, configurable anti-aliasing log-domain filter, triggered current integration and provides differential output ready for asynchronous external analog-to-digital conversion over a compressed dynamic range. We present system description, circuit implementation and experimental results of real-time neurotransmitter concentration measurements from the 16-channel prototype fabricated in a 1.2 micron CMOS process.

Genov, Roman; Stanacevic, Milutin; Naware, Mihir; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Thakor, Nitish

2003-04-01

217

Effect of Friction in the Hold down Post Spherical Bearings on Hold down Post Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of friction at the connection of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt and the mobile launch platform (MLP) hold down posts was analyzed. A simplified model of the shuttle response during the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) buildup was cons...

J. A. Richardson

1990-01-01

218

Memory coherence in shared virtual memory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the memory coherence problem in designing and implementing a shared virtual memory on looselycoupled multiprocessors. Two classes of algorithms for solving the problem are presented. A prototype shared virtual memory on an Apollo ring has been implemented based on these algorithms. Both theoretical and practical results show that the memory coherence problem can indeed be solved efficiently

Kai Li; Paul Hudak

1986-01-01

219

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

220

Radio Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Golden Age of Radio" that arguably lasted until the early 1950s may be hard to imagine today in an era of swirling iPod playlists and other genre-bending devices and technologies, but during this time the radio reigned supreme. People tuned in every week to hear the exploits of Flash Gordon, Sam Spade, and Amos n' Andy. Thanks to the Radio Memories website, many of these memories can be relived, or just experienced for the first time. Started in May 2005, the site contains a host of compelling programs, including episodes from the Interplanetary Adventures of Flash Gordon and a number of original episodes of the fabled Radio Detective Story Hour. If those types of programs fail to pique the interest of the casual visitor, the site also contains archived shows that explore the world of radio soap operas from the 1940s and the musical worlds of such stars as Tommy Dorsey and Harry James.

221

Memory Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before we go into detail with the theme of this chapter it is appropriate to introduce some terms that will be used in the\\u000a rest of the chapter. For this purpose we will define the field of application and the environment of the Flash memory card,\\u000a and some useful notions to better understand its basic architecture and use.

M. Iaculo; M. Picca; F. Tiziani; S. Ghezzi; P. Baggi

222

Nonvolatile high-density high-performance phase-change memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ovonyx, Inc. is developing a nonvolatile memory that is potentially denser, faster, and easier to make than Dynamic RAM. It relies on phase transitions induced by nanosecond heating and cooling of small region of the memory cell. Initial target markets are FLASH memory, Embedded memory, and DRAM.

Wicker, Guy C.

1999-09-01

223

Mental models students hold of zoos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information Framework. Most important to this study is the development of the Information Framework, which described the information students knew about zoos.

Patrick, Patricia Gail

224

Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

Schutte, Paul C.

2007-01-01

225

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

226

A practical flow-sensitive and context-sensitive C and C++ memory leak detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a static analysis tool that can automatically find memory leaks and deletions of dangling pointers in large C and C++ applications.We have developed a type system to formalize a practical ownership model of memory management. In this model, every object is pointed to by one and only one pointer, which holds the exclusive right and obligation to

David L. Heine; Monica S. Lam

2003-01-01

227

Corporate Memory: A framework for supporting tools for acquisition, organization and maintenance of information and knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe corporate memory which can support multiple knowledge acquisition, organization and maintenance tools. Memory holds and manages documents and related information and knowledge processed and created by such tools. Tools can work with several types of data such as documents, data in relational database and semantic data. Such diversity of information is needed due to different

Marek Ciglan; Marián Babik; Michal Laclavík; Ivana Budinská; Ladislav Hluchý

228

Imagine that: Self-Imagination Improves Prospective Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated that “self-imagination” – a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) – enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerized general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e. ongoing task) and press the “1” key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e. prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a “self-imagination effect (SIE)” in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation.

Grilli, Matthew D.; McFarland, Craig P.

2012-01-01

229

Potential noradrenergic targets for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence suggests that alterations in noradrenergic function contribute to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia. Activation of post-junctional alpha 2a-adrenergic receptors in the prefrontal cortex by the alpha 2a-selective agonist guanfacine has demonstrated some preliminary benefit in subjects with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics. alpha 1-adrenergic receptor activity may be less important in mediating the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia. beta-adrenergic receptors may serve as another potential target for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. However, the potential increase in memory consolidation in schizophrenia patients produced by beta-adrenergic agonists may be outweighed by the impairment in cognitive flexibility and executive functioning produced by beta-adrenergic agonists. Finally, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, such as atomoxetine, hold promise as potential cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia because of their ability to indirectly but selectively increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:15115947

Friedman, Joseph I; Stewart, Daniel G; Gorman, Jack M

2004-05-01

230

Cue-Focused and Reflexive-Associative Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several theories of event-based prospective memory were evaluated in 3 experiments. The results depended on the association between the target event and the intended action. For associated target-action pairs (a) preexposure of nontargets did not reduce prospective memory, (b) divided attention did not reduce prospective memory, (c) prospective…

McDaniel, Mark A.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Breneiser, Jennifer

2004-01-01

231

Analyses of Markov Decision Process Structure Regarding the Possible Strategic use of Interacting Memory Systems  

PubMed Central

Behavioral tasks are often used to study the different memory systems present in humans and animals. Such tasks are usually designed to isolate and measure some aspect of a single memory system. However, it is not necessarily clear that any given task actually does isolate a system or that the strategy used by a subject in the experiment is the one desired by the experimenter. We have previously shown that when tasks are written mathematically as a form of partially observable Markov decision processes, the structure of the tasks provide information regarding the possible utility of certain memory systems. These previous analyses dealt with the disambiguation problem: given a specific ambiguous observation of the environment, is there information provided by a given memory strategy that can disambiguate that observation to allow a correct decision? Here we extend this approach to cases where multiple memory systems can be strategically combined in different ways. Specifically, we analyze the disambiguation arising from three ways by which episodic-like memory retrieval might be cued (by another episodic-like memory, by a semantic association, or by working memory for some earlier observation). We also consider the disambiguation arising from holding earlier working memories, episodic-like memories or semantic associations in working memory. From these analyses we can begin to develop a quantitative hierarchy among memory systems in which stimulus-response memories and semantic associations provide no disambiguation while the episodic memory system provides the most flexible disambiguation, with working memory at an intermediate level.

Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

2008-01-01

232

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

233

Studies of Perceptual Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perceptual memory refers to experience-induced changes in perceptual processing of particular objects or scenes. Part 1 of this report summarizes the results of 8 studies of the role of perceptual memory in recognition memory. The hypothesis was confirmed...

J. M. Farnham K. J. Hawley W. A. Johnston

1992-01-01

234

Coupled interfaces for misreading avoidance and write current reduction in passive crossbar memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive crossbar arrays of oxide-based memory elements hold the promise of high density and speed nonvolatile memory. However, realization of the expected paradigm has been hindered by a so-called misreading problem resulting from sneak paths in passive crossbar arrays. We introduce a resistive memory element consisting of two coupled interfaces in a metal\\/doped oxide\\/metal structure. The element avoids the misreading

M. Yang; P. Hu; J. Q. Lu; Q. B. Lv; S. W. Li

2011-01-01

235

A Beginner's Guide to Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

Hughes, Elizabeth M.

1981-01-01

236

Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

2000-01-01

237

Ocular tear film bubble formation after breath-hold diving.  

PubMed

Bubbles in the ocular tear film have been observed following both dry-chamber, simulated compressed air dives and in-water, recreational compressed air dives. The current paper reports on the formation of tear film bubbles in a breath-hold diver following repeated, extended breath-hold excursions to a maximum depth of -28.5 m. It is believed that this is the first time that ocular tear film bubbles have been reported in breath-hold divers. PMID:18500071

Sheard, P W

2008-01-01

238

Kansas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can travel from Cheyenne County in the northwestern corner of Kansas all the way down to Cherokee County in the southeast with a just couple of clicks on the Kansas Memory site. It's a trip filled with compelling historical artifacts, photographs, and other ephemera, and it's an engaging way to learn about the Sunflower State's history. Created by the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas Memory helps to fulfill the Society's mission "to identify collect, preserve, interpret, and disseminate materials and information pertaining to Kansas history." First-time visitors can explore the "Item of the Week" on the homepage, create their own profiles to save materials for future visits, and take a look at the "Special Exhibits" area. On the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors will find thematic headings that allow them to browse materials dealing with the subjects including the built environment, business, and agriculture. With over 17,000 items available on the site, it's safe to say that several visits will be in order for anyone with even the faintest interest in Kansas history.

2012-01-27

239

Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and across Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the authors of…

Tucker, Susan; Bogadottir, Svanhildur

2008-01-01

240

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

241

Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.  

PubMed

Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses. PMID:21943171

Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

2012-01-01

242

To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

2014-06-01

243

Optical memory  

DOEpatents

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02

244

Atomic memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principles of atomic-memory effects related to the Loschmidt paradox in the second law of thermodynamics are introduced and illustrated with simple analogies, photographs, and diagrams; and the results of RF and laser experiments are summarized. Nuclear-spin echoes in response to RF pulses and the NMR free-induction decay phenomenon are described, and the extension of these concepts to the visible spectrum in laser-frequency-switching and multipulsed-laser experiments is examined with an emphasis on studies of free-induction decay in LaF3 crystals containing Pr impurities (DeVoe and Brewster). The laser-induced phenomena can be applied to studies of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and an improved understanding of the RF effects is needed to enhance the performance of medical NMR imaging systems.

Brewer, R. G.; Hahn, E. L.

1984-12-01

245

Bank Holding Company (Y-9) Documentation, June 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bank Holding Company Y-9 Documentation June 1997 contains: Attachments I and II; Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies-FR Y-9C, Instructions for Preparation and Reporting From FR Y-9C; Parent Company Only Financial Statements for La...

1997-01-01

246

12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hold File Structure E Appendix E to Part 360 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. E Appendix E to Part 360—Hold File...

2014-01-01

247

Scan Chain Hold-Time Violations: Can They be Tolerated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scan chain hold-time violations may occur due to manufacturing defects or to errors in timing closure process during the physical design stage. The latter type of violations prohibits the test of manufactured chips, leading to a zero yield, although these chips with scan hold-time violations may be perfectly functional. In this paper, we propose a suite of techniques which enable

Ozgur Sinanoglu; Philip Schremmer

2009-01-01

248

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

249

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

250

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

251

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

252

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

253

Extending Mondrian Memory Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modern operating systems implement some sort of memory protection scheme for user processes. These schemes make it is possible to set access permissions that determine whether a region of memory allocated for a process can be read, written, or executed by this process. Mondrian memory protection is a technique that extends the traditional memory protection scheme and allows fine-grain

Clemens Kolbitsch; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

254

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

255

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

256

Problems of neural memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, \\

Andrei L. Mikaelian

2005-01-01

257

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

258

The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

2012-12-01

259

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm², a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

260

Neural mechanisms of reactivation-induced updating that enhance and distort memory  

PubMed Central

We remember a considerable number of personal experiences because we are frequently reminded of them, a process known as memory reactivation. Although memory reactivation helps to stabilize and update memories, reactivation may also introduce distortions if novel information becomes incorporated with memory. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating reactivation-induced updating in memory for events experienced during a museum tour. During scanning, participants were shown target photographs to reactivate memories from the museum tour followed by a novel lure photograph from an alternate tour. Later, participants were presented with target and lure photographs and asked to determine whether the photographs showed a stop they visited during the tour. We used a subsequent memory analysis to examine neural recruitment during reactivation that was associated with later true and false memories. We predicted that the quality of reactivation, as determined by online ratings of subjective recollection, would increase subsequent true memories but also facilitate incorporation of the lure photograph, thereby increasing subsequent false memories. The fMRI results revealed that the quality of reactivation modulated subsequent true and false memories via recruitment of left posterior parahippocampal, bilateral retrosplenial, and bilateral posterior inferior parietal cortices. However, the timing of neural recruitment and the way in which memories were reactivated contributed to differences in whether memory reactivation led to distortions or not. These data reveal the neural mechanisms recruited during memory reactivation that modify how memories will be subsequently retrieved, supporting the flexible and dynamic aspects of memory.

St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Olm, Christopher; Schacter, Daniel L.

2013-01-01

261

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

262

A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

2010-01-01

263

Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

2013-01-01

264

Event based and time based prospective memory in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease have been reported to have retrospective memory impairment, while prospective memory, which is memory for actions to be performed in the future, has not yet been investigated. Objective: To investigate the prospective memory of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twenty Parkinson's disease patients and 20 age matched normal controls were given event based and time based prospective memory tasks. In the event based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action whenever particular words were presented. In the time based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action at certain times. Results: The Parkinson's disease patients were impaired on the event based prospective memory task but not on the time based prospective memory task. The impairment of the Parkinson's disease patients on the event based prospective memory task was not the result of their forgetting the content of the prospective memory instructions, but the result of their failure to retrieve it spontaneously when the target words appeared. Conclusions: These results suggest that event based prospective memory is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease, presumably relating to frontal lobe dysfunction.

Katai, S; Maruyama, T; Hashimoto, T; Ikeda, S

2003-01-01

265

Recovered memory experience in a nonclinical sample is associated with dissociation rather than with aversive experiences.  

PubMed

Different hypotheses exist for the relationship among trauma, dissociation, and recovered memory. According to one view, recovered memory results from dissociation that a survivor adopts as a defense mechanism during a traumatizing event to avoid emotional pain. From this perspective, trauma is a necessary antecedent to relate dissociative symptoms with recovered memory. Another view emphasizes the characteristics of the victim, such as fantasy proneness and atypical cognitive operations. This alternate view holds that trauma is not necessary in relating dissociation to recovered memory. We tested these two hypotheses, measuring recovered memory, dissociative symptoms, childhood interpersonal adversity, and fantasy proneness in a nonclinical sample of college students. Our results showed a significant correlation between recovered memory and dissociative symptoms; the correlation cannot be accounted for by childhood interpersonal adversity, fantasy proneness, or absorption. Recovered events can be negative, neutral, or even positive. Trauma is not necessary in relating recovered memory to dissociative symptoms. PMID:22370149

Chiu, Chui-De; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Ross, Colin A; Lin, Sheng-Feng; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

2012-05-30

266

Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

2008-01-01

267

Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control  

PubMed Central

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance.

Sutterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

2013-01-01

268

Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control.  

PubMed

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance. PMID:23908639

Sütterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

2013-01-01

269

Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

Schueler, Robert M.

2008-01-01

270

Transmission of classical and quantum information through a quantum memory channel with damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the transfer of classical and quantum information through a memory amplitude damping channel. Such a quantum channel is modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator, the interaction between the information carriers - a train of qubits - and the oscillator being of the Jaynes-Cummings kind. We prove that this memory channel is forgetful, so that quantum coding theorems hold for its capacities. We analyze entropic quantities relative to two uses of this channel. We show that memory effects improve the channel aptitude to transmit both classical and quantum information, and we investigate the mechanism by which memory acts in changing the channel transmission properties.

D'Arrigo, A.; Benenti, G.; Falci, G.

2012-06-01

271

Problems of neural memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, "wave biochemistry" and autowaves. Brief consideration is given to the associative properties of holographic neural structures and the memory architecture using running chemical reactions. The paper also outlines the problem of developing artificial memory elements for restoring the brain functions and possible interface devices for coupling neurons to electronic systems.

Mikaelian, Andrei L.

2005-01-01

272

Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Infants' Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory emerges in infancy and plays a privileged role in subsequent adaptive cognitive development. The neural networks important for the development of working memory during infancy remain unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic fiber tracking to characterize the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles hypothesized to support working memory in 12-month-old infants (n=73). Here we show robust associations between infants’ visuospatial working memory performance and microstructural characteristics of widespread white matter. Significant associations were found for white matter tracts that connect brain regions known to support working memory in older children and adults (genu, anterior and superior thalamic radiations, anterior cingulum, arcuate fasciculus, and the temporal-parietal segment). Better working memory scores were associated with higher FA and lower RD values in these selected white matter tracts. These tract-specific brain-behavior relationships accounted for a significant amount of individual variation above and beyond infants’ gestational age and developmental level, as measured with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Working memory was not associated with global measures of brain volume, as expected, and few associations were found between working memory and control white matter tracts. To our knowledge, this study is among the first demonstrations of brain-behavior associations in infants using quantitative tractography. The ability to characterize subtle individual differences in infant brain development associated with complex cognitive functions holds promise for improving our understanding of normative development, biomarkers of risk, experience-dependent learning and neuro-cognitive periods of developmental plasticity.

Short, Sarah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Connelly, Mark; Maltbie, Eric; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

2013-01-01

273

Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.  

PubMed

Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. PMID:24767488

Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

2014-01-01

274

33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.30 Approval required for holding event. (a) An event for which...

2013-07-01

275

User's Guide for the Bank Holding Company Performance Report (1994).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bank Holding Company Performance Report (BHCPR) is an analytical tool produced by the Federal Reserve System for supervisory purposes, including on-site examinations and inspections, off-site surveillance and monitoring, and analyses performed in conn...

1994-01-01

276

Bank Holding Company Quarterly Tape (Y9), September 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Financial data including information on assets, liabilities and income for large bank holding companies was reported beginning with the December 31, 1975 reporting period. Data is available on an annual basis from 1975 through 1977. As a result of varying...

R. Chamberlin G. Howard M. Carrol

1986-01-01

277

Characteristics of Composts: Moisture Holding and Water Quality Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was investigation of the potential beneficial use of compost manufactured topsoil in highway rights-of-way in Texas. The water holding capacity and the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of composted manures...

C. J. Kirchhoff J. F. Malina M. Barrett

2003-01-01

278

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2013-10-01

279

43. Detail of watertight door in lower hold on aft ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Detail of water-tight door in lower hold on aft side of bulkhead between ship's caboose and lazarette. This bulkhead is of welded construction, installed late in the vessel's career. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

280

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

281

Technology demonstration assessment report for X-701B Holding Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technology Demonstration Assessment Report (TDAR) was developed to evaluate and recommend the most feasible approach for cleanup of contaminated Minford soils below the X-701B Holding Pond and to summarize closure activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous...

1992-01-01

282

12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings criteria set forth in their respective Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements with the Department of the Treasury, as they may be amended from time to...

2012-01-01

283

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

284

12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...stock holdings. 1263.22 Section 1263.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements §...

2012-01-01

285

Identifying and characterizing the effects of nutrition on hippocampal memory.  

PubMed

In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally, we discuss selected findings from animal and human research on nutrition and the hippocampus and advocate for the role of relational memory tasks in future research. PMID:24829486

Monti, Jim M; Baym, Carol L; Cohen, Neal J

2014-05-01

286

Ilizarov wire tensioning and holding methods: a biomechanical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate and compare two specific methods of Ilizarov wire tensioning and hold.Method: This study utilised the vertical Hounsfield test machine H25KS, a stress\\/strain device with a load-cell linked to a computer program. Firstly, the department’s present mechanical tensioners were assessed. Secondly, the method of twisting the three designs of wire holding bolts to achieve wire tension, as described

A. W. Davidson; M. Mullins; David Goodier; M. Barry

2003-01-01

287

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

288

Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action.  

PubMed

The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes. PMID:24560690

Parma, Valentina; Castiello, Umberto; Köster, Egon Peter; Mojet, Jos

2014-05-01

289

A portable runtime interface for multi-level memory hierarchies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a platform independent runtime interface for moving data and computation through parallel machines with multi-level memory hierarchies. We show that this interface can be used as a compiler target and can be implemented easily and efficiently on a variety of platforms. The interface design allows us to compose multiple runtimes, achieving portability across machines with multiple memory levels.

Mike Houston; Ji-Young Park; Manman Ren; Timothy J. Knight; Kayvon Fatahalian; Alex Aiken; William J. Dally; Pat Hanrahan

2008-01-01

290

Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation  

SciTech Connect

Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

Sarkar, A.; Rano, R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

2007-07-01

291

Holding children in mind or holding therapy: developing an ethical position.  

PubMed

Attachment theory and therapy have established themselves as major constructs in foster care and adoption practice. The depth of the explanatory power of attachment theory and research have done much to both identify the source of developmental difficulties in adopted and fostered children, and of the significant changes that can be made when these children are placed with 'autonomously' classified carers. However, the power of the concept has also led to a proliferation of ideas, particularly therapeutic models that can, in some cases, stray a long way from the core of what is effective, safe and ethical clinical practice. Holding therapy is one of these models. The British Association for Adoption and Fostering developed a position statement on this practice, setting it within a broader framework of assessment and intervention. But like the model, the development of the position statement became controversial in its development. The article charts some of the critical issues and identifies the very significant dilemmas for parents and carers caught up in the maelstrom of challenging behaviours and disturbing feelings. The conclusion turns to one of the key components of an attachment-based idea: The critical importance of finding the space to think and to feel what the child is communicating without resorting to dangerous retaliation. PMID:17533938

Simmonds, John

2007-04-01

292

Examination of the bidirectional influences of leisure activity and memory in old people: A dissociative effect on episodic memory.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationships between different types of social and cognitive activities and different types of episodic and semantic memory. A total of 794 adult men and women from five age cohorts (aged 65-85 at baseline), participating in the longitudinal Betula project on ageing, memory, and health, were included in the study. The participants were studied over 10 years (1995-2005) in three waves. Recognition and recall were used as episodic memory tasks, and knowledge and verbal fluency as semantic memory tasks. The results, after controlling for age, gender, education, and some diseases, including heart disease and hypertension, as covariates, showed unidirectional effects of social activity on episodic memory on all test occasions (? = .10). Also, episodic memory predicted change in cognitive activity for all test waves (? = .21-.22). Findings suggest that social activity can be seen as protective factor against memory decline. It also seems that episodic memory performance is a predictor of cognitive activity in old people. However, the opposite direction does not hold true. PMID:25040007

Mousavi-Nasab, S-M-Hossein; Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2014-08-01

293

77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM Solutions, Inc., Gold Star Tutoring Services Inc., and GPS Industries, Inc.; Order...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gold Star Tutoring Services, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2012-11-16

294

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... home may be signs of a more serious memory problem. This booklet will help you learn about: ...

295

Medications for Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Memory Loss Tweet Although current medications cannot cure Alzheimer’s or stop it from progressing, they may help lessen symptoms, such as memory loss and confusion, for a limited time. Types ...

296

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for ... from those that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for ...

297

GDM: Global Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global Distributed Memory (GDM) is a distributed memory system in the spirit of Linda. Its distinctive features are multiple object spaces and efficient write-invalidate caching of frequently accessed objects. The report describes the GDM model and the Tr...

A. Gustafsson H. Aronsson H. Suonsivu

1991-01-01

298

Sparse Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in the...

P. J. Denning

1989-01-01

299

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

300

The Harris Data Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the commercially produced Harris Data Memory is presented. Operation instructions, memory capabilities, data storage, and applications are included. Usefulness of the instrument to instruction in all of the sciences is considered. (SA)

Muir, D. H. T.; Elwell, M. J.

1979-01-01

301

Exercise Holds Immediate Benefits for Affect and Cognition in Younger and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age.

Hogan, Candice L.; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L.

2013-01-01

302

Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

2010-01-01

303

T Cell Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell memory induced by prior infection or vaccination provides enhanced protection against subsequent microbial infections.\\u000a The processes involved in generating and maintaining T cell memory are becoming better understood due to recent technological\\u000a advances in identifying memory T cells and monitoring their behavior and function in vivo. Memory T cells develop in response\\u000a to a progressive set of cues—starting

J. Tan; C. Surh

304

Imagery and memory illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a summary of current knowledge about memory illusions. The memory illusions described here focus on\\u000a the recall of imagined events that have never actually occurred. The purpose is to review theoretical ideas and empirical\\u000a evidence about the reality-monitoring processes involved in memory illusions. Reality monitoring means deciding whether the\\u000a memory has been perceptually derived or been self-generated

Frédérique Robin

2010-01-01

305

Comparison of Kalman and finite memory filtering for gun fire control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite memory filter is developed for gun fire control and compared to a Kalman filter. As opposed to the Kalman filter, the finite memory filter does not require a priori information concerning measurement or target noise statistics. In addition, the finite memory filter was implemented using a new recursive algorithm which dramatically reduces its computational burden. It is shown

F. William Nesline; Paul Zarchan

1978-01-01

306

Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

2011-01-01

307

Testing eyewitness memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies a memory-testing procedure that is relatively resistant to the documented effects of suggestibility on eyewitness memory. Most studies on suggestibility have used averbal recognition memory test in which the alternative test items are sentences, each to be verified as true or false regarding an originally viewedvisual sequence. In this study, participants were tested with either the verbal

Kathy Pezdek; Joelle Greener

1993-01-01

308

Suggesting a Memory Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Suggesting a Memory Screening... Text Size: Email This Post Print This Post Suggesting a Memory Screening By Kevin Gault It can be a ... cognitive abilities, want to suggest screening for possible memory deficit, but aren’t sure how to go ...

309

Memories (Children's Books).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents brief annotations of 46 children's books that explore memories of childhood, memories of love, keepsakes that capture those memories, memorable tales from long ago, memorable journeys, times that are painful to remember, and heroes and heroines who have provided hope and change in a troubled world. (SR)

McKinley, Carol; Peters, Donna; Semer, Susie; White, W. Quinn; Scharer, Patricia L.

1998-01-01

310

Organizing Corporate Memories 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some preliminary thoughts on how corporate memories should be organized in such a way that they maximally contribute to the competitiveness of an organization. We argue that a corporate memory should support three types of organizational learning, which are described. Then we formulate functional requirements and present an architecture for corporate memories that would satisfy these requirements.

Rob van der Spek; Eelco Kruizinga; Gertjan van Heijst

1996-01-01

311

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz Jäncke

2008-01-01

312

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

313

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

314

The Role of Memory Reactivation during Wakefulness and Sleep in Determining Which Memories Endure  

PubMed Central

Consolidation makes it possible for memories of our daily experiences to be stored in an enduring way. We propose that memory consolidation depends on the covert reactivation of previously learned material both during sleep and wakefulness. Here we tested whether the operation of covert memory reactivation influences the fundamental selectivity of memory storage—of all the events we experience each day, which will be retained and which forgotten? We systematically manipulated the value of information learned by 60 young subjects; they learned 72 object-location associations while hearing characteristic object sounds, and a number on each object indicated the reward value that could potentially be earned during a future memory test. Recall accuracy declined to a greater extent for low-value than for high-value associations after either a 90 min nap or a 90 min wake interval. Yet, via targeted memory reactivation of half of the low-value associations using the corresponding sounds, these memories were rescued from forgetting. Only cued associations were rescued when sounds were applied during wakefulness, whereas the entire set of low-value associations was rescued from forgetting when the manipulation occurred during sleep. The benefits accrued from presenting corresponding sounds show that covert reactivation is a major factor determining the selectivity of memory consolidation in these circumstances. By extension, covert reactivation may determine the ultimate fate of our memories, though wake and sleep reactivation might play distinct roles in this process, the former helping to strengthen individual, salient memories, and the latter strengthening, while also linking, categorically related memories together.

Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W.; Creery, Jessica D.; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

315

Memory formation and memory alterations: 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, novel alternative.  

PubMed

Abstract Agonists and antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) or receptor7 (5-HT7) might improve memory and/or reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, the current work summarizes recent reviews and findings involving these receptors. Evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in conditions, such as memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficit in preclinical studies, as well as in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades; likewise, the modulation of 5-HT6 drugs on memory seems to be accompanied with neural changes. Moreover, 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain areas mediating memory, including the cortex, hippocampus (e.g., Zola-Morgan and Squire, 1993) and raphe nuclei; however, the role of these receptors on memory has yet to be fully explored. Hence, findings and reviews are summarized in this work. Evidence suggests that both 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists might have promnesic and anti-amnesic effects. These effects seem to be dependent on the basal level of performance, i.e., normal or impaired. Available evidence suggests that a potential utility of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor in mild-to-moderate AD patients and other memory dysfunctions as therapeutic targets. PMID:24698823

Meneses, Alfredo

2014-01-01

316

26 CFR 143.6 - Election to shorten the period during which certain excess business holdings of private...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...certain excess business holdings of private foundations are treated as permitted holdings...holdings on May 26, 1969, of a private foundation and all disqualified persons in...

2013-04-01

317

Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

2014-01-01

318

The Effects of Target Attractiveness on Men's Sexual Arousal in Response to Erotic Auditory Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within semantic memory and pattern matched with

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

319

The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within seman- tic memory and pattern matched

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

320

Modes of cognitive control in recognition and source memory: depth of retrieval.  

PubMed

Recognition memory is usually regarded as a judgment based on trace strength or familiarity. But recognition may also be accomplished by constraining retrieval so that only sought after information comes to mind (source-constrained retrieval). We introduce a memory-for-foils paradigm that provides evidence for source-constrained retrieval in recognition memory (Experiment 1) and source memory (Experiment 2). In this paradigm, subjects studied words under deep or shallow encoding conditions and were given a memory test (recognition or source) that required them to discriminate between new items (foils) and either deep or shallow targets. A final recognition test was used to examine memory for the foils. In both experiments, foil memory was superior when subjects attempted to retrieve deep rather than shallow targets on the earlier test. These findings support a source-constrained retrieval view of cognitive control by demonstrating qualitative differences in the basis for memory performance. PMID:16524001

Jacoby, Larry L; Shimizu, Yujiro; Daniels, Karen A; Rhodes, Matthew G

2005-10-01

321

Electrical Evaluation of RCA MWS5501D Random Access Memory, Volume 2, Appendix a  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical characterization and qualification test results are presented for the RCA MWS5001D random access memory. The tests included functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, AC parametric worst-case pattern selection test, determination of worst-case transition for setup and hold times, and a series of schmoo plots. The address access time, address readout time, the data hold time, and the data setup time are some of the results surveyed.

Klute, A.

1979-01-01

322

Botulism and memory.  

PubMed

Although botulinum toxin is thought not to affect the human CNS, previous studies have not examined those behaviors, such as memory, that have been shown to be dependent on central acetylcholine transmission. In eight patients with type A botulism, subjective analysis, bedside memory testing, and formal memory testing with Hebb's verbal sequencing test, Corsi's nonverbal sequencing test, and Buschke's verbal serial list learning test failed to demonstrate impairment in immediate and recent memory. Botulism severe enough to block peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic transmission does not block those central cholinergic synapses involved in memory. PMID:7425889

Haaland, K Y; Davis, L E

1980-10-01

323

Appearance-Based Inferences Bias Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Previous research varying the trustworthiness of appearance has demonstrated that facial characteristics contribute to source memory. Two studies extended this work by investigating the contribution to source memory of babyfaceness, a facial quality known to elicit strong spontaneous trait inferences. Young adult participants viewed younger and older babyfaced and mature-faced individuals paired with sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the target's facial characteristics. Identifying a source as dominant or submissive was least accurate when participants chose between a target whose behavior was incongruent with facial characteristics and a lure whose face mismatched the target in appearance, but matched the source memory question. In Study 1, this effect held true when identifying older sources, but not own-age, younger sources. When task difficulty was increased in Study 2, the relationship between face-behavior congruence and lure facial characteristics persisted, but it was not moderated by target age even though participants continued to correctly identify fewer older than younger sources. Taken together, these results indicate that trait expectations associated with variations in facial maturity can bias source memory for both own- and other-age faces, although own-age faces are less vulnerable to this bias, as shown in the moderation by task difficulty.

Cassidy, Brittany S.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Gutchess, Angela H.

2012-01-01

324

Active versus passive maintenance of visual nonverbal memory.  

PubMed

Forgetting over the short term has challenged researchers for more than a century, largely because of the difficulty of controlling what goes on within the memory retention interval. But the "recent-negative-probe" procedure offers a valuable paradigm, by examining the influences of (presumably) unattended memoranda from prior trials. Here we used a recent-probe task to investigate forgetting for visual nonverbal short-term memory. The target stimuli (two visually presented abstract shapes) on a trial were followed after a retention interval by a probe, and participants indicated whether the probe matched one of the target items. Proactive interference, and hence memory for old trial probes, was observed, whereby participants were slowed in rejecting a nonmatching probe on the current trial that nevertheless matched a target item on the previous trial (a recent-negative probe). The attraction of the paradigm is that, by uncovering proactive influences of past-trial probe stimuli, it can be argued that active maintenance in memory of those probes is unlikely. In two experiments, we recorded such proactive interference of prior-trial items over a range of interstimulus (ISI) and intertrial (ITI) intervals (between 1 and 6 s, respectively). Consistent with a proposed two-process memory conception (the active-passive memory model, or APM), actively maintained memories on current trials decayed, but passively "maintained," or unattended, visual memories of stimuli on past trials did not. PMID:24390797

McKeown, Denis; Holt, Jessica; Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Smith, Amy; Griffiths, Benjamin

2014-08-01

325

Child maltreatment and memory.  

PubMed

Exposure to childhood trauma, especially child maltreatment, has important implications for memory of emotionally distressing experiences. These implications stem from cognitive, socio-emotional, mental health, and neurobiological consequences of maltreatment and can be at least partially explained by current theories concerning the effects of childhood trauma. In this review, two main hypotheses are advanced: (a) Maltreatment in childhood is associated with especially robust memory for emotionally distressing material in many individuals, but (b) maltreatment can impair memory for such material in individuals who defensively avoid it. Support for these hypotheses comes from research on child abuse victims' memory and suggestibility regarding distressing but nonabusive events, memory for child abuse itself, and autobiographical memory. However, more direct investigations are needed to test precisely when and how childhood trauma affects memory for emotionally significant, distressing experiences. Legal implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:19575622

Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Ogle, Christin M

2010-01-01

326

Nearly extensive sequential memory lifetime achieved by coupled nonlinear neurons.  

PubMed

Many cognitive processes rely on the ability of the brain to hold sequences of events in short-term memory. Recent studies have revealed that such memory can be read out from the transient dynamics of a network of neurons. However, the memory performance of such a network in buffering past information has been rigorously estimated only in networks of linear neurons. When signal gain is kept low, so that neurons operate primarily in the linear part of their response nonlinearity, the memory lifetime is bounded by the square root of the network size. In this work, I demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a memory lifetime almost proportional to the network size, "an extensive memory lifetime," when the nonlinearity of neurons is appropriately used. The analysis of neural activity revealed that nonlinear dynamics prevented the accumulation of noise by partially removing noise in each time step. With this error-correcting mechanism, I demonstrate that a memory lifetime of order N/logN can be achieved. PMID:22594828

Toyoizumi, Taro

2012-10-01

327

Associations compete directly in memory.  

PubMed

Associations are confusable when they share an item. For example, double-function pairs (with the form AB, BC) are harder to remember than control pairs. Although ambiguous pairs are more difficult on average, it is not clear whether memories for associations compete directly with one another (associative competition hypothesis), as assumed by models that incorporate associative symmetry (bidirectional associations). Alternatively, associative interference results might be explained away by: (a) item suppression hypothesis: competition only between memory for the two target items (A and C are both targets of B); (b) candidate competition hypothesis: The cue (B) retrieves two potential targets, A and C, which compete to be output. These alternative hypotheses could explain previous results in the related, AB/AC learning procedure. Our procedure included a large amount of interference that had to be resolved within a single study set. Participants studied sets of control (single-function) and double-function pairs and were asked to produce one or two associates, respectively, to cue items. Recall of AB and BC were negatively correlated and could not be explained away by item suppression or competition between simultaneously retrieved candidate items. Thus, competition can occur at the level of representation of associations, regardless of which item is the cue, consistent with associative symmetry. PMID:24131316

Caplan, Jeremy B; Rehani, Mayank; Andrews, Jennifer C

2014-05-01

328

Synapse-specific reconsolidation of distinct fear memories in the lateral amygdala.  

PubMed

When reactivated, memories enter a labile, protein synthesis-dependent state, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Here, we show in rats that fear memory retrieval produces a synaptic potentiation in the lateral amygdala that is selective to the reactivated memory, and that disruption of reconsolidation is correlated with a reduction of synaptic potentiation in the lateral amygdala. Thus, both retrieval and reconsolidation alter memories via synaptic plasticity at selectively targeted synapses. PMID:17351634

Doyère, Valérie; Debiec, Jacek; Monfils, Marie-H; Schafe, Glenn E; LeDoux, Joseph E

2007-04-01

329

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

1992-01-01

330

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

1992-09-01

331

78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human...

2013-04-26

332

78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human...

2013-02-19

333

78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human...

2013-11-20

334

43 CFR 3202.10 - Who may hold a geothermal lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Who may hold a geothermal lease? 3202.10 Section 3202... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.10 Who may hold a geothermal lease? You may hold a...

2013-10-01

335

26 CFR 1.553-1 - Foreign personal holding company income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...royalties, shall be considered to be foreign personal holding company income. Thus, subparagraphs...for the purpose of determining foreign personal holding company income. (2) In computing foreign personal holding company income, the...

2010-04-01

336

26 CFR 1.553-1 - Foreign personal holding company income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...royalties, shall be considered to be foreign personal holding company income. Thus, subparagraphs...for the purpose of determining foreign personal holding company income. (2) In computing foreign personal holding company income, the...

2009-04-01

337

78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-81,317] Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies...applicable to workers and former workers of Dana Holding Company, Power Technologies Group...investigation, I determine that workers of Dana Holding Company, Power Technologies...

2013-01-08

338

Change in properties of niobium alloys after holding in lithium  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was made of the influence of redistribution of interstitial impurities (nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen) and penetration of liquid metal on the change in mechanical properties of niobium alloys after holding in lithium. It was established that after the 10-h hold, the lithium has penetrated through the grain boundaries of NV-7 alloy specimens to a depth of 0.02 mm, and an increase in exposure to 1000 h leads to through corrosion damage. The remainder of the studied materials are corrosion resistant in lithium and the change in their mechanical properties is apparently related to redistribution of the nonmetallic impurities.

Maksimovich, G.G.; Ignatiev, M.I.

1985-09-01

339

Postural change alters autonomic responses to breath-holding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 years) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both\\u000a supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic\\u000a nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen

Indu TanejaMarvin; Marvin S. Medow; Debbie A. Clarke; Anthony J. Ocon; Julian M. Stewart

2010-01-01

340

Memory enhancement: consolidation, reconsolidation and insulin-like growth factor 2  

PubMed Central

Life and societies would significantly change if memory capacity or persistence in health and disease could be enhanced. It has been known for many years that memory can be improved and strengthened. Substances known to enhance memory include hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and metabolic substrates. Recently, attention has been given to identifying the molecular mechanisms and targets whereby memory enhancement can be achieved. One approach would be to target the physiological changes that are induced by learning and naturally required for memory strengthening via consolidation and reconsolidation. Here we will review approaches that boost memories by targeting the cAMP response element binding protein-CCAAT enhancer binding protein (CREB-C/EBP) pathway and/or its recently identified target gene insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2).

Alberini, Cristina M.; Chen, Dillon Y.

2012-01-01

341

The Magical Mystery Four: How is Working Memory Capacity Limited, and Why?  

PubMed Central

Working memory storage capacity is important because cognitive tasks can be completed only with sufficient ability to hold information as it is processed. The ability to repeat information depends on task demands but can be distinguished from a more constant, underlying mechanism: a central memory store limited to 3 to 5 meaningful items in young adults. I will discuss why this central limit is important, how it can be observed, how it differs among individuals, and why it may occur.

Cowan, Nelson

2009-01-01

342

Memory for Speech and Speech for Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. (Author)

Locke, John L.; Kutz, Kathryn J.

1975-01-01

343

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of theories posit a relationship between autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity in 20 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 age?matched controls, and investigated whether degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests of autobiographical memory (Autobiographical Memory Interview, autobiographical fluency) and

Donna Rose Addis; Lynette Tippett

2004-01-01

344

Memory Demands and the Development of Young Children's Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the nature of and changes in early memory demands and assesses the relationship between memory demands and memory performance among 10 children 30 and 42 months old and their mothers. Results suggested that mothers' memory demands have an impact on children's memory performance--providing at least partial support for Vygotsky's…

Ratner, Hilary Horn

1984-01-01

345

Psychophysiology of prospective memory.  

PubMed

Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages. PMID:24138288

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

2014-10-01

346

Reconsolidation of drug memories  

PubMed Central

Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse.

Sorg, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

347

Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.  

PubMed

Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health. PMID:24321215

Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

2014-02-01

348

Khmer Rouge archives: accountability, truth, and memory in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that archives play a significant role in fostering three elements essential to Cambodia’s recovery: accountability,\\u000a truth, and memory. First, archives have an enduring power to hold the regime accountable because they were the catalyst for\\u000a an international human rights tribunal, as shown by the relentless activism of the archives’ director, international efforts\\u000a to preserve Khmer Rouge records,

Michelle Caswell

2010-01-01

349

Action control: Independent effects of memory and monocular viewing on reaching accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on action arise from a common mechanism as suggested by evidence

David A. Westwood; Christopher Robertson; Matthew Heath

2005-01-01

350

MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED OUT OF THE CUPOLA UNTIL IT NEEDED BY POURERS ON THE CONVEYOR LINES WHO FILL MOBILE LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAIL SYSTEMS AS THE BULL LADLE TIPS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

351

Astronaut Sidney Gutierrez on flight deck holding Hasselblad camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, pauses on the flight deck during Earth observations on the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Gutierrez holds a 70mm Hasselblad camera. The camera was one of several instruments used during the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) mission to record data on planet Earth.

1994-01-01

352

Apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the manipulation of microballoons and more particularly to an apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons in order to more efficiently carry out the filling of the microballoons with a known quantity of gas.

Jorgensen, B.S.

1984-06-05

353

DETAIL OF WATERTIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF WATER-TIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE OF BULKHEAD BETWEEN SHIP?S CABOOSE AND LAZARETTE. THIS BULKHEAD IS OF WELDED CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLED LATE IN THE VESSEL?S CAREER. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

354

Modeling international investment decisions for financial holding companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the internationalization process model developed by Johanson and Vahlne and derives two integer programming investment decision models that consider the risk attitudes of investment firms. Johanson and Vahlne’s model provides a starting point for building a model that suits the investment approach and decision making process of financial holding companies. In practice, when firms make an international

Charles V. Trappey; Tsui-yii Shih; Amy J. C. Trappey

2007-01-01

355

Iterative Quadratic Optimization for the Bus Holding Control Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple control-point strategy for holding control of a bus transit system is presented. The model developed is deterministic and assumes the availability of real-time information and historical data of the system. Stochastic effects are distur- bances to be compensated by the feedback nature of the control. The objective is to minimize total user delay, which is modeled by a

Luiz Alberto Koehler; Werner Kraus; Eduardo Camponogara

2011-01-01

356

Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

1991-01-01

357

Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

1969-01-01

358

Holding and Fastening Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-paced student training module on holding and fastening tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and demonstrate the proper selection, use, and care of pliers, wrenches, clamps, hammers, and screwdrivers. The module may contain…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

359

26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding...subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid after the close of the taxable...be included in the computation of the dividends paid deduction for the taxable...

2013-04-01

360

Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds on to the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device just erected by Ross and Astronaut Sherwood Spring as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters of the Atlantic.

1985-01-01

361

Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds onto the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters.

1985-01-01

362

Matching Library Holdings against GPO Tapes: Issues, Concerns, and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of cataloging U.S. government documents collections focuses on a study that examined two methods offered by commercial vendors for matching library holdings against machine-readable cataloging records produced by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO). A third method, using specific Superintendent of Documents classification numbers,…

Mooney, Margaret T.

1990-01-01

363

SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER JIM DURFEE IS POURING BRASS ALLOY INTO MOLDS. ALSO SHOWN IS THE FLAME-RETARDANT ROPE THAT HAS REPLACED ASBESTOS FOR PACKING AROUND THE MOLDS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

364

16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe at left was part of system which provided fresh sea water to the tanks, which kept the fish fresh and allowed them to be sluiced to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

365

The Survival of Human Enteric Viruses in Holding Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inactivation of Poliovirus I and Coxsackievirus B-3 was studied in model wastewater holding ponds. The ponds are constructed at cast concrete tanks 5 feet in diameter and 18, 30, 42 and 90 inches deep. Experiments were conducted using either settled w...

B. P. Sagik S. W. Funderburg B. E. Moore R. C. Tripathi C. A. Sorber

1978-01-01

366

Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

2012-01-01

367

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

368

Development of hold down plate of INGLE fuel assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hold down plate for the INGLE fuel which has been designed for high performance in the standpoints of thermal margin and structural integrity compared to current fuel for YGN 3/4 and UCN 3/4 has been developed and its structural integrity has been verifie...

H. K. Kim K. T. Kim

1996-01-01

369

Magnetically Operated Holding Plate And Ball-Lock Pin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetically operated holding plate and ball-locking-pin mechanism part of object attached to, or detached from second object. Mechanism includes tubular housing inserted in hole in second object. Plunger moves inside tube forcing balls to protrude from sides. Balls prevent tube from sliding out of second object. Simpler, less expensive than motorized latches; suitable for robotics applications.

Monford, Leo G., Jr.

1992-01-01

370

Audience-Tuning Effects on Memory: The Role of Shared Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

After tuning to an audience, communicators' own memories for the topic often reflect the biased view expressed in their messages. Three studies examined explanations for this bias. Memories for a target person were biased when feedback signaled the audience's successful identification of the target but not after failed identification (Experiment 1). Whereas communicators tuning to an in-group audience exhibited the

Gerald Echterhoff; E. Tory Higgins; Stephan Groll

2005-01-01

371

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1–4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on the speed of performing the ongoing task. In

Gilles O. Einstein; Mark A. McDaniel; Ruthann Thomas; Sara Mayfield; Hilary Shank; Nova Morrisette; Jennifer Breneiser

2005-01-01

372

Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such strategies. Moreover, balancing the need for ablating pathological inflammatory responses

Martin F. Bachmann; Benjamin J. Marsland; Manfred Kopf

2010-01-01

373

Children's Memory for Early Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction reviews recent trends in childhood memory research, focusing on closer relations between the study of memory development and the study of cognitive and neurological development, new relations between the study of memory development and the study of adult memory, and new relations between the study of memory development and…

Newcombe, Nora; And Others

1995-01-01

374

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

375

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

376

Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia.

Herbener, Ellen S.

2008-01-01

377

[Hypochromic anemia in children with affective breath-holding spells].  

PubMed

Breath holding attacks are most common in children aged 6 months to 6 years, in 76% of cases between 6 and 18 months of age. Very often they are misinterpreted as tonic epileptic seizures. They are provoked by frustration, anger or sudden injury. Child starts to cry, then holds the breath at the end of expirium. After a few seconds it becomes cyanotic, and losses consciousness. It is usually floppy, but sometimes stiffness, and clonic seizures can be present, and child can be diagnosed as having epilepsy. The form in which child is pale is less frequent, and crying is usually brief or even absent in this type. Breath holding attacks usually do not last more then one to three minutes. Good heteroanamnesis is essential for diagnosis, revealing provoking factors for each attack. Interictal EEG registration is usually normal. Attacks often spontaneously cease after 5 or 6 years of age, and do not require any medical treatment. In more severe cases behavioral therapy has shown good results. It has been noticed that those children in adolescence have syncope more frequent then rest of population. Seventeen children (12 male and 5 female) were investigated at Pediatric Hospital in Sarajevo as breath holding attacks in period from June 1997 to June 2000. Age of patients was between 5 months and 5.5 years (median was 11 months). Hypochromic anemia was present in 12 patients (76%), with average hemoglobin value of 8.2 g/dl (5.9-11.0 g/dl). All children had normal EEG recording. Iron therapy gave positive response in 8 out of 9 patients that were followed (88.9%). Three patients had not come for follow up. It is concluded that hypochromic anemia is often a part of clinical presentation of breath holding attacks in children, and iron therapy can stop them. PMID:11219911

Zubcevi?, S; Hasanbegovi?, E; Gavranovi?, M

2000-01-01

378

Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories.  

PubMed

Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics. PMID:24971071

Vuvan, Dominique T; Podolak, Olivia M; Schmuckler, Mark A

2014-01-01

379

Memory for musical tones: the impact of tonality and the creation of false memories  

PubMed Central

Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics.

Vuvan, Dominique T.; Podolak, Olivia M.; Schmuckler, Mark A.

2014-01-01

380

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

381

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

382

Schemas and Memory Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative ``schema'' into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place

Dorothy Tse; Rosamund F. Langston; Masaki Kakeyama; Ingrid Bethus; Patrick A. Spooner; Emma R. Wood; Menno P. Witter; Richard G. M. Morris

2007-01-01

383

Removing pathogenic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional\\u000a and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are\\u000a currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and\\u000a phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and

Diego Centonze; Alberto Siracusano; Paolo Calabresi; Giorgio Bernardi

2005-01-01

384

Testing Shared Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Sequential consistency is the most-widely used correctness condition for multiprocessormemory systems. This paper studies the problem of testing shared memory multiprocessors todetermine if they are indeed providing a sequentially consistent memory. It presents the first formalstudy of this problem, which has applications to testing new memory system designs and realizations,providing run-time fault tolerance, and detecting bugs in parallel programs.A

Phillip B. Gibbons; Ephraim Korach

1997-01-01

385

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

2001-01-01

386

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

387

Thinking and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Remembering the past is crucially important for cognitive functions, such as anticipating and planning future activities or\\u000a thinking about one’s own self. In Tulving’s hierarchy of long-term memory systems, episodic memory is the highest one that\\u000a is most likely uniquely human. One of the characteristics of episodic memory is the ability to mentally travel into the past\\u000a and the future.

Matthias Brand; Hans J. Markowitsch

388

Memory Golf Clubs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

1997-01-01

389

Memory Load and Dump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02;

Welty, Alan

2008-07-01

390

Mouse Studies Show Gene Therapy Method Holds Promise in Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels for Destruction  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers have reported the development of a novel method for delivering a therapeutic gene specifically to the blood vessels of tumors in mice. Once delivered, the gene produces a protein that damages the blood vessels and disrupts the blood flow to tumors, but not to the surrounding tissue.

391

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

392

Memory on time.  

PubMed

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-02-01

393

Memory on time  

PubMed Central

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can ‘replay’ sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons – called time cells – encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories.

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-01-01

394

Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present research was to determine whether short-term memory and working memory could be distinguished. In two\\u000a studies, 7- to 13-year-olds (N = 155,N = 132) were administered tasks thought to assess short-term memory as well as tasks thought to assess working memory. Both\\u000a exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses distinguished short-term memory tasks from working memory tasks.

Robert Kail; Lynda K. Hall

2001-01-01

395

Memory-to-memory connection structures in FPGAs with embedded memory arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the speed of FPGAs with large embedded memory arrays can be improved by adding direct programmable connections between the memories. Nets that connect to multiple memory arrays are often difficult to route, and are often part of the critical path of circuit implementations. The memory-to-memory connection structure proposed in this paper allows for the efficient implementation

Steven J. E. Wilton; Jonathan Rose; Zvonko G. Vranesic

1997-01-01

396

Results of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank Samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit during Macrobatch 3 Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the 'microbatches' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch ('Macrobatch') 3 have been analyzed for (sup 238)Pu, (sup 90)Sr, (sup 13...

S. D. Fink T. B. Peters

2011-01-01

397

Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.  

PubMed

Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target. PMID:23356238

Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

2013-07-01

398

Coupled interfaces for misreading avoidance and write current reduction in passive crossbar memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive crossbar arrays of oxide-based memory elements hold the promise of high density and speed nonvolatile memory. However, realization of the expected paradigm has been hindered by a so-called misreading problem resulting from sneak paths in passive crossbar arrays. We introduce a resistive memory element consisting of two coupled interfaces in a metal/doped oxide/metal structure. The element avoids the misreading problem by the nonlinearity in current-voltage loops and significantly reduces the write current. The distinct device characteristics may also be applicable in programmable analog circuits and neuromorphic circuits.

Yang, M.; Hu, P.; Lu, J. Q.; Lv, Q. B.; Li, S. W.

2011-05-01

399

Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans.  

PubMed

Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, "base" and "comparison," separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory. PMID:24449850

Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E

2014-02-11

400

Dissociable neural routes to successful prospective memory.  

PubMed

Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. According to one account, top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests that bottom-up, spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention and that sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and functional MRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective-memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional-control areas, such as the anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

McDaniel, Mark A; Lamontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M; Scullin, Michael K; Braver, Todd S

2013-09-01

401

Inhibitory Voluntary Control of Memory: Effect of Stimulus Onset Asynchrony on Reaction Time to Suppressed Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson & Green (2001) have recently shown that using an adaptation of the go-no go task, participants can voluntarily inhibit the retrieval of specific memories. We present three experiments in which we try to determine the degree of automaticity involved, and the role of the previous prime-target relation on the development of this inhibitory…

Algarabel, Salvador; Luciano, Juan V.; Martinez, Jose L.

2006-01-01

402

Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the road towards higher memory density and computer performance, a significant improvement in energy efficiency constitutes the dominant goal in future information technology. Passive crossbar arrays of memristive elements were suggested a decade ago as non-volatile random access memories (RAM) and can also be used for reconfigurable logic circuits. As such they represent an interesting alternative to the conventional von Neumann based computer chip architectures. Crossbar architectures hold the promise of a significant reduction in energy consumption because of their ultimate scaling potential and because they allow for a local fusion of logic and memory, thus avoiding energy consumption by data transfer on the chip. However, the expected paradigm change has not yet taken place because the general problem of selecting a designated cell within a passive crossbar array without interference from sneak-path currents through neighbouring cells has not yet been solved satisfactorily. Here we introduce a complementary resistive switch. It consists of two antiserial memristive elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption.

Linn, Eike; Rosezin, Roland; Kügeler, Carsten; Waser, Rainer

2010-05-01

403

Pulse and hold strategy for switching current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate by theory and experiment, the Josephson junction switching current detector in an environment with frequency-dependent damping. Analysis of the circuit’s phase space shows that a favorable topology for switching can be obtained with overdamped dynamics at high frequencies. A pulse-and-hold method is described, where a fast switch pulse brings the circuit close to an unstable point in the phase space when biased at the hold level. Experiments are performed on Cooper pair transistors and quantronium circuits, which are overdamped at high frequencies with an on-chip RC shunt. For 20?s switch pulses the switching process is well described by thermal equilibrium escape, based on a generalization of the Kramers formula to the case of frequency-dependent damping. A capacitor bias method is used to create very rapid, 25ns switch pulses, where it is observed that the switching process is not governed by thermal equilibrium noise.

Walter, Jochen; Tholén, Erik; Haviland, David B.; Sjöstrand, Joachim

2007-03-01

404

Is maternal depression related to side of infant holding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that 65–85% of mothers hold their infants on the left side of their own body and that this left-bias may be reduced or reversed when mothers have symptoms similar to depression or dysphoria (de Château, Holmberg, & Winberg, 1978). No studies, however, have used diagnostic criteria to assess the mother’s psychological state. The current study examined the relationship

Robin P. Weatherill; Jason B. Almerigi; Alytia A. Levendosky; G. Anne Bogat; Alexander Von Eye; Lauren Julius Harris

2004-01-01

405

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION INTO THREE VERTICAL MOLDS SUBMERGED IN A WATER-FILLED TANK BELOW THE CASTING FLOOR. THE CASTING CREW'S JOBS DURING THIS PHASE OF THE OPERATION INCLUDE REGULATING THE POURING RATE AND MONITORING THE VALVE RODS THAT CONTROL THE WATER SPRAYS ON THE MOLDS. DIFFERENT ALLOYS REQUIRE SPECIFIC POURING SPEEDS AND WATER PRESSURES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

406

Computer simulation of human breath-hold diving: cardiovascular adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world record for a sled-assisted human breath-hold dive has surpassed 200 m. Lung compression during descent draws blood\\u000a from the peripheral circulation into the thorax causing engorgement of pulmonary vessels that might impose a physiological\\u000a limitation due to capillary stress failure. A computer model was developed to investigate cardiopulmonary interactions during\\u000a immersion, apnea, and compression to elucidate hemodynamic responses and

John R. Fitz-Clarke

2007-01-01

407

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935-1992  

EIA Publications

This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry.

Information Center

1993-01-01

408

Development of an Animal Holding Facility for Space Shuttle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) developed by NASA is described. Besides providing general housing for various animal species, the RAHF is designed to minimize disturbance of the specimens caused by vehicle and mission operations. The RAHF system offers life-sustaining capabilities, such as food, water, and waste removal, as well as environmental control. Modularity of construction to accommodate a variety of small animals and associated instrumentation ensures continued use of RAHF as the sophistication of experiments increases on subsequent missions.

Berry, W. E.; Bowman, G. H.; Jagow, R. B.; Olcott, T. M.

1981-01-01

409

Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

1991-01-01

410

Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

2007-01-01

411

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

412

Learning & Memory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press has placed online the journal Learning & Memory, an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Online full-text content begins with the May/June 1998 issue; abstracts begin with the September/October, 1995 issue. The journal is produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1998-01-01

413

The Biology of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the conflicting evidence and points of view presented by scientists involved in research on the nature of memory. The research of one group supports a chemical basis for memory, while the other group presents evidence supporting an electro-physiological basis. (JR)

Arehart-Treichel, Joan

1973-01-01

414

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

415

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

416

Memory and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the memories of 40 Holocaust survivors who reflected on their lives more than 60 years after liberation. The participants were randomly selected from the larger group of Holocaust survivors in the “Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship Among Holocaust Survivors” study funded by the John Templeton Foundation. Data collected from open-end questions about their memories were analyzed. The findings

Harriet L. Cohen; Katie Meek; Mary Lieberman

2010-01-01

417

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

418

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

419

Composable memory transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing concurrent programs is notoriously difficult, and is of increasing practical importance. A particular source of concern is that even correctly-implemented concurrency abstractions cannot be composed together to form larger abstractions. In this paper we present a new concurrency model, based on transactional memory, that offers far richer composition. All the usual benefits of transactional memory are present (e.g. freedom

Tim Harris; Simon Marlow; Simon Peyton-Jones; Maurice Herlihy

2005-01-01

420

Extending Mondrian Memory Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most modern operating systems implement some sort of memory protection scheme for user processes. These schemes make it is possible to set access permissions that determine whether a region of memory allocated for a process can be read, written, or execut...

C. Kolbitsch C. Kruegel E. Kirda

2010-01-01

421

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

422

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

423

Regret as Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

2008-01-01

424

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

425

When forgetting preserves memory.  

PubMed

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

Hupbach, Almut

2013-01-01

426

Linux Physical Memory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tool suite for analysis of physical memory usage within the Linux kernel environment. This tool suite can be used to collect and analyze how the physi- cal memory within a Linux environment is being used. Embedded subsystems are common in today's computer systems. These embedded subsystems range from the very simple to the very complex. In such

Paul Movall; Ward Nelson; Shaun Wetzstein

2005-01-01

427

Computer Associative Memory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work done in the Computer Associative Memory Study Program is described. The object was to determine whether use of an Associative Memory would be of value in spaceborne computing problems. The results of the study are that a class of spaceborne problems ...

1964-01-01

428

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

429

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... remember until you pass it on. Long-term memory stores information that your brain retains because it is important to you. Basic information remembered includes names of family and friends, your address, as ... Long-term memory can be further divided into explicit, implicit and ...

430

Age and prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation into the effects of age, intelligence, and retrospective memory on performance in a prospective memory task in which subjects aged between 52 and 95 were required to telephone once a day either between two times or at an exact time. The most important influence on performance was how subjects chose to remember to make the

Elizabeth A. Maylor

1990-01-01

431

When Forgetting Preserves Memory  

PubMed Central

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies.

Hupbach, Almut

2013-01-01

432

High Density Memory Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention provides novel high density memory devices that are electrically addressable permitting effective reading and writing, that provide a high memory density (e.g., 10.sup.15 bits/cm.sup.3), that provide a high degree of fault tolerance, and th...

D. E. Bocian D. T. Gryko J. Lindsey P. C. Clausen W. G. Kuhr

2005-01-01

433

Holographic Random Access Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We designed and demonstrated a fully working, large-scale random-access holographic memory. The recording medium is a Fe-doped LiNb03 photorefractive crystal. The storage capacity of the memory is limited by the dynamic range and geometric limitation. The...

D. Psaltis

1997-01-01

434

Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

435

Interference within the Focus of Attention: Working Memory Tasks Reflect More than Temporary Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average…

Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W.

2013-01-01

436

On the Capacity of Attention: Its Estimation and Its Role in Working Memory and Cognitive Aptitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory (WM) is the set of mental processes holding limited information in a temporarily accessible state in service of cognition. We provide a theoretical framework to understand the relation between WM and aptitude measures. The WM measures that have yielded high correlations with aptitudes include separate storage-and-processing task…

Cowan, N.; Elliott, E.M.; Scott Saults, J.; Morey, C.C.; Mattox, S.; Hismjatullina, A.; Conway, A.R.A.

2005-01-01

437

Task Interference in Time-Based, Event-Based, and Dual Intention Prospective Memory Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forming the intention to complete an activity later is the standard definition of a prospective memory task. Recently, a debate has arisen concerning the degree to which near-term intentions usurp resources away from other ongoing activities. In four experiments the authors tested how much interference was caused by holding a variety of different…

Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.; Cook, Gabriel I.

2005-01-01

438

Task interference in time-based, event-based, and dual intention prospective memory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forming the intention to complete an activity later is the standard definition of a prospective memory task. Recently, a debate has arisen concerning the degree to which near-term intentions usurp resources away from other ongoing activities. In four experiments the authors tested how much interference was caused by holding a variety of different intentions. In all but one case, possessing

Jason L. Hicks; Richard L. Marsh; Gabriel I. Cook

2005-01-01

439

Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

At any instant, our visual system allows us to perceive a rich and detailed visual world. Yet our internal, explicit representation of this visual world is extremely sparse: we can only hold in mind a minute fraction of the visual scene. These mental representations are stored in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Even though VSTM is essential for the execution of

J. Jay Todd; René Marois

2004-01-01

440

Interpersonal Congruence, Transactive Memory, and Feedback Processes: An Integrative Model of Group Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a multilevel model of group learning that focuses on antecedents and consequences of interpersonal congruence, transactive memory, and feedback processes. The model holds that members' self-verification motives and situational conditions (e.g., member diversity and task demands) give rise to identity negotiation behaviors…

London, Manuel; Polzer, Jeffrey T.; Omoregie, Heather

2005-01-01

441

Hand-hold location and trunk kinematics during box handling.  

PubMed

Trunk kinematics variables have been shown to be related to low back injury risk during lifting tasks and it was hypothesised that changes in hand-hold positions could influence trunk kinematics and thereby risk. Fourteen subjects lifted a 5 or 10 kg box using four different hand placement locations (two symmetric and two asymmetric) while their trunk kinematics (position, velocity and acceleration in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes) were captured using the lumbar motion monitor (LMM). These kinematics data were then used to calculate the probability of high risk group membership (PHRGM) as defined in the LMM risk assessment model. The results showed significant effects of hand placement on trunk kinematics, resulting in significant changes in the PHRGM variable ranging from a low of 20% in a the symmetric low load condition to a high of 38% under the asymmetric, 10 kg condition. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Manual materials handlers use a variety of hand-hold positions on boxes during lifting. Where a lifter grabs the box can influence the trunk kinematics during the lifting task and these kinematics have been shown to provide some insight into risk of low back injury. This study documents the trunk postures and kinematics as a function of hand-hold position. PMID:20658397

Haddad, Omid; Mirka, Gary A

2010-08-01

442

Schemas and memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation. PMID:17412951

Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

2007-04-01

443

Computer memory management system  

DOEpatents

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01

444

Learning and memory.  

PubMed

Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review and define memory and learning processes from a neuropsychological perspective. Then we provide some illustrations of how noninvasive brain stimulation can play a major role in the investigation of memory functions, as it can be used to identify cause-effect relationships and chronometric properties of neural processes underlying cognitive steps. In clinical medicine, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used as a diagnostic tool to understand memory and learning deficits in various patient populations. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation is also being applied to enhance cognitive functions, offering exciting translational therapeutic opportunities in neurology and psychiatry. PMID:24112934

Brem, Anna-Katharine; Ran, Kathy; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

445

Memory Event Clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce logics and automata based on memory event clocks. A memory clock is not really reset: instead, a new clock is created, while the old one is still accessible by indexing. We can thus constrain not only the time since the last reset (which was the main limitation in event clocks), but also since previous resets. When we introduce these clocks in the linear temporal logic of the reals, we create Recursive Memory Event Clocks Temporal Logic (RMECTL). It turns out to have the same expressiveness as the Temporal Logic with Counting (TLC) of Hirshfeld and Rabinovich. We then examine automata with recursive memory event clocks (RMECA). Recursive event clocks are reset by simpler RMECA, hence the name "recursive". In contrast, we show that for RMECA, memory clocks do not add expressiveness, but only concision. The original RECA define thus a fully decidable, robust and expressive level of real-time expressiveness.

Jerson Ortiz, James; Legay, Axel; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves

446

Graphene flash memory.  

PubMed

Graphene's single atomic layer of sp(2) carbon has recently garnered much attention for its potential use in electronic applications. Here, we report a memory application for graphene, which we call graphene flash memory (GFM). GFM has the potential to exceed the performance of current flash memory technology by utilizing the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high density of states, high work function, and low dimensionality. To this end, we have grown large-area graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition and integrated them into a floating gate structure. GFM displays a wide memory window of ?6 V at significantly low program/erase voltages of ±7 V. GFM also shows a long retention time of more than 10 years at room temperature. Additionally, simulations suggest that GFM suffers very little from cell-to-cell interference, potentially enabling scaling down far beyond current state-of-the-art flash memory devices. PMID:21854056

Hong, Augustin J; Song, Emil B; Yu, Hyung Suk; Allen, Matthew J; Kim, Jiyoung; Fowler, Jesse D; Wassei, Jonathan K; Park, Youngju; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jin; Kaner, Richard B; Weiller, Bruce H; Wang, Kang L

2011-10-25

447

Domain-Specific Treatment Effects in Children with Language and/or Working Memory Impairments: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study with an n-of-1 design examined whether children with a specific language impairment without working memory impairment (SLI), a specific working memory impairment without language impairment (SWMI), or mixed language and working memory impairments (L&WMI) may respond differently to treatment targeting verbal or visuospatial…

Wener, Sarah E; Archibald, Lisa MD

2011-01-01

448

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

449

Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory.  

PubMed

In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid replication. Moreover, given the constructive nature of memories, the intact recollection of the fear association could eventually 'rebuild' the fear memory, resulting in the spontaneous recovery of the fear response. Yet, perseverance of the amnesic effects would have substantial clinical implications, as even the most effective treatments for psychiatric disorders display high percentages of relapse. Using a differential fear conditioning procedure in humans, we replicated our previous findings by showing that administering propranolol (40mg) prior to memory reactivation eliminated the startle fear response 24h later. But most importantly, this effect persisted at one month follow-up. Notably, the propranolol manipulation not only left the declarative memory for the acquired contingency untouched, but also skin conductance discrimination. In addition, a close association between declarative knowledge and skin conductance responses was found. These findings are in line with the supposed double dissociation of fear conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the amygdala and hippocampus in humans. They support the view that skin conductance conditioning primarily reflects contingency learning, whereas the startle response is a rather specific measure of fear. Furthermore, the results indicate the absence of a causal link between the actual knowledge of a fear association and its fear response, even though they often operate in parallel. Interventions targeting the amygdalar fear memory may be essential in specifically and persistently dampening the emotional impact of fear. From a clinical and ethical perspective, disrupting reconsolidation points to promising interventions persistently erasing fear responses from trauma memory without affecting the actual recollection. PMID:20381628

Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

2010-07-01

450

Improvement of voltage holding and high current beam acceleration by MeV accelerator for ITER NB  

SciTech Connect

Voltage holding of -1 MV is an essential issue in development of a multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) negative ion accelerator, of which target is to accelerate 200 A/m{sup 2} H{sup -} ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV for several tens seconds. Review of voltage holding results ever obtained with various geometries of the accelerators showed that the voltage holding capability was about a half of designed value based on the experiment obtained from ideal small electrode. This is considered due to local electric field concentration in the accelerators, such as edge and steps between multi-aperture grids and its support structures. Based on the detailed investigation with electric field analysis, accelerator was modified to reduce the electric field concentration by reshaping the support structures and expanding the gap length between the grid supports. After the modifications, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV for more than one hour in vacuum. Improvement of the voltage holding characteristics progressed the energy and current accelerated by the MeV accelerator. Up to 2010, beam parameters achieved by the MAMuG accelerator were increased to 879 keV, 0.36 A (157 A/m{sup 2}) at perveance matched condition and 937 keV, 0.33 A (144 A/m{sup 2}) slightly under perveance.

Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Tobari, H.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, 311-0193 (Japan)

2011-09-26

451

Fundamental limitations in spin-ensemble quantum memories for cavity fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhomogeneously broadened spin ensembles play an important role in present-day implementation of hybrid quantum processing architectures. When coupled to a cavity, such an ensemble may serve as a multimode quantum memory for the cavity field, and by employing spin-refocusing techniques the quantum-memory time can be extended to the coherence time of individual spins in the ensemble. In this paper, we investigate such a memory protocol capable of storing an unknown cavity-field state, and we examine separately the various constituents of the protocol: the storage and readout part, the memory hold time with the spin ensemble and cavity field decoupled, and the parts employing spin-refocusing techniques. Using both analytical and numerical methods, we derive how the obtainable memory performance scales with various physical parameters.

Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

2013-12-01

452

The ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. However, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. Here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (Varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz), and Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli). We compare these species across three studies targeting different aspects of spatial memory: recall after a long-delay, learning mechanisms supporting memory and recall of multiple locations in a complex environment. We find that ruffed lemurs, the most frugivorous species, consistently showed more robust spatial memory than the other species across tasks-especially in comparison with sifakas, the most folivorous species. We discuss these results in terms of the importance of considering both ecological and social factors as complementary explanations for the evolution of primate cognitive skills. PMID:24469310

Rosati, Alexandra G; Rodriguez, Kerri; Hare, Brian

2014-07-01

453

A role for memory in prospective timing informs timing in prospective memory.  

PubMed

Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) tasks require the estimation of time in passing-known as prospective timing. Prospective timing is said to depend on an attentionally driven internal clock mechanism and is thought to be unaffected by memory for interval information (for reviews see, Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010; Block & Zakay, 1997). A prospective timing task that required a verbal estimate following the entire interval (Experiment 1) and a TBPM task that required production of a target response during the interval (Experiment 2) were used to test an alternative view that episodic memory does influence prospective timing. In both experiments, participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task of fixed duration while a varying number of songs were played in the background. Experiment 1 results revealed that verbal time estimates became longer the more songs participants remembered from the interval, suggesting that memory for interval information influences prospective time estimates. In Experiment 2, participants who were asked to perform the TBPM task without the aid of an external clock made their target responses earlier as the number of songs increased, indicating that prospective estimates of elapsed time increased as more songs were experienced. For participants who had access to a clock, changes in clock checking coincided with the occurrence of song boundaries, indicating that participants used both song information and clock information to estimate time. Finally, ongoing task performance and verbal reports in both experiments further substantiate a role for episodic memory in prospective timing. PMID:22984950

Waldum, Emily R; Sahakyan, Lili

2013-08-01

454

Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

2012-01-01

455

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Noradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Müller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

456

Mobile Memory: Improving Memory Locality in Very Large Reconfigurable Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the size of reconfigurable fabrics increases we can envision entire applications being mapped to a reconfig- urable device; not just the code, but also the memory. These larger circuits, unfortunately, will suffer from the problem of a growing memory bottleneck. In this paper we explore how mobile memory techniques, inspired by cache-only memory architectures, can be applied to help

Rong Yan; Seth Copen Goldstein

2002-01-01

457

Young and older adults' beliefs about effective ways to mitigate age-related memory decline.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether young and older adults vary in their beliefs about the impact of various mitigating factors on age-related memory decline. Eighty young (ages 18-23) and 80 older (ages 60-82) participants reported their beliefs about their own memory abilities and the strategies that they use in their everyday lives to attempt to control their memory. Participants also reported their beliefs about memory change with age for hypothetical target individuals who were described as using (or not using) various means to mitigate memory decline. There were no age differences in personal beliefs about control over current or future memory ability. However, the two age groups differed in the types of strategies they used in their everyday life to control their memory. Young adults were more likely to use internal memory strategies, whereas older adults were more likely to focus on cognitive exercise and maintaining physical health as ways to optimize their memory ability. There were no age differences in rated memory change across the life span in hypothetical individuals. Both young and older adults perceived strategies related to improving physical and cognitive health as effective means of mitigating memory loss with age, whereas internal memory strategies were perceived as less effective means for controlling age-related memory decline. PMID:22082012

Horhota, Michelle; Lineweaver, Tara; Ositelu, Monique; Summers, Kristi; Hertzog, Christopher

2012-06-01

458

Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

Schaefer, Carl F.

1980-01-01

459

From Corporate Memories to Supply Web Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern production has discovered knowledge as an additional factor of production and a new trend of research, development and implementation of corporate memory systems is arising. The global economy leads to tighter corporation relations be- tween enterprises. Therefore the knowledge of one product does not exist in a single company but within participating companies respective the sup- ply chain. A

Ingo J. Timm; Heiner Stuckenschmidt

2001-01-01

460

Comparison of cerebral vascular reactivity measures obtained using breath-holding and CO2 inhalation  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of cerebral vasculature using hypercapnia has been widely used to study cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR), which can be expressed as the quantitative change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) per mm?Hg change in end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2). We investigate whether different respiratory manipulations, with arterial spin labeling used to measure CBF, lead to consistent measures of CVR. The approaches included: (1) an automated system delivering variable concentrations of inspired CO2 for prospective targeting of PETCO2, (2) administration of a fixed concentration of CO2 leading to subject-dependent changes in PETCO2, (3) a breath-hold (BH) paradigm with physiologic modeling of CO2 accumulation, and (4) a maneuver combining breath-hold and hyperventilation. When CVR was expressed as the percent change in CBF per mm?Hg change in PETCO2, methods 1 to 3 gave consistent results. The CVR values using method 4 were significantly lower. When CVR was expressed in terms of the absolute change in CBF (mL/100?g per minute per mm?Hg), greater discrepancies became apparent: methods 2 and 3 gave lower absolute CVR values compared with method 1, and the value obtained with method 4 was dramatically lower. Our findings indicate that care must be taken to ensure that CVR is measured over the linear range of the CBF-CO2 dose–response curve, avoiding hypocapnic conditions.

Tancredi, Felipe B; Hoge, Richard D

2013-01-01

461

Comparison of cerebral vascular reactivity measures obtained using breath-holding and CO2 inhalation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of cerebral vasculature using hypercapnia has been widely used to study cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR), which can be expressed as the quantitative change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) per mm?Hg change in end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2). We investigate whether different respiratory manipulations, with arterial spin labeling used to measure CBF, lead to consistent measures of CVR. The approaches included: (1) an automated system delivering variable concentrations of inspired CO2 for prospective targeting of PETCO2, (2) administration of a fixed concentration of CO2 leading to subject-dependent changes in PETCO2, (3) a breath-hold (BH) paradigm with physiologic modeling of CO2 accumulation, and (4) a maneuver combining breath-hold and hyperventilation. When CVR was expressed as the percent change in CBF per mm?Hg change in PETCO2, methods 1 to 3 gave consistent results. The CVR values using method 4 were significantly lower. When CVR was expressed in terms of the absolute change in CBF (mL/100?g per minute per mm?Hg), greater discrepancies became apparent: methods 2 and 3 gave lower absolute CVR values compared with method 1, and the value obtained with method 4 was dramatically lower. Our findings indicate that care must be taken to ensure that CVR is measured over the linear range of the CBF-CO2 dose-response curve, avoiding hypocapnic conditions. PMID:23571282

Tancredi, Felipe B; Hoge, Richard D

2013-07-01

462

Memory of myself: autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A number of theories posit a relationship between autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity in 20 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 age-matched controls, and investigated whether degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests of autobiographical memory (Autobiographical Memory Interview, autobiographical fluency) and two measures of identity (Twenty Statements Test, identity items of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale) were administered. AD participants exhibited significant impairments on both memory tests, and changes in the strength, quality, and direction of identity relative to controls. Impairments of some components of autobiographical memory, particularly autobiographical memory for childhood and early adulthood, were related to changes in the strength and quality of identity. These findings support the critical role of early adulthood autobiographical memories (16-25 years) in identity, and suggest autobiographical memory loss affects identity. PMID:15098621

Addis, Donna Rose; Tippett, Lynette J

2004-01-01

463

Memory consolidation for duration.  

PubMed

Humans and animals encode and store in memory elapsed intervals as evidenced through their temporal expectancies. However, there are very few experimental studies on long-term memory of duration. The aim of this original study was to examine the consolidation process for duration and its effect on time judgement. In our study, memory of duration was tested in humans with a temporal generalization task. Consolidation was assessed by means of a 15-min nontemporal interference task introduced at different delays after the initial learning of a 4-s standard duration. The results showed that (a) when tested 24?hours after the learning phase, memory of the 4-s duration was disrupted (less precision and lengthening effect) if the interference task was introduced 30-45?min after learning; (b) no disruption was observed when memory was tested immediately after the interference task; and (c) there was a temporal gradient of the disruptive interference effect within the first hour after learning. Overall, these results fulfil the key criteria for the inference of a synaptic/cellular consolidation process and thus demonstrate that, as is the case for other memories, memory of duration undergoes a consolidation process that lasts at least one hour. PMID:24279983

Cocenas-Silva, Raquel; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Doyère, Valérie; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

2014-07-01

464

Magnetic Core Memory Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the Principle of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.

Doherty, Frederico A.

2008-01-23

465

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory is Special  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), while other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory is only partly responsible for the observed link between working memory and reasoning (Unsworth & Engle, 2006, 2007b). The present study investigates the relationship between processing speed, working memory, secondary memory, primary memory, and fluid intelligence. Although our findings show all constructs are significantly correlated with fluid intelligence, working memory, but not secondary memory, accounts for significant unique variance in fluid intelligence. Our data support predictions made by Unsworth and Engle, and suggest that the combined need for maintenance and retrieval processes present in working memory tests makes them “special” in their prediction of higher-order cognition.

Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

466

Memory, language, and ageing.  

PubMed Central

This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing.

Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

1997-01-01

467

NOTE: Dosimetric evaluation of inspiration and expiration breath-hold for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning of non-small cell lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare target coverage and lung tissue sparing between inspiration and expiration breath-hold intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective study, seven NSCLC patients gave written consent to undergo both moderate deep inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold computed tomography (CT), which were used to generate five-field IMRT plans. Dose was calculated with a scatter and an inhomogeneity correction algorithm. The percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90), the volume of total lung receiving >= 10 Gy (V10) and >= 20 Gy (V20) and the mean lung dose (MLD) were compared by the Student's paired t-test. Compared with the expiration plans, the mean ± SD reductions for V10, V20 and MLD on the inspiration plans were 4.0 ± 3.7% (p = 0.031), 2.5 ± 2.3% (p = 0.028) and 1.1 ± 0.7 Gy (p = 0.007), respectively. Conversely, a mean difference of 1.1 ± 1.1% (p = 0.044) in PTV90 was demonstrated in favour of expiration. When using IMRT, inspiration breath-hold can reduce the dose to normal lung tissue while expiration breath-hold can improve the target coverage. The improved lung sparing at inspiration may outweigh the modest improvements in target coverage at expiration.

Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hatton, Matthew Q. F.; Ireland, Rob H.

2010-04-01

468

Attentional blink magnitude is predicted by the ability to keep irrelevant material out of working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants have difficulty in reporting the second of two masked targets if the second target is presented within 500 ms\\u000a of the first target—an attentional blink (AB). Individual participants differ in the magnitude of their AB. The present study\\u000a employed an individual differences design and two visual working memory tasks to examine whether visual working memory capacity\\u000a and\\/or the ability to

Karen M. Arnell; Shawn M. Stubitz

2010-01-01

469

Sequoia: Programming the Memory Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Sequoia, a programming language designed to facilitate the development of memory hierarchy aware parallel programs that remain portable across modern machines featuring different memory hierarchy configurations. Sequoia abstractly exposes hierarchical memory in the programming model and provides language mechanisms to describe communication vertically through the machine and to localize computation to particular memory locations within it. We have

Kayvon Fatahalian; Timothy J. Knight; Mike Houston; Mattan Erez; Daniel Reiter Horn; Larkhoon Leem; Ji Young Park; Manman Ren; Alex Aiken; William J. Dally; Pat Hanrahan

2006-01-01

470

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

471

The Composition of Episodic Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

472

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

473

Genetic neuroscience of mammalian learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our primary research interest is to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms on neuronal cir- cuitry underlying the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents. We study these problems by producing genetically engineered (i.e. spatially targeted and\\/or tem- porally restricted) mice and analysing these mice by multifaceted methods including molecular and cellular biology, in vitro and in vivo

Susumu Tonegawa; Kazu Nakazawa; Matthew A. Wilson

2003-01-01

474

Technology demonstration assessment report for X-701B Holding Pond  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Demonstration Assessment Report (TDAR) was developed to evaluate and recommend the most feasible approach for cleanup of contaminated Minford soils below the X-701B Holding Pond and to summarize closure activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)X-701B Holding Pond(X-701B)site. In this TDAR, the recommended alternative and the activities for closure of the X-701B site are discussed. Four treatment technologies chosen for the TD, along with a contingent design, were evaluated to determine which approach would be appropriate for final closure of X-701B. These technologies address removal of soil contamination from the vadose zone and the saturated zone. The four technologies plus the Contingent Design evaluated were: In situ Soil Mixing with Solidification/Stabilization; In situ Soil Mixing with Isothermal Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Peroxidation Destruction; and Contingent Closure. These technologies were evaluated according to their performance, reliability, implementability, safety, waste minimization, cost, and implementation time. Based on these criteria, a preferred treatment approach was recommended. The goal of the treatment approach is to apply the most appropriate technology demonstrated at X-231 B in order to reduce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the saturated Minford soils directly beneath the X-701B Holding Pond. The closure schedule will include bid and award of two construction contracts, mobilization and demobilization, soil treatment, cap design, and cap construction. The total time required for soil treatment will be established based on actual performance of the soil treatment approach in the field.

Not Available

1992-07-01