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1

Hold-up Time Measurements for Various Actinide Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility produces radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by proton-induced fission on an actinide target. The RIB yields depend on the chemical and physical properties of the target used. The rates at which chemical elements are released from the target ion source, called hold-up times, can give information about the movement of

Emily Prettyman; H. K. Carter; Andreas Kronenberg; Eugene Spejewski; Daniel Stracener

2006-01-01

2

Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their…

Barbieri, Maureen

1998-01-01

3

Some targets for memory models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory article to the Journal of Memory and Language special issue on memory models discusses the progress made in the field of memory modeling during the last few decades in terms of a number of previously suggested criteria, using the articles in this issue as examples. There has been considerable progress, both at a technical level (e.g., concerning model

Stephan Lewandowsky; Evan Heit

2006-01-01

4

Efficient Interruption of Infection Chains by Targeted Removal of Central Holdings in an Animal Trade Network  

PubMed Central

Centrality parameters in animal trade networks typically have right-skewed distributions, implying that these networks are highly resistant against the random removal of holdings, but vulnerable to the targeted removal of the most central holdings. In the present study, we analysed the structural changes of an animal trade network topology based on the targeted removal of holdings using specific centrality parameters in comparison to the random removal of holdings. Three different time periods were analysed: the three-year network, the yearly and the monthly networks. The aim of this study was to identify appropriate measures for the targeted removal, which lead to a rapid fragmentation of the network. Furthermore, the optimal combination of the removal of three holdings regardless of their centrality was identified. The results showed that centrality parameters based on ingoing trade contacts, e.g. in-degree, ingoing infection chain and ingoing closeness, were not suitable for a rapid fragmentation in all three time periods. More efficient was the removal based on parameters considering the outgoing trade contacts. In all networks, a maximum percentage of 7.0% (on average 5.2%) of the holdings had to be removed to reduce the size of the largest component by more than 75%. The smallest difference from the optimal combination for all three time periods was obtained by the removal based on out-degree with on average 1.4% removed holdings, followed by outgoing infection chain and outgoing closeness. The targeted removal using the betweenness centrality differed the most from the optimal combination in comparison to the other parameters which consider the outgoing trade contacts. Due to the pyramidal structure and the directed nature of the pork supply chain the most efficient interruption of the infection chain for all three time periods was obtained by using the targeted removal based on out-degree.

Buttner, Kathrin; Krieter, Joachim; Traulsen, Arne; Traulsen, Imke

2013-01-01

5

Disconjugate vertical memory-guided saccades to disparate targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the binocular coordination of normal memory-guided saccades and the possibility of inducing memory-based disconjugate\\u000a learning. First, we report that normal vertical memory-guided saccades to non-disparate targets are yoked vertically in the\\u000a two eyes as well as visually guided vertical saccades. To induce disconjugate vertical learning, at each trial we flashed\\u000a a target that was disparate (i.e. 8% more

M. P. Bucci; Z. Kapoula

2000-01-01

6

Holding in Mind Conflicting Information: Pretending, Working Memory, and Executive Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' recall of the true and pretend identities of an object in pretense was examined along with a battery of executive functioning and working memory tasks. We expected that children would retain separate identities, as well as a link between them, after observing episodes of pretense, and that memory for pretense would be related to…

Albertson, Kathleen; Shore, Cecilia

2008-01-01

7

Do child molesters hold distorted beliefs? What does their memory recall tell us?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do child molesters hold distorted beliefs (or cognitive distortions) that support their sexual offending? To test this hypothesis, we asked 28 child molesters and 20 inmate controls to read a description of child molestation. Within this vignette, we planted 10 ambiguous descriptions. If child molesters’ information processing were driven by cognitive distortions, we hypothesized that they would use this knowledge

Theresa A. Gannon; Daniel B. Wright; Anthony R. Beech; Sian Williams

2006-01-01

8

Risk-Targeted Selection of Agricultural Holdings for Post-Epidemic Surveillance: Estimation of Efficiency Gains  

PubMed Central

Current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. A better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. In this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in Devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily infection risk and a simple model of probability of discovery of infection during the outbreak. This allows comparison of the system sensitivity (ability to detect infection in the area) of arbitrary, random sampling compared to risk-targeted selection across a full range of sampling budgets. We show that it is possible to achieve 95% system sensitivity by sampling, on average, 945 farms with random sampling and 184 farms with risk-targeted sampling. We also examine the effect of ordering samples by risk to expedite return to a disease-free status. Risk ordering the sampling process results in detection of positive farms, if present, 15.6 days sooner than with randomly ordered sampling, assuming 50 farms are tested per day.

Handel, Ian G.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Forbes, John F.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

2011-01-01

9

Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search.  

PubMed

Multiple-target visual searches-when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display-are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23163788

Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

2012-11-19

10

Enhancing visual working memory encoding: The role of target novelty  

PubMed Central

Perceptual salience improves the encoding of information into visual working memory (WM). However, the factors that contribute to this facilitation effect are not well understood. This study tested the influence of target familiarity on WM encoding. In each trial, participants were presented with either one or three targets and asked to encode their locations into WM. In Experiment 1, target familiarity was manipulated by presenting either an upright (familiar target) or upside-down (unfamiliar/novel target) A. Increasing the novelty of the targets led to improved performance in the spatial WM task. Experiment 2 showed that participants were faster in responding to novel versus familiar targets in a spatial detection task. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the beneficial effect of target novelty on WM encoding was not driven by differences in low-level features. Our results suggest that target novelty enhances the processes required for WM encoding, just as it facilitates perceptual processing.

Mayer, Jutta S.; Kim, Jejoong; Park, Sohee

2013-01-01

11

Improvement of cationic albumin conjugated pegylated nanoparticles holding NC1900, a vasopressin fragment analog, in memory deficits induced by scopolamine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

NC-1900, an active fragment analog of arginine vasopressin [arginine vasopressin-(4–9)], has proved to be capable of improving the spatial memory deficits and the impairments in passive avoidance test. In this study, a novel drug carrier for brain delivery, cationic bovine serum albumin conjugated pegylated nanoparticles (CBSA-NPs) holding NC-1900, was developed and its improvement on scopolamine-induced memory deficits was investigated in

Yue-Ling Xie; Wei Lu; Xin-Guo Jiang

2006-01-01

12

Can working memory predict target-to-target interval effects in the P300?  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the P300 component of the ERP is an electrophysiological index of memory-updating processes associated with task-relevant stimuli. Component magnitude varies with the time separating target stimuli (target-to-target interval: TTI), with longer TTIs eliciting larger P300 amplitudes. According to the template-update perspective, TTI effects observable in the P300 reflect the updating of stimulus-templates in working memory (WM). The current study explored whether young adults' memory-task ability could predict TTI effects in P300. EEG activity was recorded from 50 university students (aged 18-25years) while they completed an auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task with manipulations of TTIs. Participants also completed a CogState® battery and were sorted according to their WM score. ERPs were analysed using a temporal PCA. Two P300 components, P3b and the Slow Wave, were found to linearly increase in amplitude to longer TTIs. This TTI effect differed between groups only for the P3b component: The high WM group showed a steeper increase in P3b amplitude with TTI than the low WM group. These results suggest that TTI effects in P300 are directly related to WM processes. PMID:23933170

Steiner, Genevieve Z; Barry, Robert J; Gonsalvez, Craig J

2013-08-06

13

The influence of emotional target cues on prospective memory performance in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of emotional valence on event-based prospective memory performance in depression. Thirty individuals with depression and 29 healthy adults performed a prospective memory task in which the emotional valence of the prospective targets was manipulated (positive, neutral, negative). Collapsed across all valence conditions, healthy adults outperformed individuals with depression in the prospective memory task. This effect

Mareike Altgassen; Julie D. Henry; Stefanie Bürgler; Matthias Kliegel

2011-01-01

14

Sperm-specific ion channels: targets holding the most potential for male contraceptives in development.  

PubMed

There is a global need for an ideal method of male contraception. However, the development of male contraceptives has not been well successful. Research on sperm-specific ion channels, especially the recent advance obtained from electrophysiological studies, has emphasized the conception that those channels are targets with the most potential to develop non-hormonal male contraceptives. While summarizing the general options for male contraception, this review focuses on the properties and functions of sperm ion channels together with the attempts of utilizing these channels to develop male contraceptives. We believe that a deeper insight into the signaling and molecular mechanisms by which ion channels regulate sperm functions will pave the way for developing novel male-based contraceptives. PMID:23845210

Zheng, Li-Ping; Wang, Hua-Feng; Li, Bao-Ming; Zeng, Xu-Hui

2013-06-11

15

Upgrading the sleeping brain with targeted memory reactivation.  

PubMed

A fundamental feature of human memory is the propensity for beneficial changes in information storage after initial encoding. Recent research findings favor the possibility that memory consolidation during sleep is instrumental for actively maintaining the storehouse of memories that individuals carry through their lives. The information that ultimately remains available for retrieval may tend to be that which is reactivated during sleep. A novel source of support for this idea comes from demonstrations that neurocognitive processing during sleep can benefit memory storage when memories are covertly cued via auditory or olfactory stimulation. Investigations of these subtle manipulations of memory processing during sleep can help elucidate the mechanisms of memory preservation in the human brain. PMID:23433937

Oudiette, Delphine; Paller, Ken A

2013-02-19

16

Intercepting moving targets: does memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement affect movement timing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation aimed at assessing the extent to which memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement\\u000a modulates temporal errors and movement timing of interceptive movements. We compared two groups practicing with certainty\\u000a of future target velocity either in unchanged target velocity or in target velocity decrease. Following practice, both experimental\\u000a groups were probed in the situations of

Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto; Luis Augusto Teixeira

2011-01-01

17

Long-term Memories Bias Sensitivity and Target Selection in Complex Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In everyday situations, we often rely on our memories to find what we are looking for in our cluttered environment. Recently, we developed a new experimental paradigm to investigate how long-term memory (LTM) can guide attention and showed how the pre-exposure to a complex scene in which a target location had been learned facilitated the detection of the transient appearance

Eva Zita Patai; Sonia Doallo; Anna Christina Nobre

18

Invertebrate neurobiology: short-term memories for limb targeting.  

PubMed

Scanning movements made by stick insects' forelimbs are modified for several seconds after a brief contact with an object, suggesting that the neural networks controlling local limb movements in insects can form short-term positional memories. PMID:23618670

Niven, Jeremy E

2013-04-22

19

The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions…

Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; McVay, Jennifer C.; McConnell, Melissa D.

2007-01-01

20

Visuomotor memory is independent of conscious awareness of target features.  

PubMed

A recent study by our group showed that the scaling of reach trajectories to target size is independent of conscious visual awareness of that intrinsic target property (Binsted et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:12669-12672, 2007). The present investigation sought to extend previous work and determine whether unconscious target information represents a temporally durable or evanescent visuomotor characteristic. To accomplish that objective, we employed Di Lollo et al's (J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) object substitution masking paradigm and asked participants to complete verbal reports and reaching responses to different sized (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 cm) targets under masked and non-masked target conditions. To determine whether visuomotor networks retain unconscious target information, reaching trials were cued concurrent with target presentation or 1,000 or 2,000 ms after target presentation. For the perceptual trials, participants readily identified the size of non-masked trials but demonstrated only chance success identifying target size during masked trials. Interestingly, however, reaches directed to non-masked and masked targets exhibited comparable and robust scaling with target size; that is, lawful speed-accuracy relations related to movement planning and execution times were observed regardless of whether participants were aware (i.e., non-masked trials) or unaware (i.e., masked trials) of target size. What is more, the length of the visual delay period used here did not differentially influence the scaling of reach trajectories. These results indicate that a conscious visual percept is not necessary to support motor output and that unconscious visual information persists in visuomotor networks to support the kinematic parameterization of action. PMID:18443770

Heath, Matthew; Neely, Kristina A; Yakimishyn, Jason; Binsted, Gordon

2008-04-29

21

Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets  

SciTech Connect

New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 {micro}m) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling.

Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

1997-03-26

22

The Promoter Targeting Sequence mediates epigenetically heritable transcription memory  

PubMed Central

Large gene complexes frequently use “specialized” DNA elements to ensure proper regulation of gene activities. The Promoter Targeting Sequence (PTS) from the Abdominal-B locus of the Drosophila Bithorax complex overcomes an insulator, and facilitates, yet restricts, distant enhancers to a single promoter. We found that this promoter-targeting activity is independent of an enhancer's tissue or temporal specificity, and can be remembered in all somatic cells in the absence of promoter activation. It requires an insulator for its establishment, but can be maintained by the PTS in the absence of an insulator. More importantly, the promoter-targeting activity can be remembered after the transgene is translocated to new chromosomal locations. These results suggest that promoter targeting is established independent of enhancer activity, and is maintained epigenetically throughout development and subsequent generations.

Lin, Qing; Chen, Qi; Lin, Lan; Zhou, Jumin

2004-01-01

23

Breath-Hold Target Localization With Simultaneous Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Fast Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy for small lung tumors has typically been based on stereotaxy. Cone-beam computed tomography and breath-hold techniques have provided a noninvasive basis for precise cranial and extracranial patient positioning. The cone-beam computed tomography acquisition time of 60 s, however, is beyond the breath-hold capacity of patients, resulting in respiratory motion artifacts. By combining megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photon sources (mounted perpendicularly on the linear accelerator) and accelerating the gantry rotation to the allowed limit, the data acquisition time could be reduced to 15 s. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Synergy 6-MV linear accelerator, with iViewGT as the MV- and XVI as the kV-imaging device, was used with a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Both image sources performed continuous image acquisition, passing an angle interval of 90{sup o} within 15 s. For reconstruction, filtered back projection on a graphics processor unit was used. It reconstructed 100 projections acquired to a 512 x 512 x 512 volume within 6 s. Results: The resolution in the Catphan phantom (CTP528 high-resolution module) was 3 lines/cm. The spatial accuracy was within 2-3 mm. The diameters of different tumor shapes in the thorax phantom were determined within an accuracy of 1.6 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio was 68% less than that with a 180{sup o}-kV scan. The dose generated to acquire the MV frames accumulated to 82.5 mGy, and the kV contribution was <6 mGy. Conclusion: The present results have shown that fast breath-hold, on-line volume imaging with a linear accelerator using simultaneous kV-MV cone-beam computed tomography is promising and can potentially be used for image-guided radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in the near future.

Blessing, Manuel, E-mail: Manuel.blessing@urz.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Arns, Anna; Lohr, Frank; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

2010-11-15

24

Costimulation of Memory T-Cells by ICOS: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Autoimmunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches that target costimulatory receptors are independent of T-cell receptor specificity and may be useful for T-cell-mediated diseases in which the antigens involved are not well defined. However, the proper costimulatory pathways need to be targeted. For example, therapies for human T-cell-mediated diseases need to be effective against previously activated memory cells. In this review, we use autoimmune demyelination as

Romeo A. Sporici; Peter J. Perrin

2001-01-01

25

Psychopharmacology and memory  

PubMed Central

Psychotropic and other drugs can alter brain mechanisms regulating the formation, storage, and retrieval of different types of memory. These include “off label” uses of existing drugs and new drugs designed specifically to target the neural bases of memory. This paper discusses the use of beta?adrenergic antagonists to prevent or erase non?conscious pathological emotional memories in the amygdala. It also discusses the use of novel psychopharmacological agents to enhance long term semantic and short term working memory by altering storage and retrieval mechanisms in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Although intervention in the brain to alter memory as therapy or enhancement holds considerable promise, the long term effects of experimental drugs on the brain and memory are not known. More studies are needed to adequately assess the potential benefits and risks of these interventions.

Glannon, W

2006-01-01

26

Intercepting moving targets: does memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement affect movement timing?  

PubMed

This investigation aimed at assessing the extent to which memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement modulates temporal errors and movement timing of interceptive movements. We compared two groups practicing with certainty of future target velocity either in unchanged target velocity or in target velocity decrease. Following practice, both experimental groups were probed in the situations of unchanged target velocity and target velocity decrease either under the context of certainty or uncertainty about target velocity. Results from practice showed similar improvement of temporal accuracy between groups, revealing that target velocity decrease did not disturb temporal movement organization when fully predictable. Analysis of temporal errors in the probing trials indicated that both groups had higher timing accuracy in velocity decrease in comparison with unchanged velocity. Effect of practice was detected by increased temporal accuracy of the velocity decrease group in situations of decreased velocity; a trend consistent with the expected effect of practice was observed for temporal errors in the unchanged velocity group and in movement initiation at a descriptive level. An additional point of theoretical interest was the fast adaptation in both groups to a target velocity pattern different from that practiced. These points are discussed under the perspective of integration of vision and motor control by means of an internal forward model of external motion. PMID:21533700

de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

2011-04-06

27

Holding on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes a multidimensional and personal look at creative writing work in an assisted living facility. The people she works with at the facility have memory loss. She shares her experience working with these people and describes a storytelling workshop that was modeled after Timeslips, a program started by Anne Basting at…

Thaxton, Terry Ann

2011-01-01

28

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)|

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

29

Hand-centred coding of target location in visuo-spatial working memory.  

PubMed

The aim of the present experiment was to determine the frame of reference used to encode a visually specified target location, in a simple, visuo-spatial short-term-memory task, using delayed manual pointing. Subjects were required to remember the location of a single, visually presented stimulus, over delays of 3 and 30 s, and to recall its location by pointing to it with the tip of a stylus with eyes closed. There were two starting positions for the hand: one near the body, proximal to the target area, the other far from the body, i.e., beyond the target area. Two groups of twelve subjects participated in the experiment. One group observed the target locations in the light, the other group observed the target LEDs in the dark. The results showed a large (between 10-30%) and consistent undershoot of the remembered target location with respect to the hand's starting position, in the sagittal axis, both when the hand started from the near and from the far position. That is, from the far starting position. pointing errors lay consistently beyond the actual target location as seen from the subject's viewpoint. Further, this undershoot error in the remembered target location increased over time delay. These results are in favour of the hypothesis that the visual target locations were encoded in a hand-centred frame of reference in spatial short-term memory. They also implicate the use of motor- or action-related representations in visuo-spatial working memory. PMID:10215096

Chieffi, S; Allport, D A; Woodin, M

1999-04-01

30

Targeting latent function: encouraging effective encoding for successful memory training and transfer.  

PubMed

Cognitive training programs for older adults often result in improvements at the group level. However, there are typically large age and individual differences in the size of training benefits. These differences may be related to the degree to which participants implement the processes targeted by the training program. To test this possibility, we tested older adults in a memory-training procedure either under specific strategy instructions designed to encourage semantic, integrative encoding, or in a condition that encouraged time and attention to encoding but allowed participants to choose their own strategy. Both conditions improved the performance of old-old adults relative to an earlier study (D. Bissig & C. Lustig, 2007) and reduced self-reports of everyday memory errors. Performance in the strategy-instruction group was related to preexisting ability; performance in the strategy?choice group was not. The strategy-choice group performed better on a laboratory transfer test of recognition memory, and training performance was correlated with reduced everyday memory errors. Training programs that target participants' latent but inefficiently used abilities while allowing flexibility in bringing those abilities to bear may best promote effective training and transfer. PMID:19140647

Lustig, Cindy; Flegal, Kristin E

2008-12-01

31

Working memory maintenance of grasp-target information in the human posterior parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to identify cortical areas involved in maintaining target information in working memory used for an upcoming grasping action. Participants had to grasp with their thumb and index finger of the dominant right hand three-dimensional objects of different size and orientation. Reaching-to-grasp movements were performed without visual feedback either immediately after object presentation or

Katja Fiehler; Michael M. Bannert; Matthias Bischoff; Carlo Blecker; Rudolf Stark; Dieter Vaitl; Volker H. Franz; Frank Rösler

2011-01-01

32

Attention blinks for selection, not perception or memory: reading sentences and reporting targets.  

PubMed

In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an attentional blink, and does it affect both tasks? Here, sentence report was combined with report of two target words (Experiments 1 and 2) or two inserted target digits, Arabic numerals or word digits (Experiments 3 and 4). When participants reported only the targets an attentional blink was always observed. When they reported both the sentence and targets, sentence report was quite accurate but there was an attentional blink in picking out the targets when they were part of the sentence. When targets were extra digits inserted in the sentence there was no blink when viewers also reported the sentence. These results challenge some theories of the attentional blink: Blinks result from online selection, not perception or memory. PMID:22022894

Potter, Mary C; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

2011-10-24

33

Working memory maintenance of grasp-target information in the human posterior parietal cortex.  

PubMed

Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to identify cortical areas involved in maintaining target information in working memory used for an upcoming grasping action. Participants had to grasp with their thumb and index finger of the dominant right hand three-dimensional objects of different size and orientation. Reaching-to-grasp movements were performed without visual feedback either immediately after object presentation or after a variable delay of 2-12 s. The right inferior parietal cortex demonstrated sustained neural activity throughout the delay, which overlapped with activity observed during encoding of the grasp target. Immediate and delayed grasping activated similar motor-related brain areas and showed no differential activity. The results suggest that the right inferior parietal cortex plays an important functional role in working memory maintenance of grasp-related information. Moreover, our findings confirm the assumption that brain areas engaged in maintaining information are also involved in encoding the same information, and thus extend previous findings on working memory function of the posterior parietal cortex in saccadic behavior to reach-to-grasp movements. PMID:20932912

Fiehler, Katja; Bannert, Michael M; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Franz, Volker H; Rösler, Frank

2010-10-23

34

Prefrontal pathways target excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related medial temporal cortices  

PubMed Central

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), situated in the caudal part of the medial prefrontal cortex, is involved in monitoring on-going behavior pertaining to memory of previously learned outcomes. How ACC information interacts with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is not well understood. The present study used a multitiered approach to address two questions on the interactions between the ACC and the parahippocampal cortices in the rhesus monkey: 1) What are the presynaptic characteristics of ACC projections to the parahippocampal cortices? 2) What are the postsynaptic targets of the pathway and are there laminar differences in innervation of local excitatory and inhibitory systems? Labeled ACC terminations were quantified in parahippocampal areas TH and TF and a cluster analysis showed that boutons varied in size, with a population of small (? 0.97 ?m) and large (>0.97 ?m) terminations that were nearly evenly distributed in the upper and deep layers. Exhaustive sampling as well as unbiased stereological techniques independently showed that small and large boutons were about evenly distributed within cortical layers in the parahippocampal cortex. Synaptic analysis of the pathway, performed at the electron microscope (EM) showed that while most of the ACC projections formed synapses with excitatory neurons, a significant proportion (23%) targeted presumed inhibitory classes with a preference for parvalbumin (PV+) inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest synaptic mechanisms that may help integrate signals associated with attention and memory.

Bunce, Jamie G.; Barbas, Helen

2011-01-01

35

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.

2012-12-07

36

Holding fast.  

PubMed

CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

Gourville, John T

2005-06-01

37

Protein targeting in the analysis of learning and memory: a potential alternative to gene targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells offers unprecedented precision with which one may\\u000a manipulate single genes and investigate the in vivo effects of defined mutations in the mouse. Geneticists argue that this\\u000a technique abrogates the lack of highly specific pharmacological tools in the study of brain function and behavior. However,\\u000a by now it has become clear

Robert Gerlai; Simon P. Williams; Belinda Cairns; Nicholas Van Bruggen; Paul Moran; Ai Shih; Ingrid Caras; Hans Sauer; Heidi S. Phillips; John W. Winslow

1998-01-01

38

Pre-experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased \\

Greig I. de Zubicaray; Katie L. McMahon; Lydia Hayward; John C. Dunn

2011-01-01

39

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

Davidson, George S. (8516 San Francisco NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109); Grafe, Victor Gerald (1909 Saturn Ct. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1997-01-01

40

Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing  

DOEpatents

A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

1997-10-07

41

Neural representation of a target auditory memory in a cortico-Basal Ganglia pathway.  

PubMed

Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

Achiro, Jennifer M; Bottjer, Sarah W

2013-09-01

42

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

43

Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\/Objective: This study evaluates the dosimetric benefits and feasibility of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique in the treatment of lung tumors. The technique has two distinct features—deep inspiration, which reduces lung density, and breath-hold, which immobilizes lung tumors, thereby allowing for reduced margins. Both of these properties can potentially reduce the amount of normal lung tissue in the high-dose

Joseph Hanley; Marc M. Debois; Dennis Mah; Gikas S. Mageras; Adam Raben; Kenneth Rosenzweig; Borys Mychalczak; Lawrence H. Schwartz; Paul J. Gloeggler; Wendell Lutz; C. Clifton Ling; Steven A. Leibel; Zvi Fuks; Gerald J. Kutcher

1999-01-01

44

Memory Reconsolidation and Computational Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memory models are central to Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, since memories hold knowledge and their updates are the heart of flexibility and adaptivity. Reconsolidation is a key process of human learning, modifying learned memories with new...

H. T. Siegelmann

2010-01-01

45

The slow afterhyperpolarization: a target of ?1-adrenergic signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval.  

PubMed

In rodents, adrenergic signaling by norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus is required for the retrieval of intermediate-term memory. NE promotes retrieval via the stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors, the production of cAMP, and the activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. However, a final effector for this signaling pathway has not been identified. Among the many targets of adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus, the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is an appealing candidate because its reduction by ?1 signaling enhances excitatory neurotransmission. Here we report that reducing the sAHP is critical for the facilitation of retrieval by NE. Direct blockers of the sAHP, as well as blockers of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium influx that activates the sAHP, rescue retrieval in mutant mice lacking either NE or the ?1 receptor. Complementary to this, a facilitator of L-type calcium influx impairs retrieval in wild-type mice. In addition, we examined the role of NE in the learning-related reduction of the sAHP observed ex vivo in hippocampal slices. We find that this reduction in the sAHP depends on the induction of persistent PKA activity specifically in conditioned slices. Interestingly, this persistent PKA activity is induced by NE/?1 signaling during slice preparation rather than during learning. These observations suggest that the reduction in the sAHP may not be present autonomously in vivo, but is likely induced by neuromodulatory input, which is consistent with the idea that NE is required in vivo for reduction of the sAHP during memory retrieval. PMID:23486971

Zhang, Lei; Ouyang, Ming; Ganellin, C Robin; Thomas, Steven A

2013-03-13

46

The Slow Afterhyperpolarization: a Target of ?1-Adrenergic Signaling in Hippocampus-dependent Memory Retrieval  

PubMed Central

In rodents, adrenergic signaling by norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus is required for the retrieval of intermediate-term memory. NE promotes retrieval via the stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors, the production of cyclic AMP, and the activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. However, a final effector for this signaling pathway has not been identified. Among the many targets of adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus, the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is an appealing candidate because its reduction by ?1 signaling enhances excitatory neurotransmission. Here we report that reducing the sAHP is critical for the facilitation of retrieval by NE. Direct blockers of the sAHP, as well as blockers of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium influx that activates the sAHP, rescue retrieval in mutant mice lacking either NE or the ?1 receptor. Complementary to this, a facilitator of L-type calcium influx impairs retrieval in wild-type mice. In addition, we examined the role of NE in the learning-related reduction of the sAHP observed ex vivo in hippocampal slices. We find that this reduction in the sAHP depends on the induction of persistent PKA activity specifically in conditioned slices. Interestingly, this persistent PKA activity is induced by NE/?1 signaling during slice preparation rather than during learning. These observations suggest that the reduction in the sAHP may not be present autonomously in vivo, but is likely induced by neuromodulatory input, which is consistent with the idea that NE is required in vivo for reduction of the sAHP during memory retrieval.

Zhang, Lei; Ouyang, Ming; Ganellin, C. Robin; Thomas, Steven A.

2013-01-01

47

Development of TiNi shape memory alloy film deposited by sputtering from separate Ti and Ni targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A separate-target sputtering process has been applied to fabrication of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This process employs separate Ti and Ni sputtering targets and independently controllable RF power source for each target. Since RF power ratio can change the composition of the films as required, the shape memory properties can be better controlled. This process would enable efficient batch production of MEMS devices and components similarly to the LSI batch process. This process is expected to be a more appropriate method for mass production than other techniques such as machining from bulk SMA sheets or wires and deposition of SMA films from a single TiNi alloy target. The TiNi SMA films in the present study were fabricated by co-sputtering from two separate targets and vacuum-annealing for crystallization. The phase transformation behavior of the crystallized films was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). DSC showed exothermic/endothermic peaks corresponding to phase transformations: martensitic transformation around at 345 K and reverse martensitic transformation around at 365 K. The transformations of crystal structure were also examined by temperature-controlled XRD analysis. The formed films were confirmed to show shape memory effect (SME) by these results.

Ohta, Akihiro; Bhansali, Shekhar; Kishimoto, Isao; Umeda, Akira

1998-09-01

48

Better working memory for non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

We compared working memory (WM) for location of social vs. non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n=25) and typically developing children (sibs-TD, n=30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target-type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had better WM for non-social targets as compared to controls. There was no group by stimulus interaction on two non-memory measures. The results suggest that the increased competency of sibs-ASD in WM (creating, updating, and using transient representations) for non-social stimuli distinguishes them from sibs-TD by 9 months of age. This early emerging strength is discussed as a developmental pathway that may have implications for social attention and learning in children at risk for ASD.

Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

2009-01-01

49

Hippocampus-Dependent Strengthening of Targeted Memories via Reactivation during Sleep in Humans.  

PubMed

Recent accumulating evidence in animals and humans has shown that memory strengthening occurs, at least partially, during sleep [1, 2] and relies on the covert reactivation of individual memory episodes [3-5]. However, it remains to be determined whether the hippocampus critically promotes memory consolidation via the reactivation of individual memories during sleep. To investigate the hippocampal-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans, we selected two groups of chronic temporal lobe epileptic (TLE) patients with selective unilateral (TLE+UHS) or bilateral (TLE+BHS) hippocampal sclerosis and a group of matched healthy controls, and we requested them to learn the association of sounds cueing the appearance of words. On the basis of other similar behavioral paradigms in healthy populations [4, 6], sounds that cued only half of the learned memories were presented again during the slow-wave sleep stage (SWS) at night, thus promoting memory reactivation of a select set of encoded episodes. A memory test administered on the subsequent day showed that the strengthening of reactivated memories was observed only in the control subjects and TLE+UHS patients. Importantly, the amount of memory strengthening was predicted by the volume of spared hippocampus. Thus, the greater the structural integrity of the hippocampus, the higher the degree of memory benefit driven by memory reactivation. Finally, sleep-specific neurophysiological responses, such as spindles and slow waves, differed between the sample groups, and the spindle density during SWS predicted the degree of memory benefit observed on day 2. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the consolidation of memories via covert reactivation during sleep. PMID:24012316

Fuentemilla, Lluís; Miró, Júlia; Ripollés, Pablo; Vilà-Balló, Adrià; Juncadella, Montserrat; Castañer, Sara; Salord, Neus; Monasterio, Carmen; Falip, Mercè; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

2013-09-05

50

Pre-experimental familiarization increases hippocampal activity for both targets and lures in recognition memory: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and lures. Model estimates attributed this pattern to either equivalent increases in memory strength across the two types of items (unequal variance signal detection model) or equivalent increases in both familiarity and recollection (dual process signal detection [DPSD] model). Hippocampal activity associated with strong targets and lures showed equivalent increases compared with missed items. This remained the case when analyses were restricted to high-confidence responses considered by the DPSD model to reflect predominantly recollection. A similar pattern of activity was observed in parahippocampal cortex for high-confidence responses. The present results are incompatible with "noncriterial" or "false" recollection being reflected solely in inflated DPSD familiarity estimates and support a positive correlation between hippocampal activity and memory strength irrespective of the accuracy of list discrimination, consistent with the unequal variance signal detection model account. PMID:21736453

de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C

2011-07-07

51

Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.  

PubMed

A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to visual bias with bimodal stimuli. Results highlight age-, memory-, and modality-dependent deterioration in the processing of auditory and visual space, as well as an age-related increase in the dominance of vision when localizing bimodal sources. PMID:23076429

Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

2012-10-14

52

rTMS stimulation on left DLPFC increases the correct recognition of memories for emotional target and distractor words.  

PubMed

According to a recent hypothesis, the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as the site of emotional memory integration, because it is sensitive to the recognition of emotional contents. In the present research, we explored the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in memory recognition processes for positive versus negative emotional stimuli when old (target) and new (distractor, either semantically related or unrelated to the target) stimuli were presented. The role of the DLPFC was analysed using an rTMS (repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation) paradigm that induced increased cortical activation of the left DLPFC. The subjects were required to perform a task that consisted of two experimental phases (i.e., an encoding and a recognition phase) in which the targets and the distractors were presented and recognition performance was measured. rTMS stimulation was provided over the left DLPFC during the recognition phase. We found that the rTMS stimulation affected the memory recognition of positive emotional material. Moreover, related and unrelated distractors were discarded better when they were positively valenced, and a more significant effect (i.e., increased performance) was produced in response to related distractors. This result suggests that the activation of the left DLPFC favours the memory recognition of positive emotional information, and that such activation is able to induce a more appropriate selective process to distinguish target from distractor stimuli in the presence of more complex processes (related distractors). The valence model of emotional cue processing may explain this increased performance by demonstrating the distinct role of the left hemisphere in the retrieval of positive emotional information. PMID:22528734

Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

2012-09-01

53

Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence From Signal Detection Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be re-presented in

David Soto; Alice Wriglesworth; Alex Bahrami-Balani; Glyn W. Humphreys

2010-01-01

54

Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2010-01-01

55

Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism.  

PubMed

Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R-coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism. PMID:23983264

de Souza Silva, Maria A; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Frölich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P; Müller, Christian P; Schäble, Sandra

2013-08-27

56

Called Party Hold Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Called Party Hold (CPH) device enables a telephone subscriber to hold an incoming call for tracing purposes. This paper describes the affects on AUTOVON of a commercially available CPH device that was in use at Scott AFB. It proposes a solution that wil...

V. P. Arafiles

1976-01-01

57

Binary and ternary NiTi-based shape memory films deposited by simultaneous sputter deposition from elemental targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most challenging requirement for depositing NiTi-based shape memory thin films is the control of film composition because a small deviation can strongly shift the transformation temperatures. This article presents a technique to control film composition via adjustment of the power supplied to the targets during simultaneous sputter deposition from separate Ni, Ti, and X (e.g., Hf) targets. After optimization of sputter parameters such as working gas pressure, target-substrate distance, and target power ratio, binary Ni100-xTix thin films were fabricated and characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (to measure the film composition and uniformity), in situ x-ray diffraction (to identify the phase structures), and differential scanning calorimetry (to indicate the transformation and crystallization temperatures). To explore the possibility of depositing ternary shape memory NiTi-based thin films with a high temperature transformation >100 °C, a Hf target was added to the NiTi deposition system. Annealing was carried out in a high vacuum furnace slightly above the films' crystallization temperatures (500 and 550 °C for NiTi and NiTiHf films, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of free-standing films illustrated the dependence of transformation temperatures on film composition: Ap and Mp (referring to the austenitic and martensitic peaks in the DSC curve) were above room temperature in near equiatomic NiTi and Ti-rich films, but below it in Ni-rich films. In NiTiHf films, the transformation temperatures were a function of Hf content, reaching as high as 414 °C (Ap) at a Hf content of 24.4 at. %. Atomic force microscopy revealed nanostructure surface morphology of both NiTi and NiTiHf films. Detailed characterization showed that the film properties were comparable with those of NiTi and NiTiHf bulk alloys.

Sanjabi, S.; Cao, Y. Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Barber, Z. H.

2005-09-01

58

Animal models of working memory: insights for targeting cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and rationale Working memory performance is considered to be a core deficit in schizophrenia and the best predictor of social reintegration and propensity for relapse. This cardinal cognitive process is critical for human reasoning and judgment and depends upon the integrity of prefrontal function. Prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia has been linked to altered dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. However, to

Stacy A. Castner; Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic; Graham V. Williams

2004-01-01

59

Attention Blinks for Selection, Not Perception or Memory: Reading Sentences and Reporting Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an…

Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

2011-01-01

60

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... then no breathing Fainting or loss of alertness (consciousness) Jerky movements (short, seizure-like movements) Normal breathing ... 8. Cildren who have a seizure after losing consciousness during a breath holding spell do not appear ...

61

Target duration effects on iconic memory: the confounding role of changing stimulus dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers' accuracy in detecting a narrow spatial gap between two brief, luminous rectangles presented successively was determined within a two-alternative, forced-choice procedure. This successive-field task requires iconic memory, because the information (rectangle position) in the two presentations must be combined for successful gap detection. On this task, the effect of varying the duration of the first rectangle was systematically investigated

Gerald M. Long; Barbara Sakitt

1980-01-01

62

Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis by Inducible and Targeted Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase Specifically in Adult Neurogenic Regions Impairs Contextual Fear Memory Extinction and Remote Fear Memory  

PubMed Central

Although there is evidence suggesting that adult neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory, signaling mechanisms responsible for adult hippocampal neurogenesis are not well characterized. Here we report that ERK5 MAP kinase is specifically expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain. The inducible and conditional knockout (icKO) of erk5 specifically in neural progenitors of the adult mouse brain attenuated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. It also caused deficits in several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory including contextual fear conditioning generated by a weak foot shock. The ERK5 icKO mice were also deficient in extinction of contextual fear memory and reversal of Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, suggesting that adult neurogenesis is important for learning that requires active forgetting of a prior memory. Furthermore, our data suggest a critical role for ERK5-mediated adult neurogenesis in pattern separation, a form of dentate gyrus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Moreover, ERK5 icKO mice have no memory 21 days post-training in the passive avoidance test, suggesting a pivotal role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the expression of remote memory. Together, our results implicate ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult neurogenesis and provide strong evidence that adult neurogenesis is critical for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including memory extinction, and for the expression of remote memory.

Pan, Yung-Wei; Chan, Guy C.K.; Kuo, Chay T.; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

2012-01-01

63

Targeting antigens to CD180 rapidly induces antigen-specific IgG, affinity maturation, and immunological memory.  

PubMed

Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag-anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report that targeting Ag to a receptor expressed on both B cells and DCs, the TLR orphan receptor CD180, in the absence of adjuvant rapidly induced IgG responses that were stronger than those induced by Ag in alum. Ag conjugated to anti-CD180 (Ag-?CD180) induced affinity maturation and Ab responses that were partially T cell independent, as Ag-specific IgGs were generated in CD40- and T cell-deficient mice. After preimmunization with Ag-?CD180 and boosting with soluble Ag, both WT and CD40 knockout (KO) mice rapidly produced Ag-specific IgG-forming cells, demonstrating that Ag-anti-CD180 induces immunological memory. The potent adjuvant effect of Ag-?CD180 required Ag to be coupled to anti-CD180 and the responsive B cells to express both CD180 and an Ag-specific B cell receptor. Surprisingly, CD180 Ag targeting also induced IgG Abs in BAFF-R KO mice lacking mature B cells and in mice deficient in interferon signaling. Targeting Ag to CD180 may be useful for therapeutic vaccination and for vaccinating the immune compromised. PMID:24019553

Chaplin, Jay W; Chappell, Craig P; Clark, Edward A

2013-09-09

64

Cash holdings of not-for-profit hospitals.  

PubMed

Many not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals hold substantial cash reserves. Using a national sample of 608 NFP hospitals over the period 1996-1999, we related theories of cash holdings to NFP hospitals to develop a conceptual framework for understanding cash holdings. We tested whether these hospitals differentially managed operating and strategic cash with respect to establishing target balances and investigated motivations for holding cash. NFP hospitals actively targeted levels of operating cash, but did not target strategic cash balances. Strategic cash balances were positively related to profitability and growth in assets, but negatively associated with the use of debt. PMID:22372030

Rivenson, Howard L; Reiter, Kristin L; Wheeler, John R C; Smith, Dean G

2011-01-01

65

Planning paths to multiple targets: memory involvement and planning heuristics in spatial problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large numbers of targets, path planning is a complex and computationally expensive task. Humans, however, usually solve\\u000a such tasks quickly and efficiently. We present experiments studying human path planning performance and the cognitive processes\\u000a and heuristics involved. Twenty-five places were arranged on a regular grid in a large room. Participants were repeatedly\\u000a asked to solve traveling salesman problems (TSP),

J. M. Wiener; N. N. Ehbauer; H. A. Mallot

2009-01-01

66

Fitts's law holds for action perception.  

PubMed

Fitts's law is one of the most well-established principles in psychology. It captures the relation between speed and accuracy in performed and imagined movements. The aim of this study was to determine whether this law also holds during the perception of other people's actions. Subjects were shown apparent motion displays of a person moving his arm between two identical targets. Target width, the separation between targets, and movement speed were varied. Subjects reported whether the person could move at the perceived speed without missing the targets. The movement times reported as being just possible were exactly those predicted by Fitts's law (r(2)= .96). A subsequent experiment demonstrated the same lawful relation for the perception of a robot arm (r(2)= .93). To our knowledge, this makes Fitts's law the first motor principle that holds in imagery and the perception of biological and non-biological agents. PMID:17425525

Grosjean, Marc; Shiffrar, Maggie; Knoblich, Günther

2007-02-01

67

A comparison of the effects of propofol and midazolam on memory during two levels of sedation by using target-controlled infusion.  

PubMed

We examined memory during sedation with target-controlled infusions of propofol and midazolam in a double-blinded five-way, cross-over study in 10 volunteers. Each active drug infusion was targeted to sedation level 1 (asleep) and level 4 (lethargic) as determined with the Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. At the target level of sedation, drug concentration was clamped for 30 min, during which time neutral words were presented. After 2 h, explicit memory was assessed by recall, and implicit memory by using a wordstem completion test. Venous drug concentrations (mean +/- SD) were 1350 ng/mL (+/-332 ng/mL) for propofol and 208 ng/mL (+/-112 ng/mL) for midazolam during Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale level 4; and 1620 ng/mL (+/-357 ng/mL) and 249 ng/mL (+/-82 ng/mL) respectively during level 1. The wordstem completion test frequencies at low level sedation were significantly higher than spontaneous frequencies (8.7% + 2.4%; P: < 0.05 in all cases), and lower than during placebo (33.6% + 23%) (P: < 0.05 in all cases, except P: = 0.076 for propofol at level 4). Clinically distinct levels of sedation were accompanied by small differences in venous propofol or midazolam concentrations. This indicates steep concentration-effect relationships. Neutral information is still memorized during low-level sedation with both drugs. The memory effect of propofol and midazolam did not differ significantly. Implications: Implicit memory can occur during different states of consciousness and might lead to psychological damage. In 10 volunteers, implicit memory was investigated during sedation with propofol and midazolam in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. To compare the effects of both drugs, they were titrated using a computer-controlled infusion system to produce similar high and low levels of sedation. PMID:11049883

de Roode, A; van Gerven, J M; Schoemaker, R C; Engbers, F H; Olieman, W; Kroon, J R; Cohen, A F; Bovill, J G

2000-11-01

68

Middle-aged human apoE4 targeted-replacement mice show retention deficits on a wide range of spatial memory tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein (apo) E4, one of three human apoE (h-apoE) isoforms, has been identified as a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and for cognitive deficits associated with aging. However, the biological mechanisms involving apoE in learning and memory processes are unclear. A potential isoform-dependent role of apoE in cognitive processes was studied in human apoE targeted-replacement (TR) mice. These

Alexandra Bour; Jeannette Grootendorst; Elise Vogel; Christian Kelche; Jean-Cosme Dodart; Kelly Bales; Pierre-Henri Moreau; Patrick M. Sullivan; Chantal Mathis

2008-01-01

69

Testing the hold time fault for large industrial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fault model and ATPG algorithm are proposed to target the hold time fault, which is guided by the timing information (e.g. from SDFfile) to detect the fault through the shortest path to maximize the probability of detecting the hold time fault due to small delay defects or process variations. The fault population is linear to the number of

Kim-Han Tsai; Janusz Rajski

2008-01-01

70

Young APOE4 targeted replacement mice exhibit poor spatial learning and memory, with reduced dendritic spine density in the medial entorhinal cortex.  

PubMed

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-?4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and may predispose individuals to Alzheimer's-related cognitive decline by affecting normal brain function early in life. To investigate the impact of human APOE alleles on cognitive performance in mice, we trained 3-mo-old APOE targeted replacement mice (E2, E3, and E4) in the Barnes maze to locate and enter a target hole along the perimeter of the maze. Long-term spatial memory was probed 24 h and 72 h after training. We found that young E4 mice exhibited significantly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze compared to E3 mice. Deficits in spatial cognition were also present in a second independent cohort of E4 mice tested at 18 mo of age. In contrast, cognitive performance in the hidden platform water maze was not as strongly affected by APOE genotype. We also examined the dendritic morphology of neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex of 3-mo-old TR mice, neurons important to spatial learning functions. We found significantly shorter dendrites and lower spine densities in basal shaft dendrites of E4 mice compared to E3 mice, consistent with spatial learning and memory deficits in E4 animals. These findings suggest that human APOE-?4 may affect cognitive function and neuronal morphology early in life. PMID:23592036

Rodriguez, Gustavo A; Burns, Mark P; Weeber, Edwin J; Rebeck, G William

2013-04-16

71

77 FR 60435 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of First Green Bank, both in Mount Dora, Florida. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney, Assistant Vice President) 1 Memorial Drive, Kansas...

2012-10-03

72

77 FR 63833 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Memorial Drive, Kansas City, Missouri 64198-0001: 1. Freeport Bancshares, Inc., Argonia, Kansas; to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of Freeport State Bank, Harper, Kansas. 2. Legacy Financial,...

2012-10-17

73

Multi-voxel pattern analysis reveals increased memory targeting and reduced use of retrieved details during single-agenda source monitoring  

PubMed Central

We used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to gain insight into how subjects’ retrieval agendas influence source memory judgments (was item X studied using source Y?). In Experiment 1, we used a single-agenda test where subjects judged whether items were studied with the targeted source or not. In Experiment 2, we used a multi-agenda test where subjects judged whether items were studied using the targeted source, studied using a different source, or nonstudied. To evaluate the differences between single- and multi-agenda source monitoring, we trained a classifier to detect source-specific fMRI activity at study, and then we applied the classifier to data from the test phase. We focused on trials where the targeted source and the actual source differed, so we could use MVPA to track neural activity associated with both the targeted source and the actual source. Our results indicate that single-agenda monitoring was associated with increased focus on the targeted source (as evidenced by increased targeted-source activity, relative to baseline) and reduced use of information relating to the actual, non-target source. In the multi-agenda experiment, high-levels of actual-source activity were associated with increased correct rejections, suggesting that subjects were using recollection of actual-source information to avoid source memory errors. In the single-agenda experiment, there were comparable levels of actual-source activity (suggesting that recollection was taking place), but the relationship between actual-source activity and behavior was absent (suggesting that subjects were failing to make proper use of this information).

McDuff, Susan G. R.; Frankel, Hillary C.; Norman, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

74

12 CFR 238.54 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies... Savings and Loan Holding Company Activities and Acquisitions § 238.54 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding...

2013-01-01

75

Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act  

PubMed Central

At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays.

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

76

Chip may hold key to concurrent computing  

SciTech Connect

An experimental chip that incorporates a novel message-routing scheme may hold the key to the second generation of concurrent computers, according to Charles L. Seitz, a pioneer in this form of computing. A professor of computer science at the California Institute of Technology and developer of the Cosmic Cube Architecture for Linking Multiple Processors. Seitz worked with doctoral candidate William J. Dally, who designed and fabricated the Torus Routing Chip - named for its doughnut-shaped topology. Using a scheme similar to virtual computer memory, the chips seeks to overcome a hang-up caused by the very feature that gives concurrent computing schemes their boosted horsepower: large numbers of microprocessor nodes working simultaneously on the same task. Messages running between nodes can get logjammed in single-dimension communication channels, thus deadlocking operation.

Waller, L.

1986-02-03

77

75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...incorporate the PSPAs' portfolio limits as agreed upon by...the Director monitor the portfolio of each Enterprise and...IV. Section by Section Analysis Section 1252.1 Section 1252.1 adopts the portfolio holdings criteria...

2010-12-28

78

Statistical Diagnosis for Intermittent Scan Chain Hold-Time Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent scan chain hold-time fault is discussed in this paper and a method to diagnose the faulty site in a scan chain is proposed a s well. Unlike the previous scan chain diagnosis methods that targeted p ermanent faults only, the proposed method targets both permanent faults and intermittent faults. Three ideas are presented in this paper. First an enhanced

Yu Huang; Wu-tung Cheng; Sudhakar M. Reddqi; Cheng-ju Hsieh; Yu-ting Hung

2003-01-01

79

On the Determinants of SME Cash Holdings: Evidence from Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the factors that might explain the level of cash holdings in a sample of 860 small and medium-sized firms from Spain during the period 1996-2001. The empirical results show that firms have a target cash level to which they attempt to converge. The level of this target is higher for firms with more growth opportunities and larger

Pedro J. Garc; Pedro Mart ´ inez-Solano

80

Marsh: min-area retiming with setup and hold constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a polynomial time algorithm for min-area retiming for edge-triggered circuits to handle both setup and hold constraints. Given a circuit G and a target clock period c, our algorithm either outputs a retimed version of G satisfying setup and hold constraints or reports that such a solution is not possible, in &Ogr;(|V3|log|V|log(|V|C)) steps, where |V| corresponds to

Vijay Sundararajan; Sachin S. Sapatnekar; Keshab K. Parhi

1999-01-01

81

CD28 costimulation independence of target organ versus circulating memory antigen-specific CD4+ T cells  

PubMed Central

T cell receptor engagement with CD28 costimulation is generally required for naive T cell activation, whereas reactivation of memory cells is less dependent on CD28 costimulation. We studied this process in chronic beryllium disease, in which the frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung is large and circulating antigen-specific cells are also detectable. In the lung, a large fraction of CD4+ T cells stopped expressing CD28 mRNA and protein, and this change in phenotype correlated with lung inflammation. In the presence of concentrations of CTLA-4Ig that inhibited the CD28-B7 interaction, beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in lung were still able to proliferate and secrete IFN-? in response to beryllium in culture. This functional independence of CD28 costimulation included lung CD28+ effector cells. Although lung CD4+CD28– cells retained the ability to secrete Th1-type cytokines in response to beryllium, they showed less proliferative capacity and were more susceptible to cell death compared with CD28+ T cells. In contrast to lung cells, inhibition of the CD28-B7 interaction markedly reduced responses of beryllium-specific T cells in blood. Taken together, these findings suggest transition within memory CD4+ T cells from CD28 dependence in central memory cells to functional independence and then loss of CD28 expression in effector cells.

Fontenot, Andrew P.; Gharavi, Laia; Bennett, Sean R.; Canavera, Scott J.; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.

2003-01-01

82

Holding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

tical dynamic of interacting opposites is the integrative pattern of life. Dialectical tensions are therefore located not only in intimate relationships, but are intertwined with social (LR, Lower Right; see Wilber's Four Quadrants below), historical (LR), cultural (shared values that constitute the worldviews\\/interiors of various social systems; LL), as well as environmental (UR, LR) contexts. Families (of whatever configuration) should

Deborah A. Davis

2004-01-01

83

Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through supplying feedback for actual task duration. For Experiments 1

Michael M. Roy; Scott T. Mitten; Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld

2008-01-01

84

Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

2008-01-01

85

Optimal Holding Time in Telemarketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a telemarketing staff or a seat calls, whether the customer will answer the phone is under uncertainty. This is a common risk faced by telemarketing companies: holding the telephone too long will bring a big lose to the company, while waiting too short won't be beneficial also. In this paper, we want to solve the problem and propose the

Dan Bu; Yufan Liu; Jinzhong Guo; Qinghua Chen; Tao Zheng

2010-01-01

86

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

87

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

88

Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

2008-01-01

89

Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in…

Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

2008-01-01

90

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

91

Madness in America: holding a rational conversation.  

PubMed

The random, unexpected killing of 20 innocent children in Newtown, CT, touched us all. Targeting people with mental illness who use firearms as the problem in such tragedies is a poor simplification. Delivery of quality care for complex chronic health problems like severe mental illness and substance abuse requires a systematic coordinated effort with resources and expert capacity. We need a health care system that can assess and provide care for the severely mentally ill who may be at risk for becoming violent. Let's challenge the status quo and not simply blame mental illness for these tragedies. As the largest health profession in this country, nurses can make a difference by using the evidence regarding mental illness and violence to hold crucial and rational conversations. PMID:23505751

Gardner, Deborah B

92

Selective Inhibition of CCR7? Effector Memory T Cell Activation by a Novel Peptide Targeting Kv1.3 Channel in a Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model*  

PubMed Central

The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells serves as a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. In our previous studies, the novel peptide ADWX-1 was designed and synthesized as a specific Kv1.3 blocker. However, it is unclear if and how ADWX-1 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, the administration of ADWX-1 significantly ameliorated the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model by selectively inhibiting CD4+CCR7? phenotype effector memory T cell activation. In contrast, the Kv1.3-specific peptide had little effect on CD4+CCR7+ cells, thereby limiting side effects. Furthermore, we determined that ADWX-1 is involved in the regulation of NF-?B signaling through upstream protein kinase C-? (PKC?) in the IL-2 pathway of CD4+CCR7? cells. The elevated expression of Kv1.3 mRNA and protein in activated CD4+CCR7? cells was reduced by ADWX-1 engagement; however, an apparent alteration in CD4+CCR7+ cells was not observed. Moreover, the selective regulation of the Kv1.3 channel gene expression pattern by ADWX-1 provided a further and sustained inhibition of the CD4+CCR7? phenotype, which depends on the activity of Kv1.3 to modulate its activation signal. In addition, ADWX-1 mediated the activation of differentiated Th17 cells through the CCR7? phenotype. The efficacy of ADWX-1 is supported by multiple functions, which are based on a Kv1.3high CD4+CCR7? T cell selectivity through two different pathways, including the classic channel activity-associated IL-2 pathway and the new Kv1.3 channel gene expression pathway.

Li, Zhi; Liu, Wan-Hong; Han, Song; Peng, Bi-Wen; Yin, Jun; Wu, Ying-Liang; He, Xiao-Hua; Li, Wen-Xin

2012-01-01

93

Individual differences in working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

2005-12-01

94

The predictive first order hold circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive first order hold circuit is introduced and analyzed. The main advantage of this hold circuit is that it gives a continuous control signal. Conditions for causality and a pole placement procedure are presented. Formulas for sampling a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) problem are given and are used to analyze an example where the predictive first order hold gives

Bo Bernhardsson

1990-01-01

95

Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0?20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20?40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.

Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

2013-01-01

96

Gamma oscillations correlate with working memory load in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging of human cortex implicates a diverse network of brain regions supporting working memory—the capacity to hold and manipulate information for short periods of time. Although we are beginning to map out the brain networks supporting working memory, little is known about its physiological basis. We analyzed intracranial recordings from two epileptic patients as they performed a working memory

Marc W. Howard; Daniel S. Rizzuto; Jeremy B. Caplan; Joseph R. Madsen; John Lisman; Richard Aschenbrenner-Scheibe; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Michael J. Kahana

2003-01-01

97

The evolution of episodic memory.  

PubMed

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a "(neo)Darwinian evolution" [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1-25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A; Fortin, Norbert J

2013-06-10

98

A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

99

Stimulation of serotonin 2A receptors facilitates consolidation and extinction of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Excessive fear is a hallmark of several emotional and mental disorders such as phobias and panic disorders. Considerable attention is focused on defining the neurobiological mechanisms of the extinction of conditioned fear memory in an effort to identify mechanisms that may hold clinical significance for remediating aberrant fear memory. Serotonin modulates the acquisition and retention of conditioned emotional memory, and the serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR) may be one of the postsynaptic targets mediating such effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that the 5HT2AR regulates the consolidation and extinction of fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. The influence of 5HT2ARs on memory consolidation was further confirmed with a novel object recognition task. With a trace fear conditioning paradigm, administration of the 5HT2AR agonist TCB-2 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) before the extinction test facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory as compared to vehicle treatment. In contrast, administration of the 5HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed the acquisition of extinction of fear memory. Further, the post-conditioning administration of TCB-2 enhanced contextual and cued fear memory, possibly by facilitating the consolidation of fear memory. Administration of TCB-2 also facilitated the acquisition of extinction of fear memory in delay fear conditioned mice. Stimulation or blockade of 5HT2ARs did not affect the encoding or retrieval of conditioned fear memory. Finally, administration of TCB-2 right after training in an object recognition task enhanced the consolidation of object memory. These results suggest that stimulation of 5HT2ARs facilitates the consolidation and extinction of trace and delay cued fear memory and the consolidation of object memory. Blocking the 5HT2AR impairs the acquisition of fear memory extinction. The results support the view that serotonergic activation of the 5HT2AR provides an important modulatory influence on circuits engaged during extinction learning. Taken together these results suggest that the 5HT2AR may be a potential therapeutic target for enhancing hippocampal and amygdala-dependent memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22722027

Zhang, Gongliang; Ásgeirsdóttir, Herborg N; Cohen, Sarah J; Munchow, Alcira H; Barrera, Mercy P; Stackman, Robert W

2012-06-18

100

New Joint Program Announced by FDA and NCI Holds Promise for Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today a new joint research and clinical program that holds great promise for developing better and more targeted treatments for cancer.

101

An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive.

Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Galis, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

2009-01-01

102

Decompression Sickness Following Breath-hold Diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3)

J. D. Schipke; E. Gams; Oliver Kallweit

2006-01-01

103

Memory Palaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

Wood, Marianne

2007-01-01

104

Memory Palaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language…

Wood, Marianne

2007-01-01

105

Do working memory-driven attention shifts speed up visual awareness?  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color cue in WM and to subsequently perform a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task by reporting either of two different-colored circles (presented to the left and right of fixation with a variable temporal interval) as having the first onset. One of the two TOJ circles could match the memory cue in color. We found that awareness of the temporal order of the circle onsets was not affected by the contents of WM, even when participants were explicitly informed that one of the TOJ circles would always match the WM contents. The null effect of WM on TOJs was not due to an inability of the memory-matching item to capture attention, since response times to the target in a follow-up experiment were improved when it appeared at the location of the memory-matching item. The present findings suggest that WM-driven attention shifts cannot accelerate phenomenal awareness of matching stimuli in the visual field. PMID:21837542

Pan, Yi; Cheng, Qiu-Ping

2011-11-01

106

Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated.

Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

2012-01-01

107

Sericin for resistance switching device with multilevel nonvolatile memory.  

PubMed

Resistance switching characteristics of natural sericin protein film is demonstrated for nonvolatile memory application for the first time. Excellent memory characteristics with a resistance OFF/ON ratio larger than 10(6) have been obtained and a multilevel memory based on sericin has been achieved. The environmentally friendly high performance biomaterial based memory devices may hold a place in the future of electronic device development. PMID:23893500

Wang, Hong; Meng, Fanben; Cai, Yurong; Zheng, Liyan; Li, Yuangang; Liu, Yuanjun; Jiang, Yueyue; Wang, Xiaotian; Chen, Xiaodong

2013-07-29

108

Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representations of unique events from one’s past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge

Jonathon D. Crystal

2009-01-01

109

Should software hold data hostage?  

SciTech Connect

Software tools have become an indispensable part of modern biology, but issues surrounding propriety file formats and closed software architectures threaten to stunt the growth of this rapidly expanding area of research. In an effort to ensure continuous software upgrades to provide a continuous income stream, some software companies have resorted to holding the user?s data hostage by locking them into proprietary file and data formats. Although this might make sense from a business perspective, it violates fundamental principles of data ownership and control. Such tactics should not be tolerated by the scientific community. The future of data-intensive biology depends on ensuring open data standards and freely exchangeable file formats. Compared to the engineering and chemistry fields, computers are a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of biological tools. Thus the pool of potential users of biology-oriented software is comparatively small. Biology itself is a broad field with many sub-disciplines, such as neurobiology, biochemistry, genomics and cell biology. This creates the need for task-oriented software tools that necessarily have a small user base. Simultaneously, the task of developing software has become more complex with the need for multi-platform software and increasing user expectations of sophisticated interfaces and a high degree of usability. Writing successful software in such an environment is very challenging, but progress in biology will increasingly depend on the success of companies and individuals in creating powerful new software tools. The trend to open source software could have an enormous impact on biology by providing the large number of specialized analysis tools that are required. Indeed, in the field of bioinformatics, open source software has become pervasive, largely because of the high degree of computer skill necessary for workers in this field. For these tools to be usable by non-specialists, however, requires the development of facile user interfaces and robust environments. This is where some companies have provided real value to the community, building on the foundation of open source software. Outside of genomics and bioinformatics, there is still a critical need for software tools, particularly in areas such as imaging, biochemistry and cell signaling. The computer skills of investigators in these fields is generally more rudimentary, and thus the open source options are much more limited. Commercial software dominates these areas, but open source has the potential to contribute more in the future.

Wiley, H S.; Michaels, George S.

2004-08-01

110

A transcription factor-binding domain of the coactivator CBP is essential for long-term memory and the expression of specific target genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with numerous transcription factors and contains multiple functional domains. Currently, it is not known which transcription factor-binding domain of

Marcelo A. Wood; Michelle A. Attner; Ana M. M. Oliveira; Paul K. Brindle; T. Abel

2006-01-01

111

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1997-12-30

112

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

Barth, Clyde H. (Ballston Lake, NY); Cramer, Charles E. (Schenectady, NY)

1997-01-01

113

RMI-SAMPLE HOLDING TIME REEVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

114

Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing  

DOEpatents

A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

1996-12-31

115

Bank holding company diversification and production efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) have been diversifying their businesses increasingly among banking, securities and insurance activities in the recent decades through establishment of Section 20 subsidiaries in earlier years and through formation of financial holding companies after the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA, 1999). This study examines whether BHC diversification is associated with improvement or detriment in its production efficiency. We apply

Elyas Elyasiani; Yong Wang

2012-01-01

116

Channel holding time in hierarchical cellular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the characteristics of the channel holding time in the multitier cellular systems supporting overflow and underflow schemes with the general call holding time and the general cell residence time. Comparison between our results, together with previous results, and simulation shows that our result is more universal and more accurate.

Yan Zhang; Boon-Hee Soong

2004-01-01

117

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

118

78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings...control, and for Watco Railroad to directly control, Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AA), a Class III railroad, and...

2013-01-11

119

Dynamic scratchpad memory management for code in portable systems with an MMU  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a dynamic memory allocation technique for a novel, horizontally parti- tioned memory subsystem targeting contemporary embedded processors with a memory manage- ment unit (MMU). We propose to replace the on-chip instruction cache with a scratchpad memory (SPM), and a small minicache. Serializing the address translation with the actual memory access enables the memory system to

Bernhard Egger; Jaejin Lee; Heonshik Shin

2008-01-01

120

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

121

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

122

CLONAL MEMORY  

PubMed Central

A single clone of B cells producing anti-DNP antibody recognizable by the isoelectric-focusing spectrum has been used, in a double transfer system, to study clonal memory. Trasnsferable B memory develops between 4 and 7 days after the first transfer with antigen. B-memory cells thus proliferate before or concomitantly with antibody-forming cells.

McMichael, A. J.; Williamson, A. R.

1974-01-01

123

12 CFR 1235.5 - Record hold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENTITY REGULATIONS RECORD RETENTION FOR REGULATED ENTITIES AND...of Finance. The record retention program of a regulated entity...legal services as well as senior management of the regulated... (c) Method of record retention during a record hold....

2012-01-01

124

Breath-hold diving: performance and safety.  

PubMed

Breath-hold diving was probably first conducted shortly after humans ventured into the water realm. Early efforts likely centred on exploration, hunting and gathering. The fundamentals of breath-hold diving have not changed since these earliest efforts but the performance records have undergone an almost unbelievable evolution. Single breath-hold durations (inspiring air) of 9:15 min:s and 8:00 min:s and maximal vertical transits of 214 metres' sea water (msw) and 160 msw for males and females, respectively, are daunting. Competitive performance requires genetic predisposition, motivation and training in both fundamentals and a variety of advanced techniques. The record of safety within the competitive arena is impressive but care must be taken to ensure that the appropriate practices and procedures are communicated to all levels of enthusiast. Current performance records, strategies to optimize performance, and recommendations for safe breath-hold activity are presented. PMID:22692689

Pollock, Neal W

2008-06-01

125

New Holding Device for Tensile Testing Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application relates to a unique holding device comprising an eyelet-jaw arrangement to be used for tensile testing of fabrics under controlled temperature and wet conditions. Even more specifically, this apparatus consists of a new device for ...

G. McLean R. L. Glee

1975-01-01

126

Bethesda Animal Holding and Technical Support Home  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program- Bethesda Campus Provides the highest quality of animal care and animal support services for all animal research at the NCI-Bethesda Ensures that an investigator's needs are met through the use of healthy

127

PUHCA Impediments. [Public Utilities Holding Company Act  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact on the independent energy companies of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) in development of opportunities in the international private power market. This market is expected to expand by an additional 43,400 megawatts of new capacity in developing and developed countries by the year 2000. The topics include holding company regulation, exemptions from regulation, and the potential for reform of the PUHCA.

Kessler, M.; Sperling, G.

1991-04-01

128

Color matching from memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

129

Cue-Focused and Reflexive-Associative Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories of event-based prospective memory were evaluated in 3 experiments. The results depended on the association between the target event and the intended action. For associated target-action pairs (a) preexposure of nontargets did not reduce prospective memory, (b) divided attention did not reduce prospective memory, (c) prospective memory was better than when the target event and intended action were

Mark A. McDaniel; Melissa J. Guynn; Gilles O. Einstein; Jennifer Breneiser

2004-01-01

130

Stretching transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing abstraction for programming multi-core systems. Potential target applications for TM, such as business software and video games, are likely to involve complex data structures and large transactions, requiring specific software solutions (STM). So far, however, STMs have been mainly evaluated and optimized for smaller scale benchmarks. We revisit the main STM design choices from

Aleksandar Dragojevi?; Rachid Guerraoui; Michal Kapalka

2009-01-01

131

Working memory enhances visual perception: evidence from signal detection analysis.  

PubMed

We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be re-presented in the display, where it surrounded either the target (on valid trials) or a distractor (on invalid trials). Perceptual identification of the target, as indexed by A', was enhanced on valid relative to invalid trials but only when the cue was kept in WM. There was minimal effect of the cue when it was merely attended and not kept in WM. Verbal cues were as effective as visual cues at modulating perceptual identification, and the effects were independent of the effects of target saliency. Matches to the contents of WM influenced perceptual sensitivity even under conditions that minimized competition for selecting the target. WM cues were also effective when targets were less likely to fall in a repeated WM stimulus than in other stimuli in the search display. There were no effects of WM on decisional criteria, in contrast to sensitivity. The findings suggest that reentrant feedback from WM can affect early stages of perceptual processing. PMID:20192541

Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W

2010-03-01

132

Quantum memory Quantum memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

2012-06-01

133

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2013-03-18

134

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

135

Nonvolatile, high density, high performance phase-change memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically reprogrammable resistor approach has been developed as a basis for a new nonvolatile memory that is potentially denser, faster, and easier to make than Dynamic RAM (DRAM). It relies on structural phase transitions induced by nanosecond-scale heating and cooling of small volumes of chalcogenide films within the memory cell. Initial target markets include FLASH memory, embedded memory, and

Scott Tyson; Guy Wicker; Tyler Lowrey; Stephen Hudgens; Ken Hunt

2000-01-01

136

Metamemory and memory test performance in stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory Self-Efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be related to memory performance and social participation in a healthy elderly population. This relation is unclear in stroke. As about 30% of all stroke survivors report memory complaints, there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. Before implementing MSE as a potential target in memory training, it should be examined whether

L. Aben; M. A. van Kessel; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. J. van Busschbach; P. A. T. M. Eling; M. A. Bogert; G. M. Ribbers

2009-01-01

137

Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH.

Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

2012-01-01

138

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

139

Neuronal basis of age-related working memory decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the cognitive deficits of normal ageing (forgetfulness, distractibility, inflexibility and impaired executive functions) involve prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. The PFC guides behaviour and thought using working memory, which are essential functions in the information age. Many PFC neurons hold information in working memory through excitatory networks that can maintain persistent neuronal firing in the absence of external stimulation.

Min Wang; Nao J. Gamo; Yang Yang; Lu E. Jin; Xiao-Jing Wang; Mark Laubach; James A. Mazer; Daeyeol Lee; Amy F. T. Arnsten

2011-01-01

140

Spatiotemporal characteristics of dynamic feature binding in visual working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that visual working memory can hold a set of four to five coherent object representations. As a test of this proposal, I devised a paradigm called multiple object permanence tracking (MOPT) that measures memory for feature-location binding in dynamic situations. Observers were asked to detect any feature switch in the middle of a regular rotation of

Jun Saiki

2003-01-01

141

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

142

Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.  

PubMed

Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable algorithms for the prevention of those avoidable accidents. PMID:16967769

Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

143

Event-Related Potential Correlates of Long-Term Memory for Briefly Presented Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological studies have investigated the nature of face recognition in a variety of paradigms; some have contrasted famous and novel faces in explicit memory paradigms, others have repeated faces to examine implicit memory\\/ priming. If the general finding that implicit memory can last for up to several months also holds for novel faces, a reliable measure of it could have

Carrie A. Joyce; Marta Kutas

2005-01-01

144

Catalog of Holdings; Teacher Education Developmental Service Research Library. Addendum to Catalog of Holdings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These two lists are the Catalog of Holdings for the Teacher Education Developmental Service (TEDS) and the Addendum to the Catalog of Holdings. TEDS is a group of professional educators skilled and available to assist teacher education consortia in New York State to develop programs in the competency based teacher education (CBTE) format. The…

Benedict, Marjorie A., Comp.

145

78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI...days after the application was received. All dates and deadlines in this notice...

2013-10-29

146

77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc.--Control...Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation...SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc....

2012-05-11

147

Transition to Hold, Decon & Cool Down Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program covers the transition from Protect Safe Mode to Hold Mode, then performs a Protect Decontamination. This is followed by a series of UV monitors and focus checks at -43C, then a special decon to take the instrument to -88C.

Casertano, Stefano

1999-07-01

148

Breath-holding in a marijuana smoker  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is vital to ask about illicit drug smoking in the respiratory history as marijuana smoking augments the detrimental effects of tobacco. We describe the case of a 28 year old marijuana smoker who developed a pneumothorax during a breath-holding competition. Pneumothorax is a common clinical entity that every physician should be aware of how to manage and lifetime risk

Avinash Aujayeb; Calum Donald; Simon Doe

149

Prototype Runway Hold-Short Lighting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype runway hold-short lighting system was developed at the FAA Technical Center. The purpose of this lighting system is to provide identification to a pilot, while landing during intersecting runway landing and takeoff operations, of the point at ...

E. S. Katz T. H. Paprocki

1991-01-01

150

Why Do So Few Hold Stocks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate why 75 percent of U.S. households do not hold stocks despite the equity premium and predictions of expected-utility models. The question is relevant for privatization, asset pricing, and tax progressivity issues. They show that risk aversion per se, heterogeneity of beliefs, habit persistence, time nonseparability, and quantity constraints on borrowing do not account for the phenomenon. A

Michael Haliassos; Carol C Bertaut

1995-01-01

151

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

Rommel-Esham, Katie

2007-01-01

152

26 CFR 5. - term holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...term holding period. 5. Example 5. Sale or exchange of partnership interest where... Capital gains look-through rule for sales or exchanges of interests in a partnership...gain shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a collectible (as...

2010-04-01

153

9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Holding period. (a) Any live dog or cat acquired by a dealer 5 or exhibitor...not considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat acquired by a dealer or exhibitor...

2013-01-01

154

Large powerful shareholders and cash holding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the relationship between liquid asset holding and the pattern of share ownership and control structures within the firm. We explore these issues using a data set of Belgian firms that is particularly well suited to studying the institutions of control oriented finance. The data include information on ownership concentration, voting alliances, managerial ownership, membership in family groups, institutional

Ronald W. Anderson; Malika Hamadi

2009-01-01

155

How Much Water Will a Sponge Hold?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare how much water different sized and shaped sponges can hold. Learners make predictions and then measure each sponge's absorption capacity by soaking the sponge in water for thirty seconds and squeezing the absorbed water from the sponge into a measuring cup. Use this activity as a lesson on capacity and absorption.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

156

Priority loss systems: Unequal holding times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two classes of voice calls use the same s-channel trunk group. A mathematical model is developed for the case where one class of traffic can preempt the other and the mean holding times of each class of traffic may be different. These results are then used to numerically investigate the behavior of various measures of performance for both classes of

M. J. Fischer

1979-01-01

157

Action-Oriented Memory Subserving Perception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document holds that the brain may be viewed as a layered computer, with long-term memory serving to ensure the correlation of sensory features in the sensory layers with output feature clusters in the motor layers which can determine action appropriat...

M. A. Arbib P. Dev R. L. Didday

1970-01-01

158

How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working-memory account.  

PubMed

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing can reduce ratings of the vividness and emotionality of unpleasant memories-hence it is commonly used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. The present experiments compared three accounts of how eye movements produce these benefits. Participants rated unpleasant autobiographical memories before and after eye movements or an eyes stationary control condition. In Experiment 1, eye movements produced benefits only when memories were held in mind during the movements, and eye movements increased arousal, contrary to an investigatory-reflex account. In Experiment 2, horizontal and vertical eye movements produced equivalent benefits, contrary to an interhemispheric-communication account. In Experiment 3, two other distractor tasks (auditory shadowing, drawing) produced benefits that were negatively correlated with working-memory capacity. These findings support a working-memory account of the eye movement benefits in which the central executive is taxed when a person performs a distractor task while attempting to hold a memory in mind. PMID:18565493

Gunter, Raymond W; Bodner, Glen E

2008-04-25

159

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

160

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

161

VLSI Memories,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article, an update on Mitsubishi VLSI memory technology, discusses main products including dynamic RAMs, static RAMs, ROM, and application-specific memory devices. The Corporation has developed a 4Mb dynamic RAM with a submicron (0.8 micrometer) desig...

M. Yamada S. Kayano T. Yoshihara H. Harima H. Hamano

1988-01-01

162

Moseley Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE fund founded in the University of Manchester for the provision of a memorial to the late H. G. J. Moseley (killed in action at Gallipoli, 1915), and originally proposed as a private memorial from Moseley's personal friends and fellow-workers in Manchester, has now been extended in order to give other scientific bodies, both in England and abroad, an opportunity

Henry A. Miers; C. G. Darwin; H. Robinson

1920-01-01

163

Quantum memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light–atom interaction, quantum memory also appears

Jean-Louis Le Gouët; Sergey Moiseev

2012-01-01

164

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

165

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

166

Localization of load sensitivity of working memory storage: Quantitatively and qualitatively discrepant results yielded by single-subject and group-averaged approaches to fMRI group analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impetus for the present report is the evaluation of competing claims of two classes of working memory models: Memory systems models hold working memory to be supported by a network of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-based domain-specific buffers that act as workspaces for the storage and manipulation of information; emergent processes models, in contrast, hold that the contributions of PFC to

Eva Feredoes; Bradley R. Postle

2007-01-01

167

Working memory load and the vigilance decrement.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and spatial working memory demands on performance on an alpha-numeric successive target detection task. Seven hundred and forty-five participants performed a target detection task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or a verbal working memory task or they performed matched no-memory control tasks. The vigilance decrement, both an increase in target detection response times and a decrease in perceptual sensitivity A' to target stimuli over time, was exacerbated by concurrent working memory load. The spatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance performance suggesting utilization of common executive resources. Overall, these results support the view that the vigilance decrement results from high cognitive resource demands (e.g., hard work), not from cognitive under-load (e.g., boredom or mindlessness). PMID:21643711

Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N

2011-06-04

168

Actual Holding Times for Calls in a PCS Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explicit distribution function of the actual holding time of a new call in a PCS network, with general cell residence time and general requested call holding time, is obtained. The effective call holding time of an incompleted and of completed calls are shown to be the conditional actual holding time of an incompleted call and of a completed call,

Wei Li; Attahiru Sule Alfa

1998-01-01

169

Place memory in crickets.  

PubMed

Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

2008-04-22

170

Remote direct memory access  

SciTech Connect

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

171

Certification of Memory Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe a type-based approach for inferring heap space usage of certain functional programs and a mechanism for generating\\u000a certificates as to the thus inferred memory consumption in the form of proofs in a VDM-style program logic fore Java bytecode\\u000a (Java bytecode being the target of compilation). This gives a current snapshot of our work in the EU-funded project ‘Mobile

Martin Hofmann

2003-01-01

172

12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section that the price, price range or any other pricing information related to such stock issuance has...association and subsidiary holding company, the insurance risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, and the convenience and needs of the...

2013-01-01

173

77 FR 48550 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates, IL; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...and inventory services to India; and that the workers at the Hoffman Estates, Illinois facility are similarly situated as the...

2012-08-14

174

Interference within the focus of attention: working memory tasks reflect more than temporary maintenance.  

PubMed

One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average person can maintain approximately 4 items in WM. The present study challenges this interpretation by demonstrating that performance on the visual arrays task is subject to time-related factors that are associated with retrieval from long-term memory. Experiment 1 demonstrates that memory for an array does not decay as a product of absolute time, which is consistent with both maintenance- and retrieval-based explanations of visual arrays performance. Experiment 2 introduced a manipulation of temporal discriminability by varying the relative spacing of trials in time. We found that memory for a target array was significantly influenced by its temporal compression with, or isolation from, a preceding trial. Subsequent experiments extend these effects to sub-capacity set sizes and demonstrate that changes in the size of k are meaningful to prediction of performance on other measures of WM capacity as well as general fluid intelligence. We conclude that performance on the visual arrays task does not reflect a multi-item storage system but instead measures a person's ability to accurately retrieve information in the face of proactive interference. PMID:22612165

Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W

2012-05-21

175

NSB to hold hearing on polar research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A committee of the National Science Board (NSB) will hold a public hearing on October 17, 1986, to discuss what types of scientific studies should be undertaken by U.S. researchers in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The NSB is the policy-making body of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the federal agency that funds and manages all U.S. activities in Antarctica and many research projects in the Arctic.

176

Scheduling of calls with known holding times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the option of queueing calls in connection-oriented networks instead of blocking them when network resources are unavailable. A simple call queueing algorithm would be to hold up call setup messages at each switch along an end-to-end path until re- sources become available. This scheme suffers from poor network utilization and long call queueing delays. Howev- er, if

Reinette Grobler; Malathi Veeraraghavan; David Rouse

2000-01-01

177

Memory reconsolidation.  

PubMed

The formation, storage and use of memories is critical for normal adaptive functioning, including the execution of goal-directed behavior, thinking, problem solving and decision-making, and is at the center of a variety of cognitive, addictive, mood, anxiety, and developmental disorders. Memory also significantly contributes to the shaping of human personality and character, and to social interactions. Hence, understanding how memories are formed, stored, retrieved, modified, updated and used potentially impacts many areas in human life, including mental health. PMID:24028957

Alberini, Cristina M; Ledoux, Joseph E

2013-09-01

178

Memory Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... without even being knocked out (like in some concussions). Car accidents, bike accidents, and falls can cause ... an injury, which is not unusual with a concussion. Sometimes, these memories come back. More significant problems ...

179

Memory Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980...

1995-01-01

180

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol abuse Migraine headache Mild head injury or concussion Nutritional problems (vitamin deficiencies such as low vitamin ... person suffering from low moods that impair concentration? Time pattern Has the memory loss been getting worse ...

181

Memory Grows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is reaffirmed that form memory (recognition) resides in the morphology of neuronal arborescences, the latter constituting physiological counterparts of local phase portraits of the infinitesimal transformation groups involved. At birth the brai...

W. C. Hoffman

1970-01-01

182

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

183

Short-term memory binding is impaired in AD but not in non-AD dementias.  

PubMed

Binding is a cognitive function responsible for integrating features within complex stimuli (e.g., shape-colour conjunctions) or events within complex memories (e.g., face-name associations). This function operates both in short-term memory (STM) and in long-term memory (LTM) and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, forming conjunctions in STM is the only binding function which is not affected by healthy ageing or chronic depression. Whether this specificity holds true across other non-AD dementias is as yet unknown. The present study investigated STM conjunctive binding in a sample of AD patients and patients with other non-AD dementias using a task which has proved sensitive to the effects of AD. The STM task assesses the free recall of objects, colours, and the bindings of objects and colours. Patients with AD, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease showed memory, visuo-spatial, executive and attentional deficits on standard neuropsychological assessment. However, only AD patients showed STM binding deficits. This deficit was observed even when memory for single features was at a similar level across patient groups. Regression and discriminant analyses confirmed that the STM binding task accounted for the largest proportion of variance between AD and non-AD groups and held the greatest classification power to identify patients with AD. STM conjunctive binding places little demands on executive functions and appears to be subserved by components of the memory network which are targeted by AD, but not by non-AD dementias. PMID:22289292

Della Sala, Sergio; Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Abrahams, Sharon

2012-01-24

184

Compression in Visual Working Memory: Using Statistical Regularities to Form More Efficient Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information that individuals can hold in working memory is quite limited, but researchers have typically studied this capacity using simple objects or letter strings with no associations between them. However, in the real world there are strong associations and regularities in the input. In an information theoretic sense, regularities…

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2009-01-01

185

Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca(2+) influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM's may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM's) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM's. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM's, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca(2+) influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A; Thompson, Tyler H; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

2013-09-27

186

Prospective Memory, Personality, and Working Memory: A Formal Modeling Approach.  

PubMed

Prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform an action in the future. The current study applies a multinomial model to investigate the contribution of individual differences in personality, as well as individual differences in working memory span, to performance in an event-based PM task. The model includes a parameter P that measures the prospective component, or remembering that something is to be done. The model also includes a parameter M that measures the ability to discriminate between target and non-target events, part of the retrospective component of PM tasks. The model has been applied to investigate the effects of working memory variability in just one prior study, but has not been used in previous investigations of personality and PM. Working memory span and the personality dimension of conscientiousness showed differences between the higher and lower groups in PM performance. Modeling results showed that individuals higher in conscientiousness had higher estimated of M relative to individuals lower on the conscientiousness dimension. Conscientiousness did not affect the P parameter. In contrast, individuals with higher working memory span scores had higher estimates of P relative to individuals with lower span scores, but the two working memory groups did not differ in terms of parameter M. PMID:21822501

Smith, Rebekah E; Persyn, Deborah; Butler, Patrick

2011-01-01

187

Disgust- and not fear-evoking images hold our attention.  

PubMed

Even though disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies. The aim of this study was to examine whether fear- and disgust-evoking images would produce different attention bias effects, specifically those related to attention (dis)engagement. Participants were asked to identify a target which was briefly presented around a central image cue, which could either be disgusting, frightening, or neutral. The interval between cue onset and target presentation varied within blocks (200, 500, 800, 1100 ms), allowing us to investigate the time course of attention engagement. Accuracy was lower and reaction times were longer when targets quickly (200 ms) followed disgust-evoking images than when they followed neutral- or fear-evoking images. For the other, longer interval conditions no significant image effects were found. These results suggest that emotion-specific attention effects can be found at very early visual processing stages and that only disgust-evoking images, and not fear-evoking ones, keep hold of our attention for longer. We speculate that this increase in early attention allocation is related to the need to perform a more comprehensive risk-assessment of the disgust-evoking images. The outcomes underline not only the importance of examining the time course of emotion induced attention effects but also the need to look beyond the dimensions of valence and arousal. PMID:23500108

van Hooff, Johanna C; Devue, Christel; Vieweg, Paula E; Theeuwes, Jan

2013-03-20

188

How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much popcorn will our classroom hold? This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting data, prediction, inference, communication, and using number relationships) and applied mathematical process (determining an estimate, using benchmarks, measuring, mapping, etc.) in a meaningful way--getting an authentic glimpse of how these two subjects are inextricably linked.

Rommel-Esham, Katie

2007-10-01

189

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

190

Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Episodic memory,and semantic memory,are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory,functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

191

17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Custodial holdings of government securities. 450.4 Section 450... REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

2013-04-01

192

77 FR 63309 - ITC Holdings Corp.; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PA10-13-000] ITC Holdings Corp.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 28, 2012, ITC Holdings Corp. and ITC Midwest LLC (collectively ITC) filed its Refund Report in the...

2012-10-16

193

NCI-Frederick Animal Holding and Technical Support Home  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support - Frederick Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support Program Provides the highest quality of animal care and animal support services for all animal research at the NCI-Frederick Ensures that an investigator's

194

The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant MitoQ Prevents Loss of Spatial Memory Retention and Early Neuropathology in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We examined the ability of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (mitoquinone mesylate: [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienlyl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate]) to prevent AD-like pathology in mouse cortical neurons in cell culture and in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). MitoQ attenuated ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons and also prevented increased production of reactive species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in them. To determine whether the mitochondrial protection conferred by MitoQ was sufficient to prevent the emergence of AD-like neuropathology in vivo, we treated young female 3xTg-AD mice with MitoQ for 5 months and analyzed the effect on the progression of AD-like pathologies. Our results show that MitoQ prevented cognitive decline in these mice as well as oxidative stress, A? accumulation, astrogliosis, synaptic loss, and caspase activation in their brains. The work presented herein suggests a central role for mitochondria in neurodegeneration and provides evidence supporting the use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in diseases involving oxidative stress and metabolic failure, namely AD.

McManus, Meagan J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Franklin, James L.

2012-01-01

195

Memory Training Interventions: What has been forgotten?  

PubMed Central

Memory training for older adults often produces gains that are limited to the particular memory tasks encountered during training. We suggest that memory training programs may be misguided by an implicit “generalist” assumption—memory training on a couple of memory tasks will have a positive benefit on memory ability in general. One approach to increase memory-training benefits is to target training for the everyday memory tasks for which older adults struggle. Examples include training retrieval strategies, prospective memory strategies, and strategies for learning and remembering names. Another approach is to design training to foster transfer. Possible elements to improve transfer are increasing the variation that is experienced during the course of training at the level of stimuli and tasks, incorporating “homework” that guides the older adult to become attuned to situations in which the strategies can be applied, and providing older adults with a better understanding of how memory works. Finally, incorporating aerobic exercise into memory training programs may potentiate the acquisition and maintenance of the trained cognitive strategies.

McDaniel, Mark A.; Bugg, Julie M.

2012-01-01

196

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

197

Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

2010-01-01

198

Where is the classic interference theory for sleep and memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walkers target article proposes a refinement of the well known two-stage model of memory formation to explain the positive effects of sleep on consolidation. After a first stage in which a labile memory representation is formed, a further stabilisation of the memory trace takes place in the second stage. which is dependent on (REM) sleep. Walker has refined the latter

Anton Coenen

2005-01-01

199

Linking thought suppression and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two types of recovered memories: those that gradually return in recovered memory therapy and those that are spontaneously recovered outside the context of therapy. In the current study, we employed a thought suppression paradigm, with autobiographical experiences as target thoughts, to test whether individuals reporting spontaneously recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more adept at suppressing

Elke Geraerts; Richard J. McNally; Marko Jelicic; Harald Merckelbach; Linsey Raymaekers

2008-01-01

200

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting [Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E.

Maria Wimber; Roland Marcus Rutschmann; Mark W. Greenlee

2008-01-01

201

Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting [Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E.

Maria Wimber; Roland Marcus Rutschmann; Mark W. Greenlee; Karl-heinz Bäuml

2009-01-01

202

Effects of Erlang call holding times on PCS call completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies personal communications services (PCSs) channel allocation assuming the Erlang call holding time distribution (a generalization of the exponential distribution) to investigate the effect of the variance of the call holding times on the call completion probability. Our analysis indicates that the call completion probability decreases as the variance of the call holding times decreases. This effect becomes

Yi-Bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1999-01-01

203

Effects of Erlang Call Holding Times on PCS Call Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous performance studies of PCS channel allocation assumed that call holding times have an exponential distribution. The exponential call holding time assumption is justified for existing cellular systems, where wireless calls are charged based on the length of the call holding time. Future PCS systems may exercise flat rate billing, and consequently a more general distribution is desirable to model

Yi-bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1997-01-01

204

Spatial memory in insect navigation.  

PubMed

A wide variety of insects use spatial memories in behaviours like holding a position in air or flowing water, in returning to a place of safety, and in foraging. The Hymenoptera, in particular, have evolved life-histories requiring reliable spatial memories to support the task of provisioning their young. Behavioural experiments, primarily on social bees and ants, reveal the mechanisms by which these memories are employed for guidance to spatial goals and suggest how the memories, and the processing streams that use them, may be organized. We discuss three types of memory-based guidance which, together, can explain a large part of observed insect spatial behaviour. Two of these, alignment image-matching and positional image-matching, are based on an insect's remembered views of its surroundings: The first uses views to keep to a familiar heading and the second to head towards a familiar place. The third type of guidance is based on a process of path integration by which an insect monitors its distance and direction from its nest through odometric and compass information. To a large degree, these guidance mechanisms appear to involve modular computational systems. We discuss the lack of evidence for cognitive maps in insects, and in particular the evidence against a map based on path integration, in which view-based and path integration memories might be combined. We suggest instead that insects have a collective of separate guidance systems, which cooperate and train each other, and together provide reliable guidance over a range of conditions. PMID:24028962

Collett, Matthew; Chittka, Lars; Collett, Thomas S

2013-09-01

205

Hypoxia and cardiac arrhythmias in breath-hold divers during voluntary immersed breath-holds.  

PubMed

The incidence and nature of cardiac arrhythmias during static apnea were studied by monitoring the electrocardiogram (ECG) and oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) of 16 recreational breath-hold divers. All subjects completed a maximal apnea with a mean (+/-SD) breath-hold duration of 281 (+/-73) s without clinical complications. Both heart rate (HR) and SaO(2) decreased significantly with breath-hold duration. The decline in SaO(2) was inversely related to the decline in HR (r = -0.55, P < 0.05). Cardiac arrhythmias (supraventricular and ventricular premature complexes, right bundle branch block) occurred in 12/16 (77%) subjects and were related to breath-hold duration. Subjects with atrial premature complexes (n = 9) had a reduced BMI (P = 0.016) and a higher decline of the terminal SaO(2) (P = 0.01). In conclusion, ectopic arrhythmias were common during maximal static apneas for training purposes. The results indicate that the occurrence of ectopic beats is associated with individual factors such as the tolerable SaO(2) decrease. PMID:19034490

Hansel, Jochen; Solleder, Isabelle; Gfroerer, Wilfried; Muth, Claus M; Paulat, Klaus; Simon, Perikles; Heitkamp, Hans-C; Niess, Andreas; Tetzlaff, Kay

2008-11-26

206

Public Utility Holding Company Act amendments  

SciTech Connect

Four bills considered during hearings to review the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 challenged the statute's intrusive presence on the part of the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) and its relationship to the financial distress experienced by the utility industry. Three of the bills (S. 1869, S. 1870, and S. 1871) amend administrative procedures and simplify or remove restrictions. S. 1977 repeals the Act altogether. At issue were questions of utility diversification and the flight of investors due to a deteriorating financial performance. The hearing record contains the text of each bill, the testimony of 23 witnesses and four panels speaking for the utilities, the SEC, investors, small businesses, and consumers. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony.

Not Available

1982-01-01

207

12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 ...company elect to become a financial holding company? 225...Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

2013-01-01

208

Super Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

Text, Word

2001-01-01

209

Retracing Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

Harrison, David L.

2005-01-01

210

Memory Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

Cassebaum, Anne

2011-01-01

211

Memory grows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis is reaffirmed that form memory (recognition) resides in the morphology of neuronal arborescences, the latter constituting physiological counterparts of local phase portraits of the infinitesimal transformation groups involved. At birth the brain comes equipped with essentially its full complement of neurons. These are initially in a very primitive, almost neuroblast form, but subsequently rapidly proliferate and branch, thus

William C. Hoffman

1971-01-01

212

Optimising flash memory tunnel programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memory programming by means of Fowler–Nordheim tunnelling has been studied with the aim of minimising oxide degradation and, at the same time, limiting the program voltage and reducing the program time. The target has been obtained using a waveform composed of a few number of pulses. The program accuracy has been validated by means of measurements on a set

Fernanda Irrera; Teodoro Fristachi; Domenico Caputo; Bruno Riccò

2004-01-01

213

Source Memory in the Real World: A Neuropsychological Study of Flashbulb Memory  

PubMed Central

A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself. Which brain regions are involved in FM, however, is uncertain. Although medial temporal lobe/diencephalic (MTL/D) damage impairs content or item memory, frontal lobe (FL) damage has been associated with impaired source memory. One would therefore expect that FM should depend on the FLs, although two recent reports do not support this idea. In the current study, we examined memory for the events of September 11th, and memory for the source of that information, in MTL/D patients, FL patients, and healthy subjects. Only the MTL/D patients were impaired in long-term memory for the event itself, measured after a 6 month retention interval. The FL patients, on the other hand, showed a selective deficit in source memory, although their memory for the target event was unimpaired. MTL/D and FL structures appear to play different roles in memory for flashbulb events.

DAVIDSON, PATRICK S. R.; COOK, SHAUN P.; GLISKY, ELIZABETH L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE; RAPCSAK, STEVEN Z.

2008-01-01

214

A fully cell-based design for timing measurement of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a scheme for measuring the timing parameters of a memory's I\\/O interface — including the setup\\/hold time and access time. For setup\\/hold time measurement, we incorporate a procedure that successively adjusts the timing relation between the clock signal and a controllable valid timing window to estimate the setup\\/hold time. For access time measurement, we propose a circuit

Yi-Chung Chang; Shi-Yu Huang; Chao-Wen Tzeng; Jack Yao

2011-01-01

215

Memorial Poems and the Poetics of Memorializing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public war memorials are sites of intense ideological negotiation, expressing the meaning of specific wars and their losses, whilst also speaking to private grief. War poetry also memorializes the experience of warfare and its effects. In poetry about war memorials, one form confronts the other. This essay initially considers poems that either embrace the values of the memorial or strenuously

Andrew Palmer; Sally Minogue

2010-01-01

216

Memorial Poems and the Poetics of Memorializing  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Public war memorials are sites of intense ideological negotiation, expressing the meaning of specific wars and their losses, whilst also speaking to private grief. War poetry also memorializes the experience of warfare and its effects. In poetry about war memorials, one form confronts the other. This essay initially considers poems that either embrace the values of the memorial or

Andrew Palmer; Sally Minogue

2010-01-01

217

Interference-based forgetting in verbal short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that distractors are encoded into memory in the same manner as

Stephan Lewandowsky; Sonja M. Geiger; Klaus Oberauer

2008-01-01

218

Affect and memory in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-dependent theory of the relationship between affective states and memory holds that recall will be best when the affective state at recall matches that during learning. Sequential happy, neutral, and sad affective states that were either consistent (e.g., Happy-Happy) or inconsistent (e.g., Sad-Neutral) were experimentally induced in preschool children prior to encoding and then again prior to retrieval (free

S. Wayne Duncan; Christine M. Todd; Marion Perlmutter; John C. Masters

1985-01-01

219

Memory for scenes: Refixations reflect retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most conceptions of episodic memory hold that reinstatement of encoding operations is essential for retrieval success, but\\u000a the specific mechanisms of retrieval reinstatement are not well understood. In three experiments, we used saccadic eye movements\\u000a as a window for examining reinstatement in scene recognition. In Experiment 1, participants viewed complex scenes, while number\\u000a of study fixations was controlled by using

Linus Holm; Timo Mäntylä

2007-01-01

220

Views of First Nation elders on memory loss and memory care in later life.  

PubMed

Little is known about Indigenous communities and dementia and Elders have not been involved as advisors or participants in most research to date. This exploratory research sought to address this gap through a constructivist grounded theory project on the views of First Nation Elders on memory loss and memory care in later life, conducted in collaboration with decision-makers from the local Health Authority and Elders from three First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Elders served as advisors to this research and research agreements were negotiated and signed with each community. Data collection occurred through a series of sharing circles and interviews with a total of 21 Elders, four of whom were experiencing memory loss, and two community members. Four themes arose through the constant comparative data analysis process: Being Secwepemc, growing older, losing memory, and supporting one another. These themes indicate that memory loss and memory care in First Nation communities has changed over the past century, including the causes attributed to memory loss in later life and community responses to those affected. Elders hold differing views about memory loss, including the traditional--'going through the full circle' [of life]--and the shémá [white] way--'your dementia', with the latter being much more common. This research indicates the importance of protecting and reviving traditional knowledge and ways of life in order to prevent 'your dementia' and avoid the adoption of health care practices that may be culturally unsafe for First Nation Elders. PMID:20593232

Hulko, Wendy; Camille, Evelyn; Antifeau, Elisabeth; Arnouse, Mike; Bachynski, Nicole; Taylor, Denise

2010-12-01

221

Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory: Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience,

Elizabeth F. Chua; Deborah E. Hannula; Charan Ranganath

2012-01-01

222

Radio Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Golden Age of Radio" that arguably lasted until the early 1950s may be hard to imagine today in an era of swirling iPod playlists and other genre-bending devices and technologies, but during this time the radio reigned supreme. People tuned in every week to hear the exploits of Flash Gordon, Sam Spade, and Amos n' Andy. Thanks to the Radio Memories website, many of these memories can be relived, or just experienced for the first time. Started in May 2005, the site contains a host of compelling programs, including episodes from the Interplanetary Adventures of Flash Gordon and a number of original episodes of the fabled Radio Detective Story Hour. If those types of programs fail to pique the interest of the casual visitor, the site also contains archived shows that explore the world of radio soap operas from the 1940s and the musical worlds of such stars as Tommy Dorsey and Harry James.

223

Episodic and Semantic Memory for Melodies in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

the present study addressed episodic and semantic memory for melodies in three groups of participants: 35 younger adults, 40 older adults, and 10 individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). To assess episodic memory, a study list of eight novel target melodies was presented three times, followed by a test trial in which target melodies were mixed with foil

Ashley D. Vanstone; Ritu Sikka; Leila Tangness; Rosalind Sham; Angeles Garcia; Lola L. Cuddy

2012-01-01

224

GENETIC PROGRAMMING, INDEXED MEMORY, THE HALTING PROBLEM, AND OTHER CURIOSITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic programming (GP) paradigm was designed to evolve functions that are progressively better approximations to some target function. The introduction of memory into GP has opened the Pandora's box which is algorithms. It has been shown that the combination of GP and Indexed Memory can be used to evolve any target algorithm. What has not been shown is the

Astro Teller

225

Medical shape memory alloy applications—the market and its products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical market is a continuing success story for the application of shape memory alloy products. Increasing life expectancy and advances in surgical procedures mean that the medical market will remain an area of great opportunity for commercial applications.This paper will consider just why the shape memory effect holds so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection

N. B. Morgan

2004-01-01

226

The Role of Inferior Parietal and Inferior Frontal Cortex in Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal working memory involves two major components: a phonological store that holds auditory–verbal information very briefly and an articulatory rehearsal process that allows that information to be refreshed and thus held longer in short-term memory (A. Baddeley, 1996, 2000; A. Baddeley & G. Hitch, 1974). In the current study, the authors tested two groups of patients who were chosen on

Juliana V. Baldo; Nina F. Dronkers

2006-01-01

227

Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Shrum's (1996) heuristic processing model as an explanatory mechanism, we propose that people who hold vivid autobiographical memories for a specific past experience with media violence will overstate the prevalence of real-world crime versus individuals without vivid memories. We also explore the effects of frequency and recency on social reality beliefs. A survey was administered to 207 undergraduate students

Karyn Riddle; W. James Potter; Miriam J. Metzger; Robin L. Nabi; Daniel G. Linz

2011-01-01

228

The Magical Mystery Four: How Is Working Memory Capacity Limited, and Why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory storage capacity is important because cognitive tasks can be completed only with sufficient ability to hold information as it is processed. The ability to repeat information depends on task demands but can be distinguished from a more constant, underlying mechanism: a central memory store limited to 3 to 5 meaningful items for young adults. I discuss why this

Nelson Cowan

2010-01-01

229

A practical flow-sensitive and context-sensitive C and C++ memory leak detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a static analysis tool that can automatically find memory leaks and deletions of dangling pointers in large C and C++ applications.We have developed a type system to formalize a practical ownership model of memory management. In this model, every object is pointed to by one and only one pointer, which holds the exclusive right and obligation to

David L. Heine; Monica S. Lam

2003-01-01

230

The Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Contributes to the Formation and Maintenance of Bound Information in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial…

Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

2010-01-01

231

Images of the self in social anxiety: Effects on the retrieval of autobiographical memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of social phobia propose that negative self-images play an important role in maintaining anxiety. This study examines the effect of holding a positive or a negative image in mind during a speech on the retrieval of autobiographical memories. Twenty high socially anxious participants performed a standard autobiographical memory task (AMT), which used positive, negative and neutral cue words.

Lusia Stopa; Andy Jenkins

2007-01-01

232

Hold-Up, Stakeholders and Takeover Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We analyze the impact of takeover threats on long term relationships between the target owners and other stakeholders. In the absence of takeovers, stakeholders' bargaining power increases their incentive to invest but reduces the owners' incentive to invest. The threat of a takeover that would transfer value from the stakeholders reduces their ex ante investment. However, the stakeholders may

Gilles Chemla

2003-01-01

233

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

234

Mechanisms of Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)|

Squire, Larry R.

1986-01-01

235

Imagine that: Self-Imagination Improves Prospective Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated that “self-imagination” – a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) – enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerized general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e. ongoing task) and press the “1” key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e. prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a “self-imagination effect (SIE)” in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation.

Grilli, Matthew D.; McFarland, Craig P.

2012-01-01

236

Age and Forgetfulness: Confidence in Ability and Attribution for Memory Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceivers read a script of a forgetful young, middle-aged, or older male or female target being interviewed for a volunteer position. Afterward perceivers rated their opinion of the target's memory, confidence in the target's capability of performing tasks, and attributions for the target's memory failures. Perceivers were more confident and attributed failures more to lack of effort and attention when

Joan T. Erber; Irene G. Prager; Marie Williams; Marisa A. Caiola

1996-01-01

237

Inhibition of adult neurogenesis by inducible and targeted deletion of ERK5 mitogen-activated protein kinase specifically in adult neurogenic regions impairs contextual fear extinction and remote fear memory.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence suggesting that adult neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory, signaling mechanisms responsible for adult hippocampal neurogenesis are not well characterized. Here we report that ERK5 mitogen-activated protein kinase is specifically expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain. The inducible and conditional knock-out (icKO) of erk5 specifically in neural progenitors of the adult mouse brain attenuated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. It also caused deficits in several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, including contextual fear conditioning generated by a weak footshock. The ERK5 icKO mice were also deficient in contextual fear extinction and reversal of Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, suggesting that adult neurogenesis plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning flexibility. Furthermore, our data suggest a critical role for ERK5-mediated adult neurogenesis in pattern separation, a form of dentate gyrus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Moreover, ERK5 icKO mice have no memory 21 d after training in the passive avoidance test, suggesting a pivotal role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the expression of remote memory. Together, our results implicate ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult neurogenesis and provide strong evidence that adult neurogenesis is critical for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including fear extinction, and for the expression of remote memory. PMID:22573667

Pan, Yung-Wei; Chan, Guy C K; Kuo, Chay T; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

2012-05-01

238

Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

2005-01-01

239

A Train Holding Model for Urban Rail Transit Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban rail transit lines are subject to disruptions that can adversely affect passenger level of service and routine operations.\\u000a This paper focuses upon the development of a real-time disruption response model with an emphasis on the train holding strategy.\\u000a The paper also discusses the short-turning control strategy which is often used in conjunction with holding for longer disruptions.\\u000a The holding

André Puong; Nigel H. M. Wilson

240

The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.  

PubMed Central

The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J. H.

1987-01-01

241

Do working memory-driven attention shifts speed up visual awareness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli\\u000a in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed\\u000a up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color\\u000a cue in WM and to subsequently

Yi Pan; Qiu-Ping Cheng

242

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

243

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Coping With Memory Loss Search the Consumer Updates Section Cerebral Cortex Previously formed memories are thought to be stored in the cerebral ... have a role in the formation of new memories partly through their connections with the hippocampus, and ...

244

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

245

CD4+ Th1 cells promote CD8+ Tc1 cell survival, memory response, tumor localization and therapy by targeted delivery of interleukin 2 via acquired pMHC I complexes  

PubMed Central

The cooperative role of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells has been reported for CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cells in tumor eradication. However, its molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ Th cells can acquire major histocompatibility complex/peptide I (pMHC I) complexes and costimulatory molecules by dendritic cell (DC) activation, and further stimulate naïve CD8+ T cell proliferation and activation. In this study, we used CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells derived from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT II and OT I mice to study CD4+ Th1 cell's help effects on active CD8+ Tc1 cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in CD8+ Tc1-cell immunotherapy of OVA-expressing EG7 tumors. Our data showed that CD4+ Th1 cells with acquired pMHC I by OVA-pulsed DC (DCOVA) stimulation are capable of prolonging survival and reducing apoptosis formation of active CD8+ Tc1 cells in vitro, and promoting CD8+ Tc1 cell tumor localization and memory responses in vivo by 3-folds. A combined adoptive T-cell therapy of CD8+ Tc1 with CD4+ Th1 cells resulted in regression of well-established EG7 tumors (5 mm in diameter) in all 10/10 mice. The CD4+ Th1’s help effect is mediated via the helper cytokine IL-2 specifically targeted to CD8+ Tc1 cells in vivo by acquired pMHC I complexes. Taken together, these results will have important implications for designing adoptive T-cell immunotherapy protocols in treatment of solid tumors.

Huang, Hui; Hao, Siguo; Li, Fang; Ye, Zhenmin; Yang, Junbao; Xiang, Jim

2007-01-01

246

Memorial Session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memorial session to honor Heinz H. Barschall's contributions to physics, to the physics community, and to The American Physical Society. 11:00 D. Allan Bromley, Yale University and president-elect, The American Physical Society 11:15 Robert K. Adair, Yale University 11:30 Sam M. Austin, Michigan State University 11:45 Jay C. Davis, Associate Director, LLNL 12:00 Ruth H. Howes, Ball State University 12:15 Harry Lustig, APS Treasurer Emeritus 12:30 Robert G. Sachs, University of Chicago

Bromley, D. Allan; Adair, Robert K.; Austin, Sam M.; Davis, Jay C.; Howes, Ruth H.; Lustig, Harry; Sachs, Robert G.

1997-04-01

247

Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

2011-01-01

248

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

249

No Evidence for Temporal Decay in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What drives forgetting in working memory? Recent evidence suggests that in a complex-span task in which an irrelevant processing task alternates with presentation of the memoranda, recall declines when the time taken to complete the processing task is extended while holding the time for rehearsal in between processing steps constant (Portrat,…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus

2009-01-01

250

No Evidence for Temporal Decay in Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

What drives forgetting in working memory? Recent evidence suggests that in a complex-span task in which an irrelevant processing task alternates with presentation of the memoranda, recall declines when the time taken to complete the processing task is extended while holding the time for rehearsal in between processing steps constant (Portrat, Barrouillet, & Camos, 2008). This time-based forgetting was interpreted

Stephan Lewandowsky; Klaus Oberauer

2009-01-01

251

Gender, Memory, and History: In One Culture and Across Others  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some circles, even in the early twenty-first century, there is still the perception that women keep memories and that men use archives. Women, it is believed, are more apt to hold private records and pass the first accounts of local and national stories to their children. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen as the

Susan Tucker; Svanhildur Bogadóttir

2008-01-01

252

Development of Visual Working Memory Precision in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and empirical innovation to investigate instead the…

Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M.; Husain, Masud

2012-01-01

253

The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information  

PubMed Central

Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information.

Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

2009-01-01

254

[Memory and its dysfunction].  

PubMed

In the last decades interdisciplinary research of memory takes place and it connects regions as cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Learning and memory are theoretical concepts, which enable to explain the fact that personal experience influences the behavior of the particular person. Memory has neuronal representation, which enables recollection of obtained experiences and information, and subsequently enables changes in behavior. The review describes events as registration, formation of memory trace as well as memory retrieval. Memory classification is possible according to many criteria, e.g. according to the length, its conscious recollection and the character of deposited information. Main types of memories are episodic memory (for facts and events), semantic memory (for general knowledge) and procedural memory (the ability to learn behavioral and cognitive abilities and algorithms). At present it is generally accepted that memory is a complicated process, which utilizes several brain structures at the same time that are called memory systems; according to the type of memory the experiences and information are deposited in various brain regions. The present research enables many approaches for determination of the sites of memory deposition. In the present period important role in memory localization have the brain imaging techniques. Together with the study of memory under physiological conditions, in the center of interest there is the study of memory during various life periods, under pathological conditions and diseases. The review is closed by the list of most important diseases in which we observe memory dysfunctions, including the retrograde and anterograde amnesias. PMID:21254663

Klenerová, V; Hynie, S

2010-01-01

255

Kansas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can travel from Cheyenne County in the northwestern corner of Kansas all the way down to Cherokee County in the southeast with a just couple of clicks on the Kansas Memory site. It's a trip filled with compelling historical artifacts, photographs, and other ephemera, and it's an engaging way to learn about the Sunflower State's history. Created by the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas Memory helps to fulfill the Society's mission "to identify collect, preserve, interpret, and disseminate materials and information pertaining to Kansas history." First-time visitors can explore the "Item of the Week" on the homepage, create their own profiles to save materials for future visits, and take a look at the "Special Exhibits" area. On the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors will find thematic headings that allow them to browse materials dealing with the subjects including the built environment, business, and agriculture. With over 17,000 items available on the site, it's safe to say that several visits will be in order for anyone with even the faintest interest in Kansas history.

2012-01-27

256

The New! The Improved! Standard for Serial Holdings Statements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the historical background of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) 1986 standard for serials holdings statements, which encompasses both summary levels and detailed, issue-specific holdings levels. An earlier 1980 standard is compared with the new one and questions that may arise in applying the new standard are considered.…

Bloss, Marjorie E.

1987-01-01

257

From Ground Holding to Free Flight: An Exact Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congestion in air traffic networks is a serious problem and has received a lot of attention both from the aviation authorities (Federal Aviation Administration, Eurocontrol, etc. ) and from the scientific research community. In past years, one way of reducing the amount of congestion has been the adoption of ground holding policies, i. e., a ground hold is imposed to

Giovanni Andreatta; Lorenzo Brunetta; Guglielmo Guastalla

2000-01-01

258

Water holding of biochar amended SE Coastal Plain soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because southeastern Coastal Plain soils are sandy, poorly aggregated, and low in organic matter, they have low water holding capacities. Water holding can be improved with biochar amendments that have the potential to increase aggregation and provide a medium of water storage in the char. Changes i...

259

26 CFR 1.1250-4 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this subparagraph is determined by reference to its basis in the hands of the transferor, then the holding period of the property in the hands of the transferee shall include the holding period of the property in the hands of the transferor. The...

2010-04-01

260

26 CFR 1.1250-4 - Holding period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this subparagraph is determined by reference to its basis in the hands of the transferor, then the holding period of the property in the hands of the transferee shall include the holding period of the property in the hands of the transferor. The...

2009-04-01

261

STATION-HOLDING BY THREE SPECIES OF BENTHIC FISHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Station-holding performance was determined on a smooth substratum and on a grid substratum for three species of benthic fishes differing in body shape, surface texture, density, friction coefficient and behavioural repertoire. The grid was made of wires parallel to the flow, which raised fish into the free stream. Limited observations were also made on the benthopelagic cod. Station-holding perform-

PAUL W. WEBB

1989-01-01

262

RE-EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF AGENCY SAMPLE HOLDING TIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. ...

263

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

264

User mobility and channel holding time in mobile communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important parameter in the analysis of a communication system is the channel holding time of a call. In a mobile communication system, the cell channel holding time may be different than the call duration due to the mobility of the user. To study this impact of the user mobility, a new and general mobility model is presented and analyzed.

Harry Heffes; Kevin M. Ryan

1997-01-01

265

Probability distribution of channel holding time in cellular telephony systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the channel holding time and call inter-arrival distributions in cellular telephony systems. Up until now, it has been generally assumed that both these distributions can be approximated by the negative exponential model. A study is presented which, using real cellular data, determines the actual distributions. It is shown that the negative exponential assumption for channel holding time

Chris Jedrzycki; V. C. M. Leung

1996-01-01

266

Teletraffic Analysis Formulation Based on Channel Holding Time Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a teletraffic analysis method based on channel holding time statistics for new and handoff calls for system level performance evaluation of mobile cellular networks with link unreliability is developed. Firstly, mathematical expressions for the probability distribution function of channel holding time for new and handoff calls are derived considering different phase-type distributions for both cell dwell time

Andrés Rico-páez; Felipe A. Cruz-pérez; Genaro Hernández-valdez

2009-01-01

267

77 FR 28373 - RC Cape May Holdings, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL12-65-000] RC Cape May Holdings, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...825(h), RC Cape May Holdings, LLC (Complainant...FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov, or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659...00 p.m. Eastern Time on May 29, 2012....

2012-05-14

268

12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

269

12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viability of the financial holding company's merchant banking investment activities...holding period of the financial holding company's merchant banking investments...A) to merchant banking investments held by that financial holding...

2013-01-01

270

The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

2012-12-01

271

New Insights in Human Memory Interference and Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Learning new facts and skills in succession can be frustrating because no sooner has new knowledge been acquired than its retention is being jeopardized by learning another set of skills or facts. Interference between memories has recently provided important new insights into the neural and psychological systems responsible for memory processing. For example, interference occurs not only between the same types of memories; but can also occur between different types of memories, which has important implications for our understanding of memory organization. Converging evidence has begun to reveal that the brain produces interference independently from other aspects of memory processing, which suggests that interference may have an important but previously overlooked function. A memory’s initial susceptibility to interference and subsequent resistance to interference after its acquisition has revealed that memories continue to be processed ‘off-line’ during consolidation. Recent work has demonstrated that off-line processing is not limited to just the stabilization of a memory, which was once the defining characteristic of consolidation; instead, off-line processing can have a rich diversity of effects, from enhancing performance, to making hidden rules explicit. Off-line processing also occurs after memory retrieval when memories are destabilized and then subsequently restabalized during reconsolidation. Studies are beginning to reveal the function of reconsolidation, its mechanistic relationship to consolidation and its potential as a therapeutic target for the modification of memories.

Robertson, Edwin M.

2012-01-01

272

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...board of directors may determine. Section 13. Presumption of Assent. A director of the Subsidiary Holding Company who is present...capital stock of the Subsidiary Holding Company shall be in such form as shall be determined by the board of directors and...

2013-01-01

273

Deep brain stimulation effects on memory.  

PubMed

As the population of many countries ages, disorders of cognition and memory-such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and dementia associated with Parkinson's Disease-will become a major societal burden. At present, few effective medical therapies against these conditions are available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a potential therapeutic option, because it can directly target and modulate the activity of structures implicated in circuits subserving memory function. In this article, we review the scientific literature to address some of the mechanisms by which DBS may impact memory and cognition. We then summarize the results of recent clinical experience with DBS in AD and Parkinsonian dementia. PMID:23111294

Laxton, A W; Sankar, T; Lozano, A M; Hamani, C

2012-12-01

274

Smart Memories Polymorphic Chip Multiprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stanford Smart Memories polymorphic chip-multipro- cessor architecture was conceived as a unified multipurpose hardware architecture base, capable of supporting a vari- ety of programming models and per-application optimiza- tions (17). Backing the architectural claims, our team of PhD students set out to implement this challenging design in silicon, targeting 90nm technology. Now, with 55M tran- sistors covering 61mm2, this

Ofer Shacham; Zain Asgar; Han Chen; Amin Firoozshahian; Rehan Hameed; Christos Kozyrakis; Wajahat Qadeer; Stephen Richardson; Alex Solomatnikov; Don Stark; Megan Wachs; Mark Horowitz

275

Memory for pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes some of the recent advances in the neurobiology of memory. Current research helps us to understand how memories are created and, conversely, how our memories can be influenced by stress, drugs, and aging. An understanding of how memories are encoded by the brain may also lead to new ideas about how to maximize the long-term retention of

Jason W. Brown

1979-01-01

276

Error tolerant associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We present a new approach to enlarging the basin of attraction of associative memory, including auto-associative memory and\\u000a temporal associative memory. The memory trained by means of this method can tolerate and recover from seriously noisy patterns.\\u000a Simulations show that this approach will greatly reduce the number of limit cycles.

Cheng-Yuan Liou; Shao-Kuo Yuan

1999-01-01

277

Memories of Things Unseen  

Microsoft Academic Search

New findings reveal more about the malleability of memory. Not only is it possible to change details of memories for previously experienced events, but one can sometimes also plant entirely false memories into the minds of unsuspecting individuals, even if the events would be highly implausible or even impossible. False memories might differ statistically from true ones, in terms of

Elizabeth F. Loftus

2004-01-01

278

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

279

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

280

TARGETing "When" and "Where"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Drosophila, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway has been shown to be crucial for learning and memory, but whether this represents a developmental or a specific effect has not been resolved. Research with a new targeting system that allows both spatial and temporal control of gene expression shows that expression of rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, in the mushroom bodies of adult flies is necessary and sufficient to rescue the learning defect of rutabaga mutant. This demonstrates an acute role for Rutabaga in learning and memory.

Yalin Wang (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV); Yi Zhong (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; REV)

2004-02-17

281

Nanoscale memory devices.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO(2). PMID:20852352

Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

2010-09-17

282

Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control  

PubMed Central

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance.

Sutterlin, Stefan; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

2013-01-01

283

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

284

Effects of cooking method, reheating, holding time, and holding temperature on beef longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris tenderness.  

PubMed

Effects of cooking method, holding temperature, holding time, and reheating on Warner-Bratzler peak shear force (WBPSF); Warner-Bratzler myofibrillar force (WBM-F), Warner-Bratzler connective tissue force (WBC-F) and cooking loss were investigated. Two muscles (longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris) from USDA Choice beef carcasses were used. Water-bath cooking resulted in higher WBPSF, WBM-F, and WBC-F than belt-grill cooking for longissimus lumborum. The biceps femoris muscle tenderness improved more with holding time after cooking on a belt than the longissimus lumborum due to its higher collagen content. Cooking biceps femoris steaks to 54 °C by a belt grill and holding them at 57 °C in a water bath for 15 min and subsequent reheating to 70 °C (best treatment combination) produced a 25% reduction in WBPSF, a 37% reduction in WBC-F, and a 12% reduction in WBM-F as compared to the control (cooking steaks directly to 70 °C without holding). Water-bath cooking resulted in lower WBPSF than belt-grill cooking for biceps femoris without any holding time, but further tenderization did not occur with holding. Water-bath cooking resulted in higher cooking losses than belt-grill cooking for both muscles. PMID:22063447

Obuz, E; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M

2003-10-01

285

Memory dynamics in attractor networks with saliency weights.  

PubMed

Memory is a fundamental part of computational systems like the human brain. Theoretical models identify memories as attractors of neural network activity patterns based on the theory that attractor (recurrent) neural networks are able to capture some crucial characteristics of memory, such as encoding, storage, retrieval, and long-term and working memory. In such networks, long-term storage of the memory patterns is enabled by synaptic strengths that are adjusted according to some activity-dependent plasticity mechanisms (of which the most widely recognized is the Hebbian rule) such that the attractors of the network dynamics represent the stored memories. Most of previous studies on associative memory are focused on Hopfield-like binary networks, and the learned patterns are often assumed to be uncorrelated in a way that minimal interactions between memories are facilitated. In this letter, we restrict our attention to a more biological plausible attractor network model and study the neuronal representations of correlated patterns. We have examined the role of saliency weights in memory dynamics. Our results demonstrate that the retrieval process of the memorized patterns is characterized by the saliency distribution, which affects the landscape of the attractors. We have established the conditions that the network state converges to unique memory and multiple memories. The analytical result also holds for other cases for variable coding levels and nonbinary levels, indicating a general property emerging from correlated memories. Our results confirmed the advantage of computing with graded-response neurons over binary neurons (i.e., reducing of spurious states). It was also found that the nonuniform saliency distribution can contribute to disappearance of spurious states when they exit. PMID:20235821

Tang, Huajin; Li, Haizhou; Yan, Rui

2010-07-01

286

Event based and time based prospective memory in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease have been reported to have retrospective memory impairment, while prospective memory, which is memory for actions to be performed in the future, has not yet been investigated. Objective: To investigate the prospective memory of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twenty Parkinson's disease patients and 20 age matched normal controls were given event based and time based prospective memory tasks. In the event based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action whenever particular words were presented. In the time based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action at certain times. Results: The Parkinson's disease patients were impaired on the event based prospective memory task but not on the time based prospective memory task. The impairment of the Parkinson's disease patients on the event based prospective memory task was not the result of their forgetting the content of the prospective memory instructions, but the result of their failure to retrieve it spontaneously when the target words appeared. Conclusions: These results suggest that event based prospective memory is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease, presumably relating to frontal lobe dysfunction.

Katai, S; Maruyama, T; Hashimoto, T; Ikeda, S

2003-01-01

287

Inhaled steroid delivery from small-volume holding chambers depends on age, holding chamber, and interface in children.  

PubMed

The relationship between the amount of inhaled steroids delivered from pressurized metered-dose inhalers used with their recommended holding chambers and age of the patients using these devices was studied in an open randomised cross-over filter study. We recruited 1-2-month-old healthy infants (n = 21), 2-3-year-old asthmatics (n = 13), 4-6-year-old asthmatics (n = 15), and 10-15-year-old asthmatics (n = 20). Each child inhaled two puffs, administered by a single investigator, of both budesonide through Nebuchamber and fluticasone propionate through Babyhaler, on two occasions. Moreover, the 4-6-year-old group inhaled via both facemask and mouthpiece. Drug, collected on a filter interposed between holding chamber and patient, was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. Filter dose, expressed in percent of the nominal dose, was analysed in a mixed effect linear regression model with age group, holding chamber and inhalation interface (facemask or mouthpiece) as fixed effects and subject as random effect. Filter dose from both holding chambers increased significantly with age, from 3% with Babyhaler and 7% with Nebuchamber in the youngest children, to 40-41% with both holding chambers in adolescents. Nebuchamber delivered more drug than Babyhaler (p = 0.002), but variability in drug delivery (about 11%) was similar between holding chambers. Filter dose decreased from 35% to 22% with Babyhaler, and from 42% to 27% with Nebuchamber when using a mouthpiece rather than a facemask (p < 0.0001). Delivery of inhaled steroids used with their recommended holding chambers depends from age and holding chamber, but also from the inhalation interface. Lung deposition and clinical studies comparing inhalation from holding chambers with mouthpiece and facemask are urgently required. PMID:15625814

Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Anhøj, Jacob

2004-01-01

288

Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3

Anthony G. Greenwald; Richard L. Abrams; Lionel Naccache; Stanislas Dehaene

2003-01-01

289

Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

2008-01-01

290

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

2009-01-01

291

34 CFR 200.73 - Applicable hold-harmless provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT...of formula children ages 5 to 17, inclusive, as a percentage of its total population of children ages 5 to 17, inclusive Hold-harmless percentage...

2010-07-01

292

34 CFR 200.73 - Applicable hold-harmless provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT...of formula children ages 5 to 17, inclusive, as a percentage of its total population of children ages 5 to 17, inclusive Hold-harmless percentage...

2009-07-01

293

49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.145...having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive) materials in hazard division/compatibility...group D, provided: (1) The net explosive weight of the compatibility group...

2012-10-01

294

9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

295

45 CFR 1703.201 - Decision to hold meeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.201 Decision to hold...

2012-10-01

296

23. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING FROM HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE (SUPERSTRUCTURE HAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING FROM HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE (SUPERSTRUCTURE HAS BEEN EXPOSED WHERE CEILING HAS BEEN REMOVED - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

297

32. BUCKET POSING OVER CARGO HOLD; NOTE OPERATOR OVER BUCKET. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. BUCKET POSING OVER CARGO HOLD; NOTE OPERATOR OVER BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

298

Massage Therapy Holds Promise for Low Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

Massage Therapy Holds Promise for Low-Back Pain Massage therapy helped reduce pain and improve function more ... short-term and long-term effects of structural massage, relaxation massage, and usual care for people with ...

299

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

300

49 CFR 845.10 - Determination to hold hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Initial Procedure § 845.10 Determination to hold hearing. The Board may order a public hearing as part of an accident investigation whenever such hearing is deemed necessary in...

2012-10-01

301

49 CFR 845.10 - Determination to hold hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Initial Procedure § 845.10 Determination to hold hearing. The Board may order a public hearing as part of an accident investigation whenever such hearing is deemed necessary in...

2011-10-01

302

46 CFR 148.435 - Electrical circuits in cargo holds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 148.435 Electrical circuits in cargo holds. During...section, each electrical circuit terminating in a cargo...be marked to prevent the circuit from being reenergized while the material is on...

2012-10-01

303

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING (TYPICALLY COMPLEX) WASTE HOLDING CELL PIPING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-3212. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

304

AR Holding Company, Inc. c/o Mutual Pharmaceutical ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... with a graphic of a man wearing motorcycle gear delicately holding a china teacup ... in conjunction with large, bolded claims on the right-hand side of ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

305

Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.  

PubMed

In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery. PMID:19429502

Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

2009-02-11

306

39. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, STAIRS UP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, STAIRS UP TO WINCH ROOM, SEWAGE TANK IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

307

Memory loss.  

PubMed

Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

2012-02-01

308

Virginia Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

309

Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying logically impossible combinations of episodic states (e.g.,

C. J. Brainerd; V. F. Reyna; C. Aydin

2010-01-01

310

How Communication Goals Determine When Audience Tuning Biases Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message—producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated whether this bias depends on the goals driving audience tuning. In 4 experiments, the memory bias

Gerald Echterhoff; E. Tory Higgins; René Kopietz; Stephan Groll

2008-01-01

311

Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.  

PubMed

Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

2012-06-01

312

Theoretical aspects of water-holding in meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

As myofibrils consist of a three-dimensional network of long, solid protein particles with the shortest dimension of less than 20nm, the theoretical foundations of water-holding in meat should be studied from a colloid or surface chemistry point of view. The classical hypotheses for water-holding in meat are based on electrostatic forces or osmotic forces, which cause the swelling of the

E. Puolanne; Marjo Halonen

2010-01-01

313

Cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding in elite divers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During maximal breath-holding six healthy elite breath-hold divers, after an initial “easy-going” phase in which cardiovascular\\u000a changes resembled the so-called “diving response”, exhibited a sudden and severe rise in blood pressure during the “struggle”\\u000a phase of the maneuver. These changes may represent the first tangible expression of a defense reaction, which overrides the\\u000a classic diving reflex, aiming to reduce the

Pietro Guaraldi; Maria Serra; Giorgio Barletta; Giulia Pierangeli; Rossana Terlizzi; Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura; Danilo Cialoni; Pietro Cortelli

2009-01-01

314

Cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding in elite divers.  

PubMed

During maximal breath-holding six healthy elite breath-hold divers, after an initial "easy-going" phase in which cardiovascular changes resembled the so-called "diving response", exhibited a sudden and severe rise in blood pressure during the "struggle" phase of the maneuver. These changes may represent the first tangible expression of a defense reaction, which overrides the classic diving reflex, aiming to reduce the hypoxic damage and to break the apnea before the loss of consciousness. PMID:19655193

Guaraldi, Pietro; Serra, Maria; Barletta, Giorgio; Pierangeli, Giulia; Terlizzi, Rossana; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Cialoni, Danilo; Cortelli, Pietro

2009-08-05

315

Channel Holding Time Distribution in Public Cellular Telephony  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the channel holding time of public cellular telephonysystems. This is the time that the Mobile Station (MS) remains in the same cell,a fraction of the call holding time. The study is based on actual data taken froma working system. The probability distribution that fits the empirical samplebest when applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is a mixture of lognormals.Combinations

Francisco Barceló; Javier Jordán

1999-01-01

316

Load Balancing for Holding-Time-Aware Dynamic Traffic Grooming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new algorithm for dynamic traffic grooming is introduced. It considers the holding-time of the connections and it aims at balancing the load among existing lightpaths to avoid the formation of bottlenecks and, consequently, high blocking probability values. Results indicate that it produces significantly lower blocking probabilities when compared to other holding-time-aware algorithm. Moreover, it promotes a

Juliana de Santi; André C. Drummond; Nelson L. S. da Fonseca; Admela Jukan

2010-01-01

317

Mechanical Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys Under Complex Loading Conditions of Stress, Strain, and Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transformation behavior of shape memory alloys is simulated for complex loadings of stress, strain, and temperature. Calculations are made by using the "Accommodation Model" which is a constitutive model for shape memory alloys considering the accommodation behavior of the transformation strain. Calculated results are given for the superelastic behavior, the shape memory effect, the transformation behavior under temperature change with stress or strain holding, the structural behavior of a shape memory wire with a bias spring, etc. The effect of the plastic strain on the transformation strain is also investigated.

Cho, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakuma, T.

2012-12-01

318

Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

2009-01-01

319

Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart?  

PubMed

Research has revealed facts about human memory in general and episodic memory in particular that deviate from both common sense and previously accepted ideas. This paper discusses some of these deviations in light of the proceedings of The Royal Society's Discussion Meeting on episodic memory. Retrieval processes play a more critical role in memory than commonly assumed; people can remember events that never happened; and conscious thoughts about one's personal past can take two distinct forms-'autonoetic' remembering and 'noetic' knowing. The serial-dependent-independent (SPI) model of the relations among episodic, semantic and perceptual memory systems accounts for a number of puzzling phenomena, such as some amnesic patients' preserved recognition memory and their ability to learn new semantic facts, and holds that episodic remembering of perceptual information can occur only by virtue of its mediation through semantic memory. Although common sense endows many animals with the ability to remember their past experiences, as yet there is no evidence that humanlike episodic memory-defined in terms of subjective time, self, and autonoetic awareness-is present in any other species. PMID:11571040

Tulving, E

2001-09-29

320

77 FR 68881 - DIAS Holding, Inc., EarthBlock Technologies, Inc., Ensurapet, Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., FIIC Holdings, Inc., GeM Solutions, Inc., Gold Star Tutoring Services Inc., and GPS Industries, Inc.; Order...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gold Star Tutoring Services, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2012-11-16

321

Comparison between first-order hold with zero-order hold in discretization of input-delay nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large sampling period nonlinear systems, the Taylor series method was used to improve the performance of the controller. First-order hold (FOH) and zero-order hold (ZOH) are used respectively in the discretization of input time-delay systems. The sampled-data representation of FOH and ZOH are both described. The mathematical structure of new discretization schemes are proposed and characterized as useful methods

Zheng Zhang; Kil To Chong

2007-01-01

322

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

323

Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PMID:23795769

Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

2013-06-01

324

Exercise Holds Immediate Benefits for Affect and Cognition in Younger and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age.

Hogan, Candice L.; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L.

2013-01-01

325

Chemokine receptors: multifaceted therapeutic targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemokines and their receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from asthma to AIDS. Chemokine receptors are G-protein-coupled serpentine receptors that present attractive tractable targets for the pharmaceutical industry. It is only ten years since the first chemokine receptor was discovered, and the rapidly expanding number of antagonists holds promise for new medicines to combat diseases that are

Amanda E. I. Proudfoot

2002-01-01

326

Channel holding time in mobile cellular networks with heavy-tailed distributed cell dwell time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel holding time is fundamental for the performance analysis\\/evaluation of mobile cellular networks. Channel holding time depends on both call holding time and cell dwell time. In the literature, many assumptions on cell dwell time distribution have been done and different channel holding time characteristics have been obtained. However, to our knowledge, channel holding time statistics has not been obtained

Anum L. Enlil Corral-Ruiz; Felipe A. Cruz-Perez; Genaro Hernandez-Valdez

2011-01-01

327

TIMBAL v2: update of a database holding small molecules modulating protein-protein interactions.  

PubMed

TIMBAL is a database holding molecules of molecular weight <1200 Daltons that modulate protein-protein interactions. Since its first release, the database has been extended to cover 50 known protein-protein interactions drug targets, including protein complexes that can be stabilized by small molecules with therapeutic effect. The resource contains 14 890 data points for 6896 distinct small molecules. UniProt codes and Protein Data Bank entries are also included. Database URL: http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/timbal PMID:23766369

Higueruelo, Alicia P; Jubb, Harry; Blundell, Tom L

2013-06-13

328

Top down modulation of attention to food cues via working memory.  

PubMed

Attentional biases towards food cues may be linked to the development of obesity. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying attentional biases to food cues by assessing the role of top down influences, such as working memory (WM). We assessed whether attention in normal-weight, sated participants was drawn to food items specifically when that food item was held in WM. Twenty-three participants (15 f/8 m, age 23.4±5 year, BMI 23.5±4 kg/m(2)) took part in a laboratory based study assessing reaction times to food and non-food stimuli. Participants were presented with an initial cue stimulus to either hold in WM or to merely attend to, and then searched for the target (a circle) in a two-item display. On valid trials the target was flanked by a picture matching the cue, on neutral trials the display did not contain a picture matching the cue, and on invalid trials the distractor (a square) was flanked by a picture matching the cue. Cues were food, cars or stationery items. We observed that, relative to the effects with non-food stimuli, food items in WM strongly affected attention when the memorised cue re-appeared in the search display. In particular there was an enhanced response on valid trials, when the re-appearance of the memorised cue coincided with the search target. There were no effects of cue category on attentional guidance when the cues were merely attended to but not held in WM. These data point towards food having a strong effect on top-down guidance of search from working memory, and suggest a mechanism whereby individuals who are preoccupied with thoughts of food, for example obese individuals, show facilitated detection of food cues in the environment. PMID:22450523

Higgs, Suzanne; Rutters, Femke; Thomas, Jason M; Naish, Katherine; Humphreys, Glyn W

2012-03-24

329

A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left intraparietal sulcus was found to demonstrate load-dependent activity for either visual stimuli (colored squares) or a combination of visual and auditory stimuli (spoken letters). This result was replicated across two experiments with different participants and methods. The results suggest that this brain region, previously well-known for working memory of visually-presented materials, actually holds or refers to information from more than one modality.

Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

2011-01-01

330

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... I get more information? Words to know Understanding Memory Loss What To Do When You Have Trouble ...

331

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for ... from those that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for ...

332

Sparse Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in the...

P. J. Denning

1989-01-01

333

Memory System for Microcircuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to design and develop manufacturing processes for a compact, low power, modular memory is described. The memory uses electroplated magnetic film storage elements, vacuum evaporated wiring and insulation, integrated circuits ultrasonically face-d...

M. I. Weilerstein

1968-01-01

334

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

335

Sparse Distributed Memory Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characterist...

M. Raugh

1990-01-01

336

From The Cover: Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarative memory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to

Steffen Gais; Jan Born

2004-01-01

337

Chromatin inheritance upon Zeste-mediated Brahma recruitment at a minimal cellular memory module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group and trithorax group proteins maintain the memory of repressed and active chromatin states by reg- ulating chromatin of their target genes via DNA sequences termed Polycomb- and trithorax response elements. Since these elements often overlap and are able to convey the memory of both silent and active chromatin through cell division, they were also defined as cellular memory

Jérôme Déjardin; Giacomo Cavalli

2004-01-01

338

Comparison of Kalman and finite memory filtering for gun fire control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite memory filter is developed for gun fire control and compared to a Kalman filter. As opposed to the Kalman filter, the finite memory filter does not require a priori information concerning measurement or target noise statistics. In addition, the finite memory filter was implemented using a new recursive algorithm which dramatically reduces its computational burden. It is shown

F. William Nesline; Paul Zarchan

1978-01-01

339

Signal Strength Determines the Nature of the Relationship Between Perception and Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurophysiological and behavioral studies have shown that perception and memory share neural substrates and functional properties. But are perception and the active working memory of a stimulus one and the same? To address this question in the spatial domain, we compared the percept and the working memory of the position of a target stimulus embedded within a surround of moving

Bhavin R. Sheth; Shinsuke Shimojo

2003-01-01

340

Shielding cognition from nociception with working memory.  

PubMed

Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, nociceptive stimuli have the capacity to capture attention and interfere with ongoing cognitive activities. Working memory is known to guide the orientation of attention by maintaining goal priorities active during the achievement of a task. This study investigated whether the cortical processing of nociceptive stimuli and their ability to capture attention are under the control of working memory. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed primary tasks on visual targets that required or did not require rehearsal in working memory (1-back vs 0-back conditions). The visual targets were shortly preceded by task-irrelevant tactile stimuli. Occasionally, in order to distract the participants, the tactile stimuli were replaced by novel nociceptive stimuli. In the 0-back conditions, task performance was disrupted by the occurrence of the nociceptive distracters, as reflected by the increased reaction times in trials with novel nociceptive distracters as compared to trials with standard tactile distracters. In the 1-back conditions, such a difference disappeared suggesting that attentional capture and task disruption induced by nociceptive distracters were suppressed by working memory, regardless of task demands. Most importantly, in the conditions involving working memory, the magnitude of nociceptive ERPs, including ERP components at early latency, were significantly reduced. This indicates that working memory is able to modulate the cortical processing of nociceptive input already at its earliest stages, and could explain why working memory reduces consequently ability of nociceptive stimuli to capture attention and disrupt performance of the primary task. It is concluded that protecting cognitive processing against pain interference is best guaranteed by keeping out of working memory pain-related information. PMID:23026759

Legrain, Valéry; Crombez, Geert; Plaghki, Léon; Mouraux, André

2012-09-01

341

Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

2010-01-01

342

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

343

External Memory Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computer’s internal memory. The resulting\\u000a input\\/output communication (or I\\/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major\\u000a performance bottleneck. In this tutorial, we survey the state of the art in the design and analysis of external memory algorithms (also

Jerey Scott Vitter

344

Superior T memory stem cell persistence supports long-lived T cell memory.  

PubMed

Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell-like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells. PMID:23281401

Lugli, Enrico; Dominguez, Maria H; Gattinoni, Luca; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K; Bolton, Diane L; Song, Kaimei; Klatt, Nichole R; Brenchley, Jason M; Vaccari, Monica; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Waldmann, Thomas A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Franchini, Genoveffa; Roederer, Mario

2013-01-02

345

Superior T memory stem cell persistence supports long-lived T cell memory  

PubMed Central

Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell–like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells.

Lugli, Enrico; Dominguez, Maria H.; Gattinoni, Luca; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Bolton, Diane L.; Song, Kaimei; Klatt, Nichole R.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Vaccari, Monica; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Franchini, Genoveffa; Roederer, Mario

2013-01-01

346

Suggesting a Memory Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Suggesting a Memory Screening... Text Size: Email This Post Print This Post Suggesting a Memory Screening By Kevin Gault It can be a ... cognitive abilities, want to suggest screening for possible memory deficit, but aren’t sure how to go ...

347

Music, memory and emotion  

PubMed Central

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Jancke, Lutz

2008-01-01

348

Music, memory and emotion.  

PubMed

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

Jäncke, Lutz

2008-08-08

349

Testing eyewitness memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies a memory-testing procedure that is relatively resistant to the documented effects of suggestibility on eyewitness memory. Most studies on suggestibility have used averbal recognition memory test in which the alternative test items are sentences, each to be verified as true or false regarding an originally viewedvisual sequence. In this study, participants were tested with either the verbal

Kathy Pezdek; Joelle Greener

1993-01-01

350

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

351

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

352

Dissociating the two faces of selective memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the past four decades has repeatedly shown that selective retrieval of some (non-target) memories can impair subsequent retrieval of other (target) information, a finding known as retrieval-induced forgetting. More recently, however, there is evidence that selective retrieval can both impair and enhance recall of related memories (K-H. T. Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). To identify possible experimental dissociations between

Ina M. Dobler; Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml

2012-01-01

353

Quantifying dynamic stability of genetic memory circuits.  

PubMed

Bistability/Multistability has been found in many biological systems including genetic memory circuits. Proper characterization of system stability helps to understand biological functions and has potential applications in fields such as synthetic biology. Existing methods of analyzing bistability are either qualitative or in a static way. Assuming the circuit is in a steady state, the latter can only reveal the susceptibility of the stability to injected DC noises. However, this can be inappropriate and inadequate as dynamics are crucial for many biological networks. In this paper, we quantitatively characterize the dynamic stability of a genetic conditional memory circuit by developing new dynamic noise margin (DNM) concepts and associated algorithms based on system theory. Taking into account the duration of the noisy perturbation, the DNMs are more general cases of their static counterparts. Using our techniques, we analyze the noise immunity of the memory circuit and derive insights on dynamic hold and write operations. Considering cell-to-cell variations, our parametric analysis reveals that the dynamic stability of the memory circuit has significantly varying sensitivities to underlying biochemical reactions attributable to differences in structure, time scales, and nonlinear interactions between reactions. With proper extensions, our techniques are broadly applicable to other multistable biological systems. PMID:22025765

Zhang, Yong; Li, Peng; Huang, Garng M

354

26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations. 53...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-2 Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations....

2013-04-01

355

26 CFR 53.4943-3 - Determination of excess business holdings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Determination of excess business holdings. 53.4943-3 Section...SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-3 Determination of excess business holdings. (a) Excess business...

2013-04-01

356

20 CFR 1001.152 - Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. 1001.152 Section 1001...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. (a) A hold-harmless rate of 90 percent of the prior year's funding level will be applied after...

2013-04-01

357

12 CFR 238.52 - Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loan holding companies and grandfathered activities. 238.52 Section 238.52 Banks... Savings and Loan Holding Company Activities and Acquisitions § 238.52 Exempt...loan holding companies and grandfathered activities. (a) Exempt savings and loan...

2013-01-01

358

12 CFR 225.122 - Bank holding company ownership of mortgage companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concluded that, insofar as the Bank Holding Company Act is concerned, a bank holding company may acquire, either directly...question presented. On the other hand, in the Board's view, a bank holding company may not acquire, on...

2010-01-01

359

76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...treatment of a mutual insurance holding company as an insurance company...that is a mutual insurance holding company will be conducted in...treatment of mutual insurance holding companies under Section 203...Washington, DC 20429. Hand Delivery/Courier:...

2011-12-13

360

12 CFR 225.122 - Bank holding company ownership of mortgage companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concluded that, insofar as the Bank Holding Company Act is concerned, a bank holding company may acquire, either directly...question presented. On the other hand, in the Board's view, a bank holding company may not acquire, on...

2009-01-01

361

77 FR 42715 - North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...d. Applicant: North American Hydro Holdings, LLC...Name of Project: Manawa Dam Project. f. Location...Operations, North American Hydro Holdings, LLC...of Application: North American Hydro Holdings, LLC...reservoir to conduct needed dam safety repair...

2012-07-20

362

Interactions between attention and working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of attention and working memory address the fundamental limits in our ability to encode and maintain behaviorally relevant information, processes that are critical for goal-driven processing. Here we review our current understanding of the interactions between these processes, with a focus on how each construct encompasses a variety of dissociable phenomena. Attention facilitates target processing during both perceptual and

E. Awh; E. K. Vogel; S.-H. Oh

2006-01-01

363

A Memory Advantage for Untrustworthy Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief…

Rule, Nicholas O.; Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

2012-01-01

364

13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

365

Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such strategies. Moreover, balancing the need for ablating pathological inflammatory responses

Martin F. Bachmann; Benjamin J. Marsland; Manfred Kopf

2010-01-01

366

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. 1...debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose....

2009-01-01

367

12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. 1...debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose....

2010-01-01

368

76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0097] Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...Commission'') has accepted from Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc. (``Healthcare Technology''), subject to final...

2011-11-03

369

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

370

Diversity among memory B cells: origin, consequences, and utility.  

PubMed

Immunological memory is the residuum of a successful immune response that in the B cell lineage comprises long-lived plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. It is apparent that distinct classes of memory B cells exist, distinguishable by, among other things, immunoglobulin isotype, location, and passage through the germinal center. Some of this variation is due to the nature of the antigen, and some appears to be inherent to the process of forming memory. Here, we consider the heterogeneity in development and phenotype of memory B cells and whether particular functions are partitioned into distinct subsets. We consider also how understanding the details of generating memory may provide opportunities to develop better, functionally targeted vaccines. PMID:24031013

Tarlinton, David; Good-Jacobson, Kim

2013-09-13

371

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

1992-01-01

372

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

1992-09-01

373

Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

2012-01-01

374

Let's Hold Hands: A Project Connecting Children around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The story of the Let's Hold Hands dolls began in Korphe, a village in northern Pakistan. In 1933, after a failed attempt to climb K2, a weak, exhausted American mountaineer named Greg Mortenson staggered into Korphe. The villagers cared for him and helped him regain his strength. To repay their kindness, he vowed to return to help build the…

MacMillan, Meredith

2010-01-01

375

Drug delivery from holding chambers with attached facemask  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much interest in the use of holding chambers with an attached facemask to deliver aerosols from metered dose inhalers to infants. In order to study the influence of various design factors on the dose inhaled at different tidal volumes, a model was constructed in which a Starling ventilator was used to generate an inspiratory\\/expiratory cycle across a filter.

M L Everard; A R Clark; A D Milner

1992-01-01

376

Modelling Short Term Asset Holdings of UK Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to explain short-term asset holdings of 'banks.' Two-stage budgeting is invoked and symmetry and homogeneity are imposed. The model is used to assess the impact of changes in the bill rate on banks' holdi...

D. G. Barr K. Cuthbertson

1990-01-01

377

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

378

A CMOS Structure with high latchup holding voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latchup free operation is demonstrated in CMOS by attaining holding voltages in excess of Vdd(5V). A thin epitaxial layer over a heavily doped substrate together with butted background contact at transistor sources is shown to be an effective structure to control the parasitic bipolar latchup. Experimental results are presented with and without butted contact and with different epi-thicknesses. In addition

G. J. Hu; R. H. Bruce

1984-01-01

379

Mixed Dominance and the Manner of Holding a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an informal study that revealed that a significant number of people who hold a pencil with two fingers and a thumb have mixed cerebral dominance, that more females than males have mixed dominance, and that those with mixed dominance tend to be more imaginative. (FL)

Lovell, Virginia K.

1982-01-01

380

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

381

Mixed Dominance and the Manner of Holding a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on an informal study that revealed that a significant number of people who hold a pencil with two fingers and a thumb have mixed cerebral dominance, that more females than males have mixed dominance, and that those with mixed dominance tend to be more imaginative. (FL)|

Lovell, Virginia K.

1982-01-01

382

Hold-Time Effects in Elevated Temperature Fatigue Crack Propagation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of hold-times on the fatigue crack growth rate of Inconel 718 to 649 C using compact tension specimens. Tests were run under computer controlled constant K conditions using compliance to ...

T. Nicholas T. Weerasooriya

1985-01-01

383

Hold time crack growth analysis at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral parameters J* and Jˆ are used to predict crack growth under R? = 0 strain cycling with hold time at the maximum strain. Both nominally elastic and nominally plastic strain levels are investigated. Test data are obtained for single edge notch specimens of Alloy 718 at 593 and 649°C with

R. H. Van Stone; R VANSTONE

1995-01-01

384

White-collar crime: Holding a mirror to the core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in scholarship and raised consciousness about upperworld lawlessness, the specialty of white-collar crime remains entrenched on the discipline's periphery. One consequence is that many students receive a criminal justice education which distorts the social reality of crime. We argue that knowledge about white-collar crime can be used to “hold a mirror” to the traditional core of criminology, which

Francis T. Cullen; Michael L. Benson

1993-01-01

385

Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension. Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human

Frédéric Lemaitre; Andreas Fahlman; Bernard Gardette; Kiyotaka Kohshi

2009-01-01

386

The use of Ovid local holdings messages: one library's experience.  

PubMed

The Ovid local holdings feature can be very beneficial to library patrons. This article describes the use of the feature for one academic health sciences library. Topics covered include how the function works, how it was implemented, how it is updated, the impact of electronic journals, and benefits and drawbacks of use. Also included are suggested enhancements to the system. PMID:11299646

Higginbottom, P C

2000-01-01

387

Typology of the Portuguese Farm Holdings and Taxation Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the evolution, since the Portuguese accession to the European Community, in 1986, of the different types of farm holdings (household-farms, corporations, co-operatives and other legal forms), using the Agricultural Census data. In addition, the experience of agricultural taxation in Portugal in the context of the ongoing policy debate about the tax structure and tax reform affecting agricultural

Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho; Maria Leonor Macedo de Seabra Coelho

2005-01-01

388

A model of channel holding time in mobile radio systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analysis of channel holding time statistics in cellular mobile networks. The salient feature is that the analysis accounts also for handover initiation. For mobile terminals travelling in a lineal array of cells, the channel releasing rate is characterized in terms of the call termination rate and the crossing rate of the hysteresis band in handover

F. Graziosi; M. Pratesi; M. Nuggieri; F. Santucci

1997-01-01

389

Channel holding time characterization in real GSM network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a realistic characterization of the channel holding time in an operating GSM network covering an urban area. Our approach is entirely statistical: the data set to be fitted has been provided by the OMC (operations and maintenance center). The Kolmogorov Smirnov goodness of fit test is used in order to test the suitability of the exhibited distribution.

Houda Khedher; Fabrice Valois; Sami Tabbane

2003-01-01

390

Large effective call holding times for a PCS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two important PCS cost and performance issues: (1) are blocking probabilities (for new call blocking, forced termination or call completion) appropriate for PCS network performance measurement? (2) Should PCS service providers offer discounts to phone calls that are force terminated? In order to do that we derive the effective call holding time distributions for complete\\/incomplete calls by

Yi-Bing Lin; Imrich Chlamtac

1996-01-01

391

Exploiting Setup-Hold-Time Interdependence in Static Timing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is proposed to exploit the interdepen- dence between setup- and hold-time constraints in static timing analysis (STA). The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase includes the interdependent characterization of sequential cells, resulting in multiple constraint pairs. The second phase includes an efficient algorithm that exploits these multiple pairs in STA. The methodology improves accuracy by removing

Emre Salman; Ali Dasdan; Feroze Taraporevala; Kayhan Küçükçakar; Eby G. Friedman

2007-01-01

392

Let's Hold Hands: A Project Connecting Children around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The story of the Let's Hold Hands dolls began in Korphe, a village in northern Pakistan. In 1933, after a failed attempt to climb K2, a weak, exhausted American mountaineer named Greg Mortenson staggered into Korphe. The villagers cared for him and helped him regain his strength. To repay their kindness, he vowed to return to help build the…

MacMillan, Meredith

2010-01-01

393

Representational Gesture, Pointing Gesture, and Memory Recall of Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of two different types of hand gestures on memory recall of preschool children. Experiment\\u000a 1 found that children who were instructed to use representational gestures while retelling an unfamiliar story retrieved more\\u000a information about the story than children who were asked to hold their hands still. In addition, children who engaged in some\\u000a forms of

Hilary Cameron; Xu Xu

2011-01-01

394

Search for multiple targets: Remember the targets, forget the search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of visual search performance typically assume that search proceeds by sampling without replacement. This requires memory\\u000a for each deployment of attention. We tested this assumption of memorydriven search using a multiple-target search paradigm.\\u000a We held total set size constant, varied the number of targets in the display, and asked subjects to report whether or not\\u000a there were at least

Todd S. Horowitz; Jeremy M. Wolfe

2001-01-01

395

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01

396

CREB and neuronal selection for memory trace  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable progress over the past several decades, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory encoding, storage, and expression in a complex neural network are far from complete. In particular, how some neurons rather than others are selectively engaged to encode memory remains largely unknown. Using virus-mediated gene delivery into a small subset of neurons in a given network, molecular imaging of neuronal activity, pharmacological perturbation of specific neurons' activity and animal behavior assays, recent studies have begun to provide insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the selection of neurons for inclusion into a memory trace. Here, we focus on a review of recent findings supporting the hypothesis that the level of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca2+-response element binding protein) is a key factor governing which neurons are recruited to a given memory trace. These recent findings open a new perspective on memory trace at the neural circuit level and also raise many important questions. Future studies employing more advanced neurobiological techniques for targeting defined populations of neurons and manipulating their activity in time and space in a complex neural network will give answers to these newly emerging questions and extend our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the memory trace.

Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Han, Jin-Hee

2013-01-01

397

CREB and neuronal selection for memory trace.  

PubMed

Despite considerable progress over the past several decades, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory encoding, storage, and expression in a complex neural network are far from complete. In particular, how some neurons rather than others are selectively engaged to encode memory remains largely unknown. Using virus-mediated gene delivery into a small subset of neurons in a given network, molecular imaging of neuronal activity, pharmacological perturbation of specific neurons' activity and animal behavior assays, recent studies have begun to provide insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the selection of neurons for inclusion into a memory trace. Here, we focus on a review of recent findings supporting the hypothesis that the level of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca(2+)-response element binding protein) is a key factor governing which neurons are recruited to a given memory trace. These recent findings open a new perspective on memory trace at the neural circuit level and also raise many important questions. Future studies employing more advanced neurobiological techniques for targeting defined populations of neurons and manipulating their activity in time and space in a complex neural network will give answers to these newly emerging questions and extend our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the memory trace. PMID:23519079

Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Han, Jin-Hee

2013-03-21

398

Everyday memory errors in older adults.  

PubMed

Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors older adults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy older adults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983 , Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 341), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003 , Psychology and Aging, 18, 111), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975 , Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by older adults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern. PMID:22694275

Ossher, Lynn; Flegal, Kristin E; Lustig, Cindy

2012-06-13

399

Recognition and Memory for Briefly Presented Scenes  

PubMed Central

Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13?ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500?ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1?s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory.

Potter, Mary C.

2012-01-01

400

Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

2010-07-01

401

Memory Lane and Morality: How Childhood Memories Promote Prosocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In

Francesca Gino; Sreedhari D. Desai

2012-01-01

402

Memory and Meaning: Individual and Social Aspects of Memory Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is critical to an understanding of traumatic stress, but most research has focused on individual traumatic memories and not accounted for broader social and cultural memories. The present theoretical article focuses on memory and meaning, and the clinical implications of this, demonstrating that an understanding of traumatic memory requires an understanding of the impact of both individual narrative and

Nigel Hunt; Sue McHale

2007-01-01

403

CAN EXPERIMENTAL MEMORY RESEARCH ADEQUATELY EXPLAIN MEMORY FOR TRAUMA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate on memories of traumatic events (especially childhood abuse), traumatic memories and dissociative amnesia are central topics. These phenomena are frequently described as dissociative memory problems. The aim of the present article is to assess to what extent memory mechanisms as identified in experimental research (such as encoding, storage, and retrieval factors) are adequate in explaining memories of

Philip Spinhoven; Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis; Richard Van Dyck

1999-01-01

404

Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

405

Hippocampal damage impairs recognition memory broadly, affecting both parameters in two prominent models of memory  

PubMed Central

Declarative memory is thought to rely on two processes: recollection and familiarity. Recollection involves remembering specific details about the episode in which an item was encountered, and familiarity involves simply knowing that an item was presented even when no information can be recalled about the episode itself. There has been debate whether the hippocampus supports only recollection or whether it supports both processes. We approached this issue in a relatively theory-neutral way by fitting two prominent models that have been used to describe recognition memory: dual process signal detection and unequal variance signal detection. Both models yield two parameters of interest when fit to recognition memory data. The dual process signal detection model yields estimates of recollection (r) and familiarity (d?). The unequal variance signal detection model yields estimates of the ratio of the variance of target and foil memory strength distributions (?target/?foil) and the difference in the means of the two distributions (d). We asked how the two parameters of each model were affected by hippocampal damage. We tested five patients with well-characterized bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampus and age-matched controls. The patients exhibited a broad memory deficit that markedly reduced the value of both parameters in both models. In addition, the pattern of results exhibited by the patients was recapitulated in healthy controls as the delay between learning and testing was extended. Thus, hippocampal damage impairs both component processes of recognition memory.

Dede, Adam J. O.; Wixted, John T.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2013-01-01

406

Interference in Verbal Working Memory: Distinguishing Similarity-Based Confusion, Feature Overwriting, and Feature Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports two experiments on mechanism of interference in working memory. Experiment 1 shows that a target word in a memory list, which bears high similarity to one of 4 words read aloud in the retention interval, is recalled less well than a control word. A second target word, not similar to any word read aloud but with all its phonemes repeated…

Oberauer, Klaus; Lange, Elke B.

2008-01-01

407

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1-4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs…

Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Thomas, Ruthann; Mayfield, Sara; Shank, Hilary; Morrisette, Nova; Breneiser, Jennifer

2005-01-01

408

A Pattern Partitioning Algorithm for Memory-Efficient Parallel String Matching in Deep Packet Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a pattern partitioning algorithm that maps multiple target patterns onto homogeneous memory-based string matchers. The proposed algorithm adopts the greedy search based on lexicographical sorting. By mapping as many target patterns as possible onto each string matcher, the memory requirements are greatly reduced.

Kim, Hyunjin; Hong, Hyejeong; Baek, Dongmyoung; Kang, Sungho

409

Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1–4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on the speed of performing the ongoing task. In

Gilles O. Einstein; Mark A. McDaniel; Ruthann Thomas; Sara Mayfield; Hilary Shank; Nova Morrisette; Jennifer Breneiser

2005-01-01

410

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 239 - Subsidiary Holding Company of a Mutual Holding Company Model Charter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsidiary...holding company chartered under section 10(o) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, 12 U.S.C. 1467a(o), and to exercise all of the express, implied,...

2013-01-01

411

Rehabilitation of Memory and Memory Self-Efficacy in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents  

PubMed Central

This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of the Cognitive Behavioral Model of Everyday Memory (CBMEM) on memory self-efficacy and memory performance of the elderly. Thirty residents from a county nursing home in Northeast Ohio participated. Forty-three percent of the sample were depressed and 57% were cognitively impaired. There were 30 subjects in the experimental group. Class attendance was low (M = 4.48); the dropout rate was 58%. As a result, among the 30 individuals in the experimental group, posttest data were available for only 13 subjects. There were no pre- to posttest differences in total memory performance scores. However, immediate story recall significantly (p ?.01) increased (M1 =.67; M2 = 1.33). The experimental group also made significant gains (p ?.0001) in memory self-efficacy (M1 = 35.84; M2 = 41.87). While the intervention helped these vulnerable individuals improve their memory, future interventions may need to specifically target the problems of individuals with depression and those with cognitive impairments. Nevertheless, there is hope for improvement, as shown both here and in other memory improvement studies, and therefore the efforts to develop effective interventions need to continue.

McDougall, Graham J.

2008-01-01

412

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

413

Memory, emotion, and REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored the manner in which REM sleep deprivation might affect various aspects of memory processing. A series of tests, including S. Sternberg's test of scanning of immediate memory, past personal and nonpersonal memory, and past emotional memories, was administered to 8 college students after baseline, control-awakening, and REM-deprivation nights. Results show that only past, emotionally important memories may have been

Ramon Greenberg; Chester Pearlman; Wynn R. Schwartz; Hildreth Y. Grossman

1983-01-01

414

False Memories and Persuasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on false memories, which has increased drastically in the past decade, has mainly focused on the cognitive influences that lead to the creation of false memories, such as the theoretical causes of decreased memory strength and source confusion. Although there is certainly a cognitive component to false memories, in this article, I argue that false memories are more likely

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

415

Ethanol Enhances Reactivated Fear Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ethanol has been shown to impair acquisition of memory, its effect on consolidated memories is not clear. Recent reports revealed that memory retrieval converted consolidated memory into a labile state and initiated the reconsolidation process. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of ethanol on reactivated fear memory. We used contextual fear conditioning where rats were conditioned

Hiroshi Nomura; Norio Matsuki

2008-01-01

416

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

417

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

418

A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women  

PubMed Central

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.

Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

2012-01-01

419

Quadratic Hadamard Memories I: Adaptive Stochastic Content-Addressable Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel associative memory is discussed which overcomes the early saturation problem of Hopfield memories, without resorting to dilute state vectors or nonlocal learning rules. The memory uses a Bidirectional Linear Transformer (BLT) which transforms the ...

H. G. Loos

1989-01-01

420

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

421

Removing pathogenic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional\\u000a and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are\\u000a currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and\\u000a phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and

Diego Centonze; Alberto Siracusano; Paolo Calabresi; Giorgio Bernardi

2005-01-01

422

Silicon Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Silicon nanocrystal memory devices [1],[2] such as shown in Fig. 4.1, offer the potential to solve the challenging problem of scaling nonvolatile memories. Scaling of floating-gate (FG) nonvolatile\\u000a memory cells has been limited to bottom oxide thicknesses in the range of 80–110 Å primarily because of the vulnerability\\u000a to charge loss from the conducting FG through isolated defects in the

R. A. Rao; M. A. Sadd; R. F. Steimle; C. T. Swift; H. Gasquet; M. Stoker

423

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

424

Development of extended memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory development is described in terms of a bio-social–cultural theory of human cognition. The development from a private unshareable system of basic memory in infancy and very early childhood is framed within an experiential perspective wherein all memory is derived from experience. It is the nature of changing experience, the result of both biological and social–cultural conditions that eventuates in

Katherine Nelson

2007-01-01

425

Cortical memory dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Biological memories have a number of unique features, including (1) hierarchical, reciprocally interacting layers, (2) lateral\\u000a inhibitory interactions within layers, and (3) Hebbian synaptic modifications. We incorporate these key features into a mathematical\\u000a and computational model in which we derive and study Hebbian learning dynamics and recall dynamics. Introducing the construct\\u000a of a feasible memory (a memory that formally

Edward W. Kairiss; Willard L. Miranker

1998-01-01

426

Probabilistic Quantum Memories  

SciTech Connect

Typical address-oriented computer memories cannot recognize incomplete or noisy information. Associative (content-addressable) memories solve this problem but suffer from severe capacity shortages. I propose a model of a quantum memory that solves both problems. The storage capacity is exponential in the number of qbits and thus optimal. The retrieval mechanism for incomplete or noisy inputs is probabilistic, with postselection of the measurement result. The output is determined by a probability distribution on the memory which is peaked around the stored patterns closest in Hamming distance to the input.

Trugenberger, C. A.

2001-08-06

427

The future of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

Marinella, M.

428

Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.  

PubMed Central

Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged.

Kihlstrom, J F

1997-01-01

429

Memory on time.  

PubMed

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-01-12

430

Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.  

PubMed

Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target. PMID:23356238

Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

2013-01-28

431

Closure plan for the X-230J7 Holding Pond  

SciTech Connect

The X-230J7 Holding Pond is identified as NPDES outfall 001. The pond was constructed to control sediments in stormwater runoff from storm sewers D and E and the east drainage ditch which drain the mid-northeastern area of the plant site. The pond also accepts once-through cooling water (water that passes once through the plant air conditioning system and is discharged to the storm sewer system). Until November 1988, the east drainage ditch received effluent from the X-701B holding pond (NPDES 601). The concentration of trichloroethylene entering X-230J7 from X-701B was monitored and averaged 400--600 ppb (parts per billion). Potential contaminants include caustic soda, nitric acid, uranium, sodium bifluoride, oil, PCBs, diesel fuel, sulfuric acid, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report describes the closing of this pond.

Not Available

1992-07-01

432

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF BULKHEAD IN FISH HOLD. NOTE SCANTLINGS WHICH FORM A VERTICAL SLOT FOR BOARDS. THESE BOARDS ALSO ENABLED THE FISHERMAN TO SORT THE CATCH BY SPECIES INTO VARIOUS COMPARTMENTS. THE HOLES AT THE BASE OF THE BULKHEAD ALLOWED WATER FROM MELTED ICE TO DRAIN OUT OF THE COMPARTMENT. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

433

An Examination of Multiple Governance Forces within Bank Holding Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores multiple means of governance and monitoring in bank holding companies and their impact on performance\\u000a and executive compensation. We exploit variables unique to the banking industry to aid in our understanding of this simultaneous\\u000a relationship. Our primary finding is that after controlling for both regulatory oversight and capital market discipline, a\\u000a strong board is associated with higher

Gregory E. Sierra; Eli Talmor; James S. Wallace

2006-01-01

434

Study of motor cortex excitability in the load holding task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the amplitude of hand muscle responses to a series of ten stimuli applied to the motor cortex has been studied\\u000a in subjects holding a small load for 3 min. The amplitude of muscle responses and the background activity decreased with time\\u000a as compared to the initial level. Regression analysis showed that the muscle response amplitude decreased with the

O. V. Kazennikov; Yu. S. Levik

2009-01-01

435

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935-1992  

EIA Publications

This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry.

Information Center

1993-01-01

436

Transfer Pricing and Hold-Ups in Supply Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconsider the hold-up problem under symmetric information when more than two parties form a 'supply chain'. The parties are assumed to renegotiate bilaterally and sequentially. Potential trade distortions then arise in addition to the usual investment problem. Following Edlin and Reichelstein (1995, 1996), we consider fixed-quantity contracts. First-best allocations are shown to be attainable if the parties are able

Sabine Böckem; Ulf Schiller

2004-01-01

437

Board Independence and Compensation Policies in Large Bank Holding Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a sample of large bank holding companies to empirically examine the association between financial performance and organizational structure. We regress firm accounting performance on measures of board independence, CEO pay-performance sensitivity, the product of board independence and CEO pay-performance sensitivity, and other organizational features and control variables. We find that both CEO pay-performance sensitivity and the relative tenure

Chandra S. Mishra; James F. Nielsen

2000-01-01

438

Adaptive play in Texas Hold'em Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a Texas Hold’em poker player for limit heads- up games. Our bot is designed to adapt automatically to the strategy of the opponent,and is not based on Nash equilibrium computation. The main idea is to design a bot that builds beliefs on his opponent’s hand. A forest of game,trees is generated according to those beliefs and the

Raphaël Maîtrepierre; Jérémie Mary; Rémi Munos

2008-01-01

439

Ultrasound lung “comets” increase after breath-hold diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung\\u000a water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight\\u000a apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means\\u000a of an ultrasound scan of

Kate Lambrechts; Peter Germonpré; Brian Charbel; Danilo Cialoni; Patrick Musimu; Nicola Sponsiello; Alessandro Marroni; Frédéric Pastouret; Costantino Balestra

2011-01-01

440

Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding  

PubMed Central

We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (p<0.05) and 38±2 Torr to 58±2 during HUT60 (p<0.05); SaO2 decreased from 98±1.5% to 95±1.4% supine, and from 97±1.5% to 94±1.7% during HUT60 (p=NS). MSNA showed three distinctive phases - a quiescent phase due to pulmonary stretch associated with decreased MAP, HR, CO and TPR; a second phase of baroreflex-mediated elevated MSNA which was associated with recovery of MAP and HR only during HUT60; CO and peripheral resistance returned to baseline while supine and HUT60; a third phase of further increased MSNA activity related to hypercapnia and associated with increased TPR. Breath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex.

Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

2011-01-01

441

Dual-rate high order hold equivalent controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the computation of a dual-rate high-order-hold discrete equivalent controller. We assume that the continuous-time controller has been already designed in order to meet continuous time-domain and frequency-domain specifications. Dual rate controllers are N-periodic time varying systems, and the lifting technique is utilized to express them as time invariant systems. Several different models are presented (dual-rate

Josep Tornero; M. Tomizuka

2000-01-01

442

ALTERNATE CORE PLATE RIM HOLD-DOWN BOLT EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1996, the Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP) issued BWRVIP-25 (1), which provides a generic inspection strategy for boiling water reactor (BWR) core plates, and defines flaw evaluation methodologies. That report provides inspection\\/repair strategies for the core plate rim hold-down bolts that include installation of wedges, or periodic ultrasonic (UT) and\\/or visual (VT) examination. Carolina Power

Richard A. Mattson; Gary L. Stevens

443

Voice holding time distribution in trunked PAMR systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model of the call holding time in public access mobile radio (PAMR) systems is presented. For this purpose a scanning receiver has been used to monitor the call duration, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has been applied to measure the goodness of fit of the candidate distributions. The exponential distribution often used to model trunked systems with the M\\/M\\/C

Francisco Barceló; Javier Jordán; Josep Paradells

1997-01-01

444

Wireless cellular networks with Pareto-distributed call holding times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, there is a growing interest in providing internet to mobile users. For instance, NTT DoCoMo in Japan deploys an important mobile phone network with that offers the Internet service, named 'i-mode', to more than 17 million subscribers. Internet traffic measurements show that the session duration of Call Holding Time (CHT) has probability distributions with heavy-tails, which tells us that

Ramon M. Rodriguez-Dagnino; Hideaki Takagi

2001-01-01

445

Modeling VoIP Call Holding Times for Telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice over IP is one of the most popular applications in broadband access networks. It is anticipated that the characteristics of call holding times (CHTs) for VoIP calls will be quite different from traditional phone calls. This article analyzes the CHTs for mobile VoIP calls based on measured data collected from commercial operation. Previous approaches directly used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S)

Whai-en Chen; Hui-nien Hung; Yi-bing Lin

2007-01-01

446

Pulmonary edema after competitive breath-hold diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT During an international breath-hold diving competition, 19 of the participating divers volunteered for the present study, aimed at elucidating possible symptoms and signs of pulmonary edema after deep dives. Measurements,included dynamic spirometry and pulse oximetry, and chest auscultation was performed on those with the most severe symptoms. After deep dives (25-75 meters), 12 of the divers had signs of

M. H. Liner; Johan P. A. Andersson

2008-01-01

447

Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience  

PubMed Central

A wealth of neuroscientific evidence indicates that our brains respond differently to previously encountered than to novel stimuli. There has been an upswell of interest in the prospect that functional MRI (fMRI), when coupled with multivariate data analysis techniques, might allow the presence or absence of individual memories to be detected from brain activity patterns. This could have profound implications for forensic investigations and legal proceedings, and thus the merits and limitations of such an approach are in critical need of empirical evaluation. We conducted two experiments to investigate whether neural signatures of recognition memory can be reliably decoded from fMRI data. In Exp. 1, participants were scanned while making explicit recognition judgments for studied and novel faces. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) revealed a robust ability to classify whether a given face was subjectively experienced as old or new, as well as whether recognition was accompanied by recollection, strong familiarity, or weak familiarity. Moreover, a participant's subjective mnemonic experiences could be reliably decoded even when the classifier was trained on the brain data from other individuals. In contrast, the ability to classify a face's objective old/new status, when holding subjective status constant, was severely limited. This important boundary condition was further evidenced in Exp. 2, which demonstrated that mnemonic decoding is poor when memory is indirectly (implicitly) probed. Thus, although subjective memory states can be decoded quite accurately under controlled experimental conditions, fMRI has uncertain utility for objectively detecting an individual's past experiences.

Rissman, Jesse; Greely, Henry T.; Wagner, Anthony D.

2010-01-01

448

The temporal locus of the interaction between working memory consolidation and the attentional blink.  

PubMed

An increase in concurrent working memory load has been shown to amplify the attentional blink. The present study investigated the temporal locus of this phenomenon, by using a dual rapid serial visual presentation paradigm that enabled the measurement of lateralized event-related potentials. The P3 component was shown to be affected by both working memory load and the lag between the target stimuli, consistent with current models of temporal attention and a functional explanation of the P3 in terms of memory consolidation. P3 amplitude was reduced for short target lags and high memory loads. The P2 component was affected by lag only, and not memory load. Importantly, the N2pc component was modulated also by both lag and memory load. The results showed that early attentional processing (as marked by the N2pc) was suppressed by increased involvement of working memory, a phenomenon not well predicted by many current theories of temporal attention. PMID:20456658

Akyürek, Elkan G; Leszczy?ski, Marcin; Schubö, Anna

2010-11-01

449

Phase-type models of channel-holding times in cellular communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times

Thomas Kaare Christensen; Bo Friis Nielsen; Villy Baek Iversen

2004-01-01

450

78 FR 26032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1. Frank Brown Holding, Jr., Raleigh, North Carolina, individually and together with Olivia Britton Holding, Raleigh, North Carolina; Frank B. Holding...Carolina; Hope Holding Connell, Raleigh, North Carolina; Carson...

2013-05-03

451

Breath-hold device for laboratory rodents undergoing imaging procedures.  

PubMed

The increased use in noninvasive imaging of laboratory rodents has prompted innovative techniques in animal handling. Lung imaging of rodents can be a difficult task because of tissue motion caused by breathing, which affects image quality. The use of a prototype flat-panel computed tomography unit allows the acquisition of images in as little as 2, 4, or 8 s. This short acquisition time has allowed us to improve the image quality of this instrument by performing a breath-hold during image acquisition. We designed an inexpensive and safe method for performing a constant-pressure breath-hold in intubated rodents. Initially a prototypic manual 3-way valve system, consisting of a 3-way valve, an air pressure regulator, and a manometer, was used to manually toggle between the ventilator and the constant-pressure breath-hold equipment. The success of the manual 3-way valve system prompted the design of an electronically actuated valve system. In the electronic system, the manual 3-way valve was replaced with a custom designed 3-way valve operated by an electrical solenoid. The electrical solenoid is triggered by using a hand-held push button or a foot pedal that is several feet away from the gantry of the scanner. This system has provided improved image quality and is safe for the animals, easy to use, and reliable. PMID:16884181

Rivera, Belinda; Bushman, Mark J; Beaver, Richard G; Cody, Dianna D; Price, Roger E

2006-07-01

452

Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.  

PubMed

Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. PMID:23582098

Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

2013-04-15

453

Is Random Access Memory Random.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor ...

P. J. Denning

1986-01-01

454

Long-Term Memory Improvement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests Piaget's interpretation of long-term memory improvement among 82 five- and six-year-old children. Concludes that there is little evidence for long-term memory improvement or for Piaget's theory of memory. (Author/RH)

Maurer, Daphne; And Others

1979-01-01

455

Improvement of voltage holding and high current beam acceleration by MeV accelerator for ITER NB  

SciTech Connect

Voltage holding of -1 MV is an essential issue in development of a multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) negative ion accelerator, of which target is to accelerate 200 A/m{sup 2} H{sup -} ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV for several tens seconds. Review of voltage holding results ever obtained with various geometries of the accelerators showed that the voltage holding capability was about a half of designed value based on the experiment obtained from ideal small electrode. This is considered due to local electric field concentration in the accelerators, such as edge and steps between multi-aperture grids and its support structures. Based on the detailed investigation with electric field analysis, accelerator was modified to reduce the electric field concentration by reshaping the support structures and expanding the gap length between the grid supports. After the modifications, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV for more than one hour in vacuum. Improvement of the voltage holding characteristics progressed the energy and current accelerated by the MeV accelerator. Up to 2010, beam parameters achieved by the MAMuG accelerator were increased to 879 keV, 0.36 A (157 A/m{sup 2}) at perveance matched condition and 937 keV, 0.33 A (144 A/m{sup 2}) slightly under perveance.

Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Tobari, H.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, 311-0193 (Japan)

2011-09-26

456

Inhibitory voluntary control of memory: Effect of stimulus onset asynchrony on reaction time to suppressed memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson & Green (2001) have recently shown that using an adaptation of the go-no go task, participants can voluntarily inhibit the retrieval of specific memories. We present three experiments in which we try to determine the degree of automaticity involved, and the role of the previous prime-target relation on the development of this inhibitory process. In the first two experiments

Salvador Algarabel; Juan V. Luciano; José L. Martínez

2006-01-01

457

Inhibitory Voluntary Control of Memory: Effect of Stimulus Onset Asynchrony on Reaction Time to Suppressed Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anderson & Green (2001) have recently shown that using an adaptation of the go-no go task, participants can voluntarily inhibit the retrieval of specific memories. We present three experiments in which we try to determine the degree of automaticity involved, and the role of the previous prime-target relation on the development of this…

Algarabel, Salvador; Luciano, Juan V.; Martinez, Jose L.

2006-01-01

458

Dissociable neural routes to successful prospective memory.  

PubMed

Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. According to one account, top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests that bottom-up, spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention and that sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and functional MRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective-memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional-control areas, such as the anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

McDaniel, Mark A; Lamontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M; Scullin, Michael K; Braver, Todd S

2013-08-01

459

Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

van der Molen, Mariet J.

2010-01-01

460

Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

At any instant, our visual system allows us to perceive a rich and detailed visual world. Yet our internal, explicit representation of this visual world is extremely sparse: we can only hold in mind a minute fraction of the visual scene. These mental representations are stored in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Even though VSTM is essential for the execution of

J. Jay Todd; René Marois

2004-01-01

461

Breaking Through the Clutter: Benefits of Advertisement Originality and Familiarity for Brand Attention and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising levels of advertising competition have made it increasingly difficult to attract and hold consumers' attention and to establish strong memory traces for the advertised brand. A common communication strategy to break through this competitive clutter is to increase ad originality. However, ad originality may have detrimental effects when consumers pay more attention to the ad at the expense of

Rik Pieters; Luk Warlop; Michel Wedel

2002-01-01

462

Broca's area, sentence comprehension, and working memory: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Broca's area in sentence processing remains controversial. According to one view, Broca's area is involved in processing a subcomponent of syntactic processing. Another view holds that it contributes to sentence processing via verbal working memory. Sub-regions of Broca's area have been identifi ed that are more active during the processing of complex (object-relative clause) sentences compared to

Corianne Rogalsky; William Matchin; Gregory Hickok

2008-01-01

463

Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

2011-01-01

464

Framework for Targeting Banner Advertising On the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints that limit accurate targeting of advertising in traditional media may not hold in cyberspace. This paper presents a model for effectively and efficiently targeting hypermedia-based banner advertisements in an online information service. The model takes advantage of information technology to micro-target banner advertisements based on individual characteristics of users. A simple version of the model, which has the virtue

Katherine Gallagher; Jeffrey Parsons

1997-01-01

465

Risdon Vale: Place, Memory, and Suburban Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reflects upon the notions of personal memory, collective memory, myth, and evolved memory within her lived experience of Risdon Vale. These interrelated forms of memory influence understanding of place and sense of place. Personal memories corroborate and collaborate with intersubjective memories to inform collective memory. Both personal and collective memories are held within a fusion of cultural myths.

Kate Booth

2008-01-01

466

The Arc of synaptic memory  

PubMed Central

The immediate early gene Arc is emerging as a versatile, finely tuned system capable of coupling changes in neuronal activity patterns to synaptic plasticity, thereby optimizing information storage in the nervous system. Here, we attempt to overview the Arc system spanning from transcriptional regulation of the Arc gene, to dendritic transport, metabolism, and translation of Arc mRNA, to post-translational modification, localization, and degradation of Arc protein. Within this framework we discuss the function of Arc in regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics underlying consolidation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor endocytosis underlying long-term depression (LTD) and homeostatic plasticity. Behaviorally, Arc has a key role in consolidation of explicit and implicit forms of memory, with recent work implicating Arc in adaptation to stress as well as maladaptive plasticity connected to drug addiction. Arc holds considerable promise as a “master regulator” of protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, but the mechanisms that modulate and switch Arc function are only beginning to be elucidated.

Alme, Maria N.; Bittins, Margarethe; Kuipers, Sjoukje D.; Nair, Rajeevkumar R.; Pai, Balagopal; Panja, Debabrata; Schubert, Manja; Soule, Jonathan; Tiron, Adrian; Wibrand, Karin

2009-01-01

467

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

468

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

469

Working Memory and Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in aphasia. A measurement of working memory capacity was obtained using a modified version of Daneman and Carpenter's (1980) Reading Span Task. Sets of sentences ranging in length from one to six words were presented to 22 aphasic subjects who were required to retain the terminal words following

Isabelle Caspari; Stanley R. Parkinson; Leonard L. LaPointe; Richard C. Katz

1998-01-01

470

Magnetic content addressable memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics

Zhenye Jiang

2009-01-01

471

Emotional memory is perceptual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two

Arnoud Arntz; Corlijn de Groot; Merel Kindt

2005-01-01

472

Asymmetric bidirectional associative memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a potentially promising model for heteroassociative memories. However, its applications are severely restricted to networks with logical symmetry of interconnections and pattern orthogonality or small pattern size. Although the restrictions on pattern orthogonality and pattern size can be relaxed to a certain extent, all previous efforts are at the cost of increase in connection complexity.

Zong-Ben Xu; Yee Leung; Xiang-Wei He

1994-01-01

473

Memory and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

Johnson, Marcia K.

2006-01-01

474

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

475

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

476

Shape memory polymer nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

2002-01-01

477

When forgetting preserves memory.  

PubMed

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

Hupbach, Almut

2013-02-04

478

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

479

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

480

When autobiographical memory begins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in what processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes play in the emergence of autobiographical memory and the temporal

Mark L. Howe; Mary L. Courage; Shannon C. Edisonb

2003-01-01

481

Testing Flash Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memories can undergo three different types of disturbances, DC-programming, DC-erasure, and drain disturbance. These faults are specific to flash memories and do not occur in RAMs. In this paper, we discuss these disturbances, their causes, and develop fault models that capture the characteristics of these faults. We present optimal and near optimal algorithms to detect these faults in flash

Mohammad Gh. Mohammad; Kewal K. Saluja; Alex Yap

2000-01-01

482

Introduction to flash memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly focuses on the development of the NOR flash memory technology, with the aim of describing both the basic functionality of the memory cell used so far and the main cell architecture consolidated today. The NOR cell is basically a floating-gate MOS transistor, programmed by channel hot electron and erased by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The main reliability issues, such

ROBERTO BEZ; EMILIO CAMERLENGHI; ALBERTO MODELLI; ANGELO VISCONTI

2003-01-01

483

Dynamic Photorefractive Optical Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extremely large storage density of volume holographic memories is applicable to numeric and neural network optical computing. Such photorefractive memories, can be used to provide optical storage of binary bit-plane or gray scale images as well as wei...

1992-01-01

484

Optical quantum memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication

Alexander I. Lvovsky; Barry C. Sanders; Wolfgang Tittel

2009-01-01

485

The Psychology of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

Alan D. Baddeley

1976-01-01

486

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

487

Advertising and Consumer Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the idea that advertising interferes with consumers' memories of product experiences. We consider a two-period model where a monopolist sells an ex- perience good to a buyer who may only imperfectly recall her first period experience. When advertising activates memory, it enables learning and may induce the buyer to try out the good initially. Moreover, while costly

Daniel Krähmer

2004-01-01

488

Memory after silent stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory decline commonly occurs among elderly individuals. This observation is often attributed to early neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus and related brain regions. However, the contribution of vascular lesions, such as brain infarcts, to hippocampal integrity and age-associated memory decline remains unclear. Methods: We studied 658 elderly participants without dementia from a prospective, community-based study on aging and dementia who received high-resolution structural MRI. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were identified, and hippocampal and relative brain volumes were calculated following standard protocols. Summary scores reflecting performance on tasks of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial function were derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. We used multiple regression analyses to relate cortical and subcortical infarcts, hippocampal and relative brain volume, to measures of cognitive performance in domains of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial ability. Results: Presence of brain infarcts was associated with a smaller hippocampus. Smaller hippocampus volume was associated with poorer memory specifically. Brain infarcts were associated with poorer memory and cognitive performance in all other domains, which was independent of hippocampus volume. Conclusions: Both hippocampal volume and brain infarcts independently contribute to memory performance in elderly individuals without dementia. Given that age-associated neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, are defined primarily by impairment in memory, these findings have clinical implications for prevention and for identification of pathogenic factors associated with disease symptomatology.

Blum, S.; Luchsinger, J.A.; Manly, J.J.; Schupf, N.; Stern, Y.; Brown, T.R.; DeCarli, C.; Small, S.A.; Mayeux, R.

2012-01-01

489

Comparison of cerebral vascular reactivity measures obtained using breath-holding and CO2 inhalation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of cerebral vasculature using hypercapnia has been widely used to study cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR), which can be expressed as the quantitative change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) per mm?Hg change in end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2). We investigate whether different respiratory manipulations, with arterial spin labeling used to measure CBF, lead to consistent measures of CVR. The approaches included: (1) an automated system delivering variable concentrations of inspired CO2 for prospective targeting of PETCO2, (2) administration of a fixed concentration of CO2 leading to subject-dependent changes in PETCO2, (3) a breath-hold (BH) paradigm with physiologic modeling of CO2 accumulation, and (4) a maneuver combining breath-hold and hyperventilation. When CVR was expressed as the percent change in CBF per mm?Hg change in PETCO2, methods 1 to 3 gave consistent results. The CVR values using method 4 were significantly lower. When CVR was expressed in terms of the absolute change in CBF (mL/100?g per minute per mm?Hg), greater discrepancies became apparent: methods 2 and 3 gave lower absolute CVR values compared with method 1, and the value obtained with method 4 was dramatically lower. Our findings indicate that care must be taken to ensure that CVR is measured over the linear range of the CBF-CO2 dose-response curve, avoiding hypocapnic conditions. PMID:23571282

Tancredi, Felipe B; Hoge, Richard D

2013-04-10

490

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

491

Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

2012-01-01

492

Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

2012-01-01

493

Mobile target ladar ATR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mobile Target Acquisition System (MTAS) is an automatic target recognition (ATR) system developed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under funding by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to detect and identify mobile target laser detection and ranging (LADAR) range signatures. The primary objective was to achieve high correct system identification rates for range signatures of relatively low numbers of pixels on target and, at the same time, maintain a low system identification false alarm rate. MTAS met this objective by stressing conservation and efficient exploitation of target information at all levels of processing. Adaptive noise cleaning conserves target information by filtering pixels only when the pixel and its neighbors satisfied the criteria for range dropouts. The MTAS detector holds false alarms to a low level by convolving synthetic templates with the gradient of the range image and fusing the resulting correlation surface with a blob size filter. Mobile target identification fuses 2-D silhouette shape with 3-D (21/2-D) volumetric shape where the mixture of 2- and 3-D shapes is controlled by a single parameter. The match between the measured LADAR range signature and the synthetic range template efficiently and effectively exploits scarce target information by including all target and template pixels in the Fuzzy Tanimoto Distance similarity measure. This system has successfully detected and identified measured mobile LADAR target signatures with 200 pixels on target and greater with a low confuser identification rate and no system clutter identification false alarms.

Hodge, Jesse L.; DeKruger, David H.; Park, Alden E.

2001-10-01

494

Memory Event Clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce logics and automata based on memory event clocks. A memory clock is not really reset: instead, a new clock is created, while the old one is still accessible by indexing. We can thus constrain not only the time since the last reset (which was the main limitation in event clocks), but also since previous resets. When we introduce these clocks in the linear temporal logic of the reals, we create Recursive Memory Event Clocks Temporal Logic (RMECTL). It turns out to have the same expressiveness as the Temporal Logic with Counting (TLC) of Hirshfeld and Rabinovich. We then examine automata with recursive memory event clocks (RMECA). Recursive event clocks are reset by simpler RMECA, hence the name "recursive". In contrast, we show that for RMECA, memory clocks do not add expressiveness, but only concision. The original RECA define thus a fully decidable, robust and expressive level of real-time expressiveness.

Jerson Ortiz, James; Legay, Axel; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves

495

Graphene flash memory.  

PubMed

Graphene's single atomic layer of sp(2) carbon has recently garnered much attention for its potential use in electronic applications. Here, we report a memory application for graphene, which we call graphene flash memory (GFM). GFM has the potential to exceed the performance of current flash memory technology by utilizing the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high density of states, high work function, and low dimensionality. To this end, we have grown large-area graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition and integrated them into a floating gate structure. GFM displays a wide memory window of ?6 V at significantly low program/erase voltages of ±7 V. GFM also shows a long retention time of more than 10 years at room temperature. Additionally, simulations suggest that GFM suffers very little from cell-to-cell interference, potentially enabling scaling down far beyond current state-of-the-art flash memory devices. PMID:21854056

Hong, Augustin J; Song, Emil B; Yu, Hyung Suk; Allen, Matthew J; Kim, Jiyoung; Fowler, Jesse D; Wassei, Jonathan K; Park, Youngju; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jin; Kaner, Richard B; Weiller, Bruce H; Wang, Kang L

2011-08-25

496

NOTE: Dosimetric evaluation of inspiration and expiration breath-hold for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning of non-small cell lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare target coverage and lung tissue sparing between inspiration and expiration breath-hold intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a prospective study, seven NSCLC patients gave written consent to undergo both moderate deep inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold computed tomography (CT), which were used to generate five-field IMRT plans. Dose was calculated with a scatter and an inhomogeneity correction algorithm. The percentage of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90), the volume of total lung receiving >= 10 Gy (V10) and >= 20 Gy (V20) and the mean lung dose (MLD) were compared by the Student's paired t-test. Compared with the expiration plans, the mean ± SD reductions for V10, V20 and MLD on the inspiration plans were 4.0 ± 3.7% (p = 0.031), 2.5 ± 2.3% (p = 0.028) and 1.1 ± 0.7 Gy (p = 0.007), respectively. Conversely, a mean difference of 1.1 ± 1.1% (p = 0.044) in PTV90 was demonstrated in favour of expiration. When using IMRT, inspiration breath-hold can reduce the dose to normal lung tissue while expiration breath-hold can improve the target coverage. The improved lung sparing at inspiration may outweigh the modest improvements in target coverage at expiration.

Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hatton, Matthew Q. F.; Ireland, Rob H.

2010-04-01

497

Serotonergic Mechanisms in Addiction-Related Memories  

PubMed Central

Drug-associated memories are a hallmark of addiction and a contributing factor in the continued use and relapse to drugs of abuse. Repeated association of drugs of abuse with conditioned stimuli leads to long-lasting behavioral responses that reflect reward-controlled learning and participate in the establishment of addiction. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation and retrieval of drug-associated memories may shed light on potential therapeutic approaches to effectively intervene with drug use-associated memory. There is evidence to support the involvement of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in learning and memory formation through the families of the 5-HT1 receptor (5-HT1R) and 5-HT2R which have also been shown to play a modulatory role in the behavioral effects induced by many psychostimulants. While there is a paucity of studies examining the effects of selective 5-HT1AR ligands, the available dataset suggests that 5-HT1BR agonists may inhibit retrieval of cocaine-associated memories. The 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR appear to be integral in the strong conditioned associations made between cocaine and environmental cues with 5-HT2AR antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists possessing potency in blocking retrieval of cocaine-associated memories following cocaine self-administration procedures. The complex anatomical connectivity between 5-HT neurons and other neuronal phenotypes in limbic-corticostriatal brain structures, the heterogeneity of 5-HT receptors (5-HTXR) and the conflicting results of behavioral experiments which employ non-specific 5-HTXR ligands contribute to the complexity of interpreting the involvement of 5-HT systems in addictive-related memory processes. This review briefly traces the history of 5-HT involvement in retrieval of drug-cue associations and future targets of serotonergic manipulation that may reduce the impact that drug cues have on addictive behavior and relapse.

Nic Dhonnchadha, Brid A; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

2008-01-01

498

Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing  

PubMed Central

As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are