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1

Hold-up power supply for flash memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hold-up power supply for flash memory systems is provided. The hold-up power supply provides the flash memory with the power needed to temporarily operate when a power loss exists. This allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows it to shut down gracefully. The hold-up power supply detects when a power loss on a power supply bus is occurring and supplies the power needed for the flash memory system to temporally operate. The hold-up power supply stores power in at least one capacitor. During normal operation, power from a high voltage supply bus is used to charge the storage capacitors. When a power supply loss is detected, the power supply bus is disconnected from the flash memory system. A hold-up controller controls the power flow from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. The hold-up controller uses feedback to assure that the proper voltage is provided from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. This power supplied by the storage capacitors allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows the flash memory system to shut down gracefully.

Ott, William E. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

2

Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Edmund T. Rolls1  

E-print Network

Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism Edmund T. Rolls1 *, Laura Dempere memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate

Deco, Gustavo

3

Memory as a new therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

This review aims to demonstrate how an understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in memory provides a basis for; (i) reconceptualizing some mental disorders; (ii) refining existing therapeutic tools; and (iii) designing new ones for targeting processes that maintain these disorders. First, some of the stages which a memory undergoes are defined, and the clinical relevance of an understanding of memory processing by the brain is discussed. This is followed by a brief review of some of the clinical studies that have targeted memory processes. Finally, some new insights provided by the field of neuroscience with implications for conceptualizing mental disorders are presented. PMID:24459414

Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver; Lanius, Ruth

2013-01-01

4

A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold’em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE’S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised\\u000a opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to

Jonathan Rubin; Ian Watson

2009-01-01

5

Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection.  

PubMed

Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

2014-01-01

6

Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search.  

PubMed

Multiple-target visual searches--when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display--are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience. PMID:23163788

Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

2013-10-01

7

Holding in Mind Conflicting Information: Pretending, Working Memory, and Executive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschoolers' recall of the true and pretend identities of an object in pretense was examined along with a battery of executive functioning and working memory tasks. We expected that children would retain separate identities, as well as a link between them, after observing episodes of pretense, and that memory for pretense would be related to executive functioning and working memory.

Kathleen Albertson; Cecilia Shore

2009-01-01

8

Targeted Memory Reactivation During Slow Wave Sleep Facilitates Emotional Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the mechanisms by which auditory targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during slow wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of emotionally negative and neutral memories. Design: Each of 72 (36 negative, 36 neutral) picture-location associations were encoded with a semantically related sound. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in SWS, before picture-location recall was examined in a final test. Setting: Manchester Sleep Laboratory, University of Manchester. Participants: 15 adults (3 male) mean age = 20.40 (standard deviation ± 3.07). Interventions: TMR with auditory cues during SWS. Measurements and Results: Performance was assessed by memory accuracy and recall response times (RTs). Data were analyzed with a 2 (sound: replayed/not replayed) × 2 (emotion: negative/neutral) repeated measures analysis of covariance with SWS duration, and then SWS spindles, as the mean-centered covariate. Both analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction for RTs but not memory accuracy. Critically, SWS duration and SWS spindles predicted faster memory judgments for negative, relative to neutral, picture locations that were cued with TMR. Conclusions: TMR initiates an enhanced consolidation process during subsequent SWS, wherein sleep spindles mediate the selective enhancement of reactivated emotional memories. Citation: Cairney SA; Durrant SJ; Hulleman J; Lewis PA. Targeted memory reactivation during slow wave sleep facilitates emotional memory consolidation. SLEEP 2014;37(4):701-707. PMID:24688163

Cairney, Scott A.; Durrant, Simon J.; Hulleman, Johan; Lewis, Penelope A.

2014-01-01

9

A chemodynamic approach for estimating losses of target organic chemicals from water during sample holding time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minimizing the loss of target organic chemicals from environmental water samples between the time of sample collection and isolation is important to the integrity of an investigation. During this sample holding time, there is a potential for analyte loss through volatilization from the water to the headspace, sorption to the walls and cap of the sample bottle; and transformation through biotic and/or abiotic reactions. This paper presents a chemodynamic-based, generalized approach to estimate the most probable loss processes for individual target organic chemicals. The basic premise is that the investigator must know which loss process(es) are important for a particular analyte, based on its chemodynamic properties, when choosing the appropriate method(s) to prevent loss.

Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

1995-01-01

10

Priming of popout: III. A short-term implicit memory system beneficial for rapid target selection  

E-print Network

Priming of popout: III. A short-term implicit memory system beneficial for rapid target selection­8 trials, and is cumulative. Here we establish PoP as an example of short-term implicit memory by showing be more transient implicit memory systems, analogous to better known short-term explicit memory systems

Nakayama, Ken

11

Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for pain management: what does the future hold for NGF antagonists?  

PubMed

It is unanimously accepted that there is an unmet need for pain medications that are both effective and safe. Unfortunately, no really novel analgesics have been approved over the past three decades. In view of both experimental and clinical evidence of a major role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in the generation and maintenance of a wide range of pain states, drug discovery efforts focusing on the development of anti-NGF agents have aroused particular interest. Several humanized anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have entered clinical trials as potential analgesics. In this respect, tanezumab is at an advanced stage of clinical development while fulranumab, fasinumab and ABT-110, previously known as PG110, are in early phases of clinical development. This Current Opinion article aims at describing the rationale for targeting NGF for pain, reviewing the analgesic efficacy and safety of anti-NGF agents based on data from fully published studies, conference abstracts, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, and discussing the possible future of these agents in managing chronic pain. Anti-NGF mAbs produced significant pain relief and functional improvement in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip. Conversely, studies in non-specific lower back pain generated mixed results; overall, this condition appeared to be less responsive to anti-NGF agents than osteoarthritis. Finally, there was no conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of anti-NGF mAbs in some types of chronic visceral or neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these studies raised safety concerns about anti-NGF mAbs. As a class, these drugs may cause or worsen peripheral neuropathies. But the most problematic issue-which prompted the FDA to place studies of these compounds on clinical hold in 2010-was rapid joint destruction leading to joint replacement surgery. The aetiologies of these side effects have been much debated and their pathophysiology is poorly understood. After an Arthritis Advisory Committee meeting held in March 2012, pharmaceutical companies negotiated with the FDA on the conditions for restarting clinical studies. Although the FDA lifted its clinical hold, there remain many unresolved issues about the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-NGF mAbs. While acknowledging that the future of these drugs is unforeseeable, it appears that they may not be the safe and effective painkillers that have been awaited for decades. PMID:24691709

Bannwarth, Bernard; Kostine, Marie

2014-04-01

12

Simulating Working Memory Guiding Visual Attention for Capturing Target by Computational Cognitive Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are two opposite views on whether working memory can guide visual attention. Some researchers have reported that the\\u000a contents of working memory guide visual attention for capturing target efficiently. However, others reported that they could\\u000a not find any evidence of attention capture by working memory. In this study, it tried to find evidence for the first view\\u000a with computer

Rifeng Wang

13

Targeted enhancement of cortical-hippocampal brain networks and associative memory.  

PubMed

The influential notion that the hippocampus supports associative memory by interacting with functionally distinct and distributed brain regions has not been directly tested in humans. We therefore used targeted noninvasive electromagnetic stimulation to modulate human cortical-hippocampal networks and tested effects of this manipulation on memory. Multiple-session stimulation increased functional connectivity among distributed cortical-hippocampal network regions and concomitantly improved associative memory performance. These alterations involved localized long-term plasticity because increases were highly selective to the targeted brain regions, and enhancements of connectivity and associative memory persisted for ~24 hours after stimulation. Targeted cortical-hippocampal networks can thus be enhanced noninvasively, demonstrating their role in associative memory. PMID:25170153

Wang, Jane X; Rogers, Lynn M; Gross, Evan Z; Ryals, Anthony J; Dokucu, Mehmet E; Brandstatt, Kelly L; Hermiller, Molly S; Voss, Joel L

2014-08-29

14

Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence via targeted cortical inhibition  

PubMed Central

Suppressing retrieval of unwanted memories reduces their later conscious recall. It is widely believed, however, that suppressed memories can continue to exert strong unconscious effects that may compromise mental health. Here we show that excluding memories from awareness not only modulates medial temporal lobe regions involved in explicit retention, but also neocortical areas underlying unconscious expressions of memory. Using repetition priming in visual perception as a model task, we found that excluding memories of visual objects from consciousness reduced their later indirect influence on perception, literally making the content of suppressed memories harder for participants to see. Critically, effective connectivity and pattern similarity analysis revealed that suppression mechanisms mediated by the right middle frontal gyrus reduced activity in neocortical areas involved in perceiving objects and targeted the neural populations most activated by reminders. The degree of inhibitory modulation of the visual cortex while people were suppressing visual memories predicted, in a later perception test, the disruption in the neural markers of sensory memory. These findings suggest a neurobiological model of how motivated forgetting affects the unconscious expression of memory that may be generalized to other types of memory content. More generally, they suggest that the century-old assumption that suppression leaves unconscious memories intact should be reconsidered. PMID:24639546

Gagnepain, Pierre; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

2014-01-01

15

Systemic Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibits Fear Memory Reconsolidation  

PubMed Central

Background Established traumatic memories have a selective vulnerability to pharmacologic interventions following their reactivation that can decrease subsequent memory recall. This vulnerable period following memory reactivation is termed reconsolidation. The pharmacology of traumatic memory reconsolidation has not been fully characterized despite its potential as a therapeutic target for established, acquired anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is known to be involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We have examined the role of mTOR in traumatic memory reconsolidation. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were injected systemically with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (1 – 40 mg/kg), at various time points relative to contextual fear conditioning training or fear memory retrieval, and compared to vehicle or anisomycin-treated groups (N = 10–12 in each group). Results Inhibition of mTOR via systemic administration of rapamycin blocks reconsolidation of an established fear memory in a lasting manner. This effect is specific to reconsolidation as a series of additional experiments make an effect on memory extinction unlikely. Conclusions Systemic rapamycin, in conjunction with therapeutic traumatic memory reactivation, can decrease the emotional strength of an established traumatic memory. This finding not only establishes mTOR regulation of protein translation in the reconsolidation phase of traumatic memory, but also implicates a novel, FDA-approved drug treatment for patients suffering from acquired anxiety disorders such as PTSD and specific phobia. PMID:18316213

Blundell, Jacqueline; Kouser, Mehreen; Powell, Craig M.

2008-01-01

16

Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing.

De Fockert, Jan W.; Leiser, Jaclyn

2014-01-01

17

The role of verbal memory in regressions during reading is modulated by the target word's recency in memory.  

PubMed

During reading, a number of eye movements are made backward, on words that have already been read. Recent evidence suggests that such eye movements, called regressions, are guided by memory. Several studies point to the role of spatial memory, but evidence for the role of verbal memory is more limited. In the present study, we examined the factors that modulate the role of verbal memory in regressions. Participants were required to make regressions on target words located in sentences displayed on one or two lines. Verbal interference was shown to affect regressions, but only when participants executed a regression on a word located in the first part of the sentence, irrespective of the number of lines on which the sentence was displayed. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the effect of verbal interference on words located in the first part of the sentence disappeared when participants initiated the regression from the middle of the sentence. Our results suggest that verbal memory is recruited to guide regressions, but only for words read a longer time ago. PMID:24879638

Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Maltais, Marilyne; Lavoie, Hugo

2014-10-01

18

Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

2006-01-01

19

Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted  

E-print Network

. However, consistent with the long-term memory defects, the long-lasting LTP at the same synapses essential for hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-lasting LTPDeficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion

Smith, Desmond J.

20

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

21

Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory  

PubMed Central

The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure account, but consistent with their own model, the authors present empirical evidence that distinctive features of both living and nonliving things do indeed have a privileged role in the computation of word meaning. The authors explain the mechanism through which these effects are produced in their model by presenting an analysis of the weight structure developed in the network during training. PMID:16822138

Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

2011-01-01

22

Targeting Latent Function: Encouraging Effective Encoding for Successful Memory Training and Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive training programs for older adults often result in improvements at the group level. However, there are typically large age and individual differences in the size of training benefits. These differences may be related to the degree to which participants implement the processes targeted by the training program. To test this possibility, we tested older adults in a memory-training procedure

Cindy Lustig; Kristin E. Flegal

2008-01-01

23

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

24

Short-Term Memory for Reaching to Visual Targets: Psychophysical Evidence for Body-Centered Reference Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pointing to a remembered visual target involves the transfor- mation of visual information into an appropriate motor output, with a passage through short-term memory storage. In an attempt to identify the reference frames used to represent the target position during the memory period, we measured errors in pointing to remembered three-dimensional (3D) targets. Subjects pointed after a fixed delay to

J. McIntyre; F. Stratta; F. Lacquaniti

1998-01-01

25

Targeting Atmospheric Simulation Algorithms for Large Distributed Memory GPU Accelerated Computers  

SciTech Connect

Computing platforms are increasingly moving to accelerated architectures, and here we deal particularly with GPUs. In [15], a method was developed for atmospheric simulation to improve efficiency on large distributed memory machines by reducing communication demand and increasing the time step. Here, we improve upon this method to further target GPU accelerated platforms by reducing GPU memory accesses, removing a synchronization point, and better clustering computations. The modification ran over two times faster in some cases even though more computations were required, demonstrating the merit of improving memory handling on the GPU. Furthermore, we discover that the modification also has a near 100% hit rate in fast on-chip L1 cache and discuss the reasons for this. In concluding, we remark on further potential improvements to GPU efficiency.

Norman, Matthew R [ORNL

2013-01-01

26

Eye movements and visual memory: Detecting changes to saccade targets in scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccade-contingent change detection provides a powerful tool for investigating scene representation and scene memory. In the\\u000a present study, critical objects presented within color images of naturalistic scenes were changed during a saccade toward\\u000a or away from the target. During the saccade, the critical object was changed to another object type, to a visually different\\u000a token of the same object type,

John M. Henderson; Andrew Hollingworth

2003-01-01

27

Neuroligin-associated microRNA-932 targets actin and regulates memory in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) control levels of mRNA expression during experience-related remodelling of the brain. Here we use an associative olfactory learning paradigm in the honeybee Apis mellifera to examine gene expression changes in the brain during memory formation. Brain transcriptome analysis reveals a general downregulation of protein-coding genes, including asparagine synthetase and actin, and upregulation of ncRNAs. miRNA-mRNA network predictions together with PCR validation suggest miRNAs including miR-210 and miR-932 target the downregulated protein-coding genes. Feeding cholesterol-conjugated antisense RNA to bees results in the inhibition of miR-210 and of miR-932. Loss of miR-932 impairs long-term memory formation, but not memory acquisition. Functional analyses show that miR-932 interacts with Act5C, providing evidence for direct regulation of actin expression by an miRNA. An activity-dependent increase in miR-932 expression may therefore control actin-related plasticity mechanisms and affect memory formation in the brain. PMID:25409902

Cristino, Alexandre S; Barchuk, Angel R; Freitas, Flavia C P; Narayanan, Ramesh K; Biergans, Stephanie D; Zhao, Zhengyang; Simoes, Zila L P; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles

2014-01-01

28

Hold It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate the special shapes, holding structures and holding behaviors that real organisms use in streams, rivers, creeks or coast intertidal zones to avoid being swept away by moving water. Learners then create their own "animal" with holding adaptations. The activity includes drawings that detail helpful equipment such as bug boxes and dip nets, as well as instructions for making a milk-carton observation tray and flow-through trough.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

29

Targeting cellular memory to reprogram the epigenome, restore potential, and improve somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to require reprogramming of a somatic nucleus to a state of restored totipotentiality [Dean, W., Santos, F., Reik, W., 2003. Epigenetic programming in early mammalian development and following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 14, 93-100; Jouneau, A., Renard, J.P., 2003. Reprogramming in nuclear transfer. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13, 486-491; ]. Though SCNT-induced reprogramming is reminiscent of the reprogramming that occurs after fertilization, reprogramming a differentiated nucleus to an embryonic state is delayed and incomplete in comparison (for review, see ). This is likely due to the existence of an epigenetic-based cellular memory, or program, that serves to regulate global patterns of gene expression, and is the basis of a genome defense mechanism that silences viruses and transposons. The mechanisms of this memory include CpG methylation and modification of histones. Recent evidence by Feng et al. [Feng, Y.-Q., Desprat, R., Fu, H., Olivier, E., Lin, C.M., Lobell, A., Gowda, S.N., Aladjem, M.I., Bouhasira, E.E., 2006. DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells. PLOS Genet. 2, 0461-0470], using a transgenic experimental system, indicates that these marks may be acquired in more than one order and thus, silent heterochromatic structure can be initiated by either methylation of CpG dinucleotides or by histone modifications. In this system, however, CpG methylation appears to differ from histone modifications because it bestows a persistent epigenetic, or cellular, memory. In other words, CpG methylation can independently confer cellular memory, whereas histone modifications appear to be limited in this capacity. Therefore, in the context of genomic reprogramming induced by SCNT, efficient demethylation is likely a key (if not the only) rate-limiting step to improving the efficiency and outcomes of SCNT cloning. This review discusses the possibility of targeting cellular memory, and in particular inducing demethylation of a somatic nucleus prior to nuclear transfer, to enable reprogramming events typically carried out by oocyte factors and thereby improve developmental competence of SCNT-reconstructed embryos. Several recent published reviews of SCNT, cellular reprogramming and genomic demethylation served as valuable sources for the authors and are recommended as supplemental reading. These include the following: Bird, A., 2002. DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory. Gen. Dev. 16, 6-21; Grafi, G., 2004. How cells dedifferentiate: a lesson from plants. Dev. Biol. 268, 1-6; Latham, K.E., 2005. Early and delayed aspects of nuclear reprogramming during cloning. Biol. Cell 97, 119-132; Lyko, F., Brown, R., 2005. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and the development of epigenetic cancer therapies. J.Natl. Cancer Inst. 97, 1498-1506; Morgan, H.D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., Reik, W., 2005. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Hum. Mol. Gen. 14, R47-R58; Szyf, M., 2005. DNA methylation and demethylation as targets for anticancer therapy. Biochemistry 70, 533-549; Buszczak, M., Spradling, A.C., 2006. Searching chromatin for stem cell identity. Cell 125, 233-236; Gurdon, J.B., 2006. From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 22, 1-22; Yoo, C.B., Jones, P.A., 2006. Epigenetic therapy of cancer: past, present and future. Nat. Rev. 5, 37-50. PMID:17166676

Eilertsen, K J; Power, R A; Harkins, L L; Misica, P

2007-03-01

30

Working memory, perceptual priming, and the perception of hierarchical forms: opposite effects of priming and working memory without memory refreshing.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that stimuli held in working memory (WM) can influence spatial attention. Using Navon stimuli, we explored whether and how items in WM affect the perception of visual targets at local and global levels in compound letters. Participants looked for a target letter presented at a local or global level while holding a regular block letter as a memory item. An effect of holding the target's identity in WM was found. When memory items and targets were the same, performance was better than in a neutral condition when the memory item did not appear in the hierarchical letter (a benefit from valid cuing). When the memory item matched the distractor in the hierarchical stimulus, performance was worse than in the neutral baseline (a cost on invalid trials). These effects were greatest when the WM cue matched the global level of the hierarchical stimulus, suggesting that WM biases attention to the global level of form. Interestingly, in a no-memory priming condition, target perception was faster in the invalid condition than in the neutral baseline, reversing the effect in the WM condition. A further control experiment ruled out the effects of WM being due to participants' refreshing their memory from the hierarchical stimulus display. The data show that information in WM biases the selection of hierarchical forms, whereas priming does not. Priming alters the perceptual processing of repeated stimuli without biasing attention. PMID:20675799

Kim, Jeong-Im; Humphreys, Glyn W

2010-08-01

31

Hold Still  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hold Still, from the American Physical Society's Physical Review Focus, describes how Stanford graduate student Adam Cohen built a feedback device to stop Brownian motion in its tracks and trap particles down to about 20 microns across. The article includes a color image that is an artistic rendition of the random walk of Brownian motion.

2008-04-24

32

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

1997-10-07

33

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

34

Requirement of Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream effectors in cued fear memory reconsolidation and its persistence.  

PubMed

Memory retrieval, often termed reconsolidation, can render previously consolidated memories susceptible to manipulation that can lead to alterations in memory strength. Although it is known that reconsolidation requires mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation, the specific contributions of its downstream effectors in reconsolidation are unclear. Using auditory fear conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G interactions and p70 S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (S6K1) in reconsolidation. We found that neither 4EGI-1 (2-[(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-thiazol-2-ylhydrazono)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)]propionic acid), an inhibitor of eFI4E-eIF4G interactions, nor PF-4708671 [2-((4-(5-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole], an inhibitor of S6K1, alone blocked the reconsolidation of auditory fear memory. In contrast, using these drugs in concert to simultaneously block eIF4E-eIF4G interactions and S6K1 immediately after memory reactivation significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, the combination of 4EGI-1 and PF-4708671 further destabilized fear memory 10 d after memory reactivation, which was consistent with experiments using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of S6K1 immediately after retrieval resulted in memory destabilization 10 d after reactivation, whereas inhibition of eIF4E-eIF4G interactions did not. These results indicate that the reconsolidation of fear memory requires concomitant association of eIF4E to eIF4G as well as S6K1 activity and that the persistence of memory at longer intervals after memory reactivation also requires mTORC1-dependent processes that involve S6K1. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for how mTORC1-dependent translation is fine tuned to alter memory persistence. PMID:24990923

Huynh, Thu N; Santini, Emanuela; Klann, Eric

2014-07-01

35

The Slow Afterhyperpolarization: a Target of ?1-Adrenergic Signaling in Hippocampus-dependent Memory Retrieval  

PubMed Central

In rodents, adrenergic signaling by norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus is required for the retrieval of intermediate-term memory. NE promotes retrieval via the stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors, the production of cyclic AMP, and the activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. However, a final effector for this signaling pathway has not been identified. Among the many targets of adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus, the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is an appealing candidate because its reduction by ?1 signaling enhances excitatory neurotransmission. Here we report that reducing the sAHP is critical for the facilitation of retrieval by NE. Direct blockers of the sAHP, as well as blockers of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium influx that activates the sAHP, rescue retrieval in mutant mice lacking either NE or the ?1 receptor. Complementary to this, a facilitator of L-type calcium influx impairs retrieval in wild-type mice. In addition, we examined the role of NE in the learning-related reduction of the sAHP observed ex vivo in hippocampal slices. We find that this reduction in the sAHP depends on the induction of persistent PKA activity specifically in conditioned slices. Interestingly, this persistent PKA activity is induced by NE/?1 signaling during slice preparation rather than during learning. These observations suggest that the reduction in the sAHP may not be present autonomously in vivo, but is likely induced by neuromodulatory input, which is consistent with the idea that NE is required in vivo for reduction of the sAHP during memory retrieval. PMID:23486971

Zhang, Lei; Ouyang, Ming; Ganellin, C. Robin; Thomas, Steven A.

2013-01-01

36

Preface - Holding the name high  

E-print Network

ethnological Reports 32, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, 2002. I Tibetan Studies in honor of Samten Karmay 2 studies, and sent their monks to study in this stronghold of the Gelugpa. Samten, however, does not hold fond memories of his time...

Pommaret, Françoise

2008-01-01

37

Working memory, perceptual priming, and the perception of hierarchical forms: Opposite effects of priming and working memory without memory refreshing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that stimuli held in working memory (WM) can influence spatial attention. Using Navon stimuli,\\u000a we explored whether and how items in WM affect the perception of visual targets at local and global levels in compound letters.\\u000a Participants looked for a target letter presented at a local or global level while holding a regular block letter as

Jeong-Im Kim; Glyn W. Humphreys

2010-01-01

38

Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces  

PubMed Central

Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. PMID:24847299

Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

39

Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

2005-01-01

40

Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the DA D1-type receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n=97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits), and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT×DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMTValVal individuals, but impaired target detection in COMTMet carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMTValVal) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMTMet carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory. PMID:24144248

Smith, Christopher T.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

41

Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load.  

PubMed

Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the DA- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the D1-type DA receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n = 97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits) and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT × DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMT(ValVal) individuals, but impaired target detection in COMT(Met) carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMT(ValVal)) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMT(Met) carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory. PMID:24144248

Smith, Christopher T; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A

2014-02-01

42

Emerging memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

2014-12-01

43

Targeting OX40 Promotes Lung-Resident Memory CD8 T Cell Populations That Protect against Respiratory Poxvirus Infection?  

PubMed Central

One goal of vaccination is to promote development of mucosal effector cells that can immediately respond to peripheral infection. This is especially important for protection against viruses that enter the host through the respiratory tract. We show that targeting the OX40 costimulatory receptor (CD134) strongly promotes mucosal memory in the CD8 T cell compartment. Systemic injection of an agonist antibody to OX40 strongly enhanced development of polyfunctional effector CD8 T cells that were induced after intraperitoneal infection with a highly virulent strain of vaccinia virus. These cells were located in lymphoid organs and also the lung, and importantly, long-term memory CD8 T cells were maintained in the lung over 1 year. Anti-OX40 also boosted memory development when mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with viral peptide. These CD8 T cells were sufficient to provide protection from lethal respiratory infection with live vaccinia virus independent of CD4 T cells and antibody. Again, the CD8 T cell populations that were induced after secondary infection displayed polyfunctionality and were maintained in the lung for over a year. These data suggest that agonists to the OX40 costimulatory receptor represent potential candidates for incorporation into vaccines for respiratory viruses. PMID:21715499

Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Sette, Alessandro; Croft, Michael

2011-01-01

44

Attention Blinks for Selection, Not Perception or Memory: Reading Sentences and Reporting Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an…

Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

2011-01-01

45

More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity  

PubMed Central

The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process. PMID:24599946

Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

46

Evidence for the thalamic targets of the medial hypothalamic defensive system mediating emotional memory to predatory threats.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory have documented that the medial hypothalamic defensive system is critically involved in processing actual and contextual predatory threats, and that the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) represents the hypothalamic site most responsive to predatory threats. Anatomical findings suggest that the PMd is in a position to modulate memory processing through a projecting branch to specific thalamic nuclei, i.e., the nucleus reuniens (RE) and the ventral part of the anteromedial nucleus (AMv). In the present study, we investigated the role of these thalamic targets in both unconditioned (i.e., fear responses to predatory threat) and conditioned (i.e., contextual responses to predator-related cues) defensive behaviors. During cat exposure, all experimental groups exhibited intense defensive responses with the animals spending most of the time in the home cage displaying freezing behavior. However, during exposure to the environment previously associated with a cat, the animals with combined RE+AMv lesions, and to a lesser degree, animals with single AMv unilateral lesions, but not animals with single RE lesions, presented a reduction of contextual conditioned defensive responses. Overall, the present results provide clear evidence suggesting that the PMd's main thalamic targets (i.e., the nucleus reuniens and the AMv) seem to be critically involved in the emotional memory processing related to predator cues. PMID:20096798

Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F; Martinez, Raquel C R; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

2010-05-01

47

Targeting antigens to CD180 rapidly induces antigen-specific IgG, affinity maturation, and immunological memory  

PubMed Central

Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag–anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report that targeting Ag to a receptor expressed on both B cells and DCs, the TLR orphan receptor CD180, in the absence of adjuvant rapidly induced IgG responses that were stronger than those induced by Ag in alum. Ag conjugated to anti-CD180 (Ag-?CD180) induced affinity maturation and Ab responses that were partially T cell independent, as Ag-specific IgGs were generated in CD40- and T cell–deficient mice. After preimmunization with Ag-?CD180 and boosting with soluble Ag, both WT and CD40 knockout (KO) mice rapidly produced Ag-specific IgG-forming cells, demonstrating that Ag–anti-CD180 induces immunological memory. The potent adjuvant effect of Ag-?CD180 required Ag to be coupled to anti-CD180 and the responsive B cells to express both CD180 and an Ag-specific B cell receptor. Surprisingly, CD180 Ag targeting also induced IgG Abs in BAFF-R KO mice lacking mature B cells and in mice deficient in interferon signaling. Targeting Ag to CD180 may be useful for therapeutic vaccination and for vaccinating the immune compromised. PMID:24019553

Chaplin, Jay W.; Chappell, Craig P.

2013-01-01

48

Please cite this article in press as: Makovski, T., et al. Attending to unrelated targets boosts short-term memory for color arrays. Neuropsychologia (2011), doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.11.029  

E-print Network

short-term memory for color arrays. Neuropsychologia (2011), doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.elsevier.com/locate/neuropsychologia Attending to unrelated targets boosts short-term memory for color arrays Tal Makovski , Khena M. Swallow Available online xxx Keywords: Visual short term memory Dual-task processing Attentional boost effect a b

Jiang, Yuhong

49

Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both ?-amyloid production and clearance.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and A? production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit A? production by suppressing ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote A? clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased A? formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

2013-08-01

50

The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L. E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. "Cognition, 93", 75-97]. This conflicts with earlier results showing…

Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

2010-01-01

51

EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala.  

PubMed

Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30?min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1?h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:25268254

Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

2014-01-01

52

EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala  

PubMed Central

Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30?min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1?h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:25268254

Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

2014-01-01

53

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... holding spell are not at more risk of getting a seizure disorder. ... spells If your child's breath holding spells are getting worse or ... breathing Your child has seizures for more than one minute

54

Looking beyond the hippocampus: old and new neurological targets for understanding memory disorders.  

PubMed

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redressing the balance and the value of looking beyond the hippocampus when seeking to explain failures in learning new episodic information. PMID:24850926

Aggleton, John P

2014-07-01

55

Selective pharmacogenetic inhibition of mammalian target of Rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) blocks long-term synaptic plasticity and memory storage  

PubMed Central

Both the formation of long-term memory (LTM) and late-long-term potentiation (L-LTP), which is thought to represent the cellular model of learning and memory, require de novo protein synthesis. The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) integrates information from various synaptic inputs and its best characterized function is the regulation of translation. Although initial studies have shown that rapamycin reduces L-LTP and partially blocks LTM, recent genetic and pharmacological evidence indicating that mTORC1 promotes L-LTP and LTM is controversial. Thus, the role of mTORC1 in L-LTP and LTM is unclear. To selectively inhibit mTORC1 activity in the adult brain, we used a “pharmacogenetic” approach that relies on the synergistic action of a drug (rapamycin) and a genetic manipulation (mTOR heterozygotes, mTOR+/? mice) on the same target (mTORC1). Although L-LTP and LTM are normal in mTOR+/? mice, application of a low concentration of rapamycin—one that is subthreshold for WT mice—prevented L-LTP and LTM only in mTOR+/? mice. Furthermore, we found that mTORC1-mediated translational control is required for memory reconsolidation. We provide here direct genetic evidence supporting the role of mTORC1 in L-LTP and behavioral memory. PMID:21307309

Stoica, Loredana; Zhu, Ping Jun; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Hongyi; Kozma, Sara C.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

2011-01-01

56

Removable hand hold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

57

Young APOE4 targeted replacement mice exhibit poor spatial learning and memory, with reduced dendritic spine density in the medial entorhinal cortex.  

PubMed

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-?4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and may predispose individuals to Alzheimer's-related cognitive decline by affecting normal brain function early in life. To investigate the impact of human APOE alleles on cognitive performance in mice, we trained 3-mo-old APOE targeted replacement mice (E2, E3, and E4) in the Barnes maze to locate and enter a target hole along the perimeter of the maze. Long-term spatial memory was probed 24 h and 72 h after training. We found that young E4 mice exhibited significantly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze compared to E3 mice. Deficits in spatial cognition were also present in a second independent cohort of E4 mice tested at 18 mo of age. In contrast, cognitive performance in the hidden platform water maze was not as strongly affected by APOE genotype. We also examined the dendritic morphology of neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex of 3-mo-old TR mice, neurons important to spatial learning functions. We found significantly shorter dendrites and lower spine densities in basal shaft dendrites of E4 mice compared to E3 mice, consistent with spatial learning and memory deficits in E4 animals. These findings suggest that human APOE-?4 may affect cognitive function and neuronal morphology early in life. PMID:23592036

Rodriguez, Gustavo A; Burns, Mark P; Weeber, Edwin J; Rebeck, G William

2013-05-01

58

Opposing Effects of CTLA4 Insufficiency on Regulatory versus Conventional T Cells in Autoimmunity Converge on Effector Memory in Target Tissue.  

PubMed

Quantitative variations in CTLA4 expression, because of genetic polymorphisms, are associated with various human autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Extensive studies have demonstrated that CTLA4 is not only essential for the suppressive role of regulatory T cells (Treg) but also required for intrinsic control of conventional T (Tconv) cells. We report that a modest insufficiency of CTLA4 in mice, which mimics the effect of some human CTLA4 genetic polymorphisms, accompanied by a T1D-permissive MHC locus, was sufficient to induce juvenile-onset diabetes on an otherwise T1D-resistant genetic background. Reduction in CTLA4 levels had an unanticipated effect in promoting Treg function both in vivo and in vitro. It led to an increase in Treg memory in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid target tissue. Conversely, modulating CTLA4 by either RNA interference or Ab blockade promoted conventional effector memory T cell formation in the Tconv compartment. The CD4(+) conventional effector memory T cells, including those within target tissue, produced IL-17 or IFN-?. Blocking IL-7 signaling reduced the Th17 autoimmune compartment but did not suppress the T1D induced by CTLA4 insufficiency. Enhanced effector memory formation in both Tconv and Treg lineages may underpin the apparently dichotomized impact of CTLA4 insufficiency on autoimmune pathogenesis. Therefore, although the presence of CTLA4 plays a critical role in controlling homeostasis of T cells, its quantitative variation may impose diverse or even opposing effects on distinct lineages of T cells, an optimal sum of which is necessary for preservation of T cell immunity while suppressing tissue damage. PMID:25246499

Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Miska, Jason; Lui, Jen Bon; Swieboda, Dominika; Chen, Zhibin

2014-11-01

59

The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory  

PubMed Central

We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets’ locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research. PMID:25339978

Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

2014-01-01

60

NCHEMS Data Holdings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data holdings of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems as of November 30, 1984, are described. For each set of data, the following items are included: name, originating organization, contact person for originating organization, frequency of issue, time span covered by the data, subject matter and scope of the data,…

Christal, Melodie E.

61

Effects of aging and working memory demands on prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging, increasing the working memory demands of the ongoing activity, and a prospective memory load on the neural correlates of prospective remembering and target recognition. The behavioral data revealed that the success of prospective memory was sensitive to working memory load in younger, but not older, adults

Robert West; Ritvij Bowry

2005-01-01

62

Spatio-temporal Modeling of Evoked Brain Activity During Memory Encoding and Target Comparison in Visual Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the temporal pattern of activity and approximate locations of brain areas related to selective attention and\\u000a visual working memory processes were studied with event related potential (ERP) recordings in healthy humans. Three experimental\\u000a series included pairs of the following conditions: Face comparison (familiar faces), Pattern comparison (abstract dot patterns),\\u000a and Passive viewing. Participants compared pairs of consecutive

Elena V. Mnatsakanian; Ina M. Tarkka

2007-01-01

63

Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further effects of acceleration on gaze stability was examined during centrifugation (+2 G (sub x) and +2 G (sub z) using a total of 23 subjects. In all of our investigations eccentric gaze-holding was established by having the subjects acquire an eccentric target (+/-30 degrees horizontal, +/- 15 degrees vertical) that was flashed for 750 msec in an otherwise dark room. Subjects were instructed to hold gaze on the remembered position of the flashed target for 20 sec. Immediately following the 20 sec period, subjects were cued to return to the remembered center position and to hold gaze there for an additional 20 sec. Following this 20 sec period the center target was briefly flashed and the subject made any corrective eye movement back to the true center position. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting the natural log of centripetal eye drifts by linear regression and calculating the time constant (G) of these slow phases of "gaze-evoked nystagmus". However, because our normative subjects sometimes showed essentially no drift (tau (sub c) = m), statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of the decay constant theta = 1/(tau (sub c)) which we found was well modeled by a gamma distribution. Subjects showed substantial variance of their eye drifts, which were centrifugal in approximately 20 % of cases, and > 40% for down gaze. Using the ensuing estimated gamma distributions, we were able to conclude that rightward and leftward gaze holding were not significantly different, but that upward gaze holding was significantly worse than downward (p<0.05). We also concluded that vertical gaze holding was significantly worse than horizontal (p<0.05). In the case of left and right roll, we found that both had a similar improvement to horizontal gaze holding (p<0.05), but didn't have a significant effect on vertical gaze holding. For pitch tilts, both tilt angles significantly decreased gaze-holding ility in all directions (p<0.05). Finally, we found that hyper

Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

2006-01-01

64

Accuracy and Confidence of Visual Short-Term Memory Do Not Go Hand-In-Hand: Behavioral and Neural Dissociations  

PubMed Central

Currently influential models of working memory posit that memory content is highly accessible to conscious inspection. These models predict that metacognition of memory performance should go hand-in-hand with the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. To test this view, we investigated how visual information presented during the maintenance period affects VSTM accuracy and confidence. We used a delayed cue–target orientation discrimination task in which participants were asked to hold in memory a grating, and during the maintenance period a second memory cue could be presented. VSTM accuracy of the first memory cue was impaired when the orientation of the second memory cue was sufficiently different. However, participants' response confidence was reduced whenever the second memory cue was presented; thus VSTM accuracy and confidence were dissociated. In a second experiment, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to investigate the causal role of this region in VSTM metacognition. Relative to the sham condition, anodal tDCS induced a general reduction in confidence ratings but did not affect VSTM accuracy. Overall, these results indicate that our metacognition of memory performance is influenced by factors other than the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. PMID:24663094

Bona, Silvia; Silvanto, Juha

2014-01-01

65

Memory Dynamics in Cross-Situational Statistical Learning  

E-print Network

learning conditions presented learners with varying numbers of items to hold in working memory.learning condition engendered retrieval dynamics that crossed the bounds of short-term/working memorylearning conditions. What is more likely is that working memory

Vlach, Haley Amelia Heublein

2012-01-01

66

Holding a grudge  

PubMed Central

The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system of bacteria and archaea constitutes a mechanism of acquired adaptive immunity against phages, which is based on genome-encoded markers of previously infecting phage sequences (“spacers”). As a repository of phage sequences, these spacers make the system particularly suitable for elucidating phage-bacteria interactions in metagenomic studies. Recent metagenomic analyses of CRISPRs associated with the human microbiome intriguingly revealed conserved “memory spacers” shared by bacteria in multiple unrelated, geographically separated individuals. Here, we discuss possible avenues for explaining this phenomenon by integrating insights from CRISPR biology and phage-bacteria ecology, with a special focus on the human gut. We further explore the growing body of evidence for the role of CRISPR/Cas in regulating the interplay between bacteria and lysogenic phages, which may be intimately related to the presence of memory spacers and sheds new light on the multifaceted biological and ecological modes of action of CRISPR/Cas. PMID:23439321

Mick, Eran; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

2013-01-01

67

Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

2008-01-01

68

Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through supplying feedback for actual task duration. For Experiments 1

Michael M. Roy; Scott T. Mitten; Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld

2008-01-01

69

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

70

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

71

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

72

An Introduction to Holdings Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While preparing to migrate from Innovative Interfaces' text-based serials module to its new Millennium Serials product, the author, a manager of technical services operations in a small academic library, found herself faced with a number of decisions regarding how to store holdings information. Holdings data is information about individual items…

Lincicum, Shirley

2004-01-01

73

Structured representations in visual working memory  

E-print Network

How much visual information can we hold in mind at once? A large body of research has attempted to quantify the capacity of visual working memory by focusing on how many individual objects or visual features can be actively ...

Brady, Timothy F

2011-01-01

74

About Sleep's Role in Memory  

PubMed Central

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

2013-01-01

75

Targeting Subgroups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By requiring limited-English-proficient students and students with disabilities to meet the same targets at the same times as all other students, the NCLB imposes a one-size-fits-all approach that ignores the individual child. Challenges school leaders to take care not to blame the students and still hold themselves accountable for continual…

Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

2003-01-01

76

A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

77

MEMORY MODULATION  

PubMed Central

Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

2011-01-01

78

The evolution of episodic memory  

PubMed Central

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

2013-01-01

79

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2011-07-01

80

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2014-07-01

81

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2012-07-01

82

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2013-07-01

83

31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and...

2010-07-01

84

78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor, Inc., New Generation Holdings, Inc., and Nuevo Financial Center, Inc.; Order...and accurate information concerning the securities of New Generation Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

2013-11-04

85

Stimulation of serotonin 2A receptors facilitates consolidation and extinction of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Excessive fear is a hallmark of several emotional and mental disorders such as phobias and panic disorders. Considerable attention is focused on defining the neurobiological mechanisms of the extinction of conditioned fear memory in an effort to identify mechanisms that may hold clinical significance for remediating aberrant fear memory. Serotonin modulates the acquisition and retention of conditioned emotional memory, and the serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR) may be one of the postsynaptic targets mediating such effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that the 5HT2AR regulates the consolidation and extinction of fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. The influence of 5HT2ARs on memory consolidation was further confirmed with a novel object recognition task. With a trace fear conditioning paradigm, administration of the 5HT2AR agonist TCB-2 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) before the extinction test facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory as compared to vehicle treatment. In contrast, administration of the 5HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed the acquisition of extinction of fear memory. Further, the post-conditioning administration of TCB-2 enhanced contextual and cued fear memory, possibly by facilitating the consolidation of fear memory. Administration of TCB-2 also facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory in delay fear conditioned mice. Stimulation or blockade of 5HT2ARs did not affect the encoding or retrieval of conditioned fear memory. Finally, administration of TCB-2 right after training in an object recognition task enhanced the consolidation of object memory. These results suggest that stimulation of 5HT2ARs facilitates the consolidation and extinction of trace and delay cued fear memory and the consolidation of object memory. Blocking the 5HT2AR impairs the acquisition of fear memory extinction. The results support the view that serotonergic activation of the 5HT2AR provides an important modulatory influence on circuits engaged during extinction learning. Taken together these results suggest that the 5HT2AR may be a potential therapeutic target for enhancing hippocampal and amygdala-dependent memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22722027

Zhang, Gongliang; Ásgeirsdóttir, Herborg N; Cohen, Sarah J; Munchow, Alcira H; Barrera, Mercy P; Stackman, Robert W

2013-01-01

86

Stimulation of serotonin 2A receptors facilitates consolidation and extinction of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice  

PubMed Central

Excessive fear is a hallmark of several emotional and mental disorders such as phobias and panic disorders. Considerable attention is focused on defining the neurobiological mechanisms of the extinction of conditioned fear memory in an effort to identify mechanisms that may hold clinical significance for remediating aberrant fear memory. Serotonin modulates the acquisition and retention of conditioned emotional memory, and the serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR) may be one of the postsynaptic targets mediating such effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that the 5HT2AR regulates the consolidation and extinction of fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. The influence of 5HT2ARs on memory consolidation was further confirmed with a novel object recognition task. With a trace fear conditioning paradigm, administration of the 5HT2AR agonist TCB-2 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) before the extinction test facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory as compared to vehicle treatment. In contrast, administration of the 5HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed the acquisition of extinction of fear memory. Further, the post-conditioning administration of TCB-2 enhanced contextual and cued fear memory, possibly by facilitating the consolidation of fear memory. Administration of TCB-2 also facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory in delay fear conditioned mice. Stimulation or blockade of 5HT2ARs did not affect the encoding or retrieval of conditioned fear memory. Finally, administration of TCB-2 right after training in an object recognition task enhanced the consolidation of object memory. These results suggest that stimulation of 5HT2ARs facilitates the consolidation and extinction of trace and delay cued fear memory and the consolidation of object memory. Blocking the 5HT2AR impairs the acquisition of fear memory extinction. The results support the view that serotonergic activation of the 5HT2AR provides an important modulatory influence on circuits engaged during extinction learning. Taken together these results suggest that the 5HT2AR may be a potential therapeutic target for enhancing hippocampal and amygdala-dependent memory. PMID:22722027

Zhang, Gongliang; Asgeirsdottir, Herborg N.; Cohen, Sarah J.; Munchow, Alcira H.; Barrera, Mercy P.; Stackman, Robert W.

2012-01-01

87

Phase-Dependent Neuronal Coding of Objects in Short-Term Memory  

E-print Network

The ability to hold multiple objects in memory is fundamental to intelligent behavior, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that multiple items may be held in memory by oscillatory activity ...

Siegel, Markus

88

Why girls say 'holded' more than boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are better than men at verbal memory tasks, such as remembering word lists. These tasks depend on declarative memory. The declarative\\/procedural model of language, which posits that the lexicon of stored words is part of declarative memory, while grammatical composition of complex forms depends on procedural memory, predicts a female superiority in aspects of lexical memory. Other neurocognitive models

Joshua K. Hartshorne; Michael T. Ullman

2006-01-01

89

HOLD FOR RELEASE UNTIL PRESENTED  

E-print Network

HOLD FOR RELEASE UNTIL PRESENTED BY WITNESS May 26, 2010 Statement of Administrator Charles F. Bolden, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration before the Committee on Science and Technology for NASA, following the President's important speech at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida

Waliser, Duane E.

90

HOLD FOR RELEASE UNTIL PRESENTED  

E-print Network

1 HOLD FOR RELEASE UNTIL PRESENTED BY WITNESS March 20, 2013 Statement of The Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Administrator National Aeronautics and Space Administration before the Subcommittee the Subcommittee on NASA's continuing progress in implementing the bi-partisan program for NASA agreed

Waliser, Duane E.

91

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

92

How generation affects source memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation effects (better memory for self-produced items than for provided items) typically occur in item memory. Jurica\\u000a and Shimamura (1999) reported anegative generation effect in source memory, but their procedure did not test participants on the items they had generated. In Experiment\\u000a 1, participants answered questions and read statements made by a face on a computer screen. The target word

Kindiya D. Geghman; Kristi S. Multhaup

2004-01-01

93

Memory T Cells in Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection.

Su, Charles A.; Fairchild, Robert L.

2014-01-01

94

Sensitivity of age-decline resistant (“Hold”) WAIS subtests to Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

WAIS age-decline-resistant (“hold”) and age-decline-sensitive (“don't hold”) subtests were both effective in discriminating 25 patients with Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT) from 25 normal elderly subjects who were matched on age, education, and sex. We found that global ratings of severity of dementia correlated significantly with the WAIS Information and Digit Symbol subtests, but not with memory test scores. These data indicate

Glenn J. Larrabee; John W. Largen; Harvey S. Levin

1985-01-01

95

The influence of working memory on the anger superiority effect.  

PubMed

The anger superiority effect shows that an angry face is detected more efficiently than a happy face. However, it is still controversial whether attentional allocation to angry faces is a bottom-up process or not. We investigated whether the anger superiority effect is influenced by top-down control, especially working memory (WM). Participants remembered a colour and then searched for differently coloured facial expressions. Just holding the colour information in WM did not modulate the anger superiority effect. However, when increasing the probabilities of trials in which the colour of a target face matched the colour held in WM, participants were inclined to direct attention to the target face regardless of the facial expression. Moreover, the knowledge of high probability of valid trials eliminated the anger superiority effect. These results suggest that the anger superiority effect is modulated by top-down effects of WM, the probability of events and expectancy about these probabilities. PMID:24564850

Moriya, Jun; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-12-01

96

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

2009-01-01

97

Cognitive memory.  

PubMed

Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA. Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. PMID:23453302

Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

2013-05-01

98

Analysis of memory accesses in embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of multimedia applications for embedded systems shows designers the limits of classical memory systems when dealing with large vectors of data. Therefore, a new type of cache memory specifically targeted for processing arrays and large sets of data has been proposed. In order to justify a new cache memory architecture, two assessments are needed: an evaluation of

L. Nosetti; C. Solomon; E. Macii

1999-01-01

99

The influence of working memory on visual search for emotional facial expressions.  

PubMed

In visual search tasks, an angry face surrounded by happy faces is more rapidly detected compared with a happy face surrounded by angry faces. This is called the anger superiority effect. The anger superiority effect has been mainly related to automatic attentional effects, but top-down mechanisms may also influence this effect. In a series of studies, we investigated the influence of holding emotional information in working memory (WM) on the anger superiority effect. In multiple experiments, participants were generally faster to find an angry target with happy distractors compared to a happy target with angry distractors. However, this anger superiority effect was diminished when holding angry information in WM, whereas the effect was still observed when holding happy information. These effects were not observed when participants did not remember emotional information other than the color of the emotional stimuli. The data indicate that enhanced processing of distractor facial expressions was observed when they matched the content of WM, facilitating target detection. However, when the contents of WM and distractor faces differed, the processing of distractor faces and detection of a target face were delayed. These results suggest that the anger superiority effect is modulated by top-down effects of WM and that interactions between contents of WM and perception of facial expressions determine the enhancement or reduction of the anger superiority effect. PMID:24999613

Moriya, Jun; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-10-01

100

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

101

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

102

[Memory processes in endogenous depression].  

PubMed

The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning. PMID:9640987

Radziwi??owicz, W; Radziwi??owicz, P

1998-01-01

103

12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its mutual holding company parent or to members of the mutual holding company parent. (4) The proposed price...company's mutual holding company parent at the close of the proposed...offering or direct community marketing, shall be completed as...

2012-01-01

104

No Holds Barred Issue 7  

E-print Network

was bending over me, holding up his lighter. "Keep still, your head's bleeding. You may have a concussion." The light went out. "I don't know how long my lighter's going to last and I'm worried about fumes. I can't smell anything, but there may be pock.... "Lee, lie down, you're hurt as well. There was blood all over you face, you're probably suffering from a concussion." "I'm allright," I managed. "You're not fucking all right," he snapped. "Just lie down a minute and shut up." I pulled myself...

Lindar; The Captain

2013-11-27

105

Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion of neurotrophin-4 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the learning and memory of neurotrophin-4 (NT4)\\/ mice by using fear conditioning. In both cue and context conditioning, we found significant deficits in the NT4 mutants at 2 and 24 h after training but not at 30 min. Hippocampal slices from the mutant mice showed normal basal synaptic transmission, short-term plasticity, and decremental long-term potentiation (LTP) at the

Cui-Wei Xie; David Sayah; Qi-Sheng Chen; Wei-Zheng Wei; Desmond Smith; Xin Liu

2000-01-01

106

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

107

No Holds Barred Issue 1  

E-print Network

Field Director. Vincent said I might know you by your dull couture and your glib tongue. So pleased to make your acquaintance." Frank eyed him dourly. "And I like you al ready. Other than your manly shoulders, slick, you got somethin' with your face..., their poverty glowed darkly at you from the stands to the strand. Their mother's people had wor shiped and mastered the sun. Their father's people had vanquished their mother's people. Beneath Frank's shoes, the red tile burned with an absolute memory...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

108

No Holds Barred Issue 25  

E-print Network

; How I can act normally around him when just a wisp of dream memory causes tendrils of green fire to lick across my nerves and threaten to rekindle desire's blaze? From all I've seen, he's as straight as I always assumed I was; all that I can... toward the sixth grade corridor. "Where do you have first period, Caro?" "Urn, math. Mr. Fox. Room 204. Why?" "Cause I got first period free. I'll join you there,help you reorganize this," he said, nod ding at the mess in my arms. I stood...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

109

Mechanisms of memory enhancement.  

PubMed

The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g., via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol, or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g., via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By utilizing this information and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

Stern, Sarah A; Alberini, Cristina M

2013-01-01

110

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

111

Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0?20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20?40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

2013-01-01

112

The uses of short-term memory: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely claimed that the systems employed in tasks of immediate memory have a function in the comprehension of speech; these systems, it has been proposed, are used to hold a representation of the speech until a syntactic analysis and interpretation have been completed. Such a holding function is meant to be especially important where the sentences heard

Brian Butterworth; Ruth Campbell; David Howard

1986-01-01

113

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

114

This paper concerns parallel, local computations with a data structure such a graph or mesh, which may be structured or unstructured. The target machine is a distributed-memory parallel processor with vector or pipeline hardware on  

E-print Network

of these points is a shared memory, with one cell writing there and the neighbors reading. A Set of Sets of Points runs efficiently on shared-memory and uniprocessor machines with and without vector hardware. A voxel database (VDB) is a distributed shared memory, where entities which share memory are those at the same

Williams, Roy

115

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

116

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

117

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

118

Are recovered memories accurate?  

E-print Network

Research in our laboratory has demonstrated blocked and recovered memories within the context of a controlled experiment. The comparative memory paradigm allows for comparisons of recovered memories, continuous memories, and false memories...

Gerkens, David

2005-08-29

119

Accelerator target  

SciTech Connect

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

1999-01-01

120

Accelerator target  

DOEpatents

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29

121

Dendritic Hold and Read: A Gated Mechanism for Short Term Information Storage and Retrieval  

PubMed Central

Two contrasting theories have been proposed to explain the mechanistic basis of short term memory. One theory posits that short term memory is represented by persistent neural activity supported by reverberating feedback networks. An alternate, more recent theory posits that short term memory can be supported by feedforward networks. While feedback driven memory can be implemented by well described mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, little is known of possible molecular and cellular mechanisms that can implement feedforward driven memory. Here we report such a mechanism in which the memory trace exists in the form of glutamate-bound but Mg2+-blocked NMDA receptors on the thin terminal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Because glutamate dissociates from subsets of NMDA receptors very slowly, excitatory synaptic transmission can leave a silent residual trace that outlasts the electrical activity by hundreds of milliseconds. Read-out of the memory trace is possible if a critical level of these bound-but-blocked receptors accumulates on a dendritic branch that will allow these quasi-stable receptors to sustain a regenerative depolarization when triggered by an independent gating signal. This process is referred to here as dendritic hold and read (DHR). Because the read-out of the input is not dependent on repetition of the input and information flows in a single-pass manner, DHR can potentially support a feedforward memory architecture. PMID:22629416

Yang, Sunggu; Liang, Conrad W.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Alger, Bradley E.; Thompson, Scott M.; Tang, Cha-Min

2012-01-01

122

How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working-memory account.  

PubMed

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing can reduce ratings of the vividness and emotionality of unpleasant memories-hence it is commonly used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. The present experiments compared three accounts of how eye movements produce these benefits. Participants rated unpleasant autobiographical memories before and after eye movements or an eyes stationary control condition. In Experiment 1, eye movements produced benefits only when memories were held in mind during the movements, and eye movements increased arousal, contrary to an investigatory-reflex account. In Experiment 2, horizontal and vertical eye movements produced equivalent benefits, contrary to an interhemispheric-communication account. In Experiment 3, two other distractor tasks (auditory shadowing, drawing) produced benefits that were negatively correlated with working-memory capacity. These findings support a working-memory account of the eye movement benefits in which the central executive is taxed when a person performs a distractor task while attempting to hold a memory in mind. PMID:18565493

Gunter, Raymond W; Bodner, Glen E

2008-08-01

123

Action-Oriented Memory Subserving Perception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document holds that the brain may be viewed as a layered computer, with long-term memory serving to ensure the correlation of sensory features in the sensory layers with output feature clusters in the motor layers which can determine action appropriat...

M. A. Arbib, P. Dev, R. L. Didday

1970-01-01

124

Are the "memory wars" over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory.  

PubMed

The "memory wars" of the 1990s refers to the controversy between some clinicians and memory scientists about the reliability of repressed memories. To investigate whether such disagreement persists, we compared various groups' beliefs about memory and compared their current beliefs with beliefs expressed in past studies. In Study 1, we found high rates of belief in repressed memory among undergraduates. We also found that greater critical-thinking ability was associated with more skepticism about repressed memories. In Study 2, we found less belief in repressed memory among mainstream clinicians today compared with the 1990s. Groups that contained research-oriented psychologists and memory experts expressed more skepticism about the validity of repressed memories relative to other groups. Thus, a substantial gap between the memory beliefs of clinical-psychology researchers and those of practitioners persists today. These results hold implications for the potential resolution of the science-practice gap and for the dissemination of memory research in the training of mental-health professionals. PMID:24335599

Patihis, Lawrence; Ho, Lavina Y; Tingen, Ian W; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Loftus, Elizabeth F

2014-02-01

125

Sterile Immunity to Malaria after DNA Prime/Adenovirus Boost Immunization Is Associated with Effector Memory CD8+T Cells Targeting AMA1 Class I Epitopes  

PubMed Central

Background Fifteen volunteers were immunized with three doses of plasmid DNA encoding P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and boosted with human adenovirus-5 (Ad) expressing the same antigens (DNA/Ad). Four volunteers (27%) demonstrated sterile immunity to controlled human malaria infection and, overall, protection was statistically significantly associated with ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? activities to AMA1 but not CSP. DNA priming was required for protection, as 18 additional subjects immunized with Ad alone (AdCA) did not develop sterile protection. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to identify correlates of protection, recognizing that DNA-priming may induce different responses than AdCA alone. Among protected volunteers, two and three had higher ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to CSP and AMA1, respectively, than non-protected volunteers. Unexpectedly, non-protected volunteers in the AdCA trial showed ELISpot and CD8+ T cell IFN-? responses to AMA1 equal to or higher than the protected volunteers. T cell functionality assessed by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 likewise did not distinguish protected from non-protected volunteers across both trials. However, three of the four protected volunteers showed higher effector to central memory CD8+ T cell ratios to AMA1, and one of these to CSP, than non-protected volunteers for both antigens. These responses were focused on discrete regions of CSP and AMA1. Class I epitopes restricted by A*03 or B*58 supertypes within these regions of AMA1 strongly recalled responses in three of four protected volunteers. We hypothesize that vaccine-induced effector memory CD8+ T cells recognizing a single class I epitope can confer sterile immunity to P. falciparum in humans. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that better understanding of which epitopes within malaria antigens can confer sterile immunity and design of vaccine approaches that elicit responses to these epitopes will increase the potency of next generation gene-based vaccines. PMID:25211344

Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R.; Farooq, Fouzia; Ganeshan, Harini; Belmonte, Maria; Kim, Yohan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Huang, Jun; McGrath, Shannon; Abot, Esteban; Limbach, Keith; Shi, Meng; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter; Chuang, Ilin; Tamminga, Cindy; Epstein, Judith E.; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

126

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1997-12-30

127

RMI-SAMPLE HOLDING TIME REEVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

128

School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012

2012-01-01

129

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

130

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention · Welcome! · Instructor ­ Dr. Coulson ­ Email: coulson Attention ­ Divided Attention ­ Automaticity ­ Attentional Capture · Immediate Memory ­ Sensory Memory ­ Short-Term Memory ­ Working Memory · Long-Term Memory ­ Levels of Processing ­ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

131

Localization of load sensitivity of working memory storage: Quantitatively and qualitatively discrepant results yielded by single-subject and group-averaged approaches to fMRI group analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impetus for the present report is the evaluation of competing claims of two classes of working memory models: Memory systems models hold working memory to be supported by a network of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-based domain-specific buffers that act as workspaces for the storage and manipulation of information; emergent processes models, in contrast, hold that the contributions of PFC to

Eva Feredoes; Bradley R. Postle

2007-01-01

132

Visuospatial and verbal working memory load: effects on visuospatial vigilance.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory demands on performance of a visuospatial successive target detection task. Three hundred and four participants performed a visuospatial vigilance task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or verbal working memory task that either required a memory load during the vigil or did not require a memory load during the vigil. Perceptual sensitivity A' to vigilance target stimuli was reduced by concurrent memory load, both verbal and visuospatial. The decline in perceptual sensitivity to vigilance targets, the vigilance decrement, was steeper for a visuospatial memory task than a verbal memory task, regardless of concurrent memory load. Memory performance after vigilance detection trials was much lower for visuospatial than verbal items, even though memory performance before vigilance detection trials was higher for visuospatial than verbal items. Together, this indicates increased interference when a visuospatial vigilance task is paired with a visuospatial memory task, than when paired with a verbal memory task. Overall, the visuospatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance target detection, suggesting utilization of common executive resources. There may, however, be domain specific interference, and this may be exacerbated for two visuospatial tasks. PMID:23143034

Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N

2013-02-01

133

The Role of Working Memory Representations in the Control of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that target templates are stored visual working memory and used to guide attention during visual search. However, observers can search efficiently even if working memory is filled to capacity by a concurrent task. The idea that target templates are stored in working memory receives support primarily from studies of nonhuman primates in which the target varies from

Geoffrey F. Woodman; Steven J. Luck; Jeffrey D. Schall

2007-01-01

134

The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ prevents loss of spatial memory retention and early neuropathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienl-yl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). MitoQ attenuated ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons and also prevented increased production of reactive species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)) in them. To determine whether the mitochondrial protection conferred by MitoQ was sufficient to prevent the emergence of AD-like neuropathology in vivo, we treated young female 3xTg-AD mice with MitoQ for 5 months and analyzed the effect on the progression of AD-like pathologies. Our results show that MitoQ prevented cognitive decline in these mice as well as oxidative stress, A? accumulation, astrogliosis, synaptic loss, and caspase activation in their brains. The work presented herein suggests a central role for mitochondria in neurodegeneration and provides evidence supporting the use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in diseases involving oxidative stress and metabolic failure, namely AD. PMID:22049413

McManus, Meagan J; Murphy, Michael P; Franklin, James L

2011-11-01

135

The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant MitoQ Prevents Loss of Spatial Memory Retention and Early Neuropathology in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienlyl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). MitoQ attenuated ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons and also prevented increased production of reactive species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in them. To determine whether the mitochondrial protection conferred by MitoQ was sufficient to prevent the emergence of AD-like neuropathology in vivo, we treated young female 3xTg-AD mice with MitoQ for 5 months and analyzed the effect on the progression of AD-like pathologies. Our results show that MitoQ prevented cognitive decline in these mice as well as oxidative stress, A? accumulation, astrogliosis, synaptic loss, and caspase activation in their brains. The work presented herein suggests a central role for mitochondria in neurodegeneration and provides evidence supporting the use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in diseases involving oxidative stress and metabolic failure, namely AD. PMID:22049413

McManus, Meagan J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Franklin, James L.

2012-01-01

136

The evolution of the Java Memory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java Memory Model specifies the legal behaviors for a multithreaded Java program. Although it influences every Java programmer, unfortunately for most people it is an unknown concept. Even the targeted audience (virtual machine, compiler and processor implementers) does not have a uniform understanding of the Java Memory Model, because the original model is hard to interpret. This leads for

Lee Provoost

137

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

138

12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.  

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

2014-01-01

139

12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

2012-01-01

140

12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND OFFICE OF FINANCE § 1235.5 Record hold. (a...of the regulated entity or the Office of Finance. Regulated entities and the Office...

2013-01-01

141

76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

2011-06-22

142

76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

2011-04-12

143

Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

1995-01-01

144

Posthypnotic Amnesia For Autobiographical Episodes: Influencing Memory Accessibility and Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the impact of posthypnotic amnesia on the accessibility and quality of personal memories. High, medium, and low hypnotizable individuals recalled two autobiographical episodes and rated those memories. During hypnosis, subjects were given a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion that targeted one of the episodes. After hypnosis, they recalled and rated their memories of the episodes. The posthypnotic amnesia suggestion

Amanda J. Barnier; Kevin M. McConkey; Jonathan Wright

2004-01-01

145

Virtual Learning 1 Running head: Virtual Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

brain injury (TBI). Twenty TBI participants were compared with 20 healthy controls on their ability indicated that VR memory testing accurately distinguished memory impaired TBI participants from others. Additionally, non-memory impaired TBI participants acquired targets at the same rate as HC participants

Rizzo, Albert "Skip"

146

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting [Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E.

Maria Wimber; Roland Marcus Rutschmann; Mark W. Greenlee; Karl-heinz Bäuml

2009-01-01

147

Increased functional connectivity within memory networks following memory rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Identifying effective behavioral treatments to improve memory in persons with learning and memory impairment is a primary goal for neurorehabilitation researchers. Memory deficits are the most common cognitive symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), and hold negative professional and personal consequences for people who are often in the prime of their lives when diagnosed. A 10-session behavioral treatment, the modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT), was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Behavioral improvements and increased fMRI activation were shown after treatment. Here, connectivity within the neural networks underlying memory function was examined with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in a subset of participants from the clinical trial. We hypothesized that the treatment would result in increased integrity of connections within two primary memory networks of the brain, the hippocampal memory network, and the default network (DN). Seeds were placed in left and right hippocampus, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Increased connectivity was found between left hippocampus and cortical regions specifically involved in memory for visual imagery, as well as among critical hubs of the DN. These results represent the first evidence for efficacy of a behavioral intervention to impact the integrity of neural networks subserving memory functions in persons with MS. PMID:22706694

Leavitt, Victoria M; Wylie, Glenn R; Girgis, Peter A; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

2014-09-01

148

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

149

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible.†† In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory.†† It argues that developments in painting during the period – especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

150

Persuasion at time of retrieval: Differential influence of strong versus weak support for claims of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research examines the effect of the content of memory reports on false memory judgments. Previous research on false memories has suggested that the mere claim from another person is enough to influence a target into reporting a false memory. The current research uses persuasion theory to suggest that the quality of the information that accompanies the memory claim

Jason T Reed

2006-01-01

151

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory  

E-print Network

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

Schacter, Daniel

152

Spatial memory in insect navigation.  

PubMed

A wide variety of insects use spatial memories in behaviours like holding a position in air or flowing water, in returning to a place of safety, and in foraging. The Hymenoptera, in particular, have evolved life-histories requiring reliable spatial memories to support the task of provisioning their young. Behavioural experiments, primarily on social bees and ants, reveal the mechanisms by which these memories are employed for guidance to spatial goals and suggest how the memories, and the processing streams that use them, may be organized. We discuss three types of memory-based guidance which, together, can explain a large part of observed insect spatial behaviour. Two of these, alignment image-matching and positional image-matching, are based on an insect's remembered views of its surroundings: The first uses views to keep to a familiar heading and the second to head towards a familiar place. The third type of guidance is based on a process of path integration by which an insect monitors its distance and direction from its nest through odometric and compass information. To a large degree, these guidance mechanisms appear to involve modular computational systems. We discuss the lack of evidence for cognitive maps in insects, and in particular the evidence against a map based on path integration, in which view-based and path integration memories might be combined. We suggest instead that insects have a collective of separate guidance systems, which cooperate and train each other, and together provide reliable guidance over a range of conditions. PMID:24028962

Collett, Matthew; Chittka, Lars; Collett, Thomas S

2013-09-01

153

Memory systems (cont.) Interactions among memory systems  

E-print Network

of evidence would help resolve this? Implanting memories · Researchers have asked whether memories can be implanted? ­ If a false memory can be implanted, that would make us more skeptical about reports forgotten in the intirim · It is easy to implant false memories ­ Some therapists have been sued

Pillow, Jonathan

154

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus  

E-print Network

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

Squire, Larry R.

155

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590...and Facility Requirements § 590.532 Liquid egg holding. (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid eggs shall be of approved...

2014-01-01

156

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

157

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana  

E-print Network

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies · MRAM · PCRAM · FeRAM · ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

158

Effect of Working Memory Availability on Visual Attention in Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was designed to test working memory on drivers' endogenous control of attention. Studies in simple laboratory settings showed that working memory was crucial for maintaining task priorities and attention to relevant stimuli. A modified Posner's cue-target paradigm, consisting of spatially predictive endogenous cues and targets, was implemented in a driving simulator. Participants were to follow and remember the

Seth Redenbo; Yi-Ching Lee

159

GENETIC PROGRAMMING, INDEXED MEMORY, THE HALTING PROBLEM, AND OTHER CURIOSITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic programming (GP) paradigm was designed to evolve functions that are progressively better approximations to some target function. The introduction of memory into GP has opened the Pandora's box which is algorithms. It has been shown that the combination of GP and Indexed Memory can be used to evolve any target algorithm. What has not been shown is the

Astro Teller

160

Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory: Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience,

Elizabeth F. Chua; Deborah E. Hannula; Charan Ranganath

2012-01-01

161

78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI...days after the application was received. All dates and deadlines in this notice...

2013-10-29

162

The effect of friction in the hold down post spherical bearings on hold down post loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of friction at the connection of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt and the mobile launch platform (MLP) hold down posts was analyzed. A simplified model of the shuttle response during the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) buildup was constructed. The model included the effect of stick-slip friction for the rotation of the skirt about the spherical bearing. Current finite element models assume the joint is completely frictionless in rotation and therefore no moment is transferred between the skirt and the hold down posts. The model was partially verified against test data and preliminary parameter studies were performed. The parameter studies indicated that the coefficient of friction strongly influenced the moment on the hold down posts. The coefficient of friction had little effect on hold down post vertical loads, however. Further calibration of the model is necessary before the effect of friction on the hold down post horizontal loads can be analyzed.

Richardson, James A.

1990-01-01

163

Cortical Memory The cortical memory appears to compute in time steps of about 200 millisec-  

E-print Network

action. The decision may be thought of as a branch in a program. The action may be overt as in reaching for a target, or covert as in simulating the reach internally. States of the memory are coded hierarchically

Ballard, Dana H.

164

Hemispheric asymmetries in the time course of recognition memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemispheric specialization has been studied extensively within subfields ranging from perception to language comprehension.\\u000a However, the study of asymmetries for basic memory functions—an area that holds promise for bridging these low- and high-level\\u000a cognitive domains—has been sporadic at best. We examined each hemisphere’s tendency to retain verbal information over time,\\u000a using a continuous recognition memory task with lateralized study items

Kara D. Federmeier; Aaron S. Benjamin

2005-01-01

165

Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

2005-01-01

166

Imagine that: Self-Imagination Improves Prospective Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated that “self-imagination” – a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) – enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerized general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e. ongoing task) and press the “1” key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e. prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a “self-imagination effect (SIE)” in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:22150451

Grilli, Matthew D.; McFarland, Craig P.

2012-01-01

167

Runway Sequencing with Holding Patterns Konstantin Artiouchine  

E-print Network

Runway Sequencing with Holding Patterns Konstantin Artiouchine Philippe Baptiste Christoph Dürr of aircrafts are about to land on a single runway. When coming close to the landing area of the airport, a set problem that plays a crucial role for airports. As both the number of runways and the number of air trafic

Artiouchine, Konstantin

168

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

Rommel-Esham, Katie

2007-01-01

169

e! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds  

E-print Network

e! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds promise for solar energy Published semiconductor manufacturing method pioneered at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry standard semiconductor in most electronic devices, including

Rogers, John A.

170

Hold PO from Further Processing NUFinancials  

E-print Network

. Departments/schools need to make every effort to order goods and services using NUFinancials, which from Further Processing Function: 1. To use an alternative dispatch method other than the one listed in vendor profile. The primary use of Hold PO from Further Processing is to allow departments/schools

Shull, Kenneth R.

171

The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

1996-01-01

172

Florida consumer confidence holds steady in May  

E-print Network

Florida consumer confidence holds steady in May Anxiety about personal finances rises May 31, 2011 financial situation, but at least the state's consumer confidence didn't decline for a fourth straight month. Consumer confidence held steady at 68 in May after dropping for three months since Feb. 1 when gasoline

Belogay, Eugene A.

173

Vinyl Chloride Loss during Laboratory Holding Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 ?g\\/liter of vinyl chloride showed

Richard Soule; Daniel Symonik; David Jones; Doug Turgeon; Betsy Gerbec

1996-01-01

174

A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

1987-01-01

175

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2013-01-01

176

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2012-01-01

177

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2010-01-01

178

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2014-01-01

179

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhibitor excluding time in transit; (3) Any dog or cat suffering from disease, emaciation, or injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the completion of the holding period required by this section; and (4) Any live dog or cat, 120 days...

2011-01-01

180

Homogeneity of Gender Groups in Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment examining memory for information about members of gender groups, female and male Ss participated in an impression formation task in which they read trait descriptions of four target persons identified by gender or, in a control condition, by an abstract quality (the colours yellow and green). In addition, these targets had a superordinate group membership in an

Fabio Lorenzi-Cioldi; Alice H. Eagly; Tracie L. Stewart

1995-01-01

181

What is memory for? Short term memory (STM)  

E-print Network

1 Memory · What is memory for? · Short term memory (STM) · Characteristics of STM Who has a better with an examination of visual memory. STM and LTM · And now for some jargon ­ Short term memory (STM) ­ Long term memory (LTM) · Today, we focus on short term memory. Short-term memory · You know many things ­ Facts

Pillow, Jonathan

182

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

Verschelde, Jan

183

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

184

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

185

Memory Slips and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Memory Slips and Dementia HealthDay September 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Memory Seniors' Health Transcript Little memory slips as you ...

186

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

187

Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Shrum's (1996) heuristic processing model as an explanatory mechanism, we propose that people who hold vivid autobiographical memories for a specific past experience with media violence will overstate the prevalence of real-world crime versus individuals without vivid memories. We also explore the effects of frequency and recency on social reality beliefs. A survey was administered to 207 undergraduate students

Karyn Riddle; W. James Potter; Miriam J. Metzger; Robin L. Nabi; Daniel G. Linz

2011-01-01

188

The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

2010-01-01

189

Music in working memory? Examining the effect of pitch proximity on the recall performance of nonmusicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory is the temporary storage system that is assumed to underpin our capacity for coherent thought. One working memory model (WMM) assumes an attentional control component, the central executive, together with two subsystems, the visuo-spatial sketchpad that is capable of storing visual and spatial information, and the phonological loop which holds and manipulates speech-like information. Although the WMM has

Victoria J. Williamson; Alan D. Baddeley; Graham J. Hitch

2006-01-01

190

Medical shape memory alloy applications—the market and its products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical market is a continuing success story for the application of shape memory alloy products. Increasing life expectancy and advances in surgical procedures mean that the medical market will remain an area of great opportunity for commercial applications.This paper will consider just why the shape memory effect holds so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection

N. B. Morgan

2004-01-01

191

Role of working memory load on selective attention to affectively valent information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence obtained with neutral stimuli has shown that selective attention relies on working memory functions as distractor processing occurs under conditions of high but not of low working memory load. We investigated whether these findings also hold for affectively valent distractors. In three experiments, participants completed the original Flanker task with famous people (Exps 1 and 2) and an

Anna Pecchinenda; Martin Heil

2007-01-01

192

MASKER MASKER TARGET TARGET TARGET  

E-print Network

from a large speech database (Ives et al,2005). The original speech is from one speaker Probabilitycorrect -6 dB 0 dB Listeners were presented with two phrases of concurrent speech syllables. The masker syllables coincided with the second and third target syllables. The speech syllables were taken

Ives, D. Timothy

193

Memory for faces: Evidence of retrieval-based impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments investigated whether and how interpolated faces cause impairment to memories for related target faces. Participants viewed target faces and then saw a presentation of interpolated faces that were related to some of the targets. Modified tests, which offered target and novel faces as recognition alternatives, detected impairment effects after short retention intervals but not after 48-hr intervals, indicating

Paul D. Windschitl

1996-01-01

194

Bacteria Holding Time and DegradationBacteria Holding Time and Degradation Presented to CA State Water Resources Control Board  

E-print Network

with water boards to provide data for discussions to overcome sample hold time road-blocks to conducting. Quantify the effect of sample hold time so we can standardize data and assess remote waters. Research Most6/7/2011 1 Bacteria Holding Time and DegradationBacteria Holding Time and Degradation Presented

Tate, Kenneth

195

Do working memory-driven attention shifts speed up visual awareness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli\\u000a in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed\\u000a up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color\\u000a cue in WM and to subsequently

Yi Pan; Qiu-Ping Cheng

196

TARGETing "When" and "Where"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Drosophila, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to be crucial for learning and memory, but whether this represents a developmental or a specific effect has not been resolved. Research with a new targeting system that allows both spatial and temporal control of gene expression shows that expression of rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, in the mushroom bodies of adult flies is necessary and sufficient to rescue the learning defect of rutabaga mutant. This demonstrates an acute role for Rutabaga in learning and memory.

Yalin Wang (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV); Yi Zhong (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV)

2004-02-17

197

Breath-holding in a marijuana smoker  

PubMed Central

It is vital to ask about illicit drug smoking in the respiratory history as marijuana smoking augments the detrimental effects of tobacco. We describe the case of a 28 year old marijuana smoker who developed a pneumothorax during a breath-holding competition. Pneumothorax is a common clinical entity that every physician should be aware of how to manage and lifetime risk is considerably increased by smoking and in exposure to barotrauma.

Aujayeb, Avinash; Donald, Calum; Doe, Simon

2011-01-01

198

Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

2006-01-01

199

Active hold-down for heat treating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the disclosure is to provide a vacuum hold-down for holding thin sheets to a support surface, which permits the thin sheet to change dimensions as it is held down. The hold-down includes numerous holes in the support surface, through which a vacuum is applied from a vacuum source. The holes are arranged in zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at only one or a few zones, while it continues to be applied to other zones, to allow the workpiece to creep along that interrupted zone. The vacuum to different zones is interrupted at different times, as by a slowly turning valve number, to allow each zone of the workpiece to creep. A positive pressure may be applied from a pressured air source to a zone when the vacuum is interrupted there, to help lift the corresponding workpiece zone off the surface to aid in creeping. The workpiece may undergo dimensional changes because of heating, cooling, drying, or other procedure.

Collins, E. R., Jr. (inventor)

1986-01-01

200

On holding and containing, being and dreaming.  

PubMed

Winnicott's concept of holding and Bion's idea of the container-contained are for each of these analysts among his most important contributions to psychoanalytic thought. In this light, it is ironic that the two sets of ideas are so frequently misunderstood and confused with one another. In this paper the author delineates what he believes to be the critical aspects of each of these concepts and illustrates the way in which he uses these ideas in his clinical work. Winnicott's holding is seen as an ontological concept that is primarily concerned with being and its relationship to time. Initially the mother safeguards the infant's continuity of being, in part by insulating him from the 'not-me' aspect of time. Maturation entails the infant's gradually internalizing the mother's holding of the continuity of his being over time and emotional flux. By contrast, Bion's container-contained is centrally concerned with the processing (dreaming) of thoughts derived from lived emotional experience. The idea of the container-contained addresses the dynamic interaction of predominantly unconscious thoughts (the contained) and the capacity for dreaming and thinking those thoughts (the container). PMID:15801512

Ogden, Thomas H

2004-12-01

201

Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and Across Others  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the

Susan Tucker; Svanhildur Bogadóttir

2008-01-01

202

Development of Visual Working Memory Precision in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and empirical innovation to investigate instead the…

Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M.; Husain, Masud

2012-01-01

203

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

204

[Méotis, the regional memory network].  

PubMed

Winner of a 2009 medicine award, the innovative regional memory network, Méotis, has been working since 2002 in Nord-Pas-de-Calais to optimise the care of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease or related diseases. Neuropsychologists, coordination nurses and liaison psycho-sociologists guide patients, carers and professionals in order to help preserve quality of life at home, participate actively in national experiments and recommendations and draw up targeted action plans contributing to the development of guidelines. PMID:21137495

Fraysse, Karine

2010-01-01

205

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm², a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

206

Female Memory in Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author searches past ages to trace the development of a specific women’s memory. She attempts to show how this memory is made up, describing the female memory in the Bible, in Greek and Roman history and mythology, and its hidden trajectory behind the scenes of conventional (male) history. She suggests that social exile made female memory a matrix from

Nélida Piñon

2004-01-01

207

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

208

Memories of Things Unseen  

Microsoft Academic Search

New findings reveal more about the malleability of memory. Not only is it possible to change details of memories for previously experienced events, but one can sometimes also plant entirely false memories into the minds of unsuspecting individuals, even if the events would be highly implausible or even impossible. False memories might differ statistically from true ones, in terms of

Elizabeth F. Loftus

2004-01-01

209

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-print Network

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

210

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much popcorn will our classroom hold? This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting data, prediction, inference, communication, and using number relationships) and applied mathematical process (determining an estimate, using benchmarks, measuring, mapping, etc.) in a meaningful way--getting an authentic glimpse of how these two subjects are inextricably linked.

Rommel-Esham, Katie

2007-10-01

211

Memory Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

1995-01-01

212

26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Personal holding company income. 1.543-1 Section 1.543-1 Internal...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding...

2010-04-01

213

ISSN 1745-9648 Holding a Candle to Innovation in  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Holding a Candle to Innovation in Concentrating Solar Power Technologies A Study Universität Berlin, Germany. #12;Holding a Candle to Innovation in Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

Feigon, Brooke

214

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

215

Multiple Job Holding in Russia During Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes multiple job holding in the context of economic transition. Evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Russian citizens is used to characterize secondary jobs and second job holders, with emphasis on the determinants of multiple job holding. There has been a marked increase in multiple job holding, rising from 5.6 percent overall in 1992 to 10.1

Mark C. Foley

1997-01-01

216

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2011-01-01

217

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2014-01-01

218

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2013-01-01

219

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2012-01-01

220

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2010-01-01

221

Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory  

E-print Network

Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a cost­effective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

222

Self-Deploying Trusses Containing Shape-Memory Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite truss structures are being developed that can be compacted for stowage and later deploy themselves to full size and shape. In the target applications, these smart structures will precisely self-deploy and support a large, lightweight space-based antenna. Self-deploying trusses offer a simple, light, and affordable alternative to articulated mechanisms or inflatable structures. The trusses may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as variable-geometry aircraft components or shelters that can be compacted, transported, and deployed quickly in hostile environments. The truss technology uses high-performance shape-memory-polymer (SMP) thermoset resin reinforced with fibers to form a helical composite structure. At normal operating temperatures, the truss material has the structural properties of a conventional composite. This enables truss designs with required torsion, bending, and compression stiffness. However, when heated to its designed glass transition temperature (Tg), the SMP matrix acquires the flexibility of an elastomer. In this state, the truss can be compressed telescopically to a configuration encompassing a fraction of its original volume. When cooled below Tg, the SMP reverts to a rigid state and holds the truss in the stowed configuration without external constraint. Heating the materials above Tg activates truss deployment as the composite material releases strain energy, driving the truss to its original memorized configuration without the need for further actuation. Laboratory prototype trusses have demonstrated repeatable self-deployment cycles following linear compaction exceeding an 11:1 ratio (see figure).

Schueler, Robert M.

2008-01-01

223

Content-Specific Working Memory Modulation of the Attentional Blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of working memory content on temporal attention in a rapid serial visual presentation attentional blink paradigm. It was shown that categorical similarity between working memory content and the target stimuli pertaining to the attentional task (both digits) increased attentional blink magnitude compared to a condition in which this similarity was absent (colors

Elkan G. Akyürek; Ali Abedian-Amiri; Sonja M. Ostermeier; Mark Greenlee

2011-01-01

224

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

225

Memory abstractions for parallel programming  

E-print Network

A memory abstraction is an abstraction layer between the program execution and the memory that provides a different "view" of a memory location depending on the execution context in which the memory access is made. Properly ...

Lee, I-Ting Angelina

2012-01-01

226

CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: HISTORY, MEMORY, PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

a witness to history being made, a notion present in the concept of memory and the processes of remembering · (Post)memory and (post)trauma · Memory theatre and resonant spaces · Theatre as / and memorial

Sankoff, David

227

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening  

E-print Network

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

Tomkins, Andrew

228

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for Older Adults? Although new ... Your Memory Here is good news about our aging brains. Scientists have identified ways to minimize age-related ...

229

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... home may be signs of a more serious memory problem. This booklet will help you learn about: ...

230

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test to start. The study relied on a process, ... After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers compared the scans looking ...

231

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of thinking, learning, and remembering—can affect memory. Doctors use ... increasing impairment of memory and other aspects of thinking that are sufficiently severe to impair day-to- ...

232

[Memory and cognitivism].  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to explore the notion of cognitive memory. For that reason we would study the implicit and explicit memory. We would also study the notion of childhood amnesia and trauma. PMID:11780154

Spinetto, M

2001-12-01

233

Memory Correspondence to Author:  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION: Nootropics also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that are purported to improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation,

Preksha Dwivedi; Richa Singh; Mohd. Tabish Malik; Talha Jawaid; Talha Jawaid

234

Medications for Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Memory Loss Tweet Although current medications cannot cure Alzheimer’s or stop it from progressing, they may help lessen symptoms, such as memory loss and confusion, for a limited time. Types ...

235

Drifting absence :: drafting memory  

E-print Network

The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

Kuhn, Marlene Eva

2006-01-01

236

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

237

Recoverable distributed shared memory  

E-print Network

Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

2012-06-07

238

Memory-mapped transactions  

E-print Network

Memory-mapped transactions combine the advantages of both memory mapping and transactions to provide a programming interface for concurrently accessing data on disk without explicit I/O or locking operations. This interface ...

Sukha, Jim

2005-01-01

239

Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

2011-01-01

240

A Differentiation Account of Recognition Memory: Evidence from fMRI  

E-print Network

is a strength-based mirror effect (SBME; Stretch & Wixted, 1998). Hit rates (HR) are higher and false alarm memory predict a strength-based mirror effect in the distributions of subjective memory strength. Subjective memory strength should increase for targets and simultaneously decrease for foils following

McClelland, James L. "Jay"

241

The distribution of subjective memory strength: List strength and response bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of memory strength for foils is invariant across experimental

Amy H. Criss

2009-01-01

242

Using Instructional and Motivational Techniques in the Art Classroom To Increase Memory Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving memory retention through instructional and motivational techniques in elementary art. Targeted population consisted of third grade students at three sites in a middle class suburb of a large midwestern city. The problems of memory retention were documented through teacher pre-surveys and art memory

Calverley, Ann; Grafer, Bonnie; Hauser, Michelle

243

KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.  

PubMed

In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body ?/?neurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment. PMID:23638087

Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

2013-01-01

244

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

245

Working memory and planning during sentence production.  

PubMed

Speakers retrieve conceptual, syntactic and lexical information in advance of articulation during sentence production. What type of working memory (WM) store is used to hold the planned information before speaking? To address this question, we measured onset latencies when subjects produced sentences that began with either a complex or a simple initial noun phrase, while holding semantic, phonological or spatial information in WM. Although we found that subjects had longer onset latencies for sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase, showing a phrasal scope of planning, the magnitude of this complexity effect was not affected by any type of WM load. However, subjects made more syntactic errors (but not lexical errors) for sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase, suggesting that advance planning for these phrases occurs at a syntactic rather than lexical-semantic level, which may account for the lack of effect with various types of WM load in the current study. PMID:25216074

Martin, Randi C; Yan, Hao; Schnur, Tatiana T

2014-10-01

246

Utility takeovers and the Holding Company Act. [Effects of repeal or modification  

SciTech Connect

This article makes the point that utility managements have led a largely sheltered existence so far as the world of corporate mergers and acquisitions is concerned, thanks to provisions in the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. With repeal or modification of that act they will need to prepare themselves for both aggressive and defensive positions toward potential targets of acquisition and acquirors of their company shares and assets.

Elmer, B.C.; Mazo, M.E.

1982-09-30

247

Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

Parasuraman, Raja

248

The role of memory reactivation during wakefulness and sleep in determining which memories endure.  

PubMed

Consolidation makes it possible for memories of our daily experiences to be stored in an enduring way. We propose that memory consolidation depends on the covert reactivation of previously learned material both during sleep and wakefulness. Here we tested whether the operation of covert memory reactivation influences the fundamental selectivity of memory storage--of all the events we experience each day, which will be retained and which forgotten? We systematically manipulated the value of information learned by 60 young subjects; they learned 72 object-location associations while hearing characteristic object sounds, and a number on each object indicated the reward value that could potentially be earned during a future memory test. Recall accuracy declined to a greater extent for low-value than for high-value associations after either a 90 min nap or a 90 min wake interval. Yet, via targeted memory reactivation of half of the low-value associations using the corresponding sounds, these memories were rescued from forgetting. Only cued associations were rescued when sounds were applied during wakefulness, whereas the entire set of low-value associations was rescued from forgetting when the manipulation occurred during sleep. The benefits accrued from presenting corresponding sounds show that covert reactivation is a major factor determining the selectivity of memory consolidation in these circumstances. By extension, covert reactivation may determine the ultimate fate of our memories, though wake and sleep reactivation might play distinct roles in this process, the former helping to strengthen individual, salient memories, and the latter strengthening, while also linking, categorically related memories together. PMID:23575863

Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A

2013-04-10

249

The Role of Memory Reactivation during Wakefulness and Sleep in Determining Which Memories Endure  

PubMed Central

Consolidation makes it possible for memories of our daily experiences to be stored in an enduring way. We propose that memory consolidation depends on the covert reactivation of previously learned material both during sleep and wakefulness. Here we tested whether the operation of covert memory reactivation influences the fundamental selectivity of memory storage—of all the events we experience each day, which will be retained and which forgotten? We systematically manipulated the value of information learned by 60 young subjects; they learned 72 object-location associations while hearing characteristic object sounds, and a number on each object indicated the reward value that could potentially be earned during a future memory test. Recall accuracy declined to a greater extent for low-value than for high-value associations after either a 90 min nap or a 90 min wake interval. Yet, via targeted memory reactivation of half of the low-value associations using the corresponding sounds, these memories were rescued from forgetting. Only cued associations were rescued when sounds were applied during wakefulness, whereas the entire set of low-value associations was rescued from forgetting when the manipulation occurred during sleep. The benefits accrued from presenting corresponding sounds show that covert reactivation is a major factor determining the selectivity of memory consolidation in these circumstances. By extension, covert reactivation may determine the ultimate fate of our memories, though wake and sleep reactivation might play distinct roles in this process, the former helping to strengthen individual, salient memories, and the latter strengthening, while also linking, categorically related memories together. PMID:23575863

Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W.; Creery, Jessica D.; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

250

Memory distortion in hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from a programmatic series of studies that varied the range of conditions affecting potential increase of recall, memory distortions, and distortions of confidence during and following hypnosis. All the studies used a paradigm that exposed Ss to misleading information some time before memory was tested and applied procedures in the hypnotic setting to analyze memory performance

Peter W. Sheehan

1988-01-01

251

Carbon Based Resistive Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose carbon as new resistive memory material for non-volatile memories and compare three allotropes of carbon, namely carbon nanotubes, graphene-like conductive carbon and insulating carbon for their possible application as resistance-change material in high density non-volatile memories. Repetitive high-speed switching and the potential for multi-level programming have been successfully demonstrated.

Franz Kreupl; Rainer Bruchhaus; Petra Majewski; Jan B. Philipp; Ralf Symanczyk; Thomas Happ; Christian Arndt; Mirko Vogt; Roy Zimmermann; Axel Buerke; Andrew P. Graham; Michael Kund

2009-01-01

252

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz Jäncke

2008-01-01

253

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors  

E-print Network

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors: Simon Ible, Director of Music, Peninsula Arts, Plymouth University Eduardo R. Miranda, Professor of Computer Music, Plymouth University Sensing Memory As well as creating a platform for music emerging from research, this year's festival will explore the theme of memory

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

254

Memory Loss Chapter 6  

E-print Network

Part II Memory Loss 129 #12;#12;Chapter 6 Generalized Conditionalization Up to this point we have to help CLF model two types of certainty-loss stories: stories in- volving memory loss and stories-sensitivity, (PEP) does almost no work in modeling stories involving memory loss. So we will proceed in stages: We

Fitelson, Branden

255

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

256

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

257

The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within seman- tic memory and pattern matched

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

258

The Effects of Target Attractiveness on Men's Sexual Arousal in Response to Erotic Auditory Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within semantic memory and pattern matched with

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

259

What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?  

PubMed Central

In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

Cowan, Nelson

2008-01-01

260

A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em  

E-print Network

histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE identified as a useful domain for Artificial Intelligence research [1]. As the number of researchers working of the increased attention paid to computer poker has been the creation of the Annual Computer Poker Competition

Watson, Ian

261

Expectations about Memory Change Across the Life Span Are Impacted By Aging Stereotypes  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether expectations about memory change with age vary for different personality types. Four adjectives from each of Hummert’s age-stereotype trait sets were selected to create 11 adjective clusters varying in both valence (positive versus negative) and relevance to memory functioning. Three hundred and seventy three participants in three age groups rated the memory abilities of target adults, defined by the adjective clusters, across the adult life span. Consistent with past studies, participants believed in age-related memory decline. However, participants rated target adults with positive personality traits as having better memory ability and less age-related memory decline than target adults with negative personality traits. This effect was larger when the traits were relevant to memory than when they were not. Finally, older participants were more strongly influenced by both the valence and the relevance of the personality descriptions than younger participants. PMID:19290748

Lineweaver, Tara T.; Berger, Andrea K.; Hertzog, Christopher

2008-01-01

262

Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such strategies. Moreover, balancing the need for ablating pathological inflammatory responses

Martin F. Bachmann; Benjamin J. Marsland; Manfred Kopf

2010-01-01

263

Active versus passive maintenance of visual nonverbal memory.  

PubMed

Forgetting over the short term has challenged researchers for more than a century, largely because of the difficulty of controlling what goes on within the memory retention interval. But the "recent-negative-probe" procedure offers a valuable paradigm, by examining the influences of (presumably) unattended memoranda from prior trials. Here we used a recent-probe task to investigate forgetting for visual nonverbal short-term memory. The target stimuli (two visually presented abstract shapes) on a trial were followed after a retention interval by a probe, and participants indicated whether the probe matched one of the target items. Proactive interference, and hence memory for old trial probes, was observed, whereby participants were slowed in rejecting a nonmatching probe on the current trial that nevertheless matched a target item on the previous trial (a recent-negative probe). The attraction of the paradigm is that, by uncovering proactive influences of past-trial probe stimuli, it can be argued that active maintenance in memory of those probes is unlikely. In two experiments, we recorded such proactive interference of prior-trial items over a range of interstimulus (ISI) and intertrial (ITI) intervals (between 1 and 6 s, respectively). Consistent with a proposed two-process memory conception (the active-passive memory model, or APM), actively maintained memories on current trials decayed, but passively "maintained," or unattended, visual memories of stimuli on past trials did not. PMID:24390797

McKeown, Denis; Holt, Jessica; Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Smith, Amy; Griffiths, Benjamin

2014-08-01

264

Quantum random access memory  

E-print Network

A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially less gates, and leads to an exponential decrease in the power needed for addressing. A quantum optical implementation is presented.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2007-08-14

265

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

266

Flexible Kernel Memory  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

267

Flexible kernel memory.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

268

To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

2014-06-01

269

Hemispheric asymmetries of memory: the HERA model revisited.  

PubMed

The hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry (HERA) model is a process-specific description of experimental data provided by a large set of functional neuroimaging studies. According to HERA, left prefrontal cortex (PFC) is more involved than right PFC in episodic memory encoding, whereas right PFC is more involved than left PFC in episodic memory retrieval. Recently it has been claimed that this description does not hold for non-verbal materials. Here we propose a more precise formulation of HERA than previously, and argue that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that HERA, as reformulated, is true for both verbal and non-verbal materials. PMID:12804689

Habib, Reza; Nyberg, Lars; Tulving, Endel

2003-06-01

270

CREB and neuronal selection for memory trace  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable progress over the past several decades, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory encoding, storage, and expression in a complex neural network are far from complete. In particular, how some neurons rather than others are selectively engaged to encode memory remains largely unknown. Using virus-mediated gene delivery into a small subset of neurons in a given network, molecular imaging of neuronal activity, pharmacological perturbation of specific neurons' activity and animal behavior assays, recent studies have begun to provide insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the selection of neurons for inclusion into a memory trace. Here, we focus on a review of recent findings supporting the hypothesis that the level of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca2+-response element binding protein) is a key factor governing which neurons are recruited to a given memory trace. These recent findings open a new perspective on memory trace at the neural circuit level and also raise many important questions. Future studies employing more advanced neurobiological techniques for targeting defined populations of neurons and manipulating their activity in time and space in a complex neural network will give answers to these newly emerging questions and extend our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the memory trace. PMID:23519079

Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Han, Jin-Hee

2013-01-01

271

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

272

Electrical Evaluation of RCA MWS5501D Random Access Memory, Volume 2, Appendix a  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical characterization and qualification test results are presented for the RCA MWS5001D random access memory. The tests included functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, AC parametric worst-case pattern selection test, determination of worst-case transition for setup and hold times, and a series of schmoo plots. The address access time, address readout time, the data hold time, and the data setup time are some of the results surveyed.

Klute, A.

1979-01-01

273

HIV vaccines and microbicides hold promise for prevent ing the acquisition of HIV1 and HIV2, the two viruses  

E-print Network

HIV vaccines and microbicides hold promise for prevent ing the acquisition of HIV1 and HIV2, the two viruses that cause AIDS, but the success of designing such agents needs a clear understanding of where HIV first encoun ters its target cells -- primarily T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs

Cai, Long

274

Audience-Tuning Effects on Memory: The Role of Shared Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

After tuning to an audience, communicators' own memories for the topic often reflect the biased view expressed in their messages. Three studies examined explanations for this bias. Memories for a target person were biased when feedback signaled the audience's successful identification of the target but not after failed identification (Experiment 1). Whereas communicators tuning to an in-group audience exhibited the

Gerald Echterhoff; E. Tory Higgins; Stephan Groll

2005-01-01

275

Reconsolidation of drug memories.  

PubMed

Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse. PMID:22342780

Sorg, Barbara A

2012-05-01

276

CAN EXPERIMENTAL MEMORY RESEARCH ADEQUATELY EXPLAIN MEMORY FOR TRAUMA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate on memories of traumatic events (especially childhood abuse), traumatic memories and dissociative amnesia are central topics. These phenomena are frequently described as dissociative memory problems. The aim of the present article is to assess to what extent memory mechanisms as identified in experimental research (such as encoding, storage, and retrieval factors) are adequate in explaining memories of

Philip Spinhoven; Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis; Richard Van Dyck

1999-01-01

277

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

278

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

Addis, Donna Rose

279

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

280

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

281

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2012-01-01

282

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...217 to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2014-01-01

283

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2012-01-01

284

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2010-01-01

285

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2011-01-01

286

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2010-01-01

287

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2011-01-01

288

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2014-01-01

289

The sensory strength of voluntary visual imagery predicts visual working memory capacity.  

PubMed

How much we can actively hold in mind is severely limited and differs greatly from one person to the next. Why some individuals have greater capacities than others is largely unknown. Here, we investigated why such large variations in visual working memory (VWM) capacity might occur, by examining the relationship between visual working memory and visual mental imagery. To assess visual working memory capacity participants were required to remember the orientation of a number of Gabor patches and make subsequent judgments about relative changes in orientation. The sensory strength of voluntary imagery was measured using a previously documented binocular rivalry paradigm. Participants with greater imagery strength also had greater visual working memory capacity. However, they were no better on a verbal number working memory task. Introducing a uniform luminous background during the retention interval of the visual working memory task reduced memory capacity, but only for those with strong imagery. Likewise, for the good imagers increasing background luminance during imagery generation reduced its effect on subsequent binocular rivalry. Luminance increases did not affect any of the subgroups on the verbal number working memory task. Together, these results suggest that luminance was disrupting sensory mechanisms common to both visual working memory and imagery, and not a general working memory system. The disruptive selectivity of background luminance suggests that good imagers, unlike moderate or poor imagers, may use imagery as a mnemonic strategy to perform the visual working memory task. PMID:25301015

Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

2014-01-01

290

Rehabilitation of Memory and Memory Self-Efficacy in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents  

PubMed Central

This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of the Cognitive Behavioral Model of Everyday Memory (CBMEM) on memory self-efficacy and memory performance of the elderly. Thirty residents from a county nursing home in Northeast Ohio participated. Forty-three percent of the sample were depressed and 57% were cognitively impaired. There were 30 subjects in the experimental group. Class attendance was low (M = 4.48); the dropout rate was 58%. As a result, among the 30 individuals in the experimental group, posttest data were available for only 13 subjects. There were no pre- to posttest differences in total memory performance scores. However, immediate story recall significantly (p ?.01) increased (M1 =.67; M2 = 1.33). The experimental group also made significant gains (p ?.0001) in memory self-efficacy (M1 = 35.84; M2 = 41.87). While the intervention helped these vulnerable individuals improve their memory, future interventions may need to specifically target the problems of individuals with depression and those with cognitive impairments. Nevertheless, there is hope for improvement, as shown both here and in other memory improvement studies, and therefore the efforts to develop effective interventions need to continue. PMID:19066634

McDougall, Graham J.

2008-01-01

291

Memory T-cell-specific therapeutics attenuate allograft rejection via mediation of alloreactivity in memory cells.  

PubMed

Many means in inbred rodent models promoted long-term graft survival or donor-specific tolerance, but less so in nonhuman primates, outbred rodents or human patients. A diverse repertoire of memory T cells, derived from heterologous immunity or prior to exposure to alloantigen, has been believed to be an important part of this barrier. Memory T cells have a unique capacity to generate effector functions quickly upon re-exposure to antigen, and this capacity is achieved by reduced activation thresholds, and expressed high level trafficking and adhesion molecules, which is likely responsible for their exhibiting differential susceptibility to immune therapeutics compared with naïve T cells. This review outlines recent progress on characteristics of memory T cells and focuses on these potential therapies targeting memory T cells which are likely to ameliorate allograft rejection by inducing transplant tolerance. PMID:22902239

Luo, Lei; Sun, Zhaolin; Cheng, Hui; Luo, Guangheng

2012-01-01

292

A generalized memory test algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

Milner, E. J.

1982-01-01

293

Create Requisition for Pre-Payment Using Hold Check  

E-print Network

balance amounts a. One line is for pre-payment amount Note: This amount may match a deposit, down paymentCreate Requisition for Pre-Payment Using Hold Check NUFinancials Purchasing Job Aid CreateRequisitionPrePayment how to make pre-payments to vendors and how to holding a check for pick up at Accounts Payable. Use

Shull, Kenneth R.

294

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

295

Robustness of ZeroShifting via Generalized Sampleddata Hold Functions  

E-print Network

. Sampled­data control, wherein an analog plant is controlled by a digital computer through the use of the original analog plant (e.g., [12, 2]). In particular, use of a Generalized Sampled­data Hold Function (GSHF plant remain present when the plant is discretized using a GSHF hold, even if the discretized plant

Braslavsky, Julio H.

296

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL  

E-print Network

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL JOHN HAYES CARL SHAPIRO THERESA SULLIVAN* I. STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP: A TROUBLESOME MIX Standard setting raises a variety of antitrust-setting organizations (SSOs) include patented technology in standards. We focus on the mechanism of, and techniques

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

297

Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

Crawford, R. P.

1967-01-01

298

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2013-04-01

299

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the de minimis rule was in effect...Permitted holdings—Second phase —(i) In...constructive ownership rules for trusts in...permitted holdings in the second phase will be as...the last day of the second phase, F disposes...downward ratchet rule, the...

2012-04-01

300

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

301

Temperature memory effect in amorphous shape memory polymers.  

PubMed

Temperature memory effect (TME) refers to the ability of shape memory polymers (SMPs) to memorize the temperature at which pre-deformation was conducted. In the past few years, this TME was experimentally demonstrated by comparing the applied programming temperature (Td) with a characteristic recovery temperature (Tc), which corresponds to either the maximum recovery stress or free recovery speed. In these well-designed experiments, Tc was observed to be close to Td, which is consistent with the intuitive understanding of 'memorization'. However, since the polymer recovery behavior has been proved to be strongly dependent on various programming and recovery conditions, a new question that whether Tc is always equal to Td in any thermo-temporal conditions remains to be addressed. In this paper, we answered this question by examining the free recovery profile of an acrylate based amorphous SMP. The recovery Tc, which is the temperature with the maximum recovery speed, versus the recovery temperature is shown to be strongly dependent on both programming and recovery conditions. Their detailed influence could be explained by using the reduced time. During a thermomechanical working cycle of SMPs, in addition to the Td, any other thermo-temporal conditions, such as the holding time (th), cooling rate, recovery heating rate (q), etc., can affect the observed Tc by changing the reduced programming or recovery time. In this manner, the relationship between Tc and Td is not uniquely determined. Besides, the TME in SMPs can only be achieved within a given temperature range. Both onset and offset of this temperature range are shown to be influenced by the programming history, but are independent of the recovery conditions. PMID:25354272

Yu, Kai; Qi, H Jerry

2014-12-21

302

Cognition-emotion interactions are modulated by working memory capacity in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Prior research provides evidence for aberrant cognition-emotion interactions in schizophrenia. In the current study, we aimed to extend these findings by administering the "distractor devaluation" task to 40 individuals with schizophrenia and 32 demographically matched healthy controls. The task consisted of a simple visual search task for neutral faces, followed by an evaluative response made for one of the search items (or a novel item) to determine whether prior attentional selection results in a devaluation of a previously unattended stimulus. We also manipulated working memory demands by preceding the search array with a memory array that required subjects to hold 0, 1, or 2 items in working memory while performing the search array and devaluation task, to determine whether the normative process by which attentional states influence evaluative response is limited by working memory capacity. Results indicated that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated the typical distractor devaluation effect at working memory load 0, suggesting intact evaluative response. However, the devaluation effect was absent at working memory loads of 1 and 2, suggesting that normal evaluative responses can be abolished in people with schizophrenia when working memory capacity is exceeded. Thus, findings provide further evidence for normal evaluative response in schizophrenia, but clarify that these normal experiences may not hold when working memory demands are too high. PMID:22968207

Strauss, Gregory P; Lee, Bern G; Waltz, James A; Robinson, Benjamin M; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M

2012-11-01

303

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

304

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

305

Memory Golf Clubs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

1997-01-01

306

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

307

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique for eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memory allocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on a sequence of training inputs to ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

308

Building synthetic memory  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

2013-01-01

309

The future of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

Marinella, M.

310

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

311

Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control  

PubMed Central

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance. PMID:23908639

Sutterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

2013-01-01

312

Memory-to-memory connection structures in FPGAs with embedded memory arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the speed of FPGAs with large embedded memory arrays can be improved by adding direct programmable connections between the memories. Nets that connect to multiple memory arrays are often difficult to route, and are often part of the critical path of circuit implementations. The memory-to-memory connection structure proposed in this paper allows for the efficient implementation

Steven J. E. Wilton; Jonathan Rose; Zvonko G. Vranesic

1997-01-01

313

MEMORY TRAINING IN THE COMMUNITY AGED: EFFECTS ON DEPRESSION, MEMORY COMPLAINT, AND MEMORY PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of two types of training programs on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Prior research has suggested that although there are some age differences in memory, the memory complaints of older persons are related to depression and not to actual memory performance. In the present project subjects were randomly assigned

Steven H. Zarit; Dolores Gallagher; Nan Kramer

1981-01-01

314

Mobile target ladar ATR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mobile Target Acquisition System (MTAS) is an automatic target recognition (ATR) system developed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under funding by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to detect and identify mobile target laser detection and ranging (LADAR) range signatures. The primary objective was to achieve high correct system identification rates for range signatures of relatively low numbers of pixels on target and, at the same time, maintain a low system identification false alarm rate. MTAS met this objective by stressing conservation and efficient exploitation of target information at all levels of processing. Adaptive noise cleaning conserves target information by filtering pixels only when the pixel and its neighbors satisfied the criteria for range dropouts. The MTAS detector holds false alarms to a low level by convolving synthetic templates with the gradient of the range image and fusing the resulting correlation surface with a blob size filter. Mobile target identification fuses 2-D silhouette shape with 3-D (21/2-D) volumetric shape where the mixture of 2- and 3-D shapes is controlled by a single parameter. The match between the measured LADAR range signature and the synthetic range template efficiently and effectively exploits scarce target information by including all target and template pixels in the Fuzzy Tanimoto Distance similarity measure. This system has successfully detected and identified measured mobile LADAR target signatures with 200 pixels on target and greater with a low confuser identification rate and no system clutter identification false alarms.

Hodge, Jesse L.; DeKruger, David H.; Park, Alden E.

2001-10-01

315

A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

2012-01-01

316

Mark A. Wyatt Memorial Scholarship  

E-print Network

and a passion for research The Wyatt Scholarship is a memorial to Mark Wyatt, a pre- med Biological SciencesMark A. Wyatt Memorial Scholarship Application Due: March 30, 2012 The Mark A. Wyatt Memorial

Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

317

Wechsler Memory Scale, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, and Everyday Memory Questionnaire in Healthy Adults and Alzheimer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is a laboratory-based memory test that has been criticized for its lack of ecological validity and for not testing long-term memory. A more recent memory test, which aims at testing everyday memory, is the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT); it tests prospective memory and other forms of memory not tapped by WMS. However, even this

Anastasia Efklides; Efterpi Yiultsi; Theopisti Kangellidou; Fotini Kounti; Fotini Dina; Magda Tsolaki

2002-01-01

318

Influence of holding practice on preterm infant development  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to determine if nurse supported kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants in the first eight weeks of the infant's life facilitates early behavioral organization and development. Methods We randomized 87 infants born between 32 to 35 weeks gestation and their mothers to one of three holding groups: kangaroo (skin-to-skin between mother's breasts), blanket (held in mother's arms), or control (no holding restrictions). Nurse supported groups (kangaroo and blanket) received 8 weekly visits from a registered nurse who encouraged holding and provided education about infant development. The control group received brief social visits. Mothers recorded time held in a daily diary. The Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior was administered when infants were 40 to 44 weeks postconceptional age. Results Total holding time averaged four to five hours per day and did not differ among groups. Mothers held kangaroo style an average of 59 minutes per day in the kangaroo group, and 5 and 9 minutes per day in the blanket and control groups respectively (p <.001). Infants in the kangaroo and blanket groups had more optimal scores than the control group in Robust Crying (p = .015) indicating that they could arouse to vigorous crying and calm. Scores, except for Attention and State Regulation, were at least as high as those of full term infants. Clinical Implications When kangaroo holding is compared to blanket holding, both methods may provide equal early behavioral organization and developmental benefit to the infant. PMID:23625100

Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn; Schmiege, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

319

Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience  

PubMed Central

A wealth of neuroscientific evidence indicates that our brains respond differently to previously encountered than to novel stimuli. There has been an upswell of interest in the prospect that functional MRI (fMRI), when coupled with multivariate data analysis techniques, might allow the presence or absence of individual memories to be detected from brain activity patterns. This could have profound implications for forensic investigations and legal proceedings, and thus the merits and limitations of such an approach are in critical need of empirical evaluation. We conducted two experiments to investigate whether neural signatures of recognition memory can be reliably decoded from fMRI data. In Exp. 1, participants were scanned while making explicit recognition judgments for studied and novel faces. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) revealed a robust ability to classify whether a given face was subjectively experienced as old or new, as well as whether recognition was accompanied by recollection, strong familiarity, or weak familiarity. Moreover, a participant's subjective mnemonic experiences could be reliably decoded even when the classifier was trained on the brain data from other individuals. In contrast, the ability to classify a face's objective old/new status, when holding subjective status constant, was severely limited. This important boundary condition was further evidenced in Exp. 2, which demonstrated that mnemonic decoding is poor when memory is indirectly (implicitly) probed. Thus, although subjective memory states can be decoded quite accurately under controlled experimental conditions, fMRI has uncertain utility for objectively detecting an individual's past experiences. PMID:20457911

Rissman, Jesse; Greely, Henry T.; Wagner, Anthony D.

2010-01-01

320

Regret as Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

2008-01-01

321

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

322

Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

1991-01-01

323

Research Report Mismaking Memories  

E-print Network

, car, turn, tire, axle, round, circle, roll) are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, a critical; Schacter et al., 1996). Like the snapshot of a photo-finish horse race, neurophysiological recordings made as memory illusions occur provide objective measurements of an elusive event but do not reveal how the race

Kutas, Marta

324

Trading Memory for Randomness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategies in repeated games can be classified as to whether or not they use memory and/or randomization. We consider Markov decision processes and 2-player graph games, both of the deterministic and probabilistic varieties. We characterize when memory an...

K. Chatterjee, L. de Alfaro, T. A. Henzinger

2004-01-01

325

Introduction to flash memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly focuses on the development of the NOR flash memory technology, with the aim of describing both the basic functionality of the memory cell used so far and the main cell architecture consolidated today. The NOR cell is basically a floating-gate MOS transistor, programmed by channel hot electron and erased by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The main reliability issues, such

ROBERTO BEZ; EMILIO CAMERLENGHI; ALBERTO MODELLI; ANGELO VISCONTI

2003-01-01

326

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

327

The Psychology of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

Alan D. Baddeley

1976-01-01

328

Memory's Role in Catechesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected…

Williams, Robert Bryan

329

Working memory and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding leads to more positive

Eun Sook Jung; Norman Reid

2009-01-01

330

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

331

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

332

Programmable memory BIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern SoCs embedded memories include the large majority of defects. In addition defect types are becoming more complex and diverse and may escape detection during fabrication test. As a matter of fact memories have to be tested by test algorithms achieving very high fault coverage. Fixing the test algorithm during the design phase may not be compatible with this

Slimane Boutobza; Michael Nicolaidis; Kheiredine M. Lamara; Andrea Costa

2005-01-01

333

Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

2007-01-01

334

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

E-print Network

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that the best strategy is actually to adopt the simple intercept/resend strategy.

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci

2005-04-01

335

Major memory for microblogs.  

PubMed

Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2013-05-01

336

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

337

Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.  

PubMed

Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. PMID:23582098

Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

2014-09-01

338

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

339

Memory: Pandora's hippocampus?  

PubMed

Greater knowledge of the human brain has enabled us to begin devising therapies to rescue or modify memory for the afflicted, such as Alzheimer's patients or post-traumatic stress disorder victims. This same knowledge could also allow us to alter how normal, healthy memory operates; we may become able to enhance memory and learning through biological intervention. But the brain consists of complex, interactive networks, and unintended consequences could easily occur. Moreover, memory is woven into our individuality. Altering our memory processes therefore risks altering us fundamentally. We may not be able to resist opening this neuroscientific Pandora's Box, John Gabrieli writes, but we must proceed with all the wisdom we can muster. PMID:15986534

Gabrieli, John D E

2004-01-01

340

Computer memory management system  

DOEpatents

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01

341

Making Memories Matter  

PubMed Central

This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

2012-01-01

342

Optical quantum memory  

E-print Network

Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied: optical delay lines, cavities, electromagnetically-induced transparency, photon-echo, and off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here we report on the state-of-the-art in the field of optical quantum memory, including criteria for successful quantum memory and current performance levels.

A. I. Lvovsky; B. C. Sanders; W. Tittel

2010-02-24

343

Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans  

PubMed Central

Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, “base” and “comparison,” separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory. PMID:24449850

Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E.

2014-01-01

344

The ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. However, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. Here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (Varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz), and Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli). We compare these species across three studies targeting different aspects of spatial memory: recall after a long-delay, learning mechanisms supporting memory and recall of multiple locations in a complex environment. We find that ruffed lemurs, the most frugivorous species, consistently showed more robust spatial memory than the other species across tasks-especially in comparison with sifakas, the most folivorous species. We discuss these results in terms of the importance of considering both ecological and social factors as complementary explanations for the evolution of primate cognitive skills. PMID:24469310

Rosati, Alexandra G; Rodriguez, Kerri; Hare, Brian

2014-07-01

345

Memory-like Responses of Natural Killer Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with the capacity to produce cytokines and kill target cells upon activation. NK cells have long been categorized as members of the innate immune system and as such have been thought to follow the ‘rules’ of innate immunity, including the principle that they have no immunologic memory, a property thought to be strictly limited to adaptive immunity. However, recent studies have suggested that NK cells have the capacity to alter their behavior based on prior activation. This property is analogous to adaptive immune memory; however, some NK cell memory-like functions are not strictly antigen-dependent and can be demonstrated following cytokine stimulation. Here we discuss the recent evidence that NK cells can exhibit properties of immunologic memory, focusing on the ability of cytokines to non-specifically induce memory-like NK cells with enhanced responses to restimulation. PMID:20536571

Cooper, Megan A.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

2010-01-01

346

A child-holding thought experiment: students prefer to imaging holding an infant on the left side of the body.  

PubMed

The tendency of women to prefer to hold infants on the left side of the body has been confirmed by several methods: surveys of works of art and of photographs, field observations, and experimental methods. The present study developed a new method to examine the patterns of child-holding, that is, the child-holding thought experiment. 2287 female and 1268 male undergraduates were instructed to imaging nursing or feeding a baby. Then, they were asked on which side of the body they imagined holding the baby. Seventy-two percent of the women and 65% of the men reported imaging holding a baby on the left side of the body. This preference for the left side was noted, irrespective of handedness. These results indicate that both women and men who have never fed their own babies prefer to imaging holding a baby on the left side of the body. Moreover, that the magnitude of this preference was significantly stronger for the women adds to the evidence of a gender-dependent expression for lateral preferences in holding a baby. PMID:7675612

Nakamichi, M; Takeda, S

1995-04-01

347

A Role for Memory in Prospective Timing informs Timing in Prospective Memory  

PubMed Central

Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) tasks require the estimation of time in passing – known as prospective timing. Prospective timing is said to depend on an attentionally-driven internal clock mechanism, and is thought to be unaffected by memory for interval information (for reviews see, Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010; Block & Zakay, 1997). A prospective timing task that required a verbal estimate following the entire interval (Experiment 1) and a TBPM task that required production of a target response during the interval (Experiment 2) were used to test an alternative view that episodic memory does influence prospective timing. In both experiments, participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task of fixed duration while a varying number of songs were played in the background. Experiment 1 results revealed that verbal time estimates became longer the more songs participants remembered from the interval, suggesting that memory for interval information influences prospective time estimates. In Experiment 2, participants who were asked to perform the TBPM task without the aid of an external clock made their target responses earlier as the number of songs increased, indicating that prospective estimates of elapsed time increased as more songs were experienced. For participants who had access to a clock, changes in clock-checking coincided with the occurrence of song boundaries, indicating that participants used both song information and clock information to estimate time. Finally, ongoing task performance and verbal reports in both experiments further substantiate a role for episodic memory in prospective timing. PMID:22984950

Waldum, Emily R; Sahakyan, Lili

2014-01-01

348

Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PMID:23795769

Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

2013-06-01

349

CAT 53: A protein phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit encoded in the MHC Class I region strongly expressed in regions of the brain involved in memory, learning, and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified CAT 53 by cDNA hybridization selection as an expressed sequence tag (EST), located in the vicinity of HLA-C and designated as CAT (for HLA-C associated transcript) 53. CAT 53 encodes a protein described by others and commonly known as phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS). PNUTS is a potent inhibitor of nuclear serine\\/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). We

Ruma Raha-Chowdhury; Simon R. Andrews; Jeffrey R. Gruen

2005-01-01

350

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2011-10-01

351

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2013-10-01

352

45 CFR 1703.201 - Decision to hold meeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.201 Decision to hold...

2010-10-01

353

45 CFR 1703.201 - Decision to hold meeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.201 Decision to hold...

2012-10-01

354

45 CFR 1703.201 - Decision to hold meeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.201 Decision to hold...

2013-10-01

355

45 CFR 1703.201 - Decision to hold meeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.201 Decision to hold...

2011-10-01

356

12009 Bechtel Enterprises Holdings, Inc. Preparing for a Game Change  

E-print Network

Forum Alan Mawdsley November 4, 2009 #12;2 Bechtel - Four Generations of Leadership Uninterrupted Family Cameron, LA ©2009 Bechtel Enterprises Holdings, Inc. #12;13 Power · New "cleaner coal" plant being built

357

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

358

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

359

Bone Drug Holds Promise as Therapy for People with OA  

MedlinePLUS

... 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 January 2012 Bone Drug Holds Promise as Therapy for People with ... have shown that a medication that triggers new bone formation in people with osteoporosis can restore cartilage ...

360

43 CFR 3902.10 - Who may hold leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Qualification Requirements § 3902.10 Who may hold leases. (a) The following...

2012-10-01

361

43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.30 Computing acreage holdings. In computing...

2012-10-01

362

IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly and HTRE rig. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1010 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

363

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

364

Dynamic Ground-Holding Policies for a Network of Airports  

E-print Network

The yearly congestion costs in the US airline industry are estimated to be of the order of $2 billion. In [6] we have introduced and studied generic integer programming models for the static multi-airport ground holding ...

Vranas, Peter B.

365

Attentional blink magnitude is predicted by the ability to keep irrelevant material out of working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants have difficulty in reporting the second of two masked targets if the second target is presented within 500 ms\\u000a of the first target—an attentional blink (AB). Individual participants differ in the magnitude of their AB. The present study\\u000a employed an individual differences design and two visual working memory tasks to examine whether visual working memory capacity\\u000a and\\/or the ability to

Karen M. Arnell; Shawn M. Stubitz

2010-01-01

366

Memory Processing Memory Processing includes tests of  

E-print Network

biologic parents having lived to age 70 or beyond without having developed dementia Thanks to our wonderful the Study Coordinator at: 314-286-2683 Adult Children Study Memory and Aging Project Alzheimer's Disease Adult Children Study Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Department of Neurology Washington University

367

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

368

Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

2012-01-01

369

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Noradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Müller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

370

Causes and consequences of grudge-holding in service relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to place grudge-holding as a theoretical construct, measure it, and empirically place it in a nomological net and, additionally to discuss the consequences of grudge-holding in this research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 2 × 2 scenario-based experiment was performed using 320 subjects, approximately 80 people per condition. The size of the exit barrier

Matthew P. Bunker; Dwayne Ball

2008-01-01

371

Adaptive Control of Milling Forces under Fractional Order Holds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel discrete-time model-reference based control of the tool-work-piece interaction force in a milling\\u000a process. The novelty of the scheme relies on the use of a fractional order hold (FROH) instead of a traditional zero order\\u000a hold (ZOH) used in the manufacturing literature to obtain a discrete-time model of the continuous system. The additional degree\\u000a of freedom

L. Rubio; M. Sen

372

Young and Older Adults' Beliefs about Effective Ways to Mitigate Age-Related Memory Decline  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether young and older adults vary in their beliefs about the impact of various mitigating factors on age-related memory decline. Eighty young (ages 18–23) and eighty older (ages 60–82) participants reported their beliefs about their own memory abilities and the strategies that they use in their everyday lives to attempt to control their memory. Participants also reported their beliefs about memory change with age for hypothetical target individuals who were described as using (or not using) various means to mitigate memory decline. There were no age differences in personal beliefs about control over current or future memory ability. However, the two age groups differed in the types of strategies they used in their everyday life to control their memory. Young adults were more likely to use internal memory strategies, whereas older adults were more likely to focus on cognitive exercise and maintaining physical health as ways to optimize their memory ability. There were no age differences in rated memory change across the life span in hypothetical individuals. Both young and older adults perceived strategies related to improving physical and cognitive health as effective means of mitigating memory loss with age, whereas internal memory strategies were perceived as less effective means for controlling age-related memory decline. PMID:22082012

Horhota, Michelle; Lineweaver, Tara; Ositelu, Monique; Summers, Kristi; Hertzog, Christopher

2013-01-01

373

Working memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language.

Pascale M. J. Engel de Abreu

2011-01-01

374

Reliability mechanisms for file systems using non-volatile memory as a metadata store  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable systems such as cell phones and portable media players commonly use non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) to hold all of their data and metadata, and larger systems can store metadata in NVRAM to increase file system performance by reducing synchronization and transfer overhead between disk and memory data structures. Unfortunately, wayward writes from buggy software and random bit flips may result

Kevin M. Greenan; Ethan L. Miller

2006-01-01

375

Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

At any instant, our visual system allows us to perceive a rich and detailed visual world. Yet our internal, explicit representation of this visual world is extremely sparse: we can only hold in mind a minute fraction of the visual scene. These mental representations are stored in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Even though VSTM is essential for the execution of

J. Jay Todd; René Marois

2004-01-01

376

Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

2007-01-01

377

Quantum cryptographic network based on quantum memories Computer Science Department, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel  

E-print Network

Quantum cryptographic network based on quantum memories Eli Biham Computer Science Department that these complexity assumptions may not hold for a quantum computer for example, a quantum computer should enable fast , may be broken by quantum computers. These developments enhanced the interest in quantum cryptography

Mor, Tal

378

“Capital of Despair”Holodomor Memory and Political Conflicts in Kharkiv after the Orange Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Famine of 1932—33, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor and silenced for decades by the Soviet regime, holds a special place in national memory. It was after the Orange Revolution that the Holodomor became the core of a new identity politics, which conceptualized the Ukrainian nation as a “postgenocide” community, a collective victim of the Communist regime. But

Tatiana Zhurzhenko

2011-01-01

379

Infrared target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, three approaches were used for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). These approaches were shape, moment and Fourier generated features, Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) generated features and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) generated features. The KLT approach was modelled after the face recognition research by Suarez, AFIT, and Turk and Pentland, MIT. A KLT is taken of a reduced covariance matrix, composed all three classes of targets, and the resulting eigenimages are used to reconstruct the original images. The reconstruction coefficients for each original image are found by taking the dot product of the original image with each eigenimage. These reconstruction coefficients were implemented as features into a three layer backprop with momentum network. Using the hold one-cut-out technique of testing data, the net could correctly differentiate the targets 100 percent of the time. Using standard features, the correct classification rate was 99.33 percent. The DCT was also taken of each image, and 16 low frequency Fourier components were kept as features. These recognition rates were compared to FFT results where each set contained the top five feature, as determined by a saliency test. The results proved that the DCT and the FFT were equivalent concerning classification of targets.

Singstock, Brian D.

1991-12-01

380

Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation  

SciTech Connect

Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

Sarkar, A.; Rano, R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

2007-07-01

381

Sputter target  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

1980-01-01

382

Encoding [quiet memories  

E-print Network

visual archetypes of memories. Feelings and emotions are preserved and travel with me through time, affecting and enriching my life. Reminiscences make up a complex network that includes very specific memories and more general and abstract moments from..., and together tell the story of who I am. When we encode, we transform what we feel, think or see at a particular point in our life, into memories. I use a variety of materials and processes to transform these personal feelings and sensations into reminiscences...

Brebenel, Elena

2011-04-20

383

Memory clinics in context  

PubMed Central

The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

2009-01-01

384

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

385

77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc...Tutoring Services Inc., and GPS Industries, Inc.; Order...the securities of EarthBlock Technologies, Inc. because it has not...concerning the securities of GPS Industries, Inc....

2012-11-16

386

Recovered Memories of Child Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we exemplify the ongoing and inconclusive nature of empirical research examining the validity of adults' recovered memories of childhood abuse. In view of increasing evidence that the processes underlying traumatic memories differ in fundamental ways from those underlying memories for nontraumatic events, experimental studies of everyday memory processes are likely to have little relevance for our understanding

Connie M. Kristiansen; Kathleen A. Felton; Wendy E. Hovdestad

1996-01-01

387

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

E-print Network

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ­ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

Schacter, Daniel

388

Sleep-dependent memory consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of `sleeping on a problem' is familiar to most of us. But with myriad stages of sleep, forms of memory and processes of memory encoding and consolidation, sorting out how sleep contributes to memory has been anything but straightforward. Nevertheless, converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is

Robert Stickgold

2005-01-01

389

Encapsulated Target for Isotope Production Cyclotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current solid isotope production targets at TRIUMF can only be used to irradiate metallic materials with high melting point. In order to irradiate liquids, powders, and materials with low melting point, a new encapsulated target is being developed specifically for use on isotope production cyclotrons. This concentrically water-cooled target must withstand a 240 microA @ 30 MeV proton beam. The target is a round container with a pocket to hold the target material; the target material is encapsulated using a thin foil which is electron-beam welded on the target. The cooling and the heat-induced stresses of the target are being analyzed using finite element methods. The results will then be compared with actual measurements obtained using surface embedded thermocouples. The paper discusses the results and the current status of the project.

Bakhtiari, Shervin; Gelbart, William Z.; Ho, Wendy; Stevenson, Nigel R.

1997-05-01

390

Mouse Studies Show Gene Therapy Method Holds Promise in Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels for Destruction  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers have reported the development of a novel method for delivering a therapeutic gene specifically to the blood vessels of tumors in mice. Once delivered, the gene produces a protein that damages the blood vessels and disrupts the blood flow to tumors, but not to the surrounding tissue.

391

ISAC targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility was designed and constructed to allow irradiation of thick targets with up to 100 A proton beam intensities. Since beginning operation in 1998, beam intensities on ISAC targets have progressively increased toward the 100 A design limit. Routine operation with p + intensities up to 75 A is currently possible for both refractory metal target materials and for composite metal carbide materials; full 99 A p + intensity has been achieved for Nb foil target material. Consideration must be given to the beam power deposition, the power dissipation and the limiting temperature criteria of each target material. Increased beam power dissipation has been achieved by modifying target materials and target containers. Increasing irradiation currents have produced benefits, drawbacks and unexpected results for ISOL operations.

Dombsky, M.; Kunz, P.

2014-01-01

392

Emotional Memory Mara Mather  

E-print Network

enhance memory a week later for what happened right beforehand (Knight & Mather, 2009). How does arousal background, they were able to remember more of the salient dark grey letters and fewer of the light grey

Mather, Mara

393

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-print Network

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01

394

Warship : memorial in antithesis  

E-print Network

This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

1992-01-01

395

Modelling Immunological Memory  

E-print Network

Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

396

Hardware Transactional Memory  

E-print Network

This work shows how hardware transactional memory (HTM) can be implemented to support transactions of arbitrarily large size, while ensuring that small transactions run efficiently. Our implementation handles small ...

Lie, Sean

397

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

398

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct.  

PubMed

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Working Memory Index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percentage of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle's (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

Hill, B D; Elliott, Emily M; Shelton, Jill T; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, W Drew

2010-03-01

399

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), whereas other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory

Jill Talley Shelton; Emily M. Elliott; Russell A. Matthews; B. D. Hill; Wm. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

400

Phase change memory technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the current state of phase change memory (PCM), a non-volatile solid-state memory technology built around the large electrical contrast between the highly-resistive amorphous and highly-conductive crystalline states in so-called phase change materials. PCM technology has made rapid progress in a short time, having passed older technologies in terms of both sophisticated demonstrations of scaling to small device dimensions,

Geoffrey W. Burr; Matthew J. Breitwisch; Michele Franceschini; Davide Garetto; Kailash Gopalakrishnan; Bryan Jackson; Bulent Kurdi; Chung Lam; Luis A. Lastras; Alvaro Padilla; Bipin Rajendran; Simone Raoux; Rohit S. Shenoy

2010-01-01

401

Iwo Jima Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

402

Photonic crystal optical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

2011-06-01

403

False memories and confabulation.  

PubMed

Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories. PMID:21227110

Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

1998-04-01

404

Quantum Channels with Memory  

E-print Network

We present a general model for quantum channels with memory, and show that it is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: any quantum process in which outputs up to some time t do not depend on inputs at times t' > t can be decomposed into a concatenated memory channel. We then examine and present different physical setups in which channels with memory may be operated for the transfer of (private) classical and quantum information. These include setups in which either the receiver or a malicious third party have control of the initializing memory. We introduce classical and quantum channel capacities for these settings, and give several examples to show that they may or may not coincide. Entropic upper bounds on the various channel capacities are given. For forgetful quantum channels, in which the effect of the initializing memory dies out as time increases, coding theorems are presented to show that these bounds may be saturated. Forgetful quantum channels are shown to be open and dense in the set of quantum memory channels.

Dennis Kretschmann; Reinhard F. Werner

2005-02-17

405

Controlling Attention to Nociceptive Stimuli with Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Background Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, a nociceptive stimulus has the capacity to involuntarily capture attention and take priority over other sensory inputs. Whether distraction by nociception actually occurs may depend upon the cognitive characteristics of the ongoing activities. The present study tested the role of working memory in controlling the attentional capture by nociception. Methodology and Principal Findings Participants performed visual discrimination and matching tasks in which visual targets were shortly preceded by a tactile distracter. The two tasks were chosen because of the different effects the involvement of working memory produces on performance, in order to dissociate the specific role of working memory in the control of attention from the effect of general resource demands. Occasionally (i.e. 17% of the trials), tactile distracters were replaced by a novel nociceptive stimulus in order to distract participants from the visual tasks. Indeed, in the control conditions (no working memory), reaction times to visual targets were increased when the target was preceded by a novel nociceptive distracter as compared to the target preceded by a frequent tactile distracter, suggesting attentional capture by the novel nociceptive stimulus. However, when the task required an active rehearsal of the visual target in working memory, the novel nociceptive stimulus no longer induced a lengthening of reaction times to visual targets, indicating a reduction of the distraction produced by the novel nociceptive stimulus. This effect was independent of the overall task demands. Conclusion and Significance Loading working memory with pain-unrelated information may reduce the ability of nociceptive input to involuntarily capture attention, and shields cognitive processing from nociceptive distraction. An efficient control of attention over pain is best guaranteed by the ability to maintain active goal priorities during achievement of cognitive activities and to keep pain-related information out of task settings. PMID:21687745

Legrain, Valery; Crombez, Geert; Mouraux, Andre

2011-01-01

406

Verification of Embedded Memory Systems using Efficient Memory Modeling  

E-print Network

We describe verification techniques for embedded memory systems using efficient memory modeling (EMM), without explicitly modeling each memory bit. We extend our previously proposed approach of EMM in Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for a single read/write port single memory system, to more commonly occurring systems with multiple memories, having multiple read and write ports. More importantly, we augment such EMM to providing correctness proofs, in addition to finding real bugs as before. The novelties of our verification approach are in a) combining EMM with proof-based abstraction that preserves the correctness of a property up to a certain analysis depth of SAT-based BMC, and b) modeling arbitrary initial memory state precisely and thereby, providing inductive proofs using SAT-based BMC for embedded memory systems. Similar to the previous approach, we construct a verification model by eliminating memory arrays, but retaining the memory interface signals with their control logic and adding constraints on tho...

Ganai, Malay K; Ashar, Pranav

2011-01-01

407

Target entitativity: implications for information processing about individual and group targets.  

PubMed

It is hypothesized that perceptions of entitativity (i.e., seeing social targets as possessing unity and coherence) have important implications for how one organizes information about, and forms impressions of, individual and group targets. When perceivers expect entitativity, they should form an integrated impression of the target, resulting in on-line judgments. However, when perceivers expect little entitativity, they should not process target-relevant information in an integrative fashion, resulting in memory-based judgments. Although many factors affect perceptions of entitativity, the current study focused on expectations of similarity and behavioral consistency. It was predicted that in general, perceivers expect greater entitativity for individual than group targets. However, when explicitly provided with similar expectancies of entitativity, information processing would be similar for both individual and group targets. Two experiments supported these predictions, using recall, memory-judgment correlation, and illusory correlation measures. PMID:9108693

McConnell, A R; Sherman, S J; Hamilton, D L

1997-04-01

408

Novel Physics With Tensor Polarized Targets  

E-print Network

The Jefferson Lab PAC recently approved an experiment which will use an enhanced tensor po- larized solid target. This exciting development holds the potential of initiating a new field of tensor spin physics at JLab. Experiments which utilize tensor polarized targets can help clarify how nuclear properties arise from partonic degrees of freedom, provide unique insight into short range correlations and quark angular momentum, and help pin down the polarization of the quark sea.

Karl Slifer; Elena Long

2013-11-19

409

Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

2013-01-01

410

Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

2014-08-01

411

Single-breath-hold multiple-slice DENSE MRI.  

PubMed

A method to acquire multiple displacement encoded slices within a single breath hold is presented. Efficiency is improved over conventional DENSE without compromising image quality by readout of multiple slices in the same cardiac cycle, thus utilizing the position-encoded stimulated echo available in the whole heart. The method was evaluated by comparing strain values obtained using the proposed method to strain values obtained by conventional separate breath-hold single-slice DENSE acquisitions. Good agreement (Lagrangian E(2) strain bias = 0.000, 95% limits of agreement +/- 0.04, root-mean-square-difference 0.02 [9.4% of mean end-systolic E(2)]) was found between the methods, indicating that the proposed method can replace a multiple breath-hold acquisition. Eliminating the need for multiple breath holds reduces the risk of changes in breath-hold positions or heart rate, results in higher patient comfort, and facilitates inclusion of DENSE in a clinical routine protocol. PMID:20432313

Sigfridsson, Andreas; Haraldsson, Henrik; Ebbers, Tino; Knutsson, Hans; Sakuma, Hajime

2010-05-01

412

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

413

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-08-01

414

20 CFR 1001.152 - Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level.  

...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. 1001.152 Section 1001...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. (a) A hold-harmless rate of 90 percent of the prior year's funding level will be applied after...

2014-04-01

415

26 CFR 1.367(b)-13 - Special rules for determining basis and holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special rules for determining basis and holding period. 1.367(b...13 Special rules for determining basis and holding period. (a) Scope and...Scope. This section provides special basis and holding period rules to determine...

2010-04-01

416

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2014-04-01

417

26 CFR 53.4943-3 - Determination of excess business holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Determination of excess business holdings. 53.4943-3 Section...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-3 Determination of excess business holdings. (a) Excess business...

2011-04-01

418

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2013-04-01

419

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2011-04-01

420

26 CFR 53.4943-3 - Determination of excess business holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Determination of excess business holdings. 53.4943-3 Section...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-3 Determination of excess business holdings. (a) Excess business...

2012-04-01

421

26 CFR 53.4943-3 - Determination of excess business holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Determination of excess business holdings. 53.4943-3 Section...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-3 Determination of excess business holdings. (a) Excess business...

2013-04-01

422

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2012-04-01

423

17 CFR 240.17i-8 - Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies. 240.17i-8...Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240...Notification provisions for supervised investment bank holding companies. (a) A...

2010-04-01

424

12 CFR 225.86 - What activities are permissible for any financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION... Regulations Financial Holding Companies...marketplace on the financial holding company's Internet web site by providing...Hosting on the financial holding company's servers the Internet web site...

2010-01-01

425

12 CFR 225.104 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the bank or its holding company chooses to have done through...subsidiaries of Holding Company A. This latter and basic...essentially a financial relationship between it and the banking subsidiaries of Holding Company A and appeared...

2010-01-01

426

12 CFR 575.7 - Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acquired by the mutual holding company and is not a resulting association...subsidiary of a mutual holding company to persons other than the association's mutual holding company, consistent with any other applicable laws and regulations. (6)...

2010-01-01

427

17 CFR 250.5 - Exemption of certain foreign holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions...5 Exemption of certain foreign holding companies. Any holding company not organized under the laws of any State of the United States...

2010-04-01

428

12 CFR 584.2a - Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...public interest. (d) Foreign holding company. Any savings and loan holding company organized under the laws of a foreign country as of June l, 1984...respect to any activities of such holding company that are conducted exclusively in a...

2010-01-01

429

12 CFR 575.7 - Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its mutual holding company parent or to members of the mutual holding company parent. (4) The proposed price...association's mutual holding company parent at the close of the proposed...offering or direct community marketing, shall be completed as...

2012-01-01

430

Overexpression of type-1 adenylyl cyclase in mouse forebrain enhances recognition memory and LTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP is a positive regulator of synaptic plasticity and is required for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory including recognition memory. The type I adenylyl cyclase, Adcy1 (also known as AC1), is crucial in memory formation because it couples Ca2+ to cyclic AMP increases in the hippocampus. Because Adcy1 is neurospecific, it is a potential pharmacological target for increasing cAMP

Hongbing Wang; Gregory D Ferguson; Victor V Pineda; Paige E Cundiff; Daniel R Storm

2004-01-01

431

Keeping Your Head On Target  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which the human brain controls eye movements are reasonably well understood, but those for the head less so. Here, we show that the mechanisms for keeping the head aimed at a stationary target follow strategies similar to those for holding the eyes steady on stationary targets. Specifically, we applied the neural integrator hypothesis that originally was developed for holding the eyes still in eccentric gaze positions to describe how the head is held still when turned toward an eccentric target. We found that normal humans make head movements consistent with the neural integrator hypothesis, except that additional sensory feedback is needed, from proprioceptors in the neck, to keep the head on target. We also show that the complicated patterns of head movements in patients with cervical dystonia can be predicted by deficits in a neural integrator for head motor control. These results support ideas originally developed from animal studies that suggest fundamental similarities between oculomotor and cephalomotor control, as well as a conceptual framework for cervical dystonia that departs considerably from current clinical views. PMID:23825431

Wong, Aaron L.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

2013-01-01

432

Memory Distortion in Alzheimer's Disease: Deficient Monitoring of Short-and Long-Term Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Distortion in Alzheimer's Disease: Deficient Monitoring of Short- and Long-Term Memory Objective: This study measured distortions of memory during short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory: Alzheimer's disease, false memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, semantic mem- ory Distortion

433

Memory function and supportive technology  

PubMed Central

Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

2013-01-01

434

March DSS: A New Diagnostic March Test for All Memory Simple Static Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic march tests are powerful tests that are capable of detecting and identifying faults in memories. Although march SS was published for detecting simple static faults, no test has been published for identifying all faults possibly present in memory cells. In this paper, we target all published simple static faults. We identify faults that cannot be distinguished due to their

Sultan M. Al-harbi; Fadel Noor; Fadi M. Al-turjman

2007-01-01

435

Memory for words, pictures, and faces: Retroactive interference, forgetting, and reminiscence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment with 198 undergraduates, direct comparisons of recognition memory for concrete nouns, pictures of common objects, pictures of landscapes, and pictures of faces showed that memory for nouns and objects was relatively immune to retroactive interference in a test given shortly after study, increased slightly in susceptibility as time passed since seeing the targets and the interfering items,

Kenneth A. Deffenbacher; Thomas H. Carr; John R. Leu

1981-01-01

436

Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

2009-01-01

437

The Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory within and between Hemifields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are both thought to have a capacity limit of four items [e.g. Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 309, 279-281; Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Storm, R. W. (1988). Tracking multiple independent targets: evidence for a parallel tracking…

Delvenne, J.F.

2005-01-01

438

Imaging Hippocampal Function across the Human Life Span: Is Memory Decline  

E-print Network

susceptible to diseases that target memory regions of the brain. Should the dimin- ished ability to acquire, such as working memory, are subserved by alternative brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex.5 The hip-- the entorhinal cortex, the dentate gyrus, the CA sub- fields, and the subiculum.6 Because the neuronal pop

439

Differentiation and Response Bias in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In differentiation models, the processes of encoding and retrieval produce an increase in the distribution of memory strength for targets and a decrease in the distribution of memory strength for foils as the amount of encoding increases. This produces an increase in the hit rate and decrease in the false-alarm rate for a strongly encoded compared…

Criss, Amy H.

2010-01-01

440

Identity but not size information in working memory biases attentional selection in hierarchical forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants held the size of a cue in working memory and looked for a target letter across local and global levels of hierarchical, compound letters. There was no effect of whether the cue size matched the size of the local or global letter, even when the size memory task was made difficult. The null effect of cue size was also

Jeong-Im Kim; Glyn W. Humphreys

2011-01-01

441

Tapestry of memory.  

PubMed

In this essay, I have elaborated on the ideas and experiments that have guided my research career. First, I present my early research history and my involvement in determining the neurobiological basis of the consolidation process based primarily on the consolidation paradigm. Based on a series of experiments and a new interest in cognitive psychology, I then developed a cognitive and neurobiologically based model of memory. This model represents a comprehensive view of memory organization based on multiple processes and multiple forms of memory representation and is based on the neurobiology of a multiple attribute, multiple process, tripartite system model of memory. I present some detailed evidence in terms of the neural foundations, specific attributes, and processes of operation for the event-based, knowledge-based, and rule-based memory systems. In addition, I present a set of experiments to demonstrate that there might be parallel processing of mnemonic information in rats and humans. Finally, I recognize that ideas can be generated by reading the extant literature, interaction with colleagues at meetings, and exchange of ideas with students to design and execute hopefully meaningful experiments. PMID:19170425

Kesner, Raymond P

2009-02-01

442

Differentiating spatial memory from spatial transformations.  

PubMed

The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain transformations/rotations. To differentiate spatial memory from spatial transformations, the present study took a new approach based on the hypothesis that responses may be biased toward the original representation but not a transformed one. Participants memorized a regular target array and then judged the relative direction between 2 targets while imagining facing various directions. Their response time and absolute errors showed the standard advantages at 4 imagined orientations. In contrast, an attraction analysis suggested that only 1 orientation was represented in memory, whereas performance advantages at other orthogonal orientations were due to lower transformation costs and should not be interpreted as spatial representations. These findings challenged the traditional performance-based interpretations of perspective change tasks and provided a new research paradigm to differentiate spatial representations from spatial transformations. PMID:24364722

Street, Whitney N; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

2014-03-01

443

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique foreliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memoryallocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on asequence of training inputsto find ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

2005-10-26

444

The Frontal Eye Fields Limit the Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory in Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

The frontal eye fields (FEF) in rhesus monkeys have been implicated in visual short-term memory (VSTM) as well as control of visual attention. Here we examined the importance of the area in the VSTM capacity and the relationship between VSTM and attention, using the chemical inactivation technique and multi-target saccade tasks with or without the need of target-location memory. During FEF inactivation, serial saccades to targets defined by color contrast were unaffected, but saccades relying on short-term memory were impaired when the target count was at the capacity limit of VSTM. The memory impairment was specific to the FEF-coded retinotopic locations, and subject to competition among targets distributed across visual fields. These results together suggest that the FEF plays a crucial role during the entry of information into VSTM, by enabling attention deployment on targets to be remembered. In this view, the memory capacity results from the limited availability of attentional resources provided by FEF: The FEF can concurrently maintain only a limited number of activations to register the targets into memory. When lesions render part of the area unavailable for activation, the number would decrease, further reducing the capacity of VSTM. PMID:23555049

Lee, Kyoung-Min; Ahn, Kyung-Ha

2013-01-01

445

Memory on the beach: an Australian memory (and hypnosis) laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The memory (and hypnosis) lab at the University of New South Wales investigates a broad range of memory topics. We try to\\u000a find innovative methods from cognitive and clinical psychology to address theoretical and empirical questions about memory.\\u000a We aso use hypnosis as one major methodological tool in our investigations of memory (as well as other cognitive processes).\\u000a In this

Amanda J. Barnier; Richard A. Bryant; Leah Campbell; Rochelle Cox; Celia Harris; Lynette Hung; Fiona Maccallum; Stefanie J. Sharman

2005-01-01

446

Neural Protein Synthesis during Aging: Effects on Plasticity and Memory  

PubMed Central

During aging, many experience a decline in cognitive function that includes memory loss. The encoding of long-term memories depends on new protein synthesis, and this is also reduced during aging. Thus, it is possible that changes in the regulation of protein synthesis contribute to the memory impairments observed in older animals. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis. For instance, protein synthesis is required for a longer period following learning to establish long-term memory in aged rodents. Also, under some conditions, synaptic activity or pharmacological activation can induce de novo protein synthesis and lasting changes in synaptic transmission in aged, but not young, rodents; the opposite results can be observed in other conditions. These changes in plasticity likely play a role in manifesting the altered place field properties observed in awake and behaving aged rats. The collective evidence suggests a link between memory loss and the regulation of protein synthesis in senescence. In fact, pharmaceuticals that target the signaling pathways required for induction of protein synthesis have improved memory, synaptic plasticity, and place cell properties in aged animals. We suggest that a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to different protein expression patterns in the neural circuits that change as a function of age will enable the development of more effective therapeutic treatments for memory loss. PMID:20802800

Schimanski, Lesley A.; Barnes, Carol A.

2010-01-01

447

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

448

Memory in viral quasispecies.  

PubMed

Biological adaptive systems share some common features: variation among their constituent elements and continuity of core information. Some of them, such as the immune system, are endowed with memory of past events. In this study we provide direct evidence that evolving viral quasispecies possess a molecular memory in the form of minority components that populate their mutant spectra. The experiments have involved foot-and-mouth disease virus populations with known evolutionary histories. The composition and behavior of the viral population in response to a selective constraint were influenced by past evolutionary history in a way that could not be predicted from examination of consensus nucleotide sequences of the viral populations. The molecular memory of the viral quasispecies influenced both the nature and the intensity of the response of the virus to a selective constraint. PMID:10729128

Ruiz-Jarabo, C M; Arias, A; Baranowski, E; Escarmís, C; Domingo, E

2000-04-01

449

Vietnam Veterans Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

450

Flexible Memory Networks  

E-print Network

Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H_1(X;Z)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context.

Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir

2010-01-01

451

Guide to Holding a Webinar Recipe for webinar success  

E-print Network

Guide to Holding a Webinar Recipe for webinar success Set up: · Use a hosted web conferencing getting to get students to know about your webinar series. Eg email blasts, post cards, web presence of your webinars. Don't get discouraged and seek ways to improve your communication plan. · You must

Ellis, Randy

452

Apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the manipulation of microballoons and more particularly to an apparatus for removably holding a plurality of microballoons in order to more efficiently carry out the filling of the microballoons with a known quantity of gas.

Jorgensen, B.S.

1984-06-05

453

16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe at left was part of system which provided fresh sea water to the tanks, which kept the fish fresh and allowed them to be sluiced to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

454

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent and its permitted holdings are zero (21%?21%). However, P has no... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term on... prior to the second phase is equal to zero. After the first phase, such term...

2010-04-01

455

Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

1984-01-01

456

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

457

Updated: September, 2012 Intent to Hold FPM Course/Test  

E-print Network

Updated: September, 2012 FORM A Intent to Hold FPM Course/Test Which course are you conducting? (check only one) 2-day course 1-day course Test only Re-Test only Test & Re-Test Food Handlers What date(s) are you conducting the training/testing? ______________________________ (mm

458

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

459

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK CELL, OFFGAS CELL, ADSORBER CELL, AND OFFGAS FILTER CELL. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106453. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-P-58. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

460

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. NO. 1 HOLD. BUOY CEMENT WEIGHTS BEING USED AS BALLAST. SHOT FROM PORT SIDE TOWARD STARBOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

461

Cell holding system for microcoil-based MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the design and fabrication of a holding cell that enables concurrent imaging and visualization of a single cell during planar microcoil-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the cellular level. The present hardware design of many microcoil-based MRI prevents monitoring of cell interactions and compositions during MRI. The system was fabricated on a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) structure using

N. Ekekwe; B. Armiger; K. Murray

2008-01-01

462

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

463

Litigation Holds: Don't Live in Fear of Spoliation  

E-print Network

. · The court found that the college failed to preserve ESI on the computers of key witnesses. · The court held was not available because it found that the defendant made no effort to put relevant information on "litigation hold · word processing · spreadsheets · calendars · voice/text messages · wiki sites · Videos · Photographs

Alpay, S. Pamir

464

26 CFR 53.4943-4 - Present holdings.  

...business enterprise exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock). If the combined holdings of...persons at no time exceed 2 percent (of the voting stock) during the 15 years following the...5 percent interest in corporation X (voting stock and value). On such date...

2014-04-01

465

Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells  

E-print Network

Nanoengineered Structures for Holding and Manipulating Liposomes and Cells Clyde F. Wilson, Garth J exceptional stability in capturing, transporting, and releasing single cells and liposomes 1-12 µm in diameter subsequently probed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). In the second study, a single liposome containing car

Zare, Richard N.

466

BOLD Frequency Power Indexes Working Memory Performance  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiology studies routinely investigate the relationship between neural oscillations and task performance. However, the sluggish nature of the BOLD response means that few researchers have investigated the spectral properties of the BOLD signal in a similar manner. For the first time we have applied group ICA to fMRI data collected during a standard working memory task (delayed match-to-sample) and using a multivariate analysis, we investigate the relationship between working memory performance (accuracy and reaction time) and BOLD spectral power within functional networks. Our results indicate that BOLD spectral power within specific networks (visual, temporal-parietal, posterior default-mode network, salience network, basal ganglia) correlated with task accuracy. Multivariate analyses show that the relationship between task accuracy and BOLD spectral power is stronger than the relationship between BOLD spectral power and other variables (age, gender, head movement, and neuropsychological measures). A traditional General Linear Model (GLM) analysis found no significant group differences, or regions that covaried in signal intensity with task accuracy, suggesting that BOLD spectral power holds unique information that is lost in a standard GLM approach. We suggest that the combination of ICA and BOLD spectral power is a useful novel index of cognitive performance that may be more sensitive to brain-behavior relationships than traditional approaches. PMID:23720623

Balsters, Joshua Henk; Robertson, Ian H.; Calhoun, Vince D.

2013-01-01

467

Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.

1975-01-01

468

Examining object location and object recognition memory in mice.  

PubMed

This unit is designed to provide sufficient instruction for the setup and execution of tests for object location and object recognition in adult mice. This task is ideally suited for the study of a variety of mouse models that examine disease mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets. By altering several key parameters, the experimenter can investigate short-term or long-term memory and look for either memory impairments or enhancements. Object location and object recognition memory tasks rely on a rodent's innate preference for novelty, and can be conducted sequentially in the same cohort of animals. These two tasks avoid the inherent stress induced with other common measures of rodent memory such as fear conditioning and the Morris water maze. This protocol covers detailed instructions on conducting both tasks, as well as key points concerning data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 69:8.31.1-8.31.17. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25297693

Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

2014-01-01

469

Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam veterans memorial as prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues for a reading of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse. Beginning with a contrast of modernist and postmodern rhetorics of architecture, the authors suggest that the Memorial reflects the typical gestures of postmodern architecture. Moreover, they suggest that a consideration of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse accounts for differences among other critical

Carole Blair; Marsha S. Jeppeson; Enrico Pucci Jr

1991-01-01

470

Lifelogging memory appliance for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelogging technologies have the potential to prov ide memory cues for people who struggle with episodic memory impairment (EMI). These memory cues enable the recollection of significant experiences, which is i mportant for people with EMI to regain a sense of normalcy i n their lives. However, lifelogging technologies often coll ect an overwhelmingly large amount of data to review.

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

471

Dynamic Memory Disambiguation Using the Memory Conflict Buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit instruction level parallelism, compilers forVLIW and superscalar processors often employ staticcode scheduling. However, the available code reorderingmay be severely restricted due to ambiguous dependencesbetween memory instructions. This paperintroduces a simple hardware mechanism, referred to asthe memory conflict buffer, which facilitates static codescheduling in the presence of memory store\\/load dependences.Correct program execution is ensured by thememory conflict...

David M. Gallagher; William Y. Chen; Scott A. Mahlke; John C. Gyllenhaal; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1994-01-01

472

War Memorials and Memories: Comparing the Philippines and South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws from international relations, comparative politics, and Asian Studies in an effort to compare war memorials and memories in the Philippines and South Korea. The analysis begins with a description of how memorials in both countries pursue a conventional narrative of glorious victories, heroic defeats, and sacred ground. The focus then shifts to counter?narratives that have challenged the

John L. Linantud

2008-01-01

473

Providing good memory cues for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease impairs episodic memory and subtly and progressively robs people of their ability to remember their recent experiences. In this paper, we describe two studies that lead to a better understanding of how caregivers use cues to support episodic memory impairment and what types of cues are best for supporting recollection. We also show how good memory cues differ

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2007-01-01

474

Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

2014-01-01

475

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

476

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

477

Organic molecular floating gate memories  

E-print Network

Flash memory devices dominate the non-volatile memory market, with device structures that utilize charge storage in polysilicon floating gates imbedded in insulating silicon oxide films'. As demands for high storage density, ...

Paydavosi, Sarah

2011-01-01

478

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In our busy lives, all of us forget things at one time ... people have little or no change in their memory, but, in others, forgetfulness can begin to interfere ...

479

Anemone: adaptive network memory engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a constant battle to break-even between continuing improvements in DRAM capacities and the demands for even more memory by modern memory-intensive high-performance applications. Such applications do not take long to hit the physical memory limit and start paging to disk, which in turn considerably slows down their performance. We tackle this problem in the Adaptive Network Memory Engine

Michael R. Hines; Mark Lewandowski; Kartik Gopalan

2005-01-01

480

Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.  

PubMed

Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W

2013-09-01

481

The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A memory-based scaling model—ANCHOR—is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global scaling problem into a local comparison. An explicit correction strategy

Alexander A. Petrov; John R. Anderson

2005-01-01

482

Explaining the development of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review six explanatory dimensions of false memory in children that are relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures that induce false memories. We conclude that, despite greater fidelity to real-world false memory contexts, recent studies fail to use known techniques that separate mere acquiescence from memory

Valerie F. Reyna; Robyn Holliday; Tammy Marche

2002-01-01

483

What people believe about memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings,

Svein Magnussen; Jan Andersson; Cesare Cornoldi; Rossana De Beni; Tor Endestad; Gail S. Goodman; Tore Helstrup; Asher Koriat; Maria Larsson; Annika Melinder; Lars-Göran Nilsson; Jerker Rönnberg; Hubert Zimmer

2006-01-01

484

A theory of memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe–memory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

Roger Ratcliff

1978-01-01

485

Dual redundant core memory systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

Hull, F. E.

1972-01-01

486

First Words and First Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

2010-01-01

487

Arlington: Marine Corps War Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also called the Iwo Jima memorial, the Marine Corps War Memorial was designed by Felix de Weldon. He was inspired by the photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima taken by Joe Rosenthal during the Battle of iwo Jima. The memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have perished in battle since 1775, but features specifically Marines and a sailor

Chet Smolski

1995-01-01

488

Carbon-based resistive memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose carbon as new resistive memory material for non-volatile memories and compare three allotropes of carbon, namely carbon nanotubes, graphene-like conductive carbon and insulating carbon for their possible application as resistance-change material in high density non-volatile memories. Repetitive high-speed switching and the potential for multi-level programming have been successfully demonstrated.

Franz Kreupl; Rainer Bruchhaus; Petra Majewski; Jan B. Philipp; Ralf Symanczyk; Thomas Happ; Christian Arndt; Mirko Vogt; Roy Zimmermann; Axel Buerke; Andrew P. Graham; Michael Kund

2008-01-01

489

Episodic memory in nonhuman animals  

PubMed Central

Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of “having been there” has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question “do nonhuman animals have episodic memory” to instead asking “what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans” are making progress. PMID:24028963

Templer, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

490

Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

2010-01-01

491

Transactive memory and gender stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores the impact of stereotypes on the development and use of transactive memory systems. Transactive memory systems are those systems that develop within and between individuals in groups in order to most efficiently distribute information within a group. Using a series of word recall and general knowledge tasks dyads and groups are shown to develop implicit transactive memory

Traci Yvon Craig

2002-01-01

492

Autobiographical Memory in Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood-memory phenomena have been studied using laboratory mood induction procedures with nondepressed subjects and with clinically depressed individuals. The present study examined both hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of autobiographical memory in people who had recently attempted suicide by overdose. Attempted suicide subjects, who were required to retrieve specific personal memories to positive or negative cue words, showed biased retrieval when

J. Mark G. Williams; Keith Broadbent

1986-01-01

493

Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

Kellermann, Kathy

1985-01-01

494

A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.  

PubMed

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

2012-05-01

495

A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women  

PubMed Central

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

2012-01-01

496

Look into my eyes: Gaze direction and person memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research considered the effects of gaze direction on a fundamental aspect of social cogition: person memory. It was anticipated that a person's direction of gaze (i.e., direct or averted) would impact his or her subsequent memorability, such that recognition would be enhanced for targets previously displaying direct gaze. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with faces displaying either

Malia Mason; Bruce Hood; C. Neil Macrae

2004-01-01

497

Application-specific memory performance of a heterogeneous reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous reconfigurable processing architectures are often limited by the speed at which they can access data in external memory. Such architectures are designed for flexibility to support a broad range of target applications, including advanced algorithms with significant processing and data requirements. Clearly, strong performance of applications in this category is an extremely relevant metric for demonstrating the full performance

Sean Whitty; Henning Sahlbach; Brady Hurlburt; Rolf Ernst; Wolfram Putzke-Röming

2010-01-01

498

Emotional Mood States and Retrieval in Episodic Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an experimentally induced depressed mood state on recall of target words embedded in sentences was examined. The objective was to determine if the induction of a depressed mood can affect output or retrieval from episodic memory. The experimental sequence was as follows: All subjects studied a list of either elaborated or base sentences, rating them for complexity,

Henry C. Ellis; Roger L. Thomas; Alan D. McFarland

1985-01-01

499

Memory systems for signal generating photoelectric image detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital systems are discussed which have the capacity to handle the large amounts of information contained in a typical image. It was used with a high gain pulse counting television camera tube, with a silicon target image detector and an analog to digital converter between the detector and the memory.

Dennison, E. W.

1974-01-01

500

Microdose Induced Data Loss on Floating Gate Memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy ion irradiation of flash memories shows loss of stored data. The fluence dependence is indicative of microdose effects. Other qualitative factors identifying the effect as microdose are discussed. The data is presented, and compared to statistical results of a microdose target-based model.

Guertin, Steven M.; Nguyen, Duc M.; Patterson, Jeffrey D.

2006-01-01